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Sample records for water borne therapeutic

  1. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    be described as a concentration-dependent exponential decay. HP was found to be enzymatically eliminated by microorganisms, with degradation rates correlated to organic matter content and microbial abundance. Nitrification performance was not affected by HP when applied in dosages less than 30 mg/L, whereas...... prolonged multiple HP dosages at 10 mg/L were found to inhibit nitrite oxidation in systems with low organic loading. PAA decay was found to be concentration-dependent. It had a considerable negative effect on nitrite oxidation over a prolonged period of time when applied at a dosage ≥2 mg/L. PAA and HP...... decay patterns were significantly affected by water quality parameters, i.e. at low organic matter content HP degradation was impeded due to microbial inhibition. FISH analysis on biofilm samples from two different types of RAS showed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha was the dominant ammonia oxidizing...

  2. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Env ronmental Management and Tox cology, Un vers ty of Agr culture, PMB 2240,. Abeokuta, Ogun .... and a modern sector) that has implications for ... plastered with cement. ..... residents are at–risk of water-borne diseases.

  3. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  4. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-borne diseases are the most prevalent infectious diseases in the developing countries especially in new settlements along the river. The present investigation was carried out to assess the prevalence rate of water-borne diseases among people residing near the left bank of River Ravi. This study has a descriptive ...

  5. Quality Determination of Pipe-Borne Water in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the pipe-borne water supplied to Sokoto metropolis was determined in this study. The total bacterial count was carried out using surface plating method of inoculation. The coliforms were enumerated using multiple tube fermentation technique (Most Probable Number Method). Some physicochemical ...

  6. Acrylic polymer nanocomposite resins for water borne coating applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to environmental and safety regulations the use of volatile organic components (VOC's) containing lacquers for exterior automotive purposes is under growing pressure. As a consequence there is a demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives like water borne coatings, high solid coatings,

  7. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  8. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...

  9. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Collection of water samples. Water sampling was carried out at five points where each of the five .... rainwater or as it percolate through the soil layers. These ... pesticides, herbicides, plant nutrients, radioactive mate- rials, decaying ... per day as food element, excessive amounts can lead to the formation of ...

  10. Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

  11. Epidemicity thresholds for water-borne and water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Rinaldo, Andrea; Gatto, Marino

    2018-06-14

    Determining the conditions that favor pathogen establishment in a host community is key to disease control and eradication. However, focusing on long-term dynamics alone may lead to an underestimation of the threats imposed by outbreaks triggered by short-term transient phenomena. Achieving an effective epidemiological response thus requires to look at different timescales, each of which may be endowed with specific management objectives. In this work we aim to determine epidemicity thresholds for some prototypical examples of water-borne and water-related diseases, a diverse family of infections transmitted either directly through water infested with pathogens or by vectors whose lifecycles are closely associated with water. From a technical perspective, while conditions for endemicity are determined via stability analysis, epidemicity thresholds are defined through generalized reactivity analysis, a recently proposed method that allows the study of the short-term instability properties of ecological systems. Understanding the drivers of water-borne and water-related disease dynamics over timescales that may be relevant to epidemic and/or endemic transmission is a challenge of the utmost importance, as large portions of the developing world are still struggling with the burden imposed by these infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    interviewees selected through simple random sampling technique. The target site was ... the fecal material of man or other animals (Park, 2007). The standard test for .... rubber pipes to draw water from neighbor's community water supply.

  13. [Food borne outbreak caused by the well water contaminated norovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutake, Yumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Akiyama, Miho; Aiki, Chikako; Nishio, Osamu

    2006-05-01

    In May 2004, 65 people from 18 groups of visitors to guesthouse (a traditional Japanese guesthouse) in the Nagano Prefecture, Japan developed acute gastroenteritis. Although these cases originally attributed to food poisoning, based on epidemiological and dietary surveys, there was nothing that is associated as a cause food. The same wall water was used throughout the guesthouse except in the kitchen, so testing was conducted on this water. Lordsdale variant strain of Norovirus was detected from both of the well water and the feces of patients and staff. The well supplying to the guesthouse was only 10 meters deep and fecal coliform group was also detected in the well water from the guesthouse. This suggested that the water source was contaminated by human feces.

  14. Water-borne epidemic outbreaks; Brotes epidemicos de transmision hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciranda Larrea, F.B.; Hidalgo Garcia, E.; Peiro Callizo, E.F.; Herrero Alana, G.

    1995-12-31

    The control of water-transmitted infections is one of the key aims of any Public Heath-Care System. For this paper a descriptive epidemiologic analysis has been performed using data obtained through normalized forms as well as Annual Reports of Epidemiology Units and Veterinary Inspection Records. A total of 22 outbreaks have been recorded in the period of reference. Those outbreaks affected 2.263 people. The attack-rate was of 99 people affected for each 1000 ar risk. The main agents turned out to be Norwalk virus, Rotavirus and A-Hepatitis virus. The most important risk factor was undoubtedly the ingestion of untreated or not properly treated water. The improvement of water treatment and distribution systems, the increase in the population being supplied with potable water, along with the ease of the drought have caused a significant drop in the number of water-transmitted outbreaks. (Author)

  15. Water (electrolyte) balance after abdominal therapeutic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cionini, L; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1976-07-01

    Total body water, plasma volume and Na space have been studied in 34 patients receiving external radiotherapy on the pelvic region. Determinations were made on the same patients before, and half-way treatment; in a few cases, some determinations were also repeated after the end of treatment. The results failed to show any appreciable modification of the different parameters studied.

  16. AquaVir- Portable Analyzer for Water Borne Infectious Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozlosnik, Noemi; Kirkegaard, Julie; Olsen, Mark Holm

    2014-01-01

    Viral contamination in waters intended for human consumption or human contact poses a high health riskand can, in worst-case, lead to viral outbreaks. The waterborne virus, norovirus is a major cause of viralgastroenteritis. Conventional detection methods of norovirus rely on microbiological...... methods likepolymerase chain reaction and a variety of sample preparations. These methods are time consuming,expensive and require highly trained personnel. Thus, viral surveillance cannot be done continuously and only provide an instant overview of the water quality.We are developing an all polymer...... detection system for online viral surveillance of waters. The detection isbased on differential impedance measurements between a reference and an electrode functionalized with abio-recognition element. The bio-recognition element is an aptamer specific to the target virus. We havepreviously shown very low...

  17. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  20. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  1. Removal of the microorganisms from water. Part 1: Introduction, water-borne disease and the microorganisms involved.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duuren, FR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available coccosis Infectious hepatitis Lepto. spirosis Paratyphoid fever Poliomye? lids Schistoso miasis Shigellosis Taeniasis and Cysticer cosis Tularemia Typhoid fever Fun gal Wide clinical F. nte nc Intestinal Sub cutaneous Liver... in the spread (this) disease. Forward strides taken since, in sanitation and water ply practice, have all but eliminated the incidence of ~h major water-borne diseases as cholera and typhoid er in the western world. The improvements which ye been effected...

  2. Competence in water-borne heating systems in buildings; Kompetanse innen vannbaarene varmesystemer i bygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarstein, Stig; Palm, Linn Therese; Naess, Bente Haukland; Nossum, Aase; Johnsen, Morten

    2009-01-15

    Trade participants in water-borne heating systems in buildings has experienced mistakes in all phases and of all participants of a project. When water-borne heating system functions, there is almost no follow up. This report is based on a qualitative survey where a several central participants, who on a daily basis are involved in projects with water-borne heating systems, are interviewed or have participated in focus group meetings. Following points illustrate experiences made by the operators in occasions where competence in trade is insufficiencies and mistakes occur: - Property developer lacks ordering competence and has problems in ordering quality. Consultant submit services of minor quality. Performance is of another quality than the supplier. Administration / maintenance lacks competence in how to run the system and without introduction and training in the heating system they take over a system that is over dimensioned and hard to regulate. The trade as a whole knows all the challenges, but the participants gives mainly the impression that the fault is lac of competence for all the other participants - not them self. This report points out measures and Enova can support competence improving measures which on long term will improve the quality from the participants. The trade is recommended to look into project execution, how competence is involved at the right moment, improving of control and documentation routines and at termination / hand over. (AG).14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R N

    2000-06-22

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.

  4. A status survey of common water-borne diseases in desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, M M; Chhabra, Chetna

    2004-03-01

    Water is scarce and, in general, a low quality resource in desert areas and the Indian desert is no exception. With this in view, the present study was taken up to survey the status of common water-borne diseases epidemiological trends in the desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan). In the city, 15.5 per cent population and 44.5 per cent families were found to suffer from one or more common water-borne diseases including amoebiasis, diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice and typhoid. No case of fluorosis was recorded. The highest incidence was that of diarrhoea (5.4 per cent population). The worst affected and safe zones in the city were identified and the trends of different diseases in different zones of the city are discussed. The highest incidence of diseases was noted during summer (58.8 per cent) followed by winter (34.1 per cent) and monsoon (7.0 per cent). Relationship of diseases with population attributes like age, education, economy and family size are also discussed. Attributes for contamination of drinking water have been tried to identify and safety measures suggested.

  5. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  6. Development and evaluation of a helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Jordan, R. A.; Flynn, J.; Thomas, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A small, helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring package is being developed by the NASA/EPA using a combination of basic in situ water quality sensors and physical sample collector technology. The package is a lightweight system which can be carried and operated by one person as a passenger in a small helicopter typically available by rental at commercial airports. Real-time measurements are made by suspending the water quality monitoring package with a cable from the hovering helicopter. Designed primarily for use in rapidly assessing hazardous material spills in inland and coastal zone water bodies, the system can survey as many as 20 data stations up to 1.5 kilometers apart in 1 hour. The system provides several channels of sensor data and allows for the addition of future sensors. The system will also collect samples from selected sites with sample collection on command. An EPA Spill Response Team member can easily transport, deploy, and operate the water quality monitoring package to determine the distribution, movement, and concentration of the spilled material in the water body.

  7. Development of water-borne thermosetting paint by radiation-induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Katakai, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1981-01-01

    In previous papers the features of γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization were studied to use the emulsion as vehicles for water-borne paint. In this paper, the physical properties of thermosetting paints made with emulsions containing N-(n-butoxymethyl)acrylamide (NBM) and hydroxyl and carboxyl functionality were investigated. Since NBM moieties can react with amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, NBM copolymer emulsions prepared in this study have the self-crosslinking capability. As far as it was investigated, it was difficult to prepare a stable emulsion containing 10% of NBM by the conventional emulsion polymerization by using a water soluble radical initiator such as persulfate. In addition to 1-liter reactor, a pilot-scale plant of 70 liters reactor was used for γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization. Experimental details are given, and results are discussed. (author)

  8. Hydroclimatic drivers, Water-borne Diseases, and Population Vulnerability in Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water-borne diarrheal disease outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region, such as cholera, rotavirus, and dysentery, show distinct seasonal peaks and spatial signatures in their origin and progression. However, the mechanisms behind these seasonal phenomena, especially the role of regional climatic and hydrologic processes behind the disease outbreaks, are not fully understood. Overall diarrheal disease prevalence and the population vulnerability to transmission mechanisms thus remain severely underestimated. Recent findings suggest that diarrheal incidence in the spring is strongly associated with scarcity of freshwater flow volumes, while the abundance of water in monsoon show strong positive correlation with autumn diarrheal burden. The role of large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that tend to modulate meteorological, hydrological, and environmental conditions over large regions and the effects on the ecological states conducive to the vectors and triggers of diarrheal outbreaks over large geographic regions are not well understood. We take a large scale approach to conduct detailed diagnostic analyses of a range of climate, hydrological, and ecosystem variables to investigate their links to outbreaks, occurrence, and transmission of the most prevalent water-borne diarrheal diseases. We employ satellite remote sensing data products to track coastal ecosystems and plankton processes related to cholera outbreaks. In addition, we investigate the effect of large scale hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., droughts and floods, El Nino) to identify how diarrheal transmission and epidemic outbreaks are most likely to respond to shifts in climatic, hydrologic, and ecological changes over coming decades. We argue that controlling diarrheal disease burden will require an integrated predictive surveillance approach - a combination of prediction and prevention - with recent advances in climate-based predictive capabilities and demonstrated successes in primary and tertiary prevention

  9. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, John; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    We previously reported that the macrophytic green alga Cladophora harbors high densities (up to 10(6) colony-forming units/g dry weight) of the fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in shoreline waters of Lake Michigan. However, the population structure and genetic relatedness of Cladophora-borne indicator bacteria remain poorly understood. In this study, 835 E. coli isolates were collected from Cladophora tufts (mats) growing on rocks from a breakwater located within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana. The horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates to each other and to those in a library of E. coli DNA fingerprints. While the E. coli isolates from Cladophora showed a high degree of genetic relatedness (92% similarity), in most cases, however, the isolates were genetically distinct. The Shannon diversity index for the population was very high (5.39). Both spatial and temporal influences contributed to the genetic diversity. There was a strong association of isolate genotypes by location (79% and 80% for lake- and ditch-side samplings, respectively), and isolates collected from 2002 were distinctly different from those obtained in 2003. Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates represented a unique group, which was distinct from other E. coli isolates in the DNA fingerprint library tested. Taken together, these results indicate that E. coli strains associated with Cladophora may be a recurring source of indicator bacteria to the nearshore beach.

  10. Therapeutic infliximab drug level in a child born to a woman with ulcerative colitis treated until gestation week 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Al-Khalaf, Magid; Ainsworth, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    A 26 year old woman with ulcerative colitis was treated with regular infliximab (IFX) infusions until gestation week 31, and gave birth to a healthy child at gestation week 37. Maternal IFX trough level was relatively high during the course of pregnancy. In the infant, therapeutic level of IFX...

  11. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  12. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    of these agents on biofilter nitrification performance. All experiments were conducted through addition of chemical additives to closed pilot scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with fixed media submerged biofilters under controlled operating conditions with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...... to positively correlate to temperature, available biofilter surface-area, and the frequency of FA-exposure. Prolonged biofilter exposure to FA did not negatively affect nitrification, and could therefore be a method to optimize FA treatment in RAS and reduce FA discharge. HP degradation was rapid and could...... prolonged multiple HP dosages at 10 mg/L were found to inhibit nitrite oxidation in systems with low organic loading. PAA decay was found to be concentration-dependent. It had a considerable negative effect on nitrite oxidation over a prolonged period of time when applied at a dosage ≥2 mg/L. PAA and HP...

  13. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  14. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  15. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  16. Explicit ions/implicit water generalized Born model for nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2018-05-01

    The ion atmosphere around highly charged nucleic acid molecules plays a significant role in their dynamics, structure, and interactions. Here we utilized the implicit solvent framework to develop a model for the explicit treatment of ions interacting with nucleic acid molecules. The proposed explicit ions/implicit water model is based on a significantly modified generalized Born (GB) model and utilizes a non-standard approach to define the solute/solvent dielectric boundary. Specifically, the model includes modifications to the GB interaction terms for the case of multiple interacting solutes—disconnected dielectric boundary around the solute-ion or ion-ion pairs. A fully analytical description of all energy components for charge-charge interactions is provided. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by calculating the potential of mean force for Na+-Cl- ion pair and by carrying out a set of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of mono- and trivalent ions interacting with DNA and RNA duplexes. The monovalent (Na+) and trivalent (CoHex3+) counterion distributions predicted by the model are in close quantitative agreement with all-atom explicit water molecular dynamics simulations used as reference. Expressed in the units of energy, the maximum deviations of local ion concentrations from the reference are within kBT. The proposed explicit ions/implicit water GB model is able to resolve subtle features and differences of CoHex distributions around DNA and RNA duplexes. These features include preferential CoHex binding inside the major groove of the RNA duplex, in contrast to CoHex biding at the "external" surface of the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA duplex; these differences in the counterion binding patters were earlier shown to be responsible for the observed drastic differences in condensation propensities between short DNA and RNA duplexes. MC simulations of CoHex ions interacting with the homopolymeric poly(dA.dT) DNA duplex with modified (de

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Water Extract of Arisaema Erubescens Tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using collagen II .... Plethysmometer PV-200 (ChengDu Technology. & Market Co. ..... Chung WY. Red ginseng saponin extract attenuates.

  18. Experimental apparatus and analysis technique for studying the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A unique laboratory apparatus has been designed, constructed, and tested for analyzing the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates. The system consists of an isothermal sedimentation chamber, collimated light sources, photographic optics, and monitoring devices. This apparatus is capable of providing dynamic information on water-borne particulates in the size range 2 μm to 700 μm, while simulating a realistic environment. Because of its flexibility, the equipment is being used to determine the kinematic behavior of gravitationally unstable organic mineral aggregates. The importance of organic mineral aggregates has been well established during the past decade. This material is believed to be a potential food source for marine biota at the lowest levels of the food chain. Organic mineral aggregates are also known to concentrate trace elements and other toxic substances and may be part of the control mechanism by which elemental concentrations are maintained in the water column. The benthic fluid mud layer and deep pelagic nepholoid layer consist, in part, of these sediments. Subsea petroleum reserves are thought to be the result of biogeochemical cycling of the organic-mineral complex. Undoubtedly, a fundamental study of these aggregates would be of value to many research interests

  19. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  20. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing discussion about the possibility of arsenic mitigation measures in Bengal and similar areas leading to undesirable substitution of water-borne-pathogen attributable risks pathogens for risks attributable to arsenic, in part because of uncertainties in relative pathogen concentrations in supplied and end-use water. We try to resolve this discussion, by assessing the relative contributions of water supply and end-user practices to water-borne-pathogen-attributable risks for arsenic mitigation options in a groundwater arsenic impacted area of West Bengal. Paired supplied arsenic-mitigated water and end-use drinking water samples from 102 households were collected and analyzed for arsenic and thermally tolerant coliforms [TTC], used as a proxy for microbiological water quality, We then estimated the DALYs related to key sequelae, diarrheal diseases and cancers, arising from water-borne pathogens and arsenic respectively. We found [TTC] in end-use drinking water to depend only weakly on [TTC] in source-water. End-user practices far outweighed the microbiological quality of supplied water in determining diarrheal disease burden. [TTC] in source water was calculated to contribute <1% of total diarrheal disease burden. No substantial demonstrable pathogen-for-arsenic risk substitution attributable to specific arsenic mitigation of supplied waters was observed, illustrating the benefits of arsenic mitigation measures in the area studied.

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  3. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  4. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  5. Water borne epidemic of gastroenteritis in Ghallour sub-centre of Jawalamukhi block, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 31, 2014, eighty cases of the gastroenteritis were reported in Ghallour sub-center area. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, propose control, and preventive measures. Materials and Methods: We defined a case as occurrence of three or more watery stools with or without vomiting, w.e.f January 27, till February 2, 2014 in residents of Ghallour sub-center area of Jawalamukhi block. We hypothesized it as a water borne outbreak. We determined age and sex specific attack rate. We collected information about personal history on age, sex, residence, and date of onset of symptom from case patient and established line list. We collected nine stool samples/rectal swabs from the cases; three pre and four post chlorination water samples and sent them for microbiological testing. We mapped water supply pipelines of the area and reviewed the water chlorination record. Results: We identified 390 cases in 16 villages under the sub center. The overall attack rate was 8% with a range of 1.3% to 36%. The cases patients were reported from all age groups and both the genders with the youngest student; 1-year old to the oldest one as 88 years. Two-third of the cases reported vomiting with some complaining of pain abdomen. Villages like Jathman, Khattni, Rajol Patta, Kohara has 100% case patients of loose motions while villages like Dhroli, (100%, Sasan (63% and Ghallour (50%, etc., have combined symptoms of loose motions and vomiting. No fatality was reported. Escherichia coli was detected in the samples from water samples. Records of chlorination were not properly maintained. Conclusion / Recommendation: The outbreak was associated due to contamination of water at the source in Jolly Khad. Regular treatment of the water needs to be done right at the source before being lifted.

  6. Avoiding toxicity from water-borne contaminants in hemodialysis: new challenges in an era of increased demand for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Water is necessary for all hemodialysis treatments. However, drinking water contains a range of substances that are toxic to patients on hemodialysis. Thus, all dialysis facilities are equipped with a water treatment system that removes those substances from the water before it is used to prepare dialysate. Increased demand for water and ever-evolving drinking water regulations are leading to changes in drinking water quality that may compromise the ability of typical dialysis water treatment systems to adequately remove substances that are known to be toxic or to deal with unexpected increases in other substances of unknown toxicity. In addition to these external challenges to dialysis water quality, the growing recognition that microbial contaminants in dialysate contribute to long-term morbidity has led to more stringent microbiological quality standards for dialysate and a consequent need to control biofilm formation in the fluid pathways involved in dialysate preparation. Avoiding toxicity from water contaminants in this dynamic environment requires a comprehensive approach to water treatment, including flexibility regarding the choice of water treatment processes, close communication with the suppliers of drinking water, and an emphasis on training technicians responsible for monitoring and maintaining all aspects of the fluid handling systems. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... in the stream measuring about 100 mm below the water surface. Meteorological measurements ...... Oct 1999 as recorded by sensors placed inside of the gauging well of a gauging hut ... mine drainage. Apart from the metal ...

  8. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  9. Experience on impregnation of wood.en poles with water borne salts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Leechability. Since the process depends on osmosis, the preservative must be highly soluble in water and rains may wash it away. 2. Diminished Mechanical Strength. Pricking of the pole at and around the ground line will diminish the mechanical strength of the pole. 3. Cost. Most important of all, the cost of the preserva-.

  10. Land Water-Storage Variability over West Africa: Inferences from Space-Borne Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of terrestrial water storage (TWS inverted from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE measurements to investigate water variations and their response to droughts over the Volta, Niger, and Senegal Basins of West Africa was investigated. An altimetry-imagery approach was proposed to deduce the contribution of Lake Volta to TWS as “sensed” by GRACE. The results showed that from April 2002 to July 2016, Lake Volta contributed to approximately 8.8% of the water gain within the Volta Basin. As the signal spreads out far from the lake, it impacts both the Niger and Senegal Basins with 1.7% (at a significance level of 95%. This figure of 8.8% for the Volta Basin is approximately 20% of the values reported in previous works. Drought analysis based on GRACE-TWS (after removing the lake’s contribution depicted below-normal conditions prevailing from 2002 to 2008. Wavelet analysis revealed that TWS changes (fluxes and rainfall as well as vegetation index depicted a highly coupled relationship at the semi-annual to biennial periods, with common power covariance prevailing in the annual frequencies. While acknowledging that validation of the drought occurrence and severity based on GRACE-TWS is needed, we believe that our findings shall contribute to the water management over West Africa.

  11. Characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for various GRACE- and GLDAS-born estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Yu, Zhongbo; Xu, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Since the launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has provided us with a new method to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations by measuring earth gravity change with unprecedented accuracy. Thus far, a number of standardized GRACE-born TWS products are published by different international research teams. However, no characterization of spatio-temporal patterns for different GRACE hydrology products from the global perspective could be found. It is still a big challenge for the science community to identify the reliable global measurement of TWS anomalies due to our limited knowledge on the true value. Hence, it is urgently necessary to evaluate the uncertainty for various global estimates of the GRACE-born TWS changes by a number of international research organizations. Toward this end, this article presents an in-depth analysis for various GRACE-born and GLDAS-based estimates for changes of global terrestrial water storage. The work characterizes the inter-annual and intra-annual variability, probability density variations, and spatial patterns among different GRACE-born TWS estimates over six major continents, and compares them with results from GLDAS simulations. The underlying causes of inconsistency between GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS estimates are thoroughly analyzed with an aim to improve our current knowledge in monitoring global TWS change. With a comprehensive consideration of the advantages and disadvantages among GRACE- and GLDAS-born TWS anomalies, a summary is thereafter recommended as a rapid reference for scientists, end-users, and policy-makers in the practices of global TWS change research. To our best knowledge, this work is the first attempt to characterize difference and uncertainty among various GRACE-born terrestrial water storage changes over the major continents estimated by a number of international research organizations. The results can provide beneficial reference to usage of

  12. Born dry in the photoevaporation desert: Kepler's ultra-short-period planets formed water-poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eric D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent surveys have uncovered an exciting new population of ultra-short-period (USP) planets with orbital periods less than a day. These planets typically have radii ≲1.5 R⊕, indicating that they likely have rocky compositions. This stands in contrast to the overall distribution of planets out to ∼100 d, which is dominated by low-density sub-Neptunes above 2 R⊕, which must have gaseous envelopes to explain their size. However, on the USP orbits, planets are bombarded by intense levels of photoionizing radiation and consequently gaseous sub-Neptunes are extremely vulnerable to losing their envelopes to atmospheric photoevaporation. Using models of planet evolution, I show that the rocky USP planets can easily be produced as the evaporated remnants of sub-Neptunes with H/He envelopes and that we can therefore understand the observed dearth of USP sub-Neptunes as a natural consequence of photoevaporation. Critically however, planets on USP orbits could often retain their envelopes if they are formed with very high-metallicity water-dominated envelopes. Such water-rich planets would commonly be ≳2 R⊕ today, which is inconsistent with the observed evaporation desert, indicating that most USP planets likely formed from water-poor material within the snow-line. Finally, I examine the special case of 55 Cancri e and its possible composition in the light of recent observations, and discuss the prospects for further characterizing this population with future observations.

  13. Occurrence of water-borne enteric viruses in two settlements based in Eastern Chad: analysis of hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Carratala, Anna; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.

  14. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  15. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  16. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  17. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  18. Ecological transport and radiation doses from ground water borne radioactive matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Bergstroem, U.; Evans, S.

    1978-12-01

    Turnover of radioactive matter entering the biosphere with ground water has been studied with regard to exposure and dose to critical groups and populations. The main alternatives considered for outflow of radioactive effluents to the biosphere are: outflow in a valley containing wells, outflow to a fresh-water lake, and outflow in a coastal region of the Baltic Sea. Mathematical models of a set of coupled ecosystems on local, regional- intermediate- and global levels have been used for calculations of doses. The intermediate system refers to the Baltic Sea. The mathematical analysis, based on first order kinetics for the exchange of matter in a system according to compartment principles, also includes products in decay chains, i.e. daughter nuclides generated by decay of nuclides under ecological cycling. The time dependent exposures have been studied for certain long-lived nuclides of radiological interest in waste from reprosessed fuel. Dose and dose commitment have been calculted for different release patterns comprising idealised episodes for outflow to the biosphere during short periods and outflow governed by constant leakage from a source on the border between geosphere and biosphere. (author)

  19. Soybean oil in water-borne coatings and latex film formation study by AC impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiratumnukul, Nantana

    Conventional coalescing agents such as butyl cellosolve, butyl carbitol, and TexanolRTM are widely use in the latex coatings industry to facilitate film formation at ambient temperature. Coalescent aids are composed of solvents with low evaporation rates. After water evaporates, coalescent aids would help soften polymer molecules and form continuous films, then gradually evaporates from the film. Coalescent aids, therefore, are considered as volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are of environmental concern. The main purpose of this research project was to prepare a fatty acid glycol ester from soybean oil and glycol (polyols). The soybean oil glycol ester can be used as a coalescent aid in latex paint formulation. The soybean oil glycol ester not only lowered the minimum film formation temperature of latex polymers and continuous film formed at ambient temperature, but also after it has facilitated film formation, does not substantially evaporate, but becomes part of the film. Soybean oil glycol esters, therefore, can reduce the VOC levels and facilitate film formation of latex paints. In the second part of this research AC-Impedance was used to investigate the efficiency of soybean oil coalescent aid in latex film formation relative to the conventional ones. The coating resistance showed that the efficiency of film formation was increased as a function of dry time. The coating resistance also exhibited the effect of soybean oil ester in latex film formation in the same fashion as a conventional coalescent aid, TexanolRTM.

  20. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  1. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  2. Minimum bactericidal concentration of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water on spoilers, starters and food-borne bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro effect of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water (PEOW on several food-borne strains. Antibacterial activity of PEOW was based on the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC on microtitre assay. The taxa tested were: Staphylococcus (n. 5, Listeria (n. 4, Escherichia (n. 2, Salmonella (n. 1, Pseudomonas (n. 3, Lactobacillus (n. 2 and Pediococcus (n. 1. S. aureus and L. monocytogens showed the lowest level of resistance to PEOW (MBC=1.5-3 mg/mL. In contrast, the Gram negative strains (e.g. S. Typhimurium and Pseudomonas spp. were in some cases unaffected by the tested doses and the MBCs ranged between 6 to 12 mg/mL. Starter cultures were dramatically reduced on growth (e.g. Staphylococcus xylosus; 0.75 mg/mL MBC. The thresholds for pathogenic strains could be considered for further applications of PEOW in food models (e.g. shelf life or challenge test studies.

  3. Spectral studies of ocean water with space-borne sensor SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vountas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm. The DOAS method was used for the first time to fit modelled Vibrational Raman Scattering (VRS in liquid water and in situ measured phytoplankton absorption reference spectra to optical depths measured by SCIAMACHY. Spectral structures of VRS and phytoplankton absorption were clearly found in these optical depths. Both fitting approaches lead to consistent results. DOAS fits correlate with estimates of chlorophyll concentrations: low fit factors for VRS retrievals correspond to large chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa; large fit factors for phytoplankton absorption correspond with high chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa. From these results a simple retrieval technique taking advantage of both measurements is shown. First maps of global chlorophyll concentrations were compared to the corresponding MODIS measurements with very promising results. In addition, results from this study will be used to improve atmospheric trace gas DOAS-retrievals from visible wavelengths by including these oceanographic signatures.

  4. Ecophysiological characterization of common food-borne fungi in relation to pH and water activity under various atmospheric compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of pH, water activity (aw), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on growth and sporulation of 10 common food-borne fungi were studied. The use of a multivariate statistical method (PLS) for the analysis of data showed, that the fungi could be grouped according to their ......The combined effect of pH, water activity (aw), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on growth and sporulation of 10 common food-borne fungi were studied. The use of a multivariate statistical method (PLS) for the analysis of data showed, that the fungi could be grouped according......% and from 52 to 100% respectively. Sporulation of the fungi was sensitive to all tested factors. Furthermore, interaction of CO2 and aw displayed a significant effect on sporulation. It was shown that different fungal species associated with the same ecosystem responded similarly to changes in the tested...

  5. Therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water on experimentally transmitted swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A H

    1978-07-01

    Three experimental studies were conducted in 232 growing pigs (8 to 12 weeks old) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water, against swine dysentery experimentally transmitted, by oral inoculation or by contact-commingling exposure. Four or 5 concentrations of lincomycin were used in each experiment (132, 66, 33, 16.5 or 0.0 mg/L of drinking water). Medication was initiated 7 to days after exposure and was continued for 6 to 10 days. Both methods of exposure were capable of transmitting the disease successfully. A more marked dose response was noticed in pigs inoculated orally than in pigs that were exposed by contact. All concentrations of lincomycin were effective for the treatment of swine dysentery by oral or by contact exposure. At the smaller concentration of 16.5 mg/L of drinking water, lincomycin was less effective for treating the disease than it was at greater concentrations. The suggested optimal concentration was 33 mg of lincomycin/L of drinking water for the treatment of swine dysentery.

  6. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.

  7. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona; Shockley, Johnette; Hoagland, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent

  8. Evaluation of gloves as a water bag coupling agent for therapeutic ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Salustiano de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS is a widespread modality in physiotherapy, and the water bag technique is a coupling method employed in the presence of anatomical irregularities in the treatment area. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acoustic attenuation of the water bag and its effectiveness as a TUS coupling agent. Methods The rated output powers (ROPs of the TUS equipment were evaluated based on IEC 61689. Then, a radiation force balance was used to measure ROP with and without a water bag (latex and nitrile gloves filled with deionized water between a TUS transducer and the cone-shaped target of the balance. Each experiment was performed five times for each nominal power (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 W and in the following configurations: without the water bag (A, with nitrile gloves and with (B and without (C a height controller, and latex gloves with (D and without (E height controller. ROPs obtained in different media were compared. Results The highest relative error of ROP was 16.72% for 0.5 W. Although the power values of the equipment were within the range recommended by IEC, there was a significant difference between the ROP values measured with A and with B, C and D. Conclusion As intensity differences below 0.5 W/cm2 are considered clinically not relevant, conditions A, B, C, D, or E can be used interchangeably.

  9. Natural radioactivity levels in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, S., E-mail: labidisalam@yahoo.f [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Essafi, F. [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis. Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Salah, R. [Faculte de Medecine de Sousse, 270, Sahloul II, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)

    2010-12-15

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out in 26 groundwater samples from Tunisia. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that for radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that, the concentrations in water samples range from 1.2 to 69 mBq/L.1, 1.3 to 153.4 mBq/L, 2.0 to 1630.0 mBq/L and 2.0 to 1032.0 mBq/L for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, respectively. The U and Ra activity concentrations are low and similar to those published for other regions in the world. The natural radioactivity levels in the investigated samples are generally increased from mineral waters through therapeutic to the spring waters. The results show that a correlation between total dissolved solids (TDS) values and the {sup 226}Ra concentrations was found to be high indicating that {sup 266}Ra has a high affinity towards the majority of mineral elements dissolved in these waters. High correlation coefficients were also observed between {sup 226}Ra content and chloride ions for Cl{sup -}Na{sup +} water types. This can be explained by the fact that radium forms a complex with chloride and in this form is more soluble. The isotopic ratio of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 234}U varies in the range from 0.8 to 2.6 and 0.6 to 360.8, respectively, in all investigated waters, which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the two members of the {sup 238}U series. The fractionation of isotopes of a given element may occur because of preferential leaching of one, or by the direct action of recoil during radioactive decay. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of the mineral waters have been estimated to be well below the 0.1 mSv/y reference dose level.

  10. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aquatic Insect from Iran for Possible Use of Biological Control of Main Vector-Borne Disease of Malaria and Water Indicator of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Saeidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran has a wide variety of zoogeographical regions and different seasons. Here are some important mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes normally live in waters. Its aquatic insect fauna is highly unexplored. To being resolved this faunal gap, a variety of literature records from previous century in different parts of Iran was reviewed. In some southern and southeastern foci in Iran, Malaria is still a main endemic disease which is unstable with two seasonal spring and autumn peaks even though Iran is lunching Malaria elimination. This review article showed the wide variety of aquatic insects throughout the country. Researchers can discuss water pollutant and its quality by using aquatic insect fauna as well as biological control for vectors. Types of aquatic in­sects and macroinvertebrates sampling can be useful for water quality monitoring as indicators. Looking at aquatic insects’ life in water could be one of the most cost-effective and the easiest method to assess the water contaminations by different pollutants and will provide a guideline for scientific communities and environmental agencies for decision making.

  12. [The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of reflexotherapy and drinking mineral waters in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernov, V A; Frolkov, V K; Zubarkina, M M

    Both acupuncture and drinking mineral water can influence the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids as well as their hormonal regulation, but the possibility of the application of these therapeutic factors for the correction of insulin resistance has not been studied in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects produced by the intake of drinking mineral water and acupuncture on the various parameters characterizing the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome in combination with altered insulin resistance. Ninety patients with this condition included in the study underwent the analysis of their the blood pressure, body mass index, blood glucose and lipid levels, insulin and cortisol secretion. We undertook the analysis of the effects of the single and repeated intakes of Essentuki No 17 mineral water included in the combined treatment of the patients with metabolic syndrome and revealed many common responses of the organism to its therapeutic action. Specifically, the stress-type reactions suggested the initiation of the adaptive processes in the system of hormonal regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Simultaneously, the manifestations of insulin resistance became less pronounced indicating that both acupuncture and drinking mineral water suppressed the action of the main pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, it was shown that acupuncture had a stronger hypotensive effect in the combination with the decrease of the overproduction of cortisol whereas the intake of the mineral water had a greater metabolic potential and contributed to the intensification of the basal secretion of glucocorticoids. Both reflexotherapy and drinking mineral water have a well apparent effect on the pathogenetic reactions of the metabolic syndrome and therefore can be used in addition to the standard therapy to activate the non-specific, phylogenetically

  13. The influence of scattering and absorption processes in sea water on atmospheric radiation - results from ship-borne DOAS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Wittrock, Folkard; Richter, Andreas; Kirk, Henning; Schulte, Hagen I.D.B; Burrows, John P. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Absorption and inelastic scattering within water can influence the upwelling radiation over water bodies. If not identified properly, these effects impact on absorption measurements of trace gases when using nadir observations. Spectral correlations lead to incorrect trace gas amounts and reduced retrieval quality. This presentation reports on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements from a Polarstern cruise in April-May 2008 from South America to Europe. Scattered sun light was measured by two spectrometer units in the visible and UV spectral regions. The light collecting telescope was viewing alternately in different elevation angles: into zenith-sky and at slant angles above and especially below the horizon, intentionally viewing into the ocean water. The DOAS measurements were analysed in different spectral windows to identify structures not associated to well-known effects. Such persistent structures were indeed found in spectra at water viewing angles and may be caused by inelastic scattering at water molecules, by effects from substances in the water (particles, organics, etc) or by processes yet unknown. Analysing these structured residuals helps to characterise the disturbance of optical absorption measurements caused by light transmission through sea water.

  14. Dynamic regulation and dysregulation of the water channel aquaporin-2: a common cause of and promising therapeutic target for water balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yumi

    2014-08-01

    The human body is two-thirds water. The ability of ensuring the proper amount of water inside the body is essential for the survival of mammals. The key event for maintenance of body water balance is water reabsorption in the kidney collecting ducts, which is regulated by aquaporin-2 (AQP2). AQP2 is a channel that is exclusively selective for water molecules and never allows permeation of ions or other small molecules. Under normal conditions, AQP2 is restricted within the cytoplasm of the collecting duct cells. However, when the body is dehydrated and needs to retain water, AQP2 relocates to the apical membrane, allowing water reabsorption from the urinary tubule into the cell. Its impairments result in various water balance disorders including diabetes insipidus, which is a disease characterized by a massive loss of water through the kidney, leading to severe dehydration in the body. Dysregulation of AQP2 is also a common cause of water retention and hyponatremia that exacerbate the prognosis of congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. Many studies have uncovered the regulation mechanisms of AQP2 at the single-molecule level, the whole-body level, and the clinical level. In clinical practice, urinary AQP2 is a useful marker for body water balance (hydration status). Moreover, AQP2 is now attracting considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for water balance disorders which commonly occur in many diseases.

  15. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T; Murhekar, M; Hutin, Y J; Ramamurthy, T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the Gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. We aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease. We defined a case as the occurrence of diarrhoea (> 3 loose stools/day) with fever or bloody stools in a resident of Gayeshpur in September-October 2007. We asked healthcare facilities to report cases, collected stool specimens from patients, constructed an epidemic curve, drew a map and calculated the incidence by age and sex. We also conducted a matched case-control study (58 in each group), calculated matched odds ratio (MOR) and population attributable fraction (PAF), as well as assessed the environment. We identified 461 cases (attack rate: 46/1000 population) and isolated Shigella flexneri (serotype 2a and 3a) from 3 of 4 stool specimens. The attack rate was higher among females (52/1000) and those in the age group of 45-59 years (71/1000). The outbreak started on 22 September, peaked multiple times and subsided on 12 October 2007. Cases were clustered distal to a leaking pipeline that crossed an open drain to intermittently supply non-chlorinated water to taps. The 58 cases and 58 controls were matched for age and sex. Drinking tap water (MOR: 10; 95% CI: 3-32; PAF: 89%), washing utensils in tap water (MOR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.2-11.3) and bathing in tap water (MOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-11) were associated with the illness. This outbreak of diarrhoea and Shigella flexneri dysentery was caused by contamination of tap water and subsided following repair of the pipeline. We recommended regular chlorination of the water and maintenance of pipelines.

  17. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengke Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB, have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series. In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB.

  18. Validation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Derived from Ship-Borne GPS Measurements in the Chinese Bohai Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapor (AWV was investigated for the first time in the Chinese Bohai Sea using a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver aboard a lightweight (300-ton ship. An experiment was conducted to retrieve the AWV using the state-of-the-art GPS precise point positioning (PPP technique. The effects of atmospheric weighted mean temperature model and zenith wet delay constraint on GPS AWV estimates were discussed in the PPP estimation system. The GPS-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV and slant-path water vapor (SWV were assessed by comparing with those derived from the Fifth Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5. The results showed the PWV and SWV differences between those derived from both GPS and MM5 are 1.5 mm root mean square (RMS with a bias of 0.2 and 3.9 mm RMS with a bias of -0.7 mm respectively. These good agreements indicate that the GPS-derived AWV in dynamic environments has a comparable accuracy with that of the MM5 model. This suggests that high accuracy and high spatio-temporal resolution humidity fields can be obtained using GPS in the Chinese Bohai Sea, which offers significant potential for meteorological applications and climate studies in this region.

  19. Comparison of thermally induced and naturally occurring water-borne leakages from hard rock depositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Robinson, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of thermally induced and naturally occurring flows of water as causes of leakage from hard rock depositories for radioactive wastes is assessed. Separate analyses are presented for involatile, high level waste from reprocessing of fuel and for plutonium contaminated waste from fabrication of fuel. The effects of varying the quantities of wastes, pre-burial storage and the shapes and depths of depositories are considered. It is concluded that for representative values of these variables, thermal flow will remain the major cause of leakage for long times after the burial of both types of waste. (Auth.)

  20. Seasonal to Decadal Variations of Water Vapor in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere Observed with Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Frost Point Hygrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Voemel, H.; Hasebe, F.; Shiotani, M.; Ogino, S.-Y.; Iwasaki, S.; Nishi, N.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Nishimoto, E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We investigated water vapor variations in the tropical lower stratosphere on seasonal, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and decadal time scales using balloon-borne cryogenic frost point hygrometer data taken between 1993 and 2009 during various campaigns including the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (March 1993), campaigns once or twice annually during the Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) project in the eastern Pacific (1998-2003) and in the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (2001-2009), and the Ticosonde campaigns and regular sounding at Costa Rica (2005-2009). Quasi-regular sounding data taken at Costa Rica clearly show the tape recorder signal. The observed ascent rates agree well with the ones from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite sensor. Average profiles from the recent five SOWER campaigns in the equatorial western, Pacific in northern winter and from the three Ticosonde campaigns at Costa Rica (10degN) in northern summer clearly show two effects of the QBO. One is the vertical displacement of water vapor profiles associated with the QBO meridional circulation anomalies, and the other is the concentration variations associated with the QBO tropopause temperature variations. Time series of cryogenic frost point hygrometer data averaged in a lower stratospheric layer together with HALOE and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder data show the existence of decadal variations: The mixing ratios were higher and increasing in the 1990s, lower in the early 2000s, and probably slightly higher again or recovering after 2004. Thus linear trend analysis is not appropriate to investigate the behavior of the tropical lower stratospheric water vapor.

  1. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  2. Monitoring a newly re-born patient: water quality and cyanotoxin occurrence in a reconstructed shallow Mediterranean lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Gkelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Karla (Central Greece is a unique example - at European scale - of a shallow lake ecosystem that was dried in the 1960s and in 2009 started to be restored. The lake is listed in the network of the Greek protected areas as it is considered a vital aquatic ecosystem, in terms of biodiversity. It has, however, already been adversely affected by both agricultural and industrial land uses in the surrounding area, leading to eutrophication and shifting algal community towards bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterial species. After repeated heavy-blooms, cyanotoxin occurrence and mass fish kills, the local ecosystem management authority has implemented a water quality monitoring program (July 2013 - July 2015 to assess environmental pressures and the response of aquatic biota in the lake. Microscopic, immunological, and molecular techniques combined with physico-chemical parameters, complemented by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were used to monitor cyanobacteria blooms and the associated cyanotoxin production from three different sites in Lake Karla and from the adjacent Kalamaki Reservoir. Water quality was also assessed by the structure of benthic invertebrate community on the sediment. Cyanobacteria were the main phytoplankton component, representing more than 70% of the total phytoplankton abundance; dominant taxa belonged to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Limnothrix redekei, Anabaenopsis elenkinii, and Microcystis spp. Euglenophytes (Euglena, diatoms (Nitzschia, and chlorophytes (Scenedesmus were also important phytoplankton constituents. LC-MS/MS confirmed the co-occurrence of microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, neo-saxitoxin and anatoxin-a. The occurrence of cyanotoxins in relation to the persistent and dominant cyanobacteria and the impact of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms on the newly constructed lake along with the land uses and the emergent mitigation measures are discussed.

  3. Innovatively Therapeutic Strategy on Lung Cancer by Daily Drinking Antioxidative Plasmon-Induced Activated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Kai; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2018-04-20

    Many human diseases are inflammation-related, such as cancer and those associated with aging. Previous studies demonstrated that plasmon-induced activated (PIA) water with electron-doping character, created from hot electron transfer via decay of excited Au nanoparticles (NPs) under resonant illumination, owns reduced hydrogen-bonded networks and physchemically antioxidative properties. In this study, it is demonstrated PIA water dramatically induced a major antioxidative Nrf2 gene in human gingival fibroblasts which further confirms its cellular antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, mice implanted with mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) cells drinking PIA water alone or together with cisplatin treatment showed improved survival time compared to mice which consumed only deionized (DI) water. With the combination of PIA water and cisplatin administration, the survival time of LLC-1-implanted mice markedly increased to 8.01 ± 0.77 days compared to 6.38 ± 0.61 days of mice given cisplatin and normal drinking DI water. This survival time of 8.01 ± 0.77 days compared to 4.62 ± 0.71 days of mice just given normal drinking water is statistically significant (p = 0.009). Also, the gross observations and eosin staining results suggested that LLC-1-implanted mice drinking PIA water tended to exhibit less metastasis than mice given only DI water.

  4. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-07

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Macromolecular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-09-28

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines - (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water-equivalent one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter for measuring therapeutic photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jinsoo; Won Jang, Kyoung; Jae Yoo, Wook; Han, Ki-Tek; Park, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Bongsoo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter, which consists of 9 scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters, septa, and PMMA blocks for measuring surface and percentage depth doses of a therapeutic photon beam. Each dosimeter embedded in the 1-D scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter is composed of square type organic scintillators and plastic optical fibers. Also black PVC films are used as septa to minimize cross-talk between the scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters. To construct a dosimeter system, a 1-D scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter and a CMOS image sensor were combined with 20 m-length plastic optical fibers. Using the dosimeter system, we measured surface and percentage depth doses of 6 and 15 MV photon beams and compared the results with those of EBT films and an ionization chamber. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of a one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter. ► The one-dimensional scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter has 9 scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters. ► Measurements of surface and percentage depth doses of a therapeutic photon beam. ► The results were compared with those of EBT films and an ionization chamber.

  7. [Therapeutic effect of the association between pulmonary ventilation and aerosol--inhalation with sulphureous mineral water in the chronic bronchopneumopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, M; Proia, A R; Fraioli, A; Serio, A; Cammarella, I; Petraccia, L; Grassi, M

    2004-04-01

    Our research evaluates the efficacy of the inalation therapy by mineral sulphureous water in patients suffering from cronic bronchopneumopathy. From August to October 2002, two groups of patients, randomly selected, suffering from cronic bronchopneumonopathy, were studied at spa center "Pompeo" in Ferentino (FR). Every patient was treated daily during a cycle of twelve days. The first group was treated by pneumonic mechanical ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosolinalation, the second by mechanical pulmonary ventilation associated to sulphureous water aerosol-inalation medicated with flunisolide. Every patient carried out spirometry, before and after treatment, and the measurement of FEV1 was considered a good parameter to evaluate the respiratory function. All patients reported an improvement in symptoms as dyspnea and cough. Results obtained show a significant functional improvement of respiratory function in both groups, evaluated by FEV1. Equal efficacy treating the patients by medicated and not medicated treatments stress the therapeutic role of mineral sulphureous waters in chronic bronchopneumopathies. Our research points out the usefullness of pneumonic ventilation associated with sulphureous water aerosol-inalation in patients suffering from chronic bronchopneumopathies.

  8. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Siobhan M; DeMaria, Alfred; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  9. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Mor

    Full Text Available We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR. Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  10. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  11. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  12. The Reduction of Distress Using Therapeutic Geothermal Water Procedures in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapolienė, Lolita; Razbadauskas, Artūras; Jurgelėnas, Antanas

    2015-01-01

    Stress is an element of each human's life and an indicator of its quality. Thermal mineral waters have been used empirically for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. Aim of the Study. To investigate the effects of highly mineralised geothermal water balneotherapy on distress and health risk. Methodology. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with 130 seafarers: 65 underwent 2 weeks of balneotherapy with 108 g/L full-mineralisation bath treatment; the others were in control group. The effect of distress was measured using the General Symptoms Distress Scale. Factorial and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results. A significant positive effect on distress (P Balneotherapy with highly mineralised geothermal water reduces distress, by reducing the health risk posed by distress by 26%, increasing the health resources by 11%, and reducing probability of general health risk by 18%. Balneotherapy is an effective preventive tool and can take a significant place in integrative medicine. PMID:25866680

  13. [A "historical" case of lead poisoning via drinking water: diagnostic and therapeutic issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Girtanner-Brunel, L; Péaud, P Y; Serpollet, G; Duchen, C

    2001-12-01

    It is likely that lead poisoning via drinking water is often overlooked because of its supposed rarity and nonspecific early symptoms, which result in delayed management. One case of severe lead poisoning via drinking water is reported. The diagnosis was long missed and a particularly long chelating treatment was required. The clinical features included lead colic, a Burton's lead line, anemia, polyneuritis and arterial hypertension. Eighteen courses of calcium EDTA were required to obtain 'biological recovery'. The poisoning was linked to a very long water supply lead pipe and potomania secondary to alcohol withdrawal. This case report illustrates how difficult the early recognition of lead poisoning can be, and underlines the need to inquire about a toxic aetiology, particularly via the environment, of otherwise unexplained pathological conditions.

  14. The therapeutic effect of carbogaseous natural mineral waters in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinteza Delia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome is a complex of metabolic disturbances that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Entity includes: dyslipidemia (altered lipid profile, with increasing levels of serum triglycerides and low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis, high blood sugar (diabetes type II or increased insulin resistance, hypertension, abdominal obesity syndrome, proinflammatory, prothrombotic syndrome. In the last 20 years, there was a continuous increase in individuals suffering from this syndrome, the cause remains unknown, but several studies also claim that it is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Of environmental factors, diet low in micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium seems to be an essential contributor element (Feldsein et al, 2007, Cidalia Pereira et al, 2011. Decreased intake of sodium and increased intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, proposed by Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - DASH diet (Van Leer et al 1995, Meigl et al 2008 leads to optimized blood pressure. Even in the absence of increased sodium intake, low levels of magnesium in the blood and cells can induce in some conditions, hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance or completely metabolic syndrom.Among the methods proposed to correct dietary intake of micronutrients, natural mineral water, often very complex in terms of chemical composition and versatile in terms of the intended effect is one handy, safe and simple.Although used in order to preserve the health from ancient times, scientific studies proving natural mineral water effects on the human body takes place only since the twentieth century. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of deep water filtering through volcanic soils, which contain CO2, carbon dioxide, thus obtained, will help dissolve other elements contained in the soil layers

  15. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    technique has defined sensitivity and specificity and the decision to use certain techniques depends on several practicalities such as reason for analysis, sample size, time, cost, and logistic requirements. In this work we present and discuss existing criteria for the differentiation of waterborne...

  16. The Reduction of Distress Using Therapeutic Geothermal Water Procedures in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Rapolienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an element of each human’s life and an indicator of its quality. Thermal mineral waters have been used empirically for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. Aim of the Study. To investigate the effects of highly mineralised geothermal water balneotherapy on distress and health risk. Methodology. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with 130 seafarers: 65 underwent 2 weeks of balneotherapy with 108 g/L full-mineralisation bath treatment; the others were in control group. The effect of distress was measured using the General Symptoms Distress Scale. Factorial and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results. A significant positive effect on distress (P<0.001 was established after 2 weeks of treatment: the number of stress symptoms declined by 60%, while the intensity of stress symptoms reduced by 41%, and the control improved by 32%. Health risks caused by distress were reduced, and resources increased, whereas the probability of general health risk decreased by 18% (P=0.01. Conclusion. Balneotherapy with highly mineralised geothermal water reduces distress, by reducing the health risk posed by distress by 26%, increasing the health resources by 11%, and reducing probability of general health risk by 18%. Balneotherapy is an effective preventive tool and can take a significant place in integrative medicine.

  17. The association of drinking water quality and sewage disposal with Helicobacter pylori incidence in infants: the potential role of water-borne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Penny B; Goodman, Karen J; O'Rourke, Kathleen M; Groves, Frank D; Sinha, Debajyoti; Nicholas, Joyce S; VanDerslice, Jim; Lackland, Daniel; Mena, Kristina D

    2010-03-01

    The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, is unknown although waterborne transmission is a likely pathway. This study investigated the hypothesis that access to treated water and a sanitary sewerage system reduces the H. pylori incidence rate, using data from 472 participants in a cohort study that followed children in Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, from April 1998, with caretaker interviews and the urea breath test for detecting H. pylori infection at target intervals of six months from birth through 24 months of age. The unadjusted hazard ratio comparing bottled/vending machine water to a municipal water supply was 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.01) and comparing a municipal sewer connection to a septic tank or cesspool, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.20). After adjustment for maternal education and country, the hazard ratios decreased slightly to 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.00) and 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 1.21), respectively. These results provide moderate support for potential waterborne transmission of H. pylori.

  18. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  19. Perch, Perca fluviatilis show a directional preference for, but do not increase attacks toward, prey in response to water-borne cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Henderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues play an important role in predator-prey interactions. Prey use a variety of chemosensory cues to detect and avoid predators. However, whether predators use the chemical cues released by disturbed or stressed prey has received less attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that the disturbance cue cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, elevates predatory behavior. We presented predators (perch, Perca fluviatilis with three chemosensory choice tests and recorded their location, orientation, and aggressive behavior. We compared the responses of predators when provided with (i visual cues of prey only (two adjacent tanks containing sticklebacks; (ii visual and natural chemical cues of prey vs. visual cues only; and (iii visual cues of prey with cortisol vs. visual cues only. Perch spent a significantly higher proportion of time in proximity to prey, and orientated toward prey more, when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to presentations of visual and natural chemical cues of prey, or visual cues of prey only. There was a trend that perch directed a higher proportion of predatory behaviors (number of lunges toward sticklebacks when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to the other chemosensory conditions. But they did not show a significant increase in total predatory behavior in response to cortisol. Therefore, it is not clear whether water-borne cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, affects predatory behavior. Our results provide evidence that cortisol could be a source of public information about prey state and/or disturbance, but further work is required to confirm this.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging and relaxometry to study water transport mechanisms in a commercially available gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Amber L; Fell, Rob J; Codd, Sarah L; Lightley, Kim A; Konagurthu, Sanjay; Koehler-King, Dory G; Seymour, Joseph D

    2010-09-15

    The hydration of 4 mg Cardura XL (Pfizer), a commercially available gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablet, was investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A short echo time (T(e)=2.81 ms) technique for MRI of the hydration of a GITS tablet was implemented. From the MR images, signal intensity profiles were generated and interpreted in the context of diffusive and osmotic transport mechanisms. A distinct transition from diffusive to osmotic transport was measured at a timescale relevant to the measured drug release time. Diffusion and osmotic rate coefficients for water in the drug and polymer sweller layers of the tablet were quantified. Spin-lattice T(1) and spin-spin T(2) relaxation times of the water signal from within the tablet were measured as a function of hydration time in order to incorporate the effects of relaxation into interpretation of signal intensity and provide unique information on the distribution of water in different physical and chemical environments within the tablet. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included with the device recommends the consumption of 1–1.5 L of water per day, not only for gastro-intestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. Academic research in Japan on this subject has been undergoing since 1990 only but has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen that eliminates the free radical HO• in vivo. In addition, it was demonstrated that degradation of the electrodes during functioning of the device releases very reactive nanoparticles of platinum, the toxicity of which has not yet been clearly proven. This report recommends alerting health authorities of the uncontrolled availability of these devices used as health products, but which generate drug substances and should therefore be sold according to regulatory requirements.

  2. [Tick-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D

    1993-05-01

    Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of transcytolemmal water exchange analysis for therapeutic response assessment using DCE-MRI: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhao; Subashi, Ergys; Liang, Xiao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Chang, Zheng

    2016-07-07

    This study compares the shutter-speed (SS) and the Tofts models as used in assessing therapeutic response in a longitudinal DCE-MRI experiment. Sixteen nu/nu mice with implanted colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (LS-174T) were randomly assigned into treatment/control groups (n  =  8/group) and received bevacizumab/saline twice weekly (Day1/Day4/Day8). All mice were scanned at one pre- (Day0) and two post-treatment (Day2/Day9) time points using a high spatiotemporal resolution DCE-MRI pulse sequence. The CA extravasation rate constant [Formula: see text] from the Tofts/SS model and the mean intracellular water residence time [Formula: see text] from the SS model were analyzed. A biological subvolume (BV) within the tumor was identified based on the [Formula: see text] intensity distribution, and the SS model parameters within the BV ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) were analyzed. It is found that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have a similar spatial distribution in the tumor volume. The Bayesian information criterion results show that the SS model was a better fit for all scans. At Day9, the treatment group had significantly higher tumor mean [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.021), [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.021) and [Formula: see text] (p  = 0.045). When BV from transcytolemmal water exchange analysis was adopted, the treatment group had higher mean [Formula: see text] at both Day2 (p  =  0.038) and Day9 (p  =  0.007). Additionally, at Day9, the treatment group had higher mean [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.045) and higher [Formula: see text] spatial heterogeneity indices (Rényi dimensions) d 1 (p  = 0.010) and d 2 (p  = 0.021). When mean [Formula: see text] and its coefficient of variation (CV) were used to separate treatment/control group samples using supporting vector machine, the accuracy of treatment/control classification was 68.8% at Day2 and 87.5% at Day9; in contrast, the

  4. Recent Advances in Delivery Systems and Therapeutics of Cinnarizine: A Poorly Water Soluble Drug with Absorption Window in Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raghuvanshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain.

  5. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...... propose hypotheses about the influence of efficiency-centered and novelty-entered business model design on international firm performance. To test these hypotheses, we performed a quantitative survey with 252 founders of international companies in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Additionally, we...... gained further insights through a case study analysis of 11 Born Globals. The results show that business model design matters to international firm performance and the business model design of Born Globals tends to be more efficiency-centered. Based on a multiple case study, we analyzed business models...

  6. A born dreamer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    encouraged me to believe that education was the only way to fulfil one's dreams ... liant student, financial constraints prevented him from pursuing. A born ... higher education. .... to fulfil one's dream despite difficulties, which women face. How-.

  7. [Tick borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.

  8. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  9. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  10. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  11. Tick-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  12. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...

  13. Vector borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo Fenech, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.

  14. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  15. Research strategy of the therapeutic quality of mud and salty water from Ursu(Bear Lake, Sovata, 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Infertility (sterility is a health problem affecting 15% of couples of reproductive age. Today only a few are known about causes and treatment options involved in the pathology of infertility, while a number of issues remain unknown. Currently natural therapeutic factors from Sovata are used, based on experience over the years, for the following causes of infertility: tubal obstruction, laparoscopic postneosalpingostomiei recovery treatment (prevention of restenozations, sequelae after pelvic inflammatory disease, peritonitis, post-inflammatory adhesions; secretory ovarian dysfunction (estrogen, progesterone, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, infertility induced by stress.

  16. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  17. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs......-agents for which the rate of introduction wasestimated to be very low, no further asse ssments were made. Due to the uncertainty related to someparameters used for the risk assessment or the instable or unpredictability disease situation in some ofthe source regions, it is recommended to update the assessment when...

  18. Symposium report: the Waters Bioanalysis World Tour: the broadening impact and future of the DMPK laboratory--addressing large-molecule therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vooght-Johnson, Ryan

    2011-03-01

    An evening symposium was held at the Museu de Historia de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain) as a precursor to the European Bioanalysis Forum meeting, as part of the Waters Corporation Bioanalysis World Tour. The symposium was chaired by Robert Plumb and Jing Lin (Waters Corporation, MA, USA) with a focus on the future of the DMPK laboratory and its role in addressing large-molecule therapeutics and biomarkers. Lieve Dillen (Johnson and Johnson, Belgium) spoke on ultra-sensitive peptide quantification, Richard Kay (Quotient Bioresearch, UK) discussed quantifying proteins and peptides in plasma, Ian Wilson (AstraZeneca, UK) covered metabolic biomarkers and Robert Plumb concluded the evening with a presentation on the future of MS in DMPK studies. Following the presentations, all the speakers took questions from the audience and continued lively discussion over a cocktails and canapés reception.

  19. Discharge-based QMRA for estimation of public health risks from exposure to stormwater-borne pathogens in recreational waters in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Graham B; Stott, Rebecca; Miller, Woutrina; Bambic, Dustin; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-09-15

    This study is the first to report a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) on pathogens detected in stormwater discharges-of-concern, rather than relying on pathogen measurements in receiving waters. The pathogen concentrations include seven "Reference Pathogens" identified by the U.S. EPA: Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Salmonella, Norovirus, Rotavirus, Enterovirus, and Adenovirus. Data were collected from 12 sites representative of seven discharge types (including residential, commercial/industrial runoff, agricultural runoff, combined sewer overflows, and forested land), mainly during wet weather conditions during which times human health risks can be substantially elevated. The risks calculated herein therefore generally apply to short-term conditions (during and just after rainfall events) and so the results can be used by water managers to potentially inform the public, even for waters that comply with current criteria (based as they are on a 30-day mean risk). Using an example waterbody and mixed source, pathogen concentrations were used in QMRA models to generate risk profiles for primary and secondary water contact (or inhalation) by adults and children. A number of critical assumptions and considerations around the QMRA analysis are highlighted, particularly the harmonization of the pathogen concentrations measured in discharges during this project with those measured (using different methods) during the published dose-response clinical trials. Norovirus was the most dominant predicted health risk, though further research on its dose-response for illness (cf. infection) is needed. Even if the example mixed-source concentrations of pathogens had been reduced 30 times (by inactivation and mixing), the predicted swimming-associated illness rates - largely driven by Norovirus infections - can still be appreciable. Rotavirus generally induced the second-highest incidence of risk among the tested pathogens while risks for the other Reference Pathogens

  20. Long-lived natural Ra isotopes in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Caxambu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrao, Sergio Garcia; Oliveira, Joselene de

    2011-01-01

    In many countries all around the world, there is an increasing tendency to replace surface drinking water by commercially available bottled mineral water from different springs for consumption purposes. These practices involve an increased risk of finding higher activities of natural radionuclides in such waters, predominantly of the uranium-radium decay series. Naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 228 Ra are found frequently dissolved in water supplies and their concentrations vary over an extremely wide range. However, from the point of view of radiation hygiene, results of many worldwide surveys indicate that only 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra have been found in concentrations that may be of health concern. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most radiotoxic isotopes of radium due to their long half-lives, 1,600 and 5.75 years, respectively. Since their chemical behavior is similar to that of calcium, radium isotopes tend to accumulate mostly in the skeleton after ingestion. For the purposes of this study, samples of mineral spring water were taken in Caxambu, a thermal resort located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais, 370 km south of Belo Horizonte. Caxambu is renowned by its waterpark, which has twelve sources of mineral water already being used in treatment of stomach, liver and kidney diseases, between others. 226 Ra activity concentrations varied from 83 to 3,599 mBq L-1, the highest value determined at Venancio spring. Activity concentrations of 228 Ra ranged from 69 to 4,481 mBq L-1. 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios varied from 0.079 to 4.2. (author)

  1. Strong Control of Salts on Near Surface Liquid Water Content in a High Polar Desert Indicated by Near Surface Resistivity Mapping with a Helicopter-Borne TEM Sensor, Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.; Myers, K. F.; Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Closed depressions in the Lower Taylor Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) have near surface (top 5m) electrical resistivity that is lower by about an order of magnitude than the resistivity of nearby slopes and ridges (100s of ohm-m vs. 1000s). We interpret this spatial pattern as being due to long term concentration of salts carried by liquid water and/or deliquescent vapor fronts. High concentration of salts in the top decimeters to meters beneath the surface may prolong the existence and abundance of liquid water in this otherwise very cold and dry high polar desert. Due to its connections with life and chemical transport, liquid water is a much studied feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. This setting can be used as an analogue for similar features on the surface of Mars, where liquid water tracks have been observed and are believed to be controlled by eutectic brines. Our study demonstrates the utility of mapping at a regional scale via helicopter-borne Transient EM. Airborne EM covers more ground and can measure deeper than surface-based measurements, at the expense of resolution. This allows creating valley-scale datasets which could not feasibly be collected on the ground. Our remote measurements complement physical samples that indicate that soluble salts concentrate in certain areas of surface soil where water moves ions and is later removed by evaporation or sublimation. In areas where we measured low resistivity, the integrated liquid water fraction in the top 5m may be a few to several percent by volume, equivalent to a few or several dozens of cm of water layer thickness. This estimate assumes that the interstitial waters have very low resistivity, comparable to seawater or hypersaline brines at freezing (0.2-0.35 ohm-m). If soil water was considerably fresher than this, liquid water content would have to reach dozens of percent throughout the top 5m for bulk resistivities to drop to 100s of ohm-m. We consider the latter case to be unlikely as

  2. Trace-element concentrations and water-soluble ions in size-segregated dust-borne and soil samples in Sistan, southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Reza Dahmardeh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Saeb, Keivan; Rajaei, Fatemeh

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the chemical composition (water-soluble ions and trace elements) of the total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in the Sistan basin, southeast Iran during the dusty and windy period June - October 2014. Extreme TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, means of 1624.8, 433.4 and 320.8 μgm-3, respectively, were recorded in the Zabol sampling site, while the examined water-soluble ions and trace metals constitute small fractions (∼4.1%-17.7%) of the particulate masses. Intense winds on the dust-storm days result in weathering of soil crust and deflation of evaporate minerals from the dried Hamoun lake beds in the Sistan basin. The soil samples are rich in Ca2+, SO42-, Na+ and Cl- revealing the existence of non-sea salts, as well as in Al, Fe and Mg, while the similarity in the chemical composition between soil and airborne samples indicates that the dust events over Sistan are local in origin. In contrast, low concentrations of secondary ions (i.e., nitrate) and heavy metals (i.e., Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu) indicate less anthropogenic and industrial emissions. Enrichment Factor analysis for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 reveals that the anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount in the heavy metals rather than soil crust, while Al, Fe, Sn, Mg are mostly of crustal origin. The results provide essential knowledge in atmospheric chemistry over Sistan and in establishing mitigation strategies for air pollution control.

  3. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  4. Efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf, Lippia multiflora Moldenke and hot water in the control of seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina and their effects on Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seed germination and plants development in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Schémaeza BONZI1; Irénée SOMDA; Paco SEREME; Toudou ADAM

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Lippia multiflora) and varying durations of hot water at 50°C on seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina on five varieties of sorghum were evaluated using morphological traits. The varieties were ICSV 1001, Sariaso 03, ICSV 1049, Kapelga and the local variety, 1341So07. The results indicate that hot water treatment and essential oil of C. citratus significantly reduced the infection level of P. sorghina compared to untreated seeds, seeds trea...

  5. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  6. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Molar ratios of therapeutic water-soluble phenothiazine⋅water-insoluble phospholipid adducts reveal a Fibonacci correlation and a putative link for structure–activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyzer, Hendrik; Fey, S. J.; Thornton, Barry

    2015-01-01

    1,2diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospholipids (PL) with even-numbered symmetric saturated diacyl chains with the headgroups choline (PC), glycerol (PG), serine (PS), ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA). We observed water soluble products with replicable molar ratios (MR) that could be divided into two...

  8. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  9. Massive Lumbar Disk Herniation Following "Therapeutic" Water Boiling of the Lower Extremities: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Aldo; Çelniku, Megi

    2017-01-01

    Legs burning for treating lumbar radicular pain are still in use nowadays in low socioeconomical environments. They are dangerous as the case we report shows clearly. A 49-year-old man came to our attention with severe flaccid paraparesis occurred 10 days before, almost immediately after he had immersed his legs in boiling water to treat his severe left lumbocrural pain. This was known to be due to a right L3/4 herniated disk diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. At the examination he showed severe motor paresis and absent reflexes of his lower limbs, while crural pain was mild and sensation and urinary function were unaffected. The results of his neurologic examination led us to suspect an acute motor axon degeneration related to thermal shock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, performed before the planned electromyogram as an exception to the established routine, showed instead a giant 5- × 5.5-cm, herniated disk compressing the dural sac at L3. Prompt surgical decompression led to rapid improvement. We discuss here the pathophysiology of this unusual case and point out how medieval practices for treating sciatica-like pain are not only unjustified from a medical viewpoint but also potentially dangerous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  11. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  12. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  13. Use of Population Parameters in Examining Changes in the Status of the Short-Necked Clam Paphia undulata Born, 1778 (Mollusca, Pelecypoda: Veneridae in Coastal Waters of Southern Negros Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle del Norte Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, recruitment, mortality and exploitation rate of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata (Born, 1778 were studied in southern Negros Occidental waters between August 2007 and July 2008 from length-frequency data derived from catches of divers, to be able to compare with earlier data derived and analyzed 13 years ago by Agasen et al. (1998. Both sets of data were analyzed using the FiSAT software (Gayanilo & Pauly, 1997. The asymptotic shell length (S¥ = 79 mm derived from the present data proved to be smaller compared to the earlier data (SL¥ = 81.5 mm due to the lack of bigger sizes in the present samples. The growth constant (K = 1.0 yr-1 was however comparable indicating it to be a more species-characteristic parameter. Two recruitment pulses for each study were derived and were found to be correlated with the spawning pattern in the species. The value of natural mortality (M = 1.57 yr-1 derived from bivalve literature, is deemed more appropriate compared to the earlier estimate (M = 2.89 yr-1 based on Pauly’s (1980 empirical equation developed for fish. Total mortality (Z values for both studies were comparable, but a higher level of fishing mortality (F = 4.61 yr-1 was estimated for the present data set, thus resulting likewise in a higher exploitation rate (E = 0.75. These, together with fishery information from an accompanying paper (Villarta & del Norte-Campos, 2010, not only validate the earlier findings of overexploitation due to lack of management, but reveal a worsening condition of the stock, most likely as a result of growth overfishing. Overexploitation can only be mitigated by imposing stringent restrictions in terms of the minimum size for exploitation (45 mm shell length and closed seasons during the spawning peak (August-November.

  14. Born-Infeld Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.

    1999-01-01

    This is only a summary of a lecture delivered at the Infeld Centennial Meeting. In the lecture the history of the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics was presented and some general features of the theory were discussed. (author)

  15. Strategies Used by Foreign-Born Family Therapists to Connect Across Cultural Differences: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P

    2016-01-01

    With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  17. Management of soil-borne diseases of organic vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Hafiza Asma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides, people are looking for organically grown vegetables. Consumers are increasingly choosing organic foods due to the perception that they are healthier than those conventionally grown. Vegetable crops are vulnerable to a range of pathogenic organisms that reduce yield by killing the plant or damaging the product, thus making it unmarketable. Soil-borne diseases are among the major factors contributing to low yields of organic produce. Apart from chemical pesticides there are several methods that can be used to protect crops from soil-borne pathogens. These include the introduction of biocontrol agents against soil-borne plant pathogens, plants with therapeutic effects and organic soil amendments that stimulate antagonistic activities of microorganisms to soil-borne diseases. The decomposition of organic matter in soil also results in the accumulation of specific compounds that may be antifungal or nematicidal. With the growing interest in organic vegetables, it is necessary to find non chemical means of plant disease control. This review describes the impact of soil-borne diseases on organic vegetables and methods used for their control.

  18. Bacterial food-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorns, C J

    2000-04-01

    In many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. Poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused by these bacteria, although all domestic livestock are reservoirs of infection. In contrast to the enzootic nature of most Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, Salmonella Enteritidis caused a pandemic in both poultry and humans during the latter half of the 20th Century. Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter appear to be more ubiquitous in the environment, colonising a greater variety of hosts and environmental niches. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) also emerged as a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in the 1980s and 1990s. Although infection is relatively rare in humans, clinical disease is often severe, with a significant mortality rate among the young and elderly. The epidemiology of VTEC O157 is poorly understood, although ruminants, especially cattle and sheep, appear to be the major source of infection. The dissemination of S. Enteritidis along the food chain is fairly well understood, and control programmes have been developed to target key areas of poultry meat and egg production. Recent evidence indicates that these control programmes have been associated with an overall reduction of S. Enteritidis along the food chain. Unfortunately, existing controls do not appear to reduce the levels of Campylobacter and VTEC O157 infections. Future control strategies need to consider variations in the epidemiologies of food-borne zoonotic infections, and apply a quantitative risk analysis approach to ensure that the most cost-effective programmes are developed.

  19. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  20. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Fredericks, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The phrase "born-digital" refers to those materials which originate in a digital form. In Earth and Space Sciences, this is now very much the norm for data: analogue to digital converters sit on instrument boards and produce a digital record of the observed environment. While much effort has been put in to creating and curating these digital data, there has been little work on using semantic mark up of data from the point of collection - what we term 'born semantic'. In this presentation we report on two efforts to expand this area: Qartod-to-OGC (Q2O) and SenseOCEAN. These projects have taken a common approach to 'born semantic': create or reuse appropriate controlled vocabularies, published to World Wide Web Commission (W3C) standards use standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe instrument setup, deployment and/or outputs using terms from those controlled vocabularies embed URLs from the controlled vocabularies within the SWE documents in a "Linked Data" conformant approach Q2O developed best practices examples of SensorML descriptions of Original Equipment Manufacturers' metadata (model characteristics, capabilities, manufacturer contact, etc ...) set-up and deployment SensorML files; and data centre process-lineage using registered vocabularies to describe terms (including input, output, processes, parameters, quality control flags) One Q2O use case, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory ADCP Waves instance, uses SensorML and registered vocabularies to fully describe the process of computing wave parameters from sensed properties, including quality control tests and associated results. The European Commission Framework Programme 7 project SenseOCEAN draws together world leading marine sensor developers to create a highly integrated multifunction and cost-effective in situ marine biogeochemical sensor system. This project will provide a quantum leap in the ability to measure crucial biogeochemical

  3. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Overview of Animal Models for Arthropod-Borne Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin S; Hart, Charles E; Hermance, Meghan E; Brining, Douglas L; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2017-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have continued to emerge in recent years, posing a significant health threat to millions of people worldwide. The majority of arboviruses that are pathogenic to humans are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, but other types of arthropod vectors can also be involved in the transmission of these viruses. To alleviate the health burdens associated with arbovirus infections, it is necessary to focus today's research on disease control and therapeutic strategies. Animal models for arboviruses are valuable experimental tools that can shed light on the pathophysiology of infection and will enable the evaluation of future treatments and vaccine candidates. Ideally an animal model will closely mimic the disease manifestations observed in humans. In this review, we outline the currently available animal models for several viruses vectored by mosquitoes, ticks, and midges, for which there are no standardly available vaccines or therapeutics.

  5. DNA microarray technique for detecting food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing GAO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of DNA microarray technique for screening and identifying multiple food-borne pathogens. Methods The oligonucleotide probes were designed by Clustal X and Oligo 6.0 at the conserved regions of specific genes of multiple food-borne pathogens, and then were validated by bioinformatic analyses. The 5' end of each probe was modified by amino-group and 10 Poly-T, and the optimized probes were synthesized and spotted on aldehyde-coated slides. The bacteria DNA template incubated with Klenow enzyme was amplified by arbitrarily primed PCR, and PCR products incorporated into Aminoallyl-dUTP were coupled with fluorescent dye. After hybridization of the purified PCR products with DNA microarray, the hybridization image and fluorescence intensity analysis was acquired by ScanArray and GenePix Pro 5.1 software. A series of detection conditions such as arbitrarily primed PCR and microarray hybridization were optimized. The specificity of this approach was evaluated by 16 different bacteria DNA, and the sensitivity and reproducibility were verified by 4 food-borne pathogens DNA. The samples of multiple bacteria DNA and simulated water samples of Shigella dysenteriae were detected. Results Nine different food-borne bacteria were successfully discriminated under the same condition. The sensitivity of genomic DNA was 102 -103pg/ μl, and the coefficient of variation (CV of the reproducibility of assay was less than 15%. The corresponding specific hybridization maps of the multiple bacteria DNA samples were obtained, and the detection limit of simulated water sample of Shigella dysenteriae was 3.54×105cfu/ml. Conclusions The DNA microarray detection system based on arbitrarily primed PCR can be employed for effective detection of multiple food-borne pathogens, and this assay may offer a new method for high-throughput platform for detecting bacteria.

  6. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation and devel...... of knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  7. Bile salts-containing vesicles: promising pharmaceutical carriers for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and peptide/protein-based therapeutics or vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Most of the new drugs, biological therapeutics (proteins/peptides) and vaccines have poor performance after oral administration due to poor solubility or degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Though, vesicular carriers exemplified by liposomes or niosomes can protect the entrapped agent to a certain extent from degradation. Nevertheless, the harsh GIT environment exemplified by low pH, presence of bile salts and enzymes limits their capabilities by destabilizing them. In response to that, more resistant bile salts-containing vesicles (BS-vesicles) were developed by inclusion of bile salts into lipid bilayers constructs. The effectiveness of orally administrated BS-vesicles in improving the performance of vesicles has been demonstrated in researches. Yet, these attempts did not gain considerable attention. This is the first review that provides a comprehensive overview of utilizing BS-vesicles as a promising pharmaceutical carrier with a special focus on their successful applications in oral delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and vaccines. Insights on the possible mechanisms by which BS-vesicles improve the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated drug or immunological response of entrapped vaccine are explained. In addition, methods adopted to prepare and characterize BS-vesicles are described. Finally, the gap in the scientific researches tackling BS-vesicles that needs to be addressed is highlighted.

  8. Uncertainties in determination of tritium ages demonstrated for therapeutical waters of the Sudetes; Niepewnosci w okreslaniu wieku wod metoda trytowa na przykladzie wod leczniczych Sudetow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezkowski, W. [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland); Zuber, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Examples of tritium age interpretation with the FLOWPC program are discussed for mineral waters in Sudetes south-western Poland. It is shown that tritium data sometimes lead to obtaining completely different ages. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs.

  9. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  10. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...

  11. Sewage-Borne Ammonium at a River Bank Filtration Site in Central Delhi, India: Simplified Flow and Reactive Transport Modeling to Support Decision-Making about Water Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Groeschke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian metropolis of Delhi, the Yamuna River is highly influenced by sewage water, which has led to elevated ammonium (NH4+ concentrations up to 20 mg/L in the river water during 2012–2013. Large drinking water production wells located in the alluvial aquifer draw high shares of bank filtrate. Due to the infiltrating river water, the raw water NH4+ concentrations in some wells exceed the threshold value of 0.5 mg/L ammonia-N of the Indian drinking water specifications, making the water unfit for human consumption without prior treatment. However, to meet the city’s growing water demand, it might be advantageous to consider the long-term use of the well field. This requires the development of an adapted post-treatment unit in concert with an adjusted well field management. To better understand the groundwater dynamics and contamination and decontamination times at the well field, a theoretical modeling study has been conducted. The results of 2D numerical modeling reveal that the groundwater flux beneath the river is negligible because of the aquifer and river geometry, indicating that infiltrating river water is not diluted by the ambient groundwater. Increasing the water abstraction in the wells closest to the river would result in a larger share of bank filtrate and a decreasing groundwater table decline. Simplified 1D reactive transport models set up for a distance of 500 m (transect from the riverbank to the first production well showed that the NH4+ contamination will prevail for the coming decades. Different lithological units of the aquifer (sand and kankar—a sediment containing calcareous nodules have a strong influence on the respective contamination and decontamination periods, as the retardation of NH4+ is higher in the kankar than in the sand layer. Although this simplified approach does not allow for a quantification of processes, it can support decision-making about a possible future use of the well field and point to

  12. Water-structuring technology with the molecular chaperone proteins: indicated application of the α-crystallin domains and imidazole-containing peptidomimetics in cosmetic skin care systems or dermatological therapeutic drug carrier formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Nikolayev, Gennady M; Nikolayeva, Juliana G; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-01-01

    Changes in structural proteins and hydration during aging are responsible for altered skin morphologic and mechanical properties manifested as wrinkling, sagging, loss of elasticity, and apparent dryness. Impairment in protein hydration may add to the ultrastructural, mechanical, and biochemical changes in structural proteins in the aged skin. At Innovative Vision Products, Inc., we have pioneered a molecular chaperone protein-activated therapeutic or cosmetic platform to enable simultaneous analysis of water-binding and structuring characteristics for biology-related or skin aging and skin disease-related pathways. This cutting-edge technology has changed the hydration of proteins in photoaged skin which so that they are more compact and interact with water to limited degree. The mechanisms of skin diseases, aging, and cellular and signaling pathways mediated by targeting with molecular chaperone protein(s) are considered. Skin lesions that are growing, spreading, or pigmented, and those that occur on exposed areas of skin are likely to be treated by these emerging pharmacological chaperones that could have cosmetic or dermatological benefits. Examples of such chaperones are anti-/trans-glycation-imidazole-containing peptidomimetic(s) (natural L-carnosine derivatives and mimetics) combined with the molecular chaperone protein α-crystallin derived from a natural source, brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts, or with recombinant human αA-crystallin. This patented biotechnology represents an efficient tool with which to mitigate the consequences of free radical-induced skin damage. The article is organized to provide in one place all of the relevant technical information, such as high-performance nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance application tools, and to describe the entire process from sample preparation to data analysis, which is moving from biological studies to biotechnology batches of the product. The proposed biotechnology results in

  13. Oxidative Stress: A Unifying Mechanism for Cell Damage Induced by Noise, (Water-Pipe) Smoking, and Emotional Stress-Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Redox Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Li, Huige; Laher, Ismail

    2018-03-20

    Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards that affect our well-being and healthcare budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent Advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation after noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking. Lipid peroxidation and release of lysolipid by-products, disturbance in activation and function of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), induction of stress hormones and their secondary effects on intracellular kinases, and dysregulation of intracellular Ca 2+ can all potentially trigger other vicious cycles. Recent clinical data suggest that boosting the antioxidant system through nonpharmacological measures, for example, lifestyle changes that include exercise have benefits that cannot easily be achieved with pharmacological interventions alone. Indiscriminate manipulation of the cellular redox network could lead to a new series of ailments. An ideal approach requires meticulous scrutiny of redox balance mechanisms for individual pathologies so as to create new treatment strategies that target key pathways while minimizing side effects. Extrapolating our understanding of redox balance to other debilitating conditions such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome could potentially lead to devising a unifying therapeutic strategy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 741-759.

  14. Validation of Born Traveltime Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, A. M.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.

    2001-12-01

    Most inversions for Earth structure using seismic traveltimes rely on linear ray theory to translate observed traveltime anomalies into seismic velocity anomalies distributed throughout the mantle. However, ray theory is not an appropriate tool to use when velocity anomalies have scale lengths less than the width of the Fresnel zone. In the presence of these structures, we need to turn to a scattering theory in order to adequately describe all of the features observed in the waveform. By coupling the Born approximation to ray theory, the first order dependence of heterogeneity on the cross-correlated traveltimes (described by the Fréchet derivative or, more colourfully, the banana-doughnut kernel) may be determined. To determine for what range of parameters these banana-doughnut kernels outperform linear ray theory, we generate several random media specified by their statistical properties, namely the RMS slowness perturbation and the scale length of the heterogeneity. Acoustic waves are numerically generated from a point source using a 3-D pseudo-spectral wave propagation code. These waves are then recorded at a variety of propagation distances from the source introducing a third parameter to the problem: the number of wavelengths traversed by the wave. When all of the heterogeneity has scale lengths larger than the width of the Fresnel zone, ray theory does as good a job at predicting the cross-correlated traveltime as the banana-doughnut kernels do. Below this limit, wavefront healing becomes a significant effect and ray theory ceases to be effective even though the kernels remain relatively accurate provided the heterogeneity is weak. The study of wave propagation in random media is of a more general interest and we will also show our measurements of the velocity shift and the variance of traveltime compare to various theoretical predictions in a given regime.

  15. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  17. Structure-borne noise at hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George Paul; Jue, Deborah A.

    2002-11-01

    Hotels present a challenging environment for building designers to provide suitable noise and vibration isolation between very incompatible uses. While many are familiar with ways to reduce traditional sources of airborne noise and vibration, structure-borne noise and vibration are often overlooked, often with costly repercussions. Structure-borne noise can be very difficult to pinpoint, and troubleshooting the sources of the vibration can be a tedious process. Therefore, the best approach is to avoid the problem altogether during design, with attention to the building construction, potential vibration sources, building uses and equipment locations. In this paper, the relationship between structure-borne vibration and noise are reviewed, typical vibration sources discussed (e.g., aerobic rooms, laundry rooms, mechanical equipment/building services, and subway rail transit), and key details and design guidance to minimize structure-borne noise provided.

  18. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-12-01

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes.

  19. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  20. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.

  1. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  2. Neuronal apoptosis in the neonates born to preeclamptic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Ozer, Erdener; Topel, Hande; Kahramaner, Zelal; Turkoglu, Ebru; Erdemir, Aydin; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Bagriyanik, Alper; Ozer, Esra Arun

    2013-07-01

    Preeclampsia may result in uteroplacental insufficiency and chronic intrauterine fetal distress. The aim of this study is to address this issue investigating neuronal apoptosis in an experimental model of preeclampsia and to evaluate the neurological outcome of the perinatal asphyxia in the neonates born to preeclamptic mother. Two out of four pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (preeclamptic group) were given water containing 1.8% NaCl on gestation day 15 and 22 in order to establish the model of preeclampsia whereas other two (non-preeclamptic group) received normal diet. A model of perinatal asphyxia was established on the postnatal 7th day to one preeclamptic and one non-preeclamptic dam. Overall 23 pups born to overall four dams were decapitated to assess neuronal apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The number of apoptotic neuronal cells was significantly higher in the preeclampsia groups in comparison with the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively). It was also significantly higher in the asphyctic/non-preeclamptic group than the count in the control group (p = 0.01). There was also significant difference between both asphyctic groups (p = 0.003). We conclude that preeclampsia causes small babies for the gestational age and cerebral hypoplasia. Both preeclampsia and perinatal asphyxia can cause increased neuronal apoptosis in the neonatal brains. However, the prognosis for neurological outcome is much worse when the perinatal asphyxia occurs in newborns born to preeclamptic mothers.

  3. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  4. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  5. Spectroscopic studies on colloid-borne uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, K.U.; Weiss, S.; Foerstendorf, H.; Brendler, V.; Zaenker, H.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Information on molecular speciation provides a basis for the reliable assessment of actinide migration in the environment. We use several methods for the separation of colloids from liquids (e.g. ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration) in combination with spectroscopic techniques (EXAFS, ATR-FTIR, Moessbauer) and modeling of surface complexation reactions. This enables us to investigate the speciation of colloid-borne uranium in waters occurring in or escaping from abandoned uranium mines during the remediation process. Mine flooding was simulated on a 100 L scale by mixing acid mine water of elevated U concentration with oxic, near-neutral groundwater until pH ∼ 5.5 was reached. The freshly formed colloids adsorbed 95% of the total uranium and consisted mainly of 2-line ferri-hydrite (Fh) besides traces of aluminum, sulfur, silica, and carbon compounds. EXAFS analysis at the U-LIII absorption edge suggested a bidentate surface complex of UO 2 2+ on FeO 6 octahedra, but two minor backscattering contributions in close vicinity to the absorber remained unexplained. Since only Al could be excluded as backscattering atom, we studied U sorption on Fh at pH 5.5 in presence and in absence of sulfate, silicate, and atmospheric CO 2 to clarify the bond structure. EXAFS showed the unknown backscattering contributions in all the sorption samples regardless of the presence or absence of the tested components. Contrary to structural models proposed in the literature, bi-dentately complexed carbonate ligands do not explain our experimental EXAFS data. But ATR-IR spectra showed that U-carbonato complexes must be involved in the sorption of uranyl on Fh. These results are not contradictory if the carbonate ligands were bound mono-dentately. Nevertheless, carbon cannot act as backscattering atom in carbonate-free samples prepared in N 2 atmosphere. We propose a new structural model including exclusively Fe, H, and O atoms in which the bi

  6. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  7. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  8. Runoff delay exerts a strong control on the field-scale removal of manure-borne fecal bacteria with runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial safety of surface waters is an ongoing issue which is threatened by the transport of manure-borne bacteria to water sources used for irrigation or recreation. Predictive modeling has become an effective tool to forecast the microbial quality of water duringprecipitation events, however...

  9. Tornado-borne missile speeds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiu, E.; Cordes, M.

    1976-04-01

    An investigation of the question of tornado-borne missile speeds was carried out, with a view to identify pertinent areas of uncertainty and to estimate credible tornado-borne missile speeds - within the limitations inherent in the present state of the art. The investigation consists of two parts: (1) a study in which a rational model for the missile motion is proposed, and numerical experiments are carried out corresponding to various assumptions on the initial conditions of the missile motion, the structure of the tornado flow, and the aerodynamic properties of the missile; (2) a theoretical and experimental study of tornado-borne missile aerodynamics, conducted by Colorado State Univ. (CSU) to be covered in a separate report by CSU. In the present report, the factors affecting missile motion and their influence upon such motion are examined

  10. Dual symmetry in Born-Infeld theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, S; Ayoubi, A

    2008-01-01

    Born-Infeld theory is a non-linear formalism which has many applications in string and electromagnetic theories. Although, the existence of magnetic monopoles and dyons are suggested by Born-Infeld theory, but this theory is not invariant under the dual transformations. In this theory electric fields for point charged particles are not singular at origin (r = 0), but magnetic fields and vector potentials are still singular. In this paper we show that the vanishing of dual symmetry is responsible for these singularities. Furthermore, we present the dual symmetric Born-Infeld theory, by a symmetric definition of electromagnetic fields in terms of new scalar and vector potentials, as well as the ordinary ones. All singularities of vector potential and magnetic field are removed as an immediate consequence of this symmetry.

  11. On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy

  12. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  13. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  14. Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule from envariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: I shall discuss consequences of envariance (environment - assisted invariance) symmetry exhibited by entangled quantum states. I shall focus on the implications of envariance for the understanding of the origins and nature of ignorance, and, hence, for the origin of probabilities in physics. While the derivation of the Born's rule for probabilities (pk IykI2) is the principal accomplishment of this research, I shall explore the possibility that several other symptoms of the quantum - classical transition that are a consequence of decoherence can be justified directly by envariance -- i.e., without invoking Born's rule. (author)

  15. Born's reciprocity principle in stochastic phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugovecki, E.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of Born's reciprocity principle to relativistic quantum mechanics in stochastic phase space (by the requirement that the proper wave functions of extended particles satisfy the Born-Lande as well as the Klein-Gordon equation) leads to the unique determination of these functions for any given value of their rms radius. The resulting particle propagators display not only Lorentz but also reciprocal invariance. This feature remains true even in the case of mass-zero particles, such as photons, when their localization is achieved by means of extended test particles whose proper wave functions obey the reciprocity principle. (author)

  16. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  17. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  18. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  19. Scientific Discoveries the Year I Was Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour

    2012-01-01

    The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…

  20. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  1. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.

  2. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural

  4. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  5. Disposal of sewage and other water-borne wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhoff, Karl; Müller, Wilhelm Johann; Thistlethwayte, D. K. B

    1971-01-01

    ... with their advantages and disadvantages. The third section,essentially of a practical nature, describes various treatment processes, whilst the final part deals with particular problems of a small community where economic considerations...

  6. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  7. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  8. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  9. Scalar geons in Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, V.I. [Unidade Acadêmica de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia—CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: viafonso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@uv.es, E-mail: drgarcia@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Campo Grande, P-1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-08-01

    The existence of static, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating scalar field solutions in the context of Born-Infeld gravity is explored. Upon a combination of analytical approximations and numerical methods, the equations for a free scalar field (without a potential term) are solved, verifying that the solutions recover the predictions of General Relativity far from the center but finding important new effects in the central regions. We find two classes of objects depending on the ratio between the Schwarzschild radius and a length scale associated to the Born-Infeld theory: massive solutions have a wormhole structure, with their throat at r ≈ 2 M , while for the lighter configurations the topology is Euclidean. The total energy density of these solutions exhibits a solitonic profile with a maximum peaked away from the center, and located at the throat whenever a wormhole exists. The geodesic structure and curvature invariants are analyzed for the various configurations considered.

  10. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  11. VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

  12. On generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, S I

    2010-01-01

    The generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. In this model the propagation of a linearly polarized laser beam in the external transverse magnetic field is considered. It was shown that there is the effect of vacuum birefringence, and we evaluate induced ellipticity. The upper bounds on the combination of parameters introduced from the experimental data of BRST and PVLAS Collaborations were obtained. When two parameters are equal to each other, we arrive at Born-Infeld electrodynamics and the effect of vacuum birefringence vanishes. We find the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors. The trace of the energy-momentum tensor is not zero and the dilatation symmetry is broken. The four-divergence of the dilatation current is equal to the trace of the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and is proportional to the parameter (with the dimension of the field strength) of the model. The dual symmetry is also broken in the model considered.

  13. Generalized Born Models of Macromolecular Solvation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, Donald; Case, David A.

    2000-10-01

    It would often be useful in computer simulations to use a simple description of solvation effects, instead of explicitly representing the individual solvent molecules. Continuum dielectric models often work well in describing the thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solvation, and approximations to such models that avoid the need to solve the Poisson equation are attractive because of their computational efficiency. Here we give an overview of one such approximation, the generalized Born model, which is simple and fast enough to be used for molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and nucleic acids. We discuss its strengths and weaknesses, both for its fidelity to the underlying continuum model and for its ability to replace explicit consideration of solvent molecules in macromolecular simulations. We focus particularly on versions of the generalized Born model that have a pair-wise analytical form, and therefore fit most naturally into conventional molecular mechanics calculations.

  14. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-03-21

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.

  15. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS 3 x S 3 background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation

  16. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  17. Born-Infeld gravity in Weitzenboeck spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Using the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity formulated in Weitzenboeck spacetime, we thoroughly explore a kind of Born-Infeld regular gravity leading to second order field equations for the vielbein components. We explicitly solve the equations of motion for two examples: the extended Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which exists even if the cosmological constant is positive, and a cosmological model with matter, where the scale factor is well behaved, thus giving a singularity-free solution.

  18. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, Suppl. 1 (2008), S29-S43 ISSN 0932-0113. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin, 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : moboviruses * epidemiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  19. Leak detection using structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen D. (Inventor); Chimenti, Dale E. (Inventor); Roberts, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for detection and location of air leaks in a pressure vessel, such as a spacecraft, includes sensing structure-borne ultrasound waveforms associated with turbulence caused by a leak from a plurality of sensors and cross correlating the waveforms to determine existence and location of the leak. Different configurations of sensors and corresponding methods can be used. An apparatus for performing the methods is also provided.

  20. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, A [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent.

  1. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, R; Molgado, A; Rojas, E

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent

  2. Therapeutic apheresis for severe hypertriglyceridemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Rafet; Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Canbaz, Bulent; Dogansen, Sema Ciftci; Kalayoglu-Besisik, Sevgi; Altay-Dadin, Senem; Aral, Ferihan; Ozbey, Nese Colak

    2013-05-01

    During pregnancy, a progressive increase in serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels is observed whereas TG levels mostly remain hypertriglyceridemia, pregnancy may cause extremely elevated TG levels leading to potentially life-threatening pancreatitis attacks and chylomicronemia syndrome. The only safe medical treatment option during pregnancy is ω-3 fatty acids, which have moderate TG lowering effects. Therapeutic apheresis could be used as primary treatment approach during pregnancy. We reported the effect of double filtration apheresis in one pregnant women with severe hypertriglyceridemia, therapeutic plasmapheresis and double filtration methods in the other severe hypertriglyceridemic pregnant woman; a 32-year-old pregnant woman (patient 1) with a history of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis during pregnancy and a 30-year-old pregnant woman with extremely high TG levels (12,000 mg/dl) leading to chylomicronemia syndrome (patient 2). Medical nutrition therapy and ω-3 fatty acids were also provided. Double filtration apheresis (patient 1) and plasmapheresis + double filtration apheresis (patient 2) were used. When we calculated the TG levels before and after therapeutic apheresis, maximum decrease achieved with double filtration apheresis was 46.3 % for patient 1 and 37.3 % for patient 2. However, with plasmapheresis TG level declined by 72 % in patient 2. Plasmapheresis seemed to be more efficient to decrease TG levels. Iron deficiency anemia was the main complication apart from technical difficulties by lipemic obstruction of tubing system. Healthy babies were born. Delivery led to decreases in TG levels. It is concluded that during pregnancy therapeutic apheresis is an effective method to decrease extremely high TG levels and risks of its potentially life-threatening complications.

  3. Marketing therapeutic recreation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, B E

    1984-01-01

    The use of marketing strategies can enhance the delivery of therapeutic recreation services. This article discusses how agencies can adapt marketing techniques and use them to identify potential markets, improve image, evaluate external pressures, and maximize internal strengths. Four variables that can be controlled and manipulated in a proposed marketing plan are product, price, place and promotion.

  4. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  5. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.J.; Datz, F.L.; Beightol, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whether a radiopharmaceutical has diagnostic or therapeutic application depends on both the isotope and pharmaceutical used. For diagnostic applications, the isotope should undergo only γ-decay, since usually only γ-radiation is detected by nuclear medicine cameras. The half-life should be just long enough to allow the procedure to be performed. In contrast, the isotope needed for therapeutic purposes should have particulate radiation, such as a β-particle (electron), since these are locally absorbed an increase the local radiation dose. γ-Radiation, which penetrates the tissues, produces less radiation dose than do Β-particles. Several references dealing with radioactive decay, particulate interactions, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals are available. Radiopharmaceuticals can legally be used only by physicians who are qualified by specific training in the safe handling of radionuclides. The experience and training of these physicians must be approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State Agency authorized to license the use of radiopharmaceuticals. A list of all byproduct material and procedures is available in the Code of Federal Regulations. Of the many radiopharmaceuticals available for diagnostic and therapeutic use, only those commonly used are discussed in this chapter

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  7. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  8. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...

  9. Dysconnectivity of neurocognitive networks at rest in very-preterm born adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. White

    2014-01-01

    directed coherence. Together these findings show that resting-state functional connectivity of preterm-born individuals remains compromised in adulthood; and present consistent evidence that the striatal salience network is preferentially affected. Therapeutic practices directed at strengthening within-network cohesion and fine-tuning between-network inter-relations may have the potential to mitigate the cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric repercussions of preterm birth.

  10. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis

  11. MijnBorne2030: evaluatie van een democratisch experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.; Klok, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    This article is about one of the experiments in local democratic renewal: MyBorne2030 (in Dutch ‘MijnBorne2030’). The aim of the project was to develop a communal vision for Borne (a relatively small suburban municipality of 20.000 inhabitants in the East of the Netherlands) for the year 2030. A

  12. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  13. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Baneth, G

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions.

  14. Prostate Cancer Prognostic Factors Among Asian Patients Born in the US Compared to Those Born Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Goodman, Michael; Jemal, Ahemdin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2015-06-01

    US surveillance data indicate that incidence of prostate cancer differs by place of birth among Asian men. However, it is less clear if the prognostic factors for prostate cancer also differ by place of birth. The study included 7,824 Asian prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 and reported to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of place of birth (foreign born vs. US born) to three outcomes: prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and T classification, adjusting for age, marital status, Rural-Urban Continuum Code, and SEER registry. All outcome variables were binary using different cutoffs: ≥ 4, ≥ 10 and ≥ 20 ng/ml for PSA; ≥ 7 and ≥ 8 for Gleason score; and ≥ T2 and ≥ T3 for T classification. Elevated PSA was more common among foreign born Asian men regardless of the cut point used. In the analysis comparing foreign born versus US born patients by ethnic group, the association with PSA was most pronounced at cut point of ≥ 20 ng/ml for Chinese men (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.75), and at cut point of ≥ 4 ng/ml for Japanese men (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.20-6.21). A statistically significant association with Gleason score was only found for Japanese men and only for the cutoff ≥ 7 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.12-2.61). There was no difference in clinical T classification between foreign-born and US-born Asian men. Inclusion of cases with missing place of birth or restriction of data to those who underwent radical prostatectomy did not substantially change the results. The data suggest that foreign-born Asian prostate cancer patients may have moderately elevated PSA levels at diagnosis compared with their US born counterparts. For the other prognostic markers, the associations were less consistent and did not form a discernible pattern.

  15. One-stage tooth-borne distraction versus two stage bone-borne distraction in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Robin; Abe-Nickler, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Kunzmann, Kevin; Zingler, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) on dental and skeletal structures. A sample of 33 skeletally mature patients with transverse maxillary deficiencies was examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and 3 months after surgery. Fourteen patients were treated with tooth-borne devices and 19 patients with bone-borne devices. Dental crown expansion in the first premolars did not differ significantly between the two groups, and median expansion was 5.55 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.23) in the tooth-borne device group and 4.6 mm (IQR 3.4) in the bone-borne device group. In the first molars, crown expansion and lateral tipping were significantly greater in the tooth-borne device group (P ≤ .02). The median skeletal nasal isthmus increase was significantly more in the bone-borne device group at 3.0 mm than in the tooth-borne device group at 0.98 mm (P ≤ .02). Both tooth-borne and bone-borne devices are effective treatment modalities to correct maxillary transverse deficiencies. Bone-borne devices produced greater widening of the skeletal nasal floor and fewer dental side effects in the first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PYTHIOSIS: A THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. C. Falcão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis, a disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum, often presents inefficient response to chemotherapy. It is a consensus that, in spite the several therapeutic protocols, a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy should be used. Surgical excision requires the removal of the entire affected area, with a wide margin of safety. The use of antifungal drugs has resulted in variable results, both in vitro and in vivo, and presents low therapeutic efficiency due to differences in the agent characteristics, which differ from true fungi. Immunotherapy is a non-invasive alternative for the treatment of pythiosis, which aims at modifying the immune response of the host, thereby producing an effective response to the agent. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising technique, with good activity against P. insidiosum in vitro and in vivo. However, more studies are necessary to increase the efficiency of the current treatment protocols and consequently improve the cure rates. This paper aims to conduct a review covering the conventional and recent therapeutic methods against P. insidiosum infections

  17. OUTCOMES OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS IN THE TOMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Pinegina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the Tomsk Region. Patients conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. Revealed the prevalence of autonomic disorders in individuals who have had at different periods of tick-borne encephalitis, which is regarded as the effects of tick-borne infection. Residual effects of tick-borne encephalitis occurs mainly in the form of light paresis after suffering a focal forms. Among the chronic (progredient forms of tick-borne encephalitis often formed hyperkinetic options. Most of the study revealed the presence of precipitating factors that could have an influence on the outcome. Fundamental diffe rences in all-clinical and immunological analyses at patients with various outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis it wasn't noted. KEY WORDS: tick-borne encephalitis, Tomsk Region, the outcomes.

  18. Born too soon: preterm birth matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Christopher P; Kinney, Mary V; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the fi rst country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the fi rst in a supplement entitled “Born Too Soon”, this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) investments also linking to non-communicable diseases. For preterm babies who survive, the additional burden of prematurity-related disability may aff ect families and health systems. Prematurity is an explicit priority in many high-income settings; however, more attention is needed especially in low- and middle-income countries where the invisibility of preterm birth as well as its myths and misconceptions have slowed action on prevention and care. Recent global attention to preterm birth hit a tipping point in 2012, with the May 2 publication of Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth and with the 2nd annual World Prematurity Day on November 17 which mobilised the actions of partners in many countries to address preterm birth and newborn health. Interventions to strengthen preterm birth prevention and care span the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Both prevention of preterm birth and implementation of care of premature babies require more research, as well as more policy attention and programmatic investment.

  19. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  20. Notes on Born-Infeld-type electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) with three parameters. Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics and exponential electrodynamics are particular cases of this model. The phenomenon of vacuum birefringence in the external magnetic field is studied. We show that there is no singularity of the electric field at the origin of point-like charged particles. The corrections to Coulomb’s law at r →∞ are obtained. We calculate the total electrostatic energy of charges, for different parameters of the model, which is finite.

  1. Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to construct wormholes without introducing exotic matters in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with a cosmological constant. Contary to the conventional approach, the throat is located at the place where the solutions can be joined smoothly. The metric and its derivatives are continuous so that the exotic matters are not needed there. The exoticity of the energy-momentum tensor is not essential to sustain the wormhole. We also present a method to check the stability of wormholes in the new approach.

  2. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  3. [Tick borne encephalitis and enviromental changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Malzahn, Elzbieta; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Pancewicz, Sławomir S; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Czupryna, Piotr; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Currently observed markedly increased incidence of various tick borne diseases in many parts of Europe is due to documented climatic changes as well anthropogenic influence on habitat structure. One of the analyzed factors is tendency to increase of the spring temperatures, especially in the third decade of the April. Such conditions (spring temperatures above 7-10 degrees C) let the nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus to feed simultaneously on rodents. This increases the risk of infection of Ixodes ricinus with TBE virus, so dangerous for humans.

  4. MRI in tick-borne encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkadhi, H.; Kollias, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus gives rise to epidemic encephalitis. Mild forms usually manifest as influenza-like episodes or are clinically silent. MRI is usually normal in TBE. We describe severe TBE in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status after a tick bite and a specific antibody response to TBE. MRI revealed pronounced signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia and thalamus, without contrast enhancement. These findings coincide well with neuropathological studies of severe nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory cell infiltrates, neuronophagia and reactive astrocytosis in the deep grey matter. We review the literature and discuss the relevant differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. U.S.-born compared to non-U.S.-born abused women: analysis of baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Koci, Anne; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    It is evident from recent studies that a woman's citizenship status does not exempt her from exposure to partner violence. The purpose of this article was to examine if social support, self-efficacy, and marginalization of abused women differ based on U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. The findings suggest that women who were born in the United States had significantly higher self-efficacy scores compared to non-U.S.-born women without documents. There were no significant differences in social support among abused women who are U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. In addition, women who were not born in the United States and did not have documents had higher marginalization.

  6. Social Trust and Children Born of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two assumptions commonly used in analyzing the formation of social trust. They stress the importance of early socialization, on one hand, and of life events, on the other. We consider birth as a major life event for anyone and focus on the situation of Children Born of War. This group, even if lesser visible in some societies, has the peculiar characteristic to be born and socialized in very specific conditions. Typically, these people are the offspring of foreign soldiers, and local women. They may bear stigma, might be marginalized in family, school and society, and might develop a low level of generalized trust even if they may have lived all life in a culture rich in social trust. We explore at theoretical level their case, bring in a few statistics, and suggest a research direction that may be fruitful in learning about both such hidden populations and about social trust. In the end, we argue upon the importance of the topic for post-conflict societies.

  7. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; Pbite than boys (8% vs 6%; Pbite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.

  8. Stroke and Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozkan Kuscu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is significant cause of morbidity and mortality caused by disruption of blood flow. Neural injury occurs with two stage; while primary neural injury occurs with disruption of blood flow, after days and hours with metabolic processes secondary injury develops in tissues which is non injured in the first stage. Therefore it is important to prevent and treat the secondary injury as much as preventing and treating the primary neural injury. In this article developing pathophysiological changes after stroke, mechanisms of therapeutic hypothermia, application methods, the factors that determine the effectiveness, side effects and complications were reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 351-368

  9. Born Knowing: Tentacled Snakes Innately Predict Future Prey Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aquatic tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatus) can take advantage of their prey's escape response by startling fish with their body before striking. The feint usually startles fish toward the snake's approaching jaws. But when fish are oriented at a right angle to the jaws, the C-start escape response translates fish parallel to the snake's head. To exploit this latter response, snakes must predict the future location of the fish. Adult snakes can make this prediction. Is it learned, or are tentacled snakes born able to predict future fish behavior? Methods and Findings Laboratory-born, naïve snakes were investigated as they struck at fish. Trials were recorded at 250 or 500 frames per second. To prevent learning, snakes were placed in a water container with a clear transparency sheet or glass bottom. The chamber was placed over a channel in a separate aquarium with fish below. Thus snakes could see and strike at fish, without contact. The snake's body feint elicited C-starts in the fish below the transparency sheet, allowing strike accuracy to be quantified in relationship to the C-starts. When fish were oriented at a right angle to the jaws, naïve snakes biased their strikes to the future location of the escaping fish's head, such that the snake's jaws and the fish's translating head usually converged. Several different types of predictive strikes were observed. Conclusions The results show that some predators have adapted their nervous systems to directly compensate for the future behavior of prey in a sensory realm that usually requires learning. Instead of behavior selected during their lifetime, newborn tentacled snakes exhibit behavior that has been selected on a different scale—over many generations. Counter adaptations in fish are not expected, as tentacled snakes are rare predators exploiting fish responses that are usually adaptive. PMID:20585384

  10. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  11. Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2006-01-01

    1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care.

  12. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  13. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  14. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Richard P. (ed.) [ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany). THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging

    2014-07-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  15. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  16. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  17. Second-order Born approximation for the ionization of molecules by electron and positron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Cappello, C. [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Institut Jean Barriol (FR2843), 1 Boulevard Arago, F-57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Rezkallah, Z.; Houamer, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Charpentier, I. [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux UMR 7554, Ile du Saulcy, F-57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Hervieux, P. A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 Rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Ruiz-Lopez, M. F. [Nancy-University, Equipe de Chimie et Biochimie Theoriques, UMR CNRS-UHP 7565, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dey, R. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

    2011-09-15

    Second-order Born approximation is applied to study the ionization of molecules. The initial and final states are described by single-center wave functions. For the initial state a Gaussian wave function is used while for the ejected electron it is a distorted wave. Results of the present model are compared with recent (e,2e) experiments on the water molecule. Preliminary results are also presented for the ionization of the thymine molecule by electrons and positrons.

  18. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  19. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  20. Other impacts of soil-borne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Soils surround us daily, and humans and animals are exposed to soil in more ways than simply through ingestion of plants. Despite strict personal and food-industry hygiene, some soil will always be present in our diet. This often involves the very fine soil particles known to be especially effective in sorbing radionuclides. The soil we ingest may come through skin contact or through soil adhering to crop plants and other foods. Inhalation of soil particles by humans and other animals must also be considered. Throughout the consideration of the impacts of soil-borne radionuclides, there must be recognition of potential impacts on non-human biota, and of non-radiological impacts. The chemical toxicity of long-lived radionuclides may be just as important as their radiological impact for non-human biota. These issues and associated assessment modelling approaches are discussed, with examples and data drawn from our research programs. (J.P.N.)

  1. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  2. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  3. Therapeutic and diagnostic nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Devasena T

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights nanoparticles used in the diagnosis and treatment of prominent diseases and toxic conditions. Ecofriendly methods which are ideal for the synthesis of medicinally valued nanoparticles are explained and the characteristic features of these particles projected. The role of these particles in the therapeutic field, and the induced biological changes in some diseases are discussed. The main focus is on inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular membrane integrity alterations. The effect of nanoparticles on these changes produced by various agents are highlighted using in vitro and in vivo models. The mechanism of nanoparticles in ameliorating the biological changes is supported by relevant images and data. Finally, the brief demonstrates recent developments on the use of nanoparticles in diagnosis or sensing of some biological materials and biologically hazardous environmental materials.

  4. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  5. Refractive index in generalized superconductors with Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Pan, Qiyuan; Yu, Hongwei; Jing, Jiliang

    2018-03-01

    We investigate, in the probe limit, the negative refraction in the generalized superconductors with the Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We observe that the system has a negative Depine-Lakhtakia index in the superconducting phase at small frequencies and the greater the Born-Infeld corrections the larger the range of frequencies or the range of temperatures for which the negative refraction occurs. Furthermore, we find that the tunable Born-Infeld parameter can be used to improve the propagation of light in the holographic setup. Our analysis indicates that the Born-Infeld electrodynamics plays an important role in determining the optical properties of the boundary theory.

  6. Review of the trends and causes of food borne outbreaks in Malaysia from 1988 to 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftahuddin, T

    2002-03-01

    This paper examines the trend and possible contributing factors for the occurrence of the food borne diseases outbreaks in Malaysia. These diseases mainly are cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, dysentery and food poisoning. The outbreaks still occur sporadically in certain high risk areas throughout the country. The incidence rate of all the other three major food borne diseases steadily declined from the year 1988 to 1997 except for food poisoning and cholera. Statistic of food poisoning from the year 1996 to 1997 showed that 66.5% of the outbreak occurred in schools whereas only 0.4% originated from the contaminated food sold at various public food outlets. The school age group is always more affected than the general population. Amongst the contributing factors identified are related to unhygienic food handling practices followed by inadequate safe water supply and poor environmental sanitation. A multisectoral approach between Ministry of Health and other government agencies or private agents needs to be undertaken in the management of the food borne diseases in order to curb the incidences of food borne diseases in Malaysia.

  7. Soil borne gungi associated with different vegetable crop in sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, F.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    Different soil-borne fungi are responsible for reducing the yield of vegetables throughout the world including Pakistan. There are several soil borne fungal pathogens which aggressively infect vegetable crops. Surveys conducted during September 2010 to October 2011, demonstrated that a great diversity of soil borne plant pathogens associated with different vegetables prevail in vegetable growing areas of Sindh such as Tando Allahayar, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Khairpur, Kunri, Umerkot and Karachi, etc. Our study noted in total thirteen different genera of fungi isolated from vegetable crops (cabbage, brinjal, tomato, radish and spinach). Isolated fungi identified included Alternaria solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terrus, Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., Drechselra hawaiiensis, Eurotium berbanbrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Ulocladium sp., and unidentified black mycelium from the soil and roots of vegetable crops. In addition, it was found that soil is commonly infected by soil-borne fungi and eventually results in heavy losses of vegetable yield in the vegetable growing areas of Sindh province. The infection rapidly increased due to many factors such as, presence of moisture, excess of water and infection may be caused by winds, gales and dust storms as well as by mechanical vectors. (author)

  8. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  9. Differences in sleep habits, study time, and academic performance between US-born and foreign-born college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Arne H; Eliasson, Arn H; Lettieri, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    To inform the design of a sleep improvement program for college students, we assessed academic performance, sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time, hypothesizing that there would be differences between US-born and foreign-born students. Questionnaires queried participants on bedtimes, wake times, nap frequency, differences in weekday and weekend sleep habits, study hours, grade point average, time spent at paid employment, and other extracurricular activities. Comparisons were made using chi square tests for categorical data and t tests for continuous data between US-born and foreign-born students. Of 120 participants (55 % women) with racial diversity (49 whites, 18 blacks, 26 Hispanics, 14 Asians, and 13 other), 49 (41 %) were foreign-born. Comparisons between US-born and foreign-born students showed no differences in average age or gender though US-born had more whites. There were no differences between US-born and foreign-born students for grade point averages, weekday bedtimes, wake times, or total sleep times. However, US-born students averaged 50 min less study time per day (p = 0.01), had almost 9 h less paid employment per week (14.5 vs 23.4 h per week, p = 0.001), and stayed up to socialize more frequently (63 vs 43 %, p = 0.03). Foreign-born students awakened an hour earlier and averaged 40 min less sleep per night on weekends. Cultural differences among college students have a profound effect on sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time. The design of a sleep improvement program targeting a population with diverse cultural backgrounds must factor in such behavioral variations in order to have relevance and impact.

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  11. Young adult outcomes of children born to teen mothers: effects of being born during their teen or later years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2011-03-01

    Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged ≤20 years at the time of birth (current teen), and being born to a teen mother later in her life (>21 years, prior teen). The 1983 Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) and 2001 follow-up are used, including 2,355 participants 4 to 16 years old in 1983 with 2001 data. Using multilevel modeling we assessed the association between being born to a current versus prior teen mother, relative to a nonteen mother, and 2001 outcomes, controlling for individual and family level characteristics assessed in childhood. Being born to a teen mother (versus a nonteen mother) is associated with poorer educational achievement, life satisfaction, and personal income. Accounting for time of sample children's birth in teen mothers' lives, individuals born to current and prior teen mothers showed a ~0.8-year educational deficit, relative to individuals born to nonteen mothers in fully adjusted models. Individuals born to current teen mothers reported lower life satisfaction and personal income (-$7,262). There were no significant group differences at follow-up in mental or physical health between individuals born to nonteen mothers and those born to current or prior teen mothers. Although being born to a teen mother exerts a pervasive adverse effect on educational attainment, the adverse effects on life satisfaction and personal income appear to be selective for individuals born to a current teen mother. Further research is required to understand these differential effects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  13. Drone-borne GPR design: Propagation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Madhu; Tanzi, Tullio Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we shall address the electromagnetic wave propagation issues that are critical to determining the feasibility of a drone-borne ground-penetrating radar sensor for humanitarian applications, particularly in the context of disaster management. Frequency- and polarization-dependent scattering, attenuation and dispersion of radar signals penetrating into the sub-surface region will determine the applicability of a drone-mounted radar sensor capable of registering radar echoes for observing and monitoring sub-surface features. The functionality of the radar will thus be assessed depending on key radar parameters that include the central radar frequency, the modulation depth, and the mode of radar operation (pulsed FM, FM-CW), the antenna type, the available power-budget. In the analysis to be presented, the radar equation, together with the aforementioned propagation effects, will be used to simulate the signal strength of radar echoes under different conditions arising from the chosen key-radar parameters and the assumed physical properties of the sub-surface earth medium. The analysis to be presented will indicate whether or not the drone-borne ground-penetrating radar is a feasible system and if it could be constructed with the technologies available today. Taking into account the strict constraints involved to design drone applications for Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR), the ideas developed hereafter are both prospective and exploratory. The objective is to see if a solution can be found in the near future. xml:lang="fr" Dans l'analyse présentée, l'équation radar, ainsi que les effets de propagation susmentionnés, serviront à simuler la puissance du signal des échos radar sous différentes conditions découlant des paramètres clés choisis et les propriétés physiques du milieu sous la surface. L'étude a pour objectif de démontrer si le système est réalisable et s'il peut être construit avec les technologies disponibles

  14. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  15. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  16. Tick-borne encephalitis: Pathogenesis and clinical implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Mantke, O. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 223-232 ISSN 1477-8939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Pathogenesis * Clinical data Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  18. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  19. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  20. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  1. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, B.E.; Barzon, L.; Pijlman, G.P.; Fuente, J. de la; Rizzoli, A.; Wammes, L.J.; Takken, W.; Rij, R.P. van; Papa, A.

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  2. Survey of spatial distribution of vector-borne disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs and disseminators of vector-borne diseases in urban areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to ascertain the health status and the vector-borne pathogens infecting dogs living in public areas with high levels of human movement in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil.

  3. Rethinking Therapeutic Misconception in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Some authors have noted that in biobank research participants may be guided by what is called therapeutic misconception, whereby participants attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures.This article argues that the notion of therapeutic misconception is increasingly less justified when...... underpinnings for the need to separate research and treatment, and thus the notion of therapeutic misconception in the fi rst place. We call this tension between research and treatment ambivalent research advancement to highlight the difficulties that various actors have in managing such shifts within...

  4. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  5. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  6. Brown adipose tissue in young adults who were born preterm or small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Anna; Rydén, Henric; Anderstam, Björn; Hellström, Ann; Skorpil, Mikael

    2018-06-27

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present and functions to dissipate energy as heat in young adults and can be assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate the voxel fat fraction, i.e. proton density fat fraction (PDFF). It is hypothesized that subjects born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) may exhibit disrupted BAT formation coupled to metabolic factors. Our purpose was to assess the presence of BAT in young adults born extremely preterm or SGA in comparison with controls. We studied 30 healthy subjects (median age, 21 years): 10 born extremely preterm, 10 full term but SGA and 10 full term with a normal birth weight (controls). We utilized an MRI technique combining multiple scans to enable smaller echo spacing and an advanced fat-water separation method applying graph cuts to estimate B0 inhomogeneity. We measured supraclavicular/cervical PDFF, R2*, fat volume, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone and the BAT-associated hormones fibroblast growth factor 21 and irisin. The groups did not significantly differ in supraclavicular/cervical PDFF, R2*, fat volume or hormone levels. The mean supraclavicular/cervical PDFF was equivalent between the groups (range 75-77%). Young adults born extremely preterm or SGA show BAT development similar to those born full term at a normal birth weight. Thus, the increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in these groups is not due to the absence of BAT, although our results do not exclude possible BAT involvement in this scenario. Larger studies are needed to understand these relationships.

  7. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...... and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  8. Newer Vaccines against Mosquito-borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Garg, Neha

    2018-02-01

    Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P. falciparum malaria. Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) against dengue was licensed first in Mexico in 2015. A Vero-cell derived, inactivated and alum-adjuvanted JE vaccine based on the SA14-14-2 strain was approved in 2009 in North America, Australia and various European countries. It can be used from 2 mo of age. In India, immunization is carried out in endemic regions at 1 y of age. Another inactivated Vero-cell culture derived Kolar strain, 821564XY, JE vaccine is being used in India. Candidate vaccines against dengue, chikungunya and West Nile fever are been discussed. A continued research and development of new vaccines are required for controlling these mosquito-borne diseases.

  9. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  10. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  11. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Born-Kothari Condensation for Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of Bose–Einstein condensation, we present a detailed account of the statistical description of the condensation phenomena for a Fermi–Dirac gas following the works of Born and Kothari. For bosons, while the condensed phase below a certain critical temperature, permits macroscopic occupation at the lowest energy single particle state, for fermions, due to Pauli exclusion principle, the condensed phase occurs only in the form of a single occupancy dense modes at the highest energy state. In spite of these rudimentary differences, our recent findings [Ghosh and Ray, 2017] identify the foregoing phenomenon as condensation-like coherence among fermions in an analogous way to Bose–Einstein condensate which is collectively described by a coherent matter wave. To reach the above conclusion, we employ the close relationship between the statistical methods of bosonic and fermionic fields pioneered by Cahill and Glauber. In addition to our previous results, we described in this mini-review that the highest momentum (energy for individual fermions, prerequisite for the condensation process, can be specified in terms of the natural length and energy scales of the problem. The existence of such condensed phases, which are of obvious significance in the context of elementary particles, have also been scrutinized.

  13. Ventilatory Efficiency in Children and Adolescents Born Extremely Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hestnes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP−born compared to term−born individuals.Methods: Two area−based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982−85 (n = 46 and 1991–92 (n = 35 were compared with individually matched controls born at term. Mean ages were 18 and 10 years, respectively. The participants performed an incremental treadmill exercise test to peak oxygen uptake with data averaged over 20 s intervals. For each participant, the relationship between exhaled minute ventilation (V˙E and carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2 was described by a linear model, and the relationship between tidal volume (VT and V˙E by a quadratic model. Multivariate regression analyses were done with curve parameters as dependent variables, and the categories EP vs. term−born, sex, age, height, weight and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 as independent variables.Results: In adjusted analyses, the slope of the V˙E−V˙CO2 relationship was significantly steeper in the EP than the term-born group, whereas no group difference was observed for the breathing pattern, which was related to FEV1 only.Conclusion: EP-born participants breathed with higher V˙E for any given CO2 output, indicating lower ventilatory efficiency, possibly contributing to lower aerobic capacity. The breathing patterns did not differ between the EP and term−born groups when adjusted for FEV1.

  14. DNA molecules and human therapeutics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... vectors, display non-toxicity and are simpler to develop. This review ... technology as well as a staged delivery mechanism for the introduction of plasmid-borne gene to target cells via the ... pathogen's gene to provide immunity against diseases by ... human cytomegalovirus, simian virus, human elongation.

  15. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  16. Purinergic Signalling: Therapeutic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Burnstock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990’s when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling. More recently, the focus has been on the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential. There was early recognition of the use of P1 receptor agonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia and A2A receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, is widely used for the treatment of thrombosis and stroke, blocking P2Y12 receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. Diquafosol, a long acting P2Y2 receptor agonist, is being used for the treatment of dry eye. P2X3 receptor antagonists have been developed that are orally bioavailable and stable in vivo and are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of chronic cough, bladder incontinence, visceral pain and hypertension. Antagonists to P2X7 receptors are being investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Other investigations are in progress for the use of purinergic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, irritable bowel syndrome, epilepsy, atherosclerosis, depression, autism, diabetes, and cancer.

  17. Dental therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeenat; Jain, Nilu; Jain, Gaurav K; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahuja, Alka; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of periodontal diseases as amenable to local antibiotherapy has resulted in a paradigmatic shift in treatment modalities of dental afflictions. Moreover the presence of antimicrobial resistance, surfacing of untoward reactions owing to systemic consumption of antibiotics has further advocated the use of local delivery of physiologically active substances into the periodontal pocket. While antimicrobials polymerized into acrylic strips, incorporated into biodegradable collagen and hollow permeable cellulose acetate fibers, multiparticulate systems, bio-absorbable dental materials, biodegradable gels/ointments, injectables, mucoadhesive microcapsules and nanospheres will be more amenable for direct placement into the periodontal pockets the lozenges, buccoadhesive tablets, discs or gels could be effectively used to mitigate the overall gingival inflammation. Whilst effecting controlled local delivery of a few milligram of an antibacterial agent within the gingival crevicular fluid for a longer period of time, maintaining therapeutic concentrations such delivery devices will circumvent all adverse effects to non- oral sites. Since the pioneering efforts of Goodson and Lindhe in 1989, delivery at gingival and subgingival sites has witnessed a considerable progress. The interest in locally active systems is evident from the patents being filed and granted. The present article shall dwell in reviewing the recent approaches being proffered in the field. Patents as by Shefer, et al. US patent, 6589562 dealing with multicomponent biodegradable bioadhesive controlled release system for oral care products, Lee, et al. 2001, US patent 6193994, encompassing a locally administrable, biodegradable and sustained-release pharmaceutical composition for periodontitis and process for preparation thereof and method of treating periodontal disease as suggested by Basara in 2004via US patent 6830757, shall be the types of intellectual property reviewed and presented in

  18. Therapeutical aspect of trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Jelica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is frequent, parasitic and sexually transmitted infection of genitourinary tract. It is treated by metronidazole (5-nitroimidazole according to protocol recommended by Center for Disease Control (CDC formerly called: Communicable Disease Center [19]. The resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV strains to metronidazole (MND was described in USA in 1960, and later on in many European countries [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. In these cases, due to persistent trichomonas infection, it is necessary to repeat MND treatment with moderate modification of dose and/or length of its application. Nevertheless, oncogenic and toxic effects of MND have to be taken into consideration. OBJECT The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of TV in STD and lower susceptibility of certain TV strains to MND were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS In three-year period (1999-2001 612 patients (244 females and 368 males suspected of STD were examined clinically and microbiologically at the Institute of Dermatovenereology in Belgrade. The patients detected for TV were treated according to CDC protocol. The affected were considered cured if there was no manifest clinical infection, and no TV verified by microbiological test. Results TV was isolated in 216 patients (35.29 % of all subjects. Trichomonas infection was found in 90 (36.88 % out of 244 tested females and in 126 (32.34 % of 368 males. Clinically manifested infection, with extensive urethral and vaginal secretion, was recorded in 161 patients, while the asymptomatic form was found in 55 subjects. This result indicates the predominance of manifested trichomonas infections (75.54 % of cases. The difference of distribution of clinical forms of trichomoniasis, in relation to sex, was not statistically significant (c2=0.854; p>0.05. The patients with verified trichomonas infection were treated by metronidazole according to CDC protocol. The recommended therapeutical scheme consisted of three

  19. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (ptouch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.

  20. Therapeutic antibodies as a treatment option for dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Ong, Eugenia Z; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2013-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease globally with about 100 million cases of acute dengue annually. Severe dengue infection can result in a life-threatening illness. In the absence of either a licensed vaccine or antiviral drug against dengue, therapeutic antibodies that neutralize dengue virus (DENV) may serve as an effective medical countermeasure against severe dengue. However, therapeutic antibodies would need to effectively neutralize all four DENV serotypes. It must not induce antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes/macrophages through Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis, which is hypothesized to increase the risk of severe dengue. Here, we review the strategies and technologies that can be adopted to develop antibodies for therapeutic applications. We also discuss the mechanism of antibody neutralization in the cells targeted by DENV that express Fc gamma receptor. These studies have provided significant insight toward the use of therapeutic antibodies as a potentially promising bulwark against dengue.

  1. Three-dimensional prospective evaluation of tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nada, R.M.; Fudalej, P.S.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Mostafa, Y.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To three-dimensionally (3D) assess the long-term effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 45 consecutive skeletally mature non-syndromic patients with transverse maxillary

  2. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Effects of Being Born during Their Teen or Later Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…

  3. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  4. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  5. Therapeutic Inertia and Treatment Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiah Willock, Robina; Miller, Joseph B; Mohyi, Michelle; Abuzaanona, Ahmed; Muminovic, Meri; Levy, Phillip D

    2018-01-29

    This review aims to emphasize how therapeutic inertia, the failure of clinicians to intensify treatment when blood pressure rises or remains above therapeutic goals, contributes to suboptimal blood pressure control in hypertensive populations. Studies reveal that the therapeutic inertia is quite common and contributes to suboptimal blood pressure control. Quality improvement programs and standardized approaches to support antihypertensive treatment intensification are ways to combat therapeutic inertia. Furthermore, programs that utilize non-physician medical professionals such as pharmacists and nurses demonstrate promise in mitigating the effects of this important problem. Therapeutic inertia impedes antihypertensive management and requires a broad effort to reduce its effects. There is an ongoing need for renewed focus and research in this area to improve hypertension control.

  6. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  7. Children born to SLE and APS mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A

    2014-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. COLLISIONALLY BORN FAMILY ABOUT 87 SYLVIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Bottke, William F.; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    There are currently more than 1000 multi-opposition objects known in the Cybele population, adjacent and exterior to the asteroid main belt, allowing a more detailed analysis than was previously possible. Searching for collisionally born clusters in this population, we find only one statistically robust case: a family of objects about (87) Sylvia. We use a numerical model to simulate the Sylvia family long-term evolution due to gravitational attraction from planets and thermal (Yarkovsky) effects and to explain its perturbed structure in the orbital element space. This allows us to conclude that the Sylvia family must be at least several hundreds of million years old, in agreement with evolutionary timescales of Sylvia's satellite system. We find it interesting that other large Cybele-zone asteroids with known satellites-(107) Camilla and (121) Hermione-do not have detectable families of collisional fragments about them (this is because we assume that binaries with large primary and small secondary components are necessarily impact generated). Our numerical simulations of synthetic clusters about these asteroids show they would suffer a substantial dynamical depletion by a combined effect of diffusion in numerous weak mean-motion resonances and Yarkovsky forces provided their age is close to ∼4 billion years. However, we also believe that a complete effacement of these two families requires an additional component, very likely due to resonance sweeping or other perturbing effects associated with the late Jupiter's inward migration. We thus propose that both Camilla and Hermione originally had their collisional families, as in the Sylvia case, but they lost them in an evolution that lasted a billion years. Their satellites are the only witnesses of these effaced families.

  9. A molecular Debye-Hückel theory of solvation in polar fluids: An extension of the Born model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiejun; Song, Xueyu

    2017-12-01

    A dielectric response theory of solvation beyond the conventional Born model for polar fluids is presented. The dielectric response of a polar fluid is described by a Born response mode and a linear combination of Debye-Hückel-like response modes that capture the nonlocal response of polar fluids. The Born mode is characterized by a bulk dielectric constant, while a Debye-Hückel mode is characterized by its corresponding Debye screening length. Both the bulk dielectric constant and the Debye screening lengths are determined from the bulk dielectric function of the polar fluid. The linear combination coefficients of the response modes are evaluated in a self-consistent way and can be used to evaluate the electrostatic contribution to the thermodynamic properties of a polar fluid. Our theory is applied to a dipolar hard sphere fluid as well as interaction site models of polar fluids such as water, where the electrostatic contribution to their thermodynamic properties can be obtained accurately.

  10. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  11. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  12. Human Factor in Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akdogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available herapeutic relationship is a professional relationship that has been structured based on theoretical props. This relationship is a complicated, wide and unique relationship which develops between two people, where both sides' personality and attitudes inevitably interfere. Therapist-client relationship experienced through transference and counter transference, especially in psychodynamic approaches, is accepted as the main aspect of therapeutic process. However, the approaches without dynamic/deterministic tendency also take therapist-client relationship into account seriously and stress uniqueness of interaction between two people. Being a person and a human naturally sometimes may negatively influence the relationship between the therapist and client and result in a relationship going out of the theoretical frame at times. As effective components of a therapeutic process, the factors that stem from being human include the unique personalities of the therapist and the client, their values and their attitude either made consciously or subconsciously. Literature has shown that the human-related factors are too effective to be denied in therapeutic relationship process. Ethical and theoretical knowledge can be inefficient to prevent the negative effects of these factors in therapeutic process at which point a deep insight and supervision would have a critical role in continuing an acceptable therapeutic relationship. This review is focused on the reflection of some therapeutic factors resulting from being human and development of counter transference onto the therapeutic process.

  13. [End therapeutic nihilism towards COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Uwe R

    2007-03-15

    Prevention of COPD requires appropriate patient education, especially of adolescents, as well as the establishment of an effective national health policy. The new GOLD guidelines represent the current standard of knowledge on the management of chronic, progressive, obstructive pulmonary diseases. It points out that COPD is avoidable and treatable,and hence, there is no reason for therapeutic nihilism. Chronic bronchitis preceding a progressive respiratory obstruction cannot be improved with the presently available respiratory therapeutics. For this reason, therapeutic measures concentrate on the avoidance of exacerbations, which are primarily responsible for the severity of the course of COPD.

  14. Frontiers in nano-therapeutics

    CERN Document Server

    Tasnim, Nishat; Sai Krishna, Katla; Kalagara, Sudhakar; Narayan, Mahesh; Noveron, Juan C; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights recent research advances in the area of nano-therapeutics. Nanotechnology holds immense potential for application in a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The brief is grouped into the following sections namely, A) Discrete Nanosystems ; B) Anisotropic Nanoparticles; C) Nano-films/coated/layered and D) Nano-composites.

  15. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  16. Multidrug-resistant pattern of food borne illness associated bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining anti-microbial resistance pattern of food borne illness ... bial drugs in the pharmaceutical pipeline.2 The effective- ness of ... Materials and methods ... selected based on local availability, clinical efficiency, liter-.

  17. Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) on the Transkei coast. ... This single recruitment, which is 6 to 31 times the annual mean recorded over the last 6 to 7 years, represents 5 ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Thermostating extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Enrique; Cawkwell, Marc J; Voter, Arthur F; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2015-04-21

    Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is developed and analyzed for applications in canonical (NVT) simulations. Three different approaches are considered: the Nosé and Andersen thermostats and Langevin dynamics. We have tested the temperature distribution under different conditions of self-consistent field (SCF) convergence and time step and compared the results to analytical predictions. We find that the simulations based on the extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer framework provide accurate canonical distributions even under approximate SCF convergence, often requiring only a single diagonalization per time step, whereas regular Born-Oppenheimer formulations exhibit unphysical fluctuations unless a sufficiently high degree of convergence is reached at each time step. The thermostated extended Lagrangian framework thus offers an accurate approach to sample processes in the canonical ensemble at a fraction of the computational cost of regular Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Rickettsial and other tick-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Barbara Fouts

    2007-03-01

    prophylaxsis is beneficial to the tick-bitten patient to prevent disease. It must be kept in mind that the risk of transmission of disease increases with the duration of attachment and generally requires greater than 24 to 48 hours. The degree of tick engorgement or the time since tick exposure and discovery of the tick may be used to establish the likely duration of attachment and the risk of disease transmission. Reducing and controlling tick populations is difficult. Habitat modifications, including vegetation management by cutting, burning, and herbicide treatment, and drainage of wet areas are one strategy for tick control, but their effects are often short-lived, and they can cause severe ecologic damage. Chemicals used to control ticks may cause environmental contamination, and therefore, toxicity for humans and animals. Biologic control methods for ticks include the promotion of natural predators. Natural predators of ticks are beetles, spiders, and ants, and parasites such as insects, mites and nematodes. Tick control is best based on the concept of integrated pest management, in which different control methods are adapted to one area or against one tick species with due consideration to their environmental effects. Tick-borne diseases are increasing in prevalence. Perhaps it is because people are undertaking more outdoor activities, which result in contact with ticks and their pathogens. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical sign of tick-transmitted diseases, because morbidity and mortality as a result of these diseases increases substantially if there are delays in diagnosis and treatment. Tick-borne illness occur in distinctive geographic areas. The reporting of these illnesses and diseases to the health department enables the gathering of information and statistics. The public should be informed about the risks of disease in tick-infested areas and the means of preventing infections. The most common diseases are caused by Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrichia

  20. Stability of a Tick-Borne Flavivirus in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Clancy, Niall G.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2016-01-01

    The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the...

  1. Rapid Identification of Vector-Borne Flaviviruses by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Eastern, and Siberian subtypes [9]. Several tick-borne flaviviruses can also cause hemorrhagic disease. Important examples of these viruses include...assay. Identical base compositions within a column are the same color. Unique base compositions are shown with white backgrounds. (For interpretation...States, 1999e2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2008;8:733e40. [18] Hofstadler SA, Sampath R, Blyn LB, Eshoo MW, Hall TA, Jiang Y, et al. TIGER : the

  2. Design Considerations in Therapeutic Exergaming

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Julie; Kelly, Daniel; Caulfield, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the importance of feedback in therapeutic exergaming. It is widely believed that exergaming benefits the patient in terms of encouraging adherence and boosting the patient’s confidence of correct execution and feedback is essential in achieving these. However, feedback and in particular visual feedback, may also have potential negative effects on the quality of the exercise. We describe in this paper a prototype single-sensor therapeutic exergame that we have develope...

  3. Evaluation of therapeutic patient education

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ivernois , Jean-François; Gagnayre , Rémi; Assal , Jean-Philippe; Golay , Alain; Libion , France; Deccache , Alain

    2006-01-01

    9 pages; These guidelines mainly focus on the principles of evaluating Therapeutic Patient Education; Over the past thirty years, therapeutic patient education (TPE) has become an essential part of the treatment of long-term diseases. Evaluations of this new practice are expected, and are sometimes imposed according to protocols and criteria that do not always reflect the complexity of changes taking place within patients and healthcare providers. Sometimes, expected results are not achieved ...

  4. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  5. Safe Drinking Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-23

    Listen to this podcast to learn more about the steps that are taken to bring you clean tap water.  Created: 4/23/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  6. Water security at local government level: what do people think it means in eThekwini? Ntshongweni Community feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available defined by international organisations or scientists, like UN Water. • Water security is NOT about quantity, quality, availability, reliable supply, water borne diseases… • Water security is about individuals, and their environment—lived experience...

  7. Mandibular function, temporomandibular disorders, and headache in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte; Ekberg, Ewacarin; Nilner, Maria; Bondemark, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headache in prematurely born 8- to 10-year-old children, and to compare the findings with matched full-term born controls. Seventy-three preterm children were selected from the Medical Birth Register--one group comprising 36 extremely preterm children born before the 29th gestational week, the other group 37 very preterm children born during gestational weeks 29 to 32. The preterm children were compared with a control group of 41 full-term children matched for gender, age, nationality, and living area. The subjective symptoms of TMD and headache were registered using a questionnaire. Mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of TMD and headache were registered. TMD diagnoses were set per Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD). No significant differences between groups or gender were found for TMD diagnoses according to RDC/TMD or for headache. The preterm children had smaller mandibular movement capacity than the full-term control group, but when adjusting for weight, height, and head circumference mostly all group differences disappeared. Prematurely born children of 8 to 10 years of age did not differ from full-term born children when considering diagnoses according to RDC/TMD, signs, and symptoms of TMD or headache.

  8. Preschool abilities of children born preterm and low weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Martínez-Espiet

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development among a group of pre-school children born premature and with low weight. We evaluated a group of four years old children; 20 children born prematurely and 20 children born after a full gestation and desired weight, using the Beery-Buktenica visual-motor integration test. We also administered the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3 development test to all 40 mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using student t test for independent groups. The group of children born prematurely scored significantly lower on tests measuring visual perception skills (µ1 83.65 ; µ2 93.7 (p = 0.0001, visual-motor integration (µ1 93.6 ; µ2 104.8 (p = 0.001 and fine motor (µ1 36.00 ; µ2 44.25 (p=0.033 (p = 0.033, when compared to the group of children born after a full term. This study suggests that premature low weight born children have lower performance in the sensory-motor development during the preschool years. These disadvantages go unnoticed and may represent future delays on school tasks that require these skills. It is important to promote an early assessment and environmental stimulation among this population even in the absence of risk indicators.

  9. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  10. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  11. Neurocognitive outcome in young adults born late-preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Sammallahti, Sara; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki; Andersson, Sture; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Raikkonen, Katri

    2018-03-01

    This study examined whether late-preterm birth (34+0 to 36+6wks+d gestational age) was associated with neurocognitive deficit in young adulthood, and whether small for gestational age (SGA) birth amplified any adversity. Participants derived from the prospective regional cohort study, the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=786; 398 females, 388 males) (mean age 25y 4mo, SD 8mo), born 1985 to 1986 late-preterm (n=119; 21 SGA, intelligence, executive functioning, attention, and memory, and reported their education. Those born late-preterm scored -3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.71 to -0.72) and -3.11 (95% CI -6.01 to -0.22) points lower on Full-scale and Verbal IQ than peers born at term. Compared with those born at term and appropriate for gestational age (≥-2 to increase the risk of poorer neurocognitive functioning in adulthood. But the double burden of being born late-preterm and SGA seems to increase this risk. Late-preterm birth did not increase the risk of poorer neurocognitive functioning in adulthood. But the double burden of being born late-preterm and being small for gestational age did increase this risk. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.

  13. Iterative electromagnetic Born inversion applied to earth conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alumbaugh, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    This thesis investigates the use of a fast imaging technique to deduce the spatial conductivity distribution in the earth from low frequency (less than 1 MHz), cross well electromagnetic (EM) measurements. The theory embodied in this work is the extension of previous strategies and is based on the Born series approximation to solve both the forward and inverse problem. Nonlinear integral equations are employed to derive the series expansion which accounts for the scattered magnetic fields that are generated by inhomogeneities embedded in either a homogenous or a layered earth. A sinusoidally oscillating, vertically oriented magnetic dipole is employed as a source, and it is assumed that the scattering bodies are azimuthally symmetric about the source dipole axis. The use of this model geometry reduces the 3-D vector problem to a more manageable 2-D scalar form. The validity of the cross well EM method is tested by applying the imaging scheme to two sets of field data. Images of the data collected at the Devine, Texas test site show excellent correlation with the well logs. Unfortunately there is a drift error present in the data that limits the accuracy of the results. A more complete set of data collected at the Richmond field station in Richmond, California demonstrates that cross well EM can be successfully employed to monitor the position of an injected mass of salt water. Both the data and the resulting images clearly indicate the plume migrates toward the north-northwest. The plausibility of these conclusions is verified by applying the imaging code to synthetic data generated by a 3-D sheet model.

  14. Guilt about being born and debt concerning the gift of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotterman, Andrew C

    2003-01-01

    A very powerful form of preoedipal guilt stems from a sense of having damaged the life-giving parent with one's most basic needs. A related phenomenon is the child's sense that another subjectivity has deliberately chosen to give and sustain the child's life. This experience gives rise to a compelling mixture of awe, reverence, and obligation, a sense of guilt about being born, of debt concerning the gift of life. This sense of guilt and debt are part of every child's development. Depending on how conflicts surrounding them are negotiated, the child can come to feel either an appetite for living or a crushing sense of selfishness and unworthiness. Such forms of guilt and debt may lead not only to masochism generally, but to a particularly pernicious form of negative therapeutic reaction that can sabotage psychoanalytic work. A patient may feel, for instance, that a successful psychoanalysis is a selfish indulgence and an immoral betrayal of a sacred duty to rescue his or her parents from their misery. Guilt about being born and the sense of debt concerning the gift of life are linked to various developmental, psychodynamic, interpersonal, and cultural phenomena.

  15. Potential impact of climate change on emerging vector-borne and other infections in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most important routes of transmission of climate sensitive diseases are by arthropod (insect and tick) vectors, in water and in food. Given the sensitivity of many diseases to climate, it is very likely that at least some will respond to future climate change. In the case of vector-borne diseases this response will include spread to new areas. Several vector-borne diseases have emerged in Europe in recent years; these include vivax malaria, West Nile fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. The vectors of these diseases are mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks. The UK has endemic mosquito species capable of transmitting malaria and probably other pathogens, and ticks that transmit Lyme disease. The UK is also threatened by invasive mosquito species known to be able to transmit West Nile, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and sand flies that spread leishmaniasis. Warmer temperatures in the future will increase the suitability of the UK's climate for these invasive species, and increase the risk that they may spread disease. While much attention is on invasive species, it is important to recognize the threat presented by native species too. Proposed actions to reduce the future impact of emerging vector-borne diseases in the UK include insect control activity at points of entry of vehicles and certain goods, wider surveillance for mosquitoes and sand flies, research into the threat posed by native species, increased awareness of the medical profession of the threat posed by specific diseases, regular risk assessments, and increased preparedness for the occurrence of a disease emergency.

  16. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity, tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates. The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  17. Offending Behavior, Drug Use, and Mental Health Among Foreign-Born versus U.S. Born Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.

  18. Desorption of Ba and 226Ra from river-borne sediments in the Hudson estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-H.

    1979-01-01

    The pronounced desorption of Ba and 226 Ra from river-borne sediments in the Hudson estuary can be explained quantitatively by the drastic decrease in the distribution coefficients of both elements from a fresh to a salty water medium. The desorption in estuaries can augment, at least, the total global river fluxes of dissolved Ba and 226 Ra by one and nine times, respectively. The desorption flux of 226 Ra from estuaries accounts for 17-43% of the total 226 Ra flux from coastal sediments. Two mass balance models depicting mixing and adsorption-desorption processes in estuaries are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Design of hyper-thermal neutron irradiation fields for neutron capture therapy in KUR-heavy water neutron irradiation facility. Mounting of hyper-thermal neutron converter in therapeutic collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCP) using thermal neutron needs to improve of depth dose distribution in a living body. Epi-thermal neutron following moderation of fast neutron is usually used for improving of the depth dose distribution. The moderation method of fast neutron, however, gets mixed some of high energy neutron which give some of serious effects to a living body, and involves the difficulty for collimation of thermal neutron to the diseased part. Hyper-thermal neutrons, which are in an energy range of 0.1-3 eV at high temperature side of thermal neutron, are under consideration for application to the NCP. The hyper-thermal neutrons can be produced by up-scattering of thermal neutron in a high temperature material. Fast neutron components in collimator for the NCP reduce on application of the up-scattering method. Graphite at high temperature (>1000k) is used as a hyper-thermal neutron converter. The hyper-thermal neutron converter is planted to mount on therapeutic collimator which is located at the nearest side of patient for the NCP. Total neutron flux, ratio of hyper-thermal neutron to total neutron, and ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron flux are calculated as a function of thickness of the graphite converter using monte carlo code MCNP-V4B. (M. Suetake)

  20. Neurological development of children born to mothers after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, Joanna; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Drozdowska-Szymczak, Agnieszka; Czaplinska, Natalia; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena

    2017-12-03

    Pregnancies after kidney transplantation are at high risk of complications such as preterm birth and foetal growth restriction. Until now, the impact of these factors on neurological development of children born to transplant mothers has not been established. A comparison of neurological examinations performed in 36 children of kidney transplant women (study group) and 36 children born to healthy mothers (control group). The children from both groups were born at a similar gestational age and in the similar time period from 12/1996 to 09/2012. Neurological examinations were performed from 07/2010 to 11/2013. Each examination was adjusted to the patient's age and performed after the neonatal period. Three years later children were re-consulted, if they presented neurological deviations or were less than 12 months old at the time of the first examination. Normal neurological development was found in 86% of children in both groups (p = .999). Mild neurological deviations were observed in four (11%) children born to kidney transplant mothers and in five (14%) children born to healthy mothers (p = .999). Moderate deviations were diagnosed in one premature child born to transplant mother, whose pregnancy was complicated with a severe preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. In the study population, no severe neurological disorders were found. Almost all (8/10) children with neurological deviations were born prematurely in good general conditions. The neurological deviations observed in the first year of life were mild and transient. In children over 1 year of age, deviations were more pronounced and continued to maintain. The neurological development of children of kidney transplant women is similar to that of the general population and possible deviations seem to be the result of intrauterine hypotrophy and prematurity. Therefore, in clinical practice, it is necessary to plan post-transplant pregnancies especially in women at high risk of these complications.

  1. Sonochemically born proteinaceous micro- and nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Elena D; Koseva, Neli S

    2010-01-01

    The use of proteins as a substrate in the fabrication of micro- and nanoparticulate systems has attracted the interest of scientists, manufactures, and consumers. Albumin-derived particles were commercialized as contrast agents or anticancer therapeutics. Food proteins are widely used in formulated dietary products. The potential benefits of proteinaceous micro- and nanoparticles in a wide range of biomedical applications are indisputable. Protein-based particles are highly biocompatible and biodegradable structures that can impart bioadhesive properties or mediate particle uptake by specific interactions with the target cells. Currently, protein microparticles are engineered as vehicles for covalent attachment and/or encapsulation of bioactive compounds, contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, thermometric and oximetric imaging, sonography and optical coherence tomography, etc. Ultrasound irradiation is a versatile technique which is widely used in many and different fields as biology, biochemistry, dentistry, geography, geology, medicine, etc. It is generally recognized as an environmental friendly, cost-effective method which is easy to be scaled up. Currently, it is mainly applied for homogenization, drilling, cleaning, etc. in industry, as well for noninvasive scanning of the human body, treatment of muscle strains, dissolution of blood clots, and cancer therapy. Proteinaceous micro- and nanocapsules could be easily produced in a one-step process by applying ultrasound to an aqueous protein solution. The origin of this process is in the chemical changes, for example, sulfhydryl groups oxidation, that takes place as a result of acoustically generated cavitation. Partial denaturation of the protein most probably occurs which makes the hydrophobic interactions dominant and also responsible for the formation of stable capsules. This chapter aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the field of sonochemically produced protein micro- and nanocapsules

  2. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  3. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RNAi Therapeutics in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Cha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi, excitement has grown over its potential therapeutic uses. Targeting RNAi pathways provides a powerful tool to change biological processes post-transcriptionally in various health conditions such as cancer or autoimmune diseases. Optimum design of shRNA, siRNA, and miRNA enhances stability and specificity of RNAi-based approaches whereas it has to reduce or prevent undesirable immune responses or off-target effects. Recent advances in understanding pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have allowed application of these tools in vitro as well as in vivo with some degree of success. Further research on the design and delivery of effectors of RNAi pathway and underlying molecular basis of RNAi would warrant practical use of RNAi-based therapeutics in human applications. This review will focus on the approaches used for current therapeutics and their applications in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome.

  5. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  6. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  7. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Marié, Jean-Lou

    2009-08-26

    Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.

  9. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (children exhibited poor growth, with length-for-age z-scores children at 9 months (adjusted for prematurity) and 34.2% of children at 2 years. Compared with children having z-scores >-2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pchildren born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2012-01-01

    A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.

  11. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Topologically nontrivial black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangkhah, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present the black hole solutions possessing horizon with nonconstant-curvature and additional scalar restrictions on the base manifold in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics. The asymptotic and near origin behavior of the metric is presented and we analyze different behaviors of the singularity. We find that, in contrast to the case of black hole solutions of BI-Lovelock gravity with constant curvature horizon and Maxwell-Lovelock gravity with non constant horizon which have only timelike singularities, spacelike, and timelike singularities may exist for BI-Lovelock black holes with nonconstant curvature horizon. By calculating the thermodynamic quantities, we study the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics via the Born-Infeld action. Stability analysis shows that black holes with positive sectional curvature, κ , possess an intermediate unstable phase and large and small black holes are stable. We see that while Ricci flat Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes having exotic horizons are stable in the presence of Maxwell field or either Born Infeld field with large born Infeld parameter β , unstable phase appears for smaller values of β , and therefore nonlinearity brings in the instability.

  13. Born Too Soon: Accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specific health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation's Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are affected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was

  14. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. 8 CFR 289.3 - Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Indians born in Canada. 289.3 Section 289.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.3 Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada. The lawful admission for permanent residence of an American Indian born in Canada...

  16. Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

    2014-12-01

    Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

  17. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Che-Yu [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite. (orig.)

  18. Heat engines for dilatonic Born-Infeld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhamidipati, Chandrasekhar; Yerra, Pavan Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, School of Basic Sciences, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2017-08-15

    In the context of dilaton coupled Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld field, we study heat engines where a charged black hole is the working substance. Using the existence of a notion of thermodynamic mass and volume (which depend on the dilaton coupling), the mechanical work takes place via the pdV terms present in the first law of extended gravitational thermodynamics. The efficiency is analyzed as a function of dilaton and Born-Infeld couplings, and the results are compared with analogous computations in the related conformal solutions in the Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory and black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time. (orig.)

  19. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite.

  20. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet......, Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...... to use by staff and well accepted by parents. The mean score in the preterm group was 14.9+/-3.9 vs 17.7+/-2.7 in the term group (pchildren had developmental scores below-2 SD. The R-PDQ score was associated with the ASQ score 2 y later. CONCLUSION: A structured questionnaire administrated...

  1. The Born-Mayer-Huggins potential in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hempal; Singh, Anu; Indu, B. D.

    2016-07-01

    The Born-Mayer-Huggins potential which has been found the best suitable potential to study the YBa2Cu3O7-δ type high temperature superconductors is revisited in a new framework. A deeper insight in it reveals that the Born-Mayer parameters for different interactions in high temperature superconductor are not simple quantities but several thermodynamic and spatial functions enter the problem. Based on the new theory, the expressions for pressure, bulk modulus and Born-Mayer parameters have been derived and it is established that these quantities depend upon Gruneisen parameter which is the measure of the strength of anharmonic effects in high temperature superconductors. This theory has been applied to a specific model YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal for the purpose of numerical estimates to justify the new results.

  2. Born Globals - Is there Fire Behind the Smoke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Rask, Morten; Sala, Davide

    2017-01-01

    the first detailed account of Born Globals compared to proper control groups of other start-ups. Chiefly we investigate firm performance, which in turn permits interference on socioeconomic impact. We find that the occurrence of BGs is not specific to certain sectors, nor does their frequency change......Are Born Globals really different from firms with other start-up histories? We address this question based on a unique longitudinal data set that tracks all Danish manufacturing start-ups founded between 1994 and 2008 (23,201 firms). This novel application of register data allows us to provide...... in light of rapid ICT progress. However, we find that Born Globals have significantly higher turnover and employment levels as well as job growth rates. Moreover, they show a considerably wider market reach, but little to no productivity advantage compared to firms with less or later internationalization...

  3. Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St., N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Leigh, Robert G., E-mail: rgleigh@uiuc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Minic, Djordje, E-mail: dminic@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.

  4. Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2014-01-01

    After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.

  5. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  6. [Knowledge of vector-borne diseases (dengue, rickettsiosis and Chagas disease) in physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Caballero, César I; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Dzul-Tut, Irving; Balam-May, Ángel; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The ecological conditions of Yucatan made it a suitable region for the acquisition of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. As the epidemiological burden of these diseases shows an alarming increase of severe cases, the early establishment of diagnosis and therapeutics by first-contact physicians is a critical step that is not being fulfilled due to several reasons, including poor knowledge. To determine the level of knowledge related to dengue, Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis among rural first-contact physicians of Yucatan. A survey was applied to 90 first-contact physicians from rural clinics of Yucatan, which included 32 items related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. Answers were analyzed by central tendency statistics. Differences were observed among every category, however; diagnosis and therapeutics showed the lower values. Globally, 62.5% of respondents showed moderate knowledge, 37.5% poor knowledge, and 0% adequate knowledge. Results suggest that a strong campaign for a continuous diffusion of knowledge regarding these diseases is needed. In regions with high prevalence of these kinds of diseases, like Yucatan, the impact of these results on the epidemiological burden of these diseases must be evaluated.

  7. Work Disability Among Native-born and Foreign-born Americans: On Origins, Health, and Social Safety Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Kestenbaum, Bert M; Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Mehta, Neil K; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-12-01

    Public debates about both immigration policy and social safety net programs are increasingly contentious. However, little research has explored differences in health within America's diverse population of foreign-born workers, and the effect of these workers on public benefit programs is not well understood. We investigate differences in work disability by nativity and origins and describe the mix of health problems associated with receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Our analysis draws on two large national data sources-the American Community Survey and comprehensive administrative records from the Social Security Administration-to determine the prevalence and incidence of work disability between 2001 and 2010. In sharp contrast to prior research, we find that foreign-born adults are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to report work disability, to be insured for work disability benefits, and to apply for those benefits. Overall and across origins, the foreign-born also have a lower incidence of disability benefit award. Persons from Africa, Northern Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia have the lowest work disability benefit prevalence rates among the foreign-born; persons from Southern Europe, Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Caribbean have the highest rates.

  8. A local network integrated into a balloon-borne apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imori, Masatosi; Ueda, Ikuo; Shimamura, Kotaro; Maeno, Tadashi; Murata, Takahiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Anraku, Kazuaki; Matsui, Nagataka; Yamagami, Takamasa

    A local network is incorporated into an apparatus for a balloon-borne experiment. A balloon-borne system implemented in the apparatus is composed of subsystems interconnected through a local network, which introduces modular architecture into the system. The network decomposes the balloon-borne system into subsystems, which are similarly structured from the point of view that the systems is kept under the control of a ground station. The subsystem is functionally self-contained and electrically independent. A computer is integrated into a subsystem, keeping the subsystem under the control. An independent group of batteries, being dedicated to a subsystem, supplies the whole electricity of the subsystem. The subsystem could be turned on and off independently of the other subsystems. So communication among the subsystems needs to be based on such a protocol that could guarantee the independence of the individual subsystems. An Omninet protocol is employed to network the subsystems. A ground station sends commands to the balloon-borne system. The command is received and executed at the system, then results of the execution are returned to the ground station. Various commands are available so that the system borne on a balloon could be controlled and monitored remotely from the ground station. A subsystem responds to a specific group of commands. A command is received by a transceiver subsystem and then transferred through the network to the subsystem to which the command is addressed. Then the subsystem executes the command and returns results to the transceiver subsystem, where the results are telemetered to the ground station. The network enhances independence of the individual subsystems, which enables programs of the individual subsystems to be coded independently. Independence facilitates development and debugging of programs, improving the quality of the system borne on a balloon.

  9. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  10. Mathematics ability and related skills in preschoolers born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Holly M; Akshoomoff, Natacha

    2017-12-12

    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups. Children born VPT performed significantly worse than FT-born children on a measure of mathematics ability as well as full-scale IQ, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, phonological working memory, motor skills, and executive functioning. Mathematics was significantly correlated with verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological processing, and motor skills across both groups. When entered into the mediation model, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, and phonological awareness were significant mediators of the group differences. This analysis provides insights into the pre-academic skills that are weak in preschoolers born VPT and their relationship to mathematics. It is important to identify children who will have difficulties as early as possible, particularly for VPT children who are at higher risk for academic difficulties. Therefore, this model may be used in evaluating VPT children for emerging difficulties as well as an indicator that if other weaknesses are found, an assessment of mathematics should be conducted.

  11. Impact of climate trends on tick-borne pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eEstrada-Pena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with pandemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.

  12. Exploring workplace TB interventions with foreign-born Latino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; Keller, Brenna M; Flynn, Michael A

    2018-05-15

    Persons born outside the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis disease (TB) than native-born individuals. Foreign-born Latinos at risk of TB may be difficult to reach with public health interventions due to cultural and institutional barriers. Workplaces employing large concentrations of foreign-born Latinos may be useful locations for TB interventions targeting this high-risk population. This study used a two-phase approach to investigate the feasibility of workplace TB interventions. The first phase investigated employer knowledge of TB and receptiveness to allowing TB interventions in their businesses through 5 structured interviews. The second phase investigated foreign-born workers' knowledge of TB and their receptiveness to receiving TB interventions in their places of employment through 12 focus groups stratified by gender and education. Phase 1: Only 1 of the 5 employers interviewed had a high level of knowledge about TB, and three had no knowledge other than that TB was a disease that involved coughing. They were receptive to workplace TB interventions, but were concerned about lost productivity and customers finding out if an employee had TB. Phase 2: There was no observed differences in responses between gender and between the bottom two education groups, so the final analysis took place between a gender-combined lower education group and higher education group. The higher education group tended to have knowledge that was more accurate and to view TB as a disease associated with poverty. The lower education group tended to have more misconceptions about TB and more often expressed concern that their employers would not support worksite interventions. The results from both phases indicate that more TB education is needed among both foreign-born Latino workers and their employers. Obstacles to implementing workplace TB interventions include knowledge, potential productivity loss, employer liability, and perceived customer response

  13. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  14. Therapeutic approaches to genetic disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Although prevention is the ideal goal for genetic disorders, various types of therapeutic ... The patient being ... pirical or aimed at controlling or mediating signs and symptoms without care. ... plications and gene therapy approaches .... genes family, have opened a wide and .... cancer where nanoparticles are used to.

  15. Medical therapeutic effect of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    In order to compare the therapeutic effect as well as side effects between antithyroid therapy and radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism, the author evaluated 111 cases of hyperthyroidism which were composed of 57 patients with antithyroid treatment, 23 patients with combined treatment comprising of antithyroid and radioactive iodine ( 131 I) and 31 patients with treatment of 131 I alone. (author)

  16. Generalized Born-Infeld actions and projective cubic curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, S. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Porrati, M. [CCPP, Department of Physics, NYU, 4 Washington Pl., New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Sagnotti, A. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stora, R. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique (LAPTH), F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France); Yeranyan, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89A, 00184, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We investigate U(1){sup n} supersymmetric Born-Infeld Lagrangians with a second non-linearly realized supersymmetry. The resulting non-linear structure is more complex than the square root present in the standard Born-Infeld action, and nonetheless the quadratic constraints determining these models can be solved exactly in all cases containing three vector multiplets. The corresponding models are classified by cubic holomorphic prepotentials. Their symmetry structures are associated to projective cubic varieties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  18. Born amplitudes and seagull term in meson-soliton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.G.; Li, B.A.; Liu, K.F.; Su, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The meson-soliton scattering for the φ 4 theory in 1+1 dimensions is calculated. We show that when the seagull term from the equal time commutator is included in addition to the Born amplitudes, the t-matrix from the reduction formula approach is identical to that of the potential scattering with small quantum fluctuations to leading order in weak coupling. The seagull term is equal to the Born term in the potential scattering. This confirms the speculation that the leading order Yukawa coupling is derivable from the classical soliton. (orig.)

  19. Exact solutions of Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, Matias; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston

    2004-01-01

    The exact five-dimensional charged black hole solution in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics is presented. This solution interpolates between the Hoffmann black hole for the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory and other solutions in the Lovelock theory previously studied in the literature. It is shown how the conical singularity of the metric around the origin can be removed by a proper choice of the black hole parameters. The differences existing with the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are discussed. In particular, we show the existence of charged black holes with a unique horizon

  20. Energy conserving, linear scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2012-10-07

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with long-term conservation of the total energy and a computational cost that scales linearly with system size have been obtained simultaneously. Linear scaling with a low pre-factor is achieved using density matrix purification with sparse matrix algebra and a numerical threshold on matrix elements. The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] yields microcanonical trajectories with the approximate forces obtained from the linear scaling method that exhibit no systematic drift over hundreds of picoseconds and which are indistinguishable from trajectories computed using exact forces.

  1. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases - Incidence through Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests - ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples

  2. The Alliance Capability of Technology-Based Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxtorp, Liliya Altshuler; Elg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the aspects comprising the alliance capability of technology-based born globals. Alliance capability is regarded as a set of organizational skills necessary from the decision to search for a partner for a technology collaboration, which may also involve a marketing...... and risks of collaborating with MNEs.Methodology: A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs.Findings: The organisational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external...

  3. Equity and the Ethics of Water Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    Water is recognized to pose some very urgent questions in the near future. A significant number of people are deprived of clean drinking water and sanitation services, with an accordingly high percentage of people dying from water borne diseases. At the same time, an increasing percentage of the

  4. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of Cancer Care Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Patients With Lung or Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; He, Yulei; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Disparities in care have been documented for foreign-born cancer patients in the United States. However, few data are available regarding patients with lung and colorectal cancer. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patient-reported quality and receipt of recommended...... from 2003 through 2005. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between nativity and patient-reported quality of care and receipt of recommended treatments (adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage II/III rectal cancer......, and curative surgery for stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer). The authors also assessed whether language explained any differences in care by nativity. RESULTS: Overall, 46% of patients reported excellent care, but foreign-born patients were less likely than US-born patients to report excellent quality...

  6. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  7. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.

  8. HIV and sexual health knowledge and sexual experience among Australian-born and overseas-born students in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Angela; Richters, Juliet; Crawford, June; Kippax, Sue

    2005-09-01

    To examine differences between Australian-born and Asian-born first-year university students in Sydney in their sexual behavior and knowledge about the prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Students were recruited from a stall during the student Orientation Week in both 2002 and 2003 at the University of New South Wales. A short questionnaire was completed and returned anonymously. Data on age, gender, country of birth, sexual behavior, and sexual health knowledge were collected. A score was calculated based on the sum of the correct answers given to 12 HIV/STI transmission and prevention questions. The students were then divided into three groups according to their country of birth (Australia, Asia, and elsewhere) and their knowledge scores were compared. Students born in certain Asian countries were also asked their perception of the HIV epidemic in their home country compared with Australia. A total of 1185 first-year students completed the questionnaire. Although older on average, Asian-born students were less likely to have had sexual intercourse and had had fewer sexual partners. They also had consistently poorer HIV/STI knowledge scores than Australian-born students. Students born in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore but not Thailand underestimated the prevalence of HIV in their country of birth in comparison with Australia. The combination of poorer knowledge, apparent misconception of the extent of HIV epidemic in their home country (or Australia), and potential later frequent travel indicates a potential risk for later transmission of HIV/STIs. The university is an underused setting for prevention health education.

  9. Therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Weng, Yan; Wang, Shiquan; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2014-01-01

    Breviscapine injection is a Chinese herbal medicine standardized product extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It has been widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic time window and the action mechanism of breviscapine are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed by 24h of reperfusion. Experiment part 1 was used to investigate the therapeutic time window of breviscapine. Rats were injected intravenously with 50mg/kg breviscapine at different time-points of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion, neurologic score, infarct volume, brain water content and serum level of neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured in a masked fashion. Part 2 was used to explore the therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxyl-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the antioxidant capacity of ischemia cortex were measured by ELISA and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Part 1: breviscapine injection significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, reduced infarct volume and water content, and suppressed the levels of NSE in a time-dependent manner. Part 2: breviscapine inhibited the increased levels of 4-HNE and 8-OHdG, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of cortex tissue. Moreover, breviscapine obviously raised the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins after 24h of reperfusion. The therapeutic time window of breviscapine injection for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury seemed to be within 5h after reperfusion. By up-regulating the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

  10. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable...

  11. Detection of Seed-Borne Fungal pathogens on Soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanyera, R

    2002-01-01

    Soya beans (Glycine max max L.) are propagated by seed and are vulnerable to devastating seed-borne diseases where the importance of each disease varies greatly. Seed-borne diseases cause significant losses in seed, food production and quality of seed and grain. Studies on seed borne diseases in Kenya have not been given emphasis on very important seed crops among the soya beans. The identification and rejection of the seed crop is mainly based on visual appraisal in the field with little or no laboratory work undertaken. Three methods were used to analyse the health status of fifty two soyabean seed samples collected from the National Plant Breeding Research Centre-Njoro and farmers' fields in Bahati division of Nakuru district. The analysis was carried out in the laboratory. The objective of the analysis was to identify and inventory seed-borne fungal pathogens of soya beans grown in Kenya. The normal blotter, herbicide and germination test methods were used. The tests revealed the presence of several important fungal pathogens on soyabean seed samples. Among the pathogens recorded Phoma sp, phomopsis sp, fusarium sp, Hainesia lyhri and Cercospora kikuchii were frequently recorded on the seed samples. Results of the germination test between paper method showed low germination (0-6.7%) on the normal sedlings in all the test samples. Hainesia lyhri was a new record on the soyabean seeds

  12. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  13. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  14. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  15. The accidental internationalists : A theory of born globals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, J.M.A.

    The distinguishing characteristic of international new ventures/born globals (INVs/BGs) is that they have foreign sales from the outset, or very quickly afterward. I argue that this is due to their business model. INVs/BGs sell to spatially dispersed customers distinctive niche products that incur

  16. R7 VU Born-Assessed Demo Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Nourgaliev

    2010-02-01

    This is an initial draft of a born-assessed VU plan for the RELAP7 (R7) code development effort. The plan will continue to evolve based on the growth of code capability. This growth will be reflected as additional testing is identified and done. Later versions of this document will reflect that growth.

  17. International Pricing Strategies for Born-Global Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Neubert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand how born global firms develop their international pricing strategies, practices, and models. It aims to expand the study of international entrepreneurship and born global firms by including a broader and deeper range of pricing aspects than is normally found in the international entrepreneurship and pricing literature. The paper opted for a multiple case-study research design using different sources of evidence, including four in-depth interviews with CEOs of born global firms. The case-study firms were selected using a purposive selection method. The theoretical framework of Ingenbleek, Frambach & Verhallen is used. The results suggest that successful leaders act as ‘integrating forces’ on two levels: by applying a structured and disciplined price-setting process with regular reviews and by mediating between corporate financial goals and the local market reality. The results support the claim that policy makers should offer insights, training and financial support to give promising born global firms the possibility to select the most efficient international pricing models and strategies. The results are relevant for entrepreneurs to understand the importance of efficient price-modelling processes and the influence of the different price strategies and price models on financial results and sales revenues.

  18. The regular cosmic string in Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-09-22

    It is shown that Born-Infeld gravity -a high energy deformation of Einstein gravity-removes the singularities of a cosmic string. The respective vacuum solution results to be free of conical singularity and closed timelike curves. The space ends at a minimal circle where the curvature invariants vanish; but this circle cannot be reached in a finite proper time.

  19. Genetic Characterization of the Tick-Borne Orbiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV recognizes four species of tick-borne orbiviruses (TBOs: Chenuda virus, Chobar Gorge virus, Wad Medani virus and Great Island virus (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Nucleotide (nt and amino acid (aa sequence comparisons provide a basis for orbivirus detection and classification, however full genome sequence data were only available for the Great Island virus species. We report representative genome-sequences for the three other TBO species (virus isolates: Chenuda virus (CNUV; Chobar Gorge virus (CGV and Wad Medani virus (WMV. Phylogenetic comparisons show that TBOs cluster separately from insect-borne orbiviruses (IBOs. CNUV, CGV, WMV and GIV share low level aa/nt identities with other orbiviruses, in ‘conserved’ Pol, T2 and T13 proteins/genes, identifying them as four distinct virus-species. The TBO genome segment encoding cell attachment, outer capsid protein 1 (OC1, is approximately half the size of the equivalent segment from insect-borne orbiviruses, helping to explain why tick-borne orbiviruses have a ~1 kb smaller genome.

  20. Protecting Adults and Children from Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…

  1. O Little Town of … Nazareth?: Where was Jesus Born?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Steven; White, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Bethlehem-birth stories in Matthew and Luke are historically problematic for several well known reasons. A historically layered re-examination of all references to Jesus' origin in the NT show that he was known to be from Nazareth. Although we do not know where he was born, Nazareth has a

  2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013

  3. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  4. Anisotropic Born-Mayer potential in lattice dynamics of Vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic theory of the lattice dynamics of the transition metal vanadium is developed based on the Animalu's transition metal model potential (TMMP). The Born-Mayer potential associated with the distribution of the transition metal d-electrons is treated as anisotropic. Good agreement with experimental phonon dispersion curves longitudinal branches in the [111] direction

  5. On Born's deformed reciprocal complex gravitational theory and noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Born's reciprocal relativity in flat spacetimes is based on the principle of a maximal speed limit (speed of light) and a maximal proper force (which is also compatible with a maximal and minimal length duality) and where coordinates and momenta are unified on a single footing. We extend Born's theory to the case of curved spacetimes and construct a deformed Born reciprocal general relativity theory in curved spacetimes (without the need to introduce star products) as a local gauge theory of the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product of U(1,3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group corresponding to noncommutative generators [Z a ,Z b ]≠0. The Hermitian metric is complex-valued with symmetric and nonsymmetric components and there are two different complex-valued Hermitian Ricci tensors R μν ,S μν . The deformed Born's reciprocal gravitational action linear in the Ricci scalars R,S with Torsion-squared terms and BF terms is presented. The plausible interpretation of Z μ =E μ a Z a as noncommuting p-brane background complex spacetime coordinates is discussed in the conclusion, where E μ a is the complex vielbein associated with the Hermitian metric G μν =g (μν) +ig [μν] =E μ a E-bar ν b η ab . This could be one of the underlying reasons why string-theory involves gravity

  6. A framework to classify error in animal-borne technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, Z.T.; van Loon, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of novel, innovative, and increasingly miniaturized devices on fauna to collect data has increased. Yet, every animal-borne technology has its shortcomings, such as limitations in its precision or accuracy. These shortcomings, here labeled as “error,” are not yet studied

  7. Microbial Flora and Food Borne Pathogens on Minced Meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Food-borne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries. Changes in eating habits, mass catering, unsafe food storage conditions and poor hygiene practices are major contributing factors to food associated illnesses. In Ethiopia, the widespread habit of raw beef ...

  8. Applicability of refined Born approximation to non-linear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayski, J.

    1990-01-01

    A computational method called ''Refined Born Approximation'', formerly applied exclusively to linear problems, is shown to be successfully applicable also to non-linear problems enabling me to compute bifurcations and other irregular solutions which cannot be obtained by the standard perturbation procedures. (author)

  9. Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). ... tritici, Ustilago tritici, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Microdochium nivale, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, ...

  10. Growth through internationalization : an online perspective on Born Globals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennis Nevels

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The traditional landscape in international business has changed, for decades the Uppsala model of internationalization has been key-instrument for foreign success. Since McKinsey (1993) made notice of the term Born Global times have changed. More rapidly and in increasing numbers throughout

  11. Managing Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in a New Born of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in a New Born of a Psychopathic Widow: Case Report. CEO Onuoha, CC Amah, HA Ezike. Abstract. Background: Sacrococcygeal tumors are composite embryonal tumours reflecting any one or more of embryonal/foetal remnants such as germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, ...

  12. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  13. Recent characterization of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals ...

  14. Lovelock gravities from Born-Infeld gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, P. K.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2017-02-01

    We present a Born-Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  15. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  16. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  17. Practical solutions to implementing "Born Semantic" data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Buck, J. J. H.; Stacey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of data being "Born Semantic" has been proposed in recent years as a Semantic Web analogue to the idea of data being "born digital"[1], [2]. Within the "Born Semantic" concept, data are captured digitally and at a point close to the time of creation are annotated with markup terms from semantic web resources (controlled vocabularies, thesauri or ontologies). This allows heterogeneous data to be more easily ingested and amalgamated in near real-time due to the standards compliant annotation of the data. In taking the "Born Semantic" proposal from concept to operation, a number of difficulties have been encountered. For example, although there are recognised methods such as Header, Dictionary, Triples [3] for the compression, publication and dissemination of large volumes of triples these systems are not practical to deploy in the field on low-powered (both electrically and computationally) devices. Similarly, it is not practical for instruments to output fully formed semantically annotated data files if they are designed to be plugged into a modular system and the data to be centrally logged in the field as is the case on Argo floats and oceanographic gliders where internal bandwidth becomes an issue [2]. In light of these issues, this presentation will concentrate on pragmatic solutions being developed to the problem of generating Linked Data in near real-time systems. Specific examples from the European Commission SenseOCEAN project where Linked Data systems are being developed for autonomous underwater platforms, and from work being undertaken in the streaming of data from the Irish Galway Bay Cable Observatory initiative will be highlighted. Further, developments of a set of tools for the LogStash-ElasticSearch software ecosystem to allow the storing and retrieval of Linked Data will be introduced. References[1] A. Leadbetter & J. Fredericks, We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, 2014

  18. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  19. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  20. Therapeutic Dancing for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Pryscia Carvalho Aguiar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dancing has been advocated as an effective adjunct to conventional physical therapies for people living with Parkinson's disease (PD. This systematic review evaluates studies on the outcomes of different dance genres on mobility and quality of life in PD. We searched databases including CINHAL (1982–2015, Medline (1922–2015, Scopus (1996–2015, Web of Science (2002–2015, Embase (2007–2015, PEDro (1999–2015 and the Cochrane Library (1996–2015. The key words were: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson*, Parkinsonism, dance, dance therapy, dance genres, safety, feasibility, and quality of life. Two independent investigators reviewed the texts. Only randomized controlled trials, quasirandomized controlled trials, and case series studies were included. There was emerging evidence that therapeutic dance can be safe and feasible for people with mild to moderately severe PD, with beneficial effects on walking, freezing of gait, and health related quality of life.

  1. Therapeutic approaches for celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugis, Nicholas M.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common, lifelong autoimmune disorder for which dietary control is the only accepted form of therapy. A strict gluten-free diet is burdensome to patients and can be limited in efficacy, indicating there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches to supplement or supplant dietary therapy. Many molecular events required for disease pathogenesis have been recently characterized and inspire most current and emerging drug-discovery efforts. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confirm the importance of human leukocyte antigen genes in our pathogenic model and identify a number of new risk loci in this complex disease. Here, we review the status of both emerging and potential therapeutic strategies in the context of disease pathophysiology. We conclude with a discussion of how genes identified during GWAS and follow-up studies that enhance susceptibility may offer insight into developing novel therapies. PMID:26060114

  2. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mazumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds.

  3. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.

  4. Yessotoxin, a Promising Therapeutic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yessotoxin (YTX is a polyether compound produced by dinoflagellates and accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. No records about human intoxications induced by this compound have been published, however it is considered a toxin. Modifications in second messenger levels, protein levels, immune cells, cytoskeleton or activation of different cellular death types have been published as consequence of YTX exposure. This review summarizes the main intracellular pathways modulated by YTX and their pharmacological and therapeutic implications.

  5. Cell kinetics and therapeutic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeff, M.; Abenhardt, W.; Gruner, B.; Stoffner, D.; Mainz Univ.

    1976-01-01

    The study shows that cell kinetics effects correlate with the effects of cytostatic drugs in the tumour model investigated here. It should, however, be noted that even genetically related tumour cell types may react differently to the same cytostatic drug, and that the cell kinetics effects, due to the changes in the cell cycle, cannot be predicted but should be followed with a very fast method, e.g. sequential flan fluorescence cytophotometry, for optimal therapeutic results. (orig./GSE) [de

  6. Las Born Global: Empresas de Acelerada Internacionalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettel Brenes Leiva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las born global son un grupo de pequeñas y medianasempresas emprendedoras que presentan unproceso de internacionalización acelerado, es decir,inician sus actividades comerciales en el mercadomundial justo apenas nacen o en un periodo muycercano a su nacimiento. Estas empresas ingresana los nuevos mercados obviando o se brincándosealgunas de las etapas del proceso tradicional de internacionalización,gradual o por etapas, conocidocomo “modelo Uppsala”. Son entes dinamizadoresde las economías que contribuyen en el desarrolloeconómico de los países, siempre y cuando se creael clima, las condiciones y la infraestructura indispensablepara que puedan alcanzar un desarrollosostenido de sus exportaciones. Este artículo intentacaracterizar a las born global partiendo de las definiciones,características, sostenibilidad y la selección ymodo de ingreso a los mercados globales.   ABSTRACT The born global is a group of small andmedium sized entrepreneurial companies that showan accelerated internationalization process, thatis, they start their commercial activity in worldmarkets just as they are born or in a period veryclose to their conception. These companies enternew markets paying no attention to, or disregardingsome of the steps of the traditional gradual orstepwise internationalization process known as the“Uppsala model”. They are dynamizing entities oftheir economies that contribute to the economicdevelopment of their countries, as long as the essentialoperating climate, conditions and infrastructure arecreated to allow them attain a sustained developmentin their exports. This article attempts to characterizethe born global companies starting from thedefinitions, characteristics, sustainability and theirchoice of ingress mode to global markets.

  7. Neurological development of children born to liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.

  8. Executive and Memory Function in Adolescents Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen; Vohr, Betty R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many preterm children display school difficulties, which may be mediated by impairment in executive function and memory. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate executive and memory function among adolescents born preterm compared with term controls at 16 years. METHODS: A total of 337 of 437 (77%) adolescents born in 1989 to 1992 with a birth weight executive function and memory tasks. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare groups and to identify associations between selected factors and outcomes among preterm subjects. RESULTS: Adolescents born preterm, compared with term controls, showed deficits in executive function in the order of 0.4 to 0.6 SD on tasks of verbal fluency, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, planning/organization, and working memory as well as verbal and visuospatial memory. After exclusion of adolescents with neurosensory disabilities and full-scale IQ executive dysfunction, as measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, on the Metacognition Index (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–5.1]) and the Global Executive Composite (OR: 4.2 [95% CI: 1.6–10.9]), but not on the Behavioral Regulation index (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 0.7–3.5]). Among adolescents born preterm, severe brain injury on neonatal ultrasound and lower maternal education were the most consistent factors associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Even after exclusion of preterm subjects with significant disabilities, adolescents born preterm in the early 1990s were at increased risk of deficits in executive function and memory. PMID:21300680

  9. Conotoxins that confer therapeutic possibilities

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2012-06-04

    Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ?-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ho Moon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroral cholangioscopy (POC provides direct visualization of the bile duct and facilitates diagnostic or therapeutic intervention. The currently available single-operator POC systems are "Mother-baby" scope system, SpyGlass direct visualization system, and direct POC using a regular ultra-slim upper endoscope. Direct POC using an ultra-slim upper endoscope having a larger 2-mm working channel can provide a valuable and economic solution for evaluating bile-duct lesions. Main diagnostic procedures under direct POC are visual characterization and optically guided target biopsy for the indeterminate bile duct lesion. Image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow-band imaging has shown promise for more detailed evaluation of mucosal abnormality and can be performed under direct POC. Intracorporeal lithotripsy such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy or laser lithotripsy is a main therapeutic intervention of direct POC for patients with bile duct stones that are resistant to conventional endoscopic stone-removal procedures. Besides, tumor ablation therapy, such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation may be also performed using direct POC. Further developments of the endoscope and specialized accessories or devices are expected to facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic role of this cholangioscopic procedure.

  11. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  12. Conotoxins that confer therapeutic possibilities

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ?-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  13. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  15. Acute Organophosphate Poisonings: Therapeutic Dilemmas and New Potential Therapeutic Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucinic, S.; Jovanovic, D.; Vucinic, Z.; Todorovic, V.; Segrt, Z.

    2007-01-01

    It has been six decades since synthesis of organophosphates, but this chapter has not yet come to a closure. Toxic effects of organophosphates are well known and the current therapeutic scheme includes supportive therapy and antidotes. There is a dilemma on whether and when to apply gastric lavage and activated charcoal. According to Position Statement (by EAPCCT) it should be applied only if the patient presents within one hour of ingestion, with potentially lethal ingested dose. Atropine, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at m-receptors, which antagonizes bronchosecretion and bronchoconstriction, is the corner stone of acute organophosphate poisoning therapy. There were many attempts to find a more efficient drug, including glycopyrrolate which has been used even in clinical trials, but it still can not replace atropine. The only dilemma about atropine usage which still exists, concerns usage of high atropine dose and scheme of application. The most efficient atropinization is achieved with bolus doses of 1-2mg of atropine i.v push, with repeating the dose on each 5 minutes until signs of atropinization are registered. Diazepam, with its GABA stabilizing effect, reduces central nervous system damage and central respiratory weakness. Oximes reactivate phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase, which still has not gone ageing, reducing acetylcholine concentration and cholinergic crisis. These effects are clearly demonstrated in experimental conditions, but the clinical significance of oximes is still unclear and there are still those who question oxime therapy. For those who approve it, oxime dosage, duration of therapy, the choice of oxime for certain OP is still an open issue. We need new, more efficient antidotes, and those that are in use are only the small part of the therapy which could be used. Experimental studies show favorable therapeutic effect of many agents, but none of them has been introduced in standard treatment of OPI poisoning in the last 30

  16. Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, J J; Peters, R L; Ponsonby, A-L; Gurrin, L C; Hill, D; Tang, M L K; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2014-12-01

    Asian infants appear to be over-represented among patients with clinical food allergy in Australia, but this has not been formally examined at the population level. Any difference in prevalence according to parental country of birth may be secondary to modifiable lifestyle factors. We aimed to quantify (i) differences in the prevalence of peanut allergy by parental country of birth and (ii) contribution of measured environmental exposures to these differences. The population-based HealthNuts study in Melbourne, Australia, screened 5276 infants (74% participation) with skin prick tests and sensitized infants underwent food challenge. Of these, 535 had a parent born in East Asia and 574 in UK/Europe. Associations between parents' country of birth and offspring peanut allergy were examined using multiple logistic regression. Compared to infants with two Australian-born parents, peanut allergy was more common among infants with parent/s born in East Asia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.1) but not those with parent/s born in the UK/Europe (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5). Paradoxically rates of allergic disease were lower among Asian parents. A higher prevalence of eczema among infants of Asian parents explained around 30% of the increase in peanut allergy, while differences in dog ownership explained around 18%. The high peanut allergy prevalence among infants of Asian-born parents appears to have occurred in a single generation and was not present among infants with parents migrating from other countries, suggesting gene-environment interactions are important. The role of eczema and microbial exposure in food allergy prevention warrants exploration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  18. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and

  19. The Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy A. Bolton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid growth in the first six months of life is a well-established risk factor for childhood obesity, and child feeding practices (supplementation or substitution of breast milk with formula and early introduction of solids have been reported to predict this. The third largest immigrant group in Australia originate from China. Case-studies reported from Victorian Maternal and Child Health nurses suggest that rapid growth trajectories in the infants of Chinese parents is common place. Furthermore, these nurses report that high value is placed by this client group on rapid growth and a fatter child; that rates of breastfeeding are low and overfeeding of infant formula is high. There are currently no studies which describe infant growth or its correlates among this immigrant group. Presentation of hypothesis We postulate that in Australia, Chinese-born immigrant mothers will have different infant feeding practices compared to non-immigrant mothers and this will result in different growth trajectories and risk of overweight. We present the Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis - that less breastfeeding, high formula feeding and early introduction of solids in infants of Chinese-born immigrant mothers living in Australia will result in a high protein intake and subsequent rapid growth trajectory and increased risk of overweight and obesity. Testing the hypothesis Three related studies will be conducted to investigate the hypothesis. These will include two quantitative studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal and a qualitative study. The quantitative studies will investigate differences in feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant compared to non-immigrant mothers and infants; and the growth trajectories over the first 3.5 years of life. The qualitative study will provide more in-depth understanding of the influencing factors on feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant mothers. Implications of the

  20. Individualised cancer therapeutics: dream or reality? Therapeutics construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuqiao; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2005-11-01

    The analysis of DNA microarray and proteomic data, and the subsequent integration into functional expression sets, provides a circuit map of the hierarchical cellular networks responsible for sustaining the viability and environmental competitiveness of cancer cells, that is, their robust systematics. These technologies can be used to 'snapshot' the unique patterns of molecular derangements and modified interactions in cancer, and allow for strategic selection of therapeutics that best match the individual profile of the tumour. This review highlights technology that can be used to selectively disrupt critical molecular targets and describes possible vehicles to deliver the synthesised molecular therapeutics to the relevant cellular compartments of the malignant cells. RNA interference (RNAi) involves a group of evolutionarily conserved gene silencing mechanisms in which small sequences of double-stranded RNA or intrinsic antisense RNA trigger mRNA cleavage or translational repression, respectively. Although RNAi molecules can be synthesised to 'silence' virtually any gene, even if upregulated, a mechanism for selective delivery of RNAi effectors to sites of malignant disease remains challenging. The authors will discuss gene-modified conditionally replicating viruses as candidate vehicles for the delivery of RNAi.

  1. Therapeutic irradiation and brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheline, G.E.; Wara, W.M.; Smith, V.

    1980-01-01

    This is a review and reanalysis of the literature on adverse effects of therapeutic irradiation on the brain. Reactions have been grouped and considered according to time of appearance. The emphasis of the analysis is on delayed reactions, especially those that occur from a few months to several years after irradiation. All dose specifications were converted into equivalent megavoltage rads. The data were analyzed in terms of total dose, overall treatment time and number of treatment fractions. Also discussed were acute radiation reactions, early delayed radiation reactions, somnolence and leukoencephalopathy post-irradiation/chemotherapy and combined effects of radiation and chemotherapy

  2. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stanley

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality.

  3. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different

  4. Quality assessment of drinking water from different sources in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treated pipe borne water, sachet water and water sold in open containers were also investigated. Standard plate count technique, multiple tube fermentation technique, and membrane filtration technique were employed in determining the microbial quality of the water. The study showed uniform temperature range of 27.5 to ...

  5. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is needed by man for the sustenance of life and it is the second most important natural resource used by man after the air were breathe. Man survives longer without food than without water. The socio-economic development of man is determined partly by the availability of water. The supply of safe pipe-borne water in ...

  6. Evaluating water and sanitation training in Peru and Nepal | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In many rural and peri-urban areas around the world, water used for human consumption is being contaminated with human pathogens, heavy metals, and other dissolved compounds. As a result, millions of families lack access to safe water. Families that drink contaminated water may suffer from water-borne diseases such ...

  7. SPACE-BORNE LASER ALTIMETER GEOLOCATION ERROR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of space-borne laser altimetry technology over the past 40 years. Taking the ICESAT satellite as an example, a rigorous space-borne laser altimeter geolocation model is studied, and an error propagation equation is derived. The influence of the main error sources, such as the platform positioning error, attitude measurement error, pointing angle measurement error and range measurement error, on the geolocation accuracy of the laser spot are analysed by simulated experiments. The reasons for the different influences on geolocation accuracy in different directions are discussed, and to satisfy the accuracy of the laser control point, a design index for each error source is put forward.

  8. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  9. Increased organ donations from people born outside Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, M A; Mansilla, J J; Ruiz, P; Guerrero, F; Lebrón, M; Ortuño, R; Daga, D; Carballo, M

    2008-11-01

    Organs donated from persons born outside Spain are becoming increasingly numerous. These persons now account for 26.1% of all donors in the "Malaga sector," an area of tourism with a high percentage of immigrants. Acceptance to donation among persons from Europe and South America is similar to that of Spanish persons but lower among those born in Africa. We must recognize the great help that cultural mediators provided not only by assistance with the language barrier but also by generating confidence among families and understanding their emotions, feelings, and traditions, mainly during interviews with families from different social and cultural miliere. To be efficient, the interpreters or cultural mediators need to have received specific training in the organ donation process and to be involved and convinced that organ donation and transplantation is the best solution for severe health problems.

  10. A differential equation for the Generalized Born radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2013-06-28

    The Generalized Born (GB) model offers a convenient way of representing electrostatics in complex macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. The computation of atomic GB radii is currently performed by different non-local approaches involving volume or surface integrals. Here we obtain a non-linear second-order partial differential equation for the Generalized Born radius, which may be solved using local iterative algorithms. The equation is derived under the assumption that the usual GB approximation to the reaction field obeys Laplace's equation. The equation admits as particular solutions the correct GB radii for the sphere and the plane. The tests performed on a set of 55 different proteins show an overall agreement with other reference GB models and "perfect" Poisson-Boltzmann based values.

  11. Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, R.; Hora, E. da; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Santos, C. dos

    2015-01-01

    A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely,G(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), w(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), and V (vertical stroke φ vertical stroke). A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampere law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory. (orig.)

  12. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Salas-Benito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.

  13. Studies on ultraviolet inactivation of air-borne microorganisms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shin-ichi; Doi, Hitoshi; Yamayoshi, Takao; Nunoura, Masako; Tatsumi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    UV(254nm) inactivation of air-borne bacteria in an air-controlling apparatus was studied. The appratus was composed of a chamber for vaporizing a bacterial suspension and an irradiation duct equipped with an UV lamp(GL-30). The bacterial which passed through the irradiation duct impinged on a petri dish by an air slit sampler. Selected bacteria for the experiment were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea and Bacillus subtilis(spores). The apparatus was useful for the study of the susceptibility of air-borne bacteria to UV radiation. UV dose necessary to inhibit colony formation in 90% of individual bacteria in the controlled air was as low as 27 to 35% of the dose required for the agar plate method. (author)

  14. Forward modeling of space-borne gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbo, Louis J.; Cornish, Neil J.; Poujade, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Planning is underway for several space-borne gravitational wave observatories to be built in the next 10 to 20 years. Realistic and efficient forward modeling will play a key role in the design and operation of these observatories. Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors operate very differently from their ground-based counterparts. Complex orbital motion, virtual interferometry, and finite size effects complicate the description of space-based systems, while nonlinear control systems complicate the description of ground-based systems. Here we explore the forward modeling of space-based gravitational wave detectors and introduce an adiabatic approximation to the detector response that significantly extends the range of the standard low frequency approximation. The adiabatic approximation will aid in the development of data analysis techniques, and improve the modeling of astrophysical parameter extraction

  15. The Dynamic Internationalization Model of Slovenian Born Global SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Lejko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are important businessactors in the Slovenian, as well as European economy. Inaddition to the current global market conditions, reflecting a severeeconomic downturn, the SMEs in Slovenia and other transitioneconomies operate under additional extensive external pressures,arising from the opening of their domestic markets. Undersuch conditions, companies, including SMEs, perceive internationalizationas an inevitable, or even urgent step in the processof their business operations. However, companies pursue differentpaths in their internationalization efforts, one of them beinga rapid internationalization strategy, denoted as the Born Globalconcept. In the paper, we explore the internationalization processof Slovenian Born Global SMEs. We employ an exploratory qualitativecase study analysis of selected Slovenian SMEs in order tograsp the key characteristics of their internationalization process.On the basis of the latter we construct a dynamic internationalizationmodel that might be used as a conceptual framework forempirical research of dynamic SMEs market behavior in Sloveniaand other transition countries.

  16. Analysis of Time Reversible Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the time reversible Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (TRBOMD scheme, which preserves the time reversibility of the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics even with non-convergent self-consistent field iteration. In the linear response regime, we derive the stability condition, as well as the accuracy of TRBOMD for computing physical properties, such as the phonon frequency obtained from the molecular dynamics simulation. We connect and compare TRBOMD with Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics in terms of accuracy and stability. We further discuss the accuracy of TRBOMD beyond the linear response regime for non-equilibrium dynamics of nuclei. Our results are demonstrated through numerical experiments using a simplified one-dimensional model for Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

  17. Massive Born--Infeld and Other Dual Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S

    2015-01-01

    We consider massive dual pairs of p-forms and (D-p-1)-forms described by non-linear Lagrangians, where non-linear curvature terms in one theory translate into non-linear mass-like terms in the dual theory. In particular, for D=2p and p even the two non-linear structures coincide when the non-linear massless theory is self-dual. This state of affairs finds a natural realization in the four-dimensional massive N=1 supersymmetric Born-Infeld action, which describes either a massive vector multiplet or a massive linear (tensor) multiplet with a Born-Infeld mass-like term. These systems should play a role for the massive gravitino multiplet obtained from a partial super-Higgs in N=2 Supergravity.

  18. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  19. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems.

  20. Born Global Sourcers – buying internationally right from the inception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    time researchers has identified various types of INV’s and based on the empirical work by Rasmussen et al (2010) a particular type of international new venture is isolated. The Born Global sourcers which is firms who conducts international purchasing from or near their establishment but who only...... be a viable starting point for research into this type, but that this research could be supplemented by including the relations to domestic clients/partners....

  1. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model ...... results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable....

  2. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  3. Bias Gender Dalam Novel La Grande Borne Karya NH. Dini

    OpenAIRE

    Dilla, Raili Irfa; Thahar, Harris Effendi; Zulfikarni, Zulfikarni

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the gender diffraction in novel La Grande Borne by Nh. Dini, evaluated from five aspects, (a) marginalization, (b) subordination, (c) stereotype, (d) violence, and (e) double work load. The data of this study was the sentences that refer to the gender diffraction.. The analyze technics were (1) describe the data, (2) analyze the data that refer to gender, (3) lnterpretated the unfair in gender, and (4) conclusion. The results of this study could be ...

  4. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921-) Biography

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fatih Yavuz; M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-01-01

    Aaron Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. Then he attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an M.D. in 1946. After his graduation, he served a rotating internship, followed by a residency in pathology at the Rhode Island Hospital. Although initially not interested in psychiatry, a residency in neurology at the Cushing Veterans Administration Hospital in Framingham, MA, requ...

  5. Bovine Tick-borne Protozoan Diseases: Emerging Threats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker MR

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne protozoan diseases, Theileriosis and Babesiosis, are major health and management problems of cattle, small ruminants and buffaloes in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Recently, tickborne diseases were ranked high in terms of their impact on poor farming communities in developing countries. Whereas the global economic importance of ticks is particularly high for livestock, there is also a relevant impact on public health in the northern hemisphere.

  6. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of cultured mouse macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009

  8. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015

  9. The Infant Born to a Woman with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Theresa; Lim, Caitlin; Raines, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with GDM develop insulin resistance, which results in altered glucose tolerance. As a result, there are frequent episodes of hyperglycemia and high levels of circulating amino acids, increasing the transfer of nutrients to the fetus. This article discusses the role of the mother-baby nursing in the care of neonates born to women with gestational diabetes.

  10. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  11. Food-borne pathogens, health and role of dietary phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, K; Labbe, R G

    1998-12-01

    Infectious diseases transmitted by food have become a major public health concern in recent years. In the USA alone, there are an estimated 6-33 million cases each year. The list of responsible agents continues to grow. In the past 20 years some dozen new pathogens that are primarily food-borne have been identified. Fruits and vegetables, often from the global food market, have been added to the traditional vehicles of food-borne illness; that is, undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, or unpasteurized milk. Such products are minimally processed and have fewer barriers to microbial growth such as salt, sugar or preservatives. The evolution of the epidemiology of food-borne illness requires a rethinking of traditional, though still valid, solutions for their prevention. Among various strategies to prevent food-borne pathogens, use of dietary phytochemicals is promising. The major obstacle in the use of dietary phytochemical is the consistency of phytochemicals in different foods due to their natural genetic variation. We have developed a novel tissue-culture-based selection strategy to isolate elite phenolic phytochemical-producing clonal lines of species belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Among several species we have targeted elite clonal lines of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfrigens in fresh and processed meats. We are also evaluating high phenolic profile-containing clonal lines of basil (Ocimum basilicum) to inhibit gastric ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori. Other elite lines of the members of the family Lamiaceae, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and salvia (Salvia officinalis) also hold promise against a wide range of food pathogens such as Salmonella species in poultry products and Vibrio species in seafood.

  12. Goddard Technology Efforts to Improve Space Borne Laser Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the risk, perceived and actual, of employing instruments containing space borne lasers NASA initiated the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) in 2001. This program managed jointly by NASA Langley and NASA Goddard and employing lasers researchers from government, university and industrial labs is nearing the conclusion of its planned 5 year duration. This paper will describe some of the efforts and results obtained by the Goddard half of the program.

  13. Neural correlates of executive attention in adults born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Daamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of attention problems and may especially impair executive attention, i.e., top-down control of attentional selection in situations where distracting information interferes with the processing of task-relevant stimuli. While there are initial findings linking structural brain alterations in preterm-born individuals with attention problems, the functional basis of these problems are not well understood. The present study used an fMRI adaptation of the Attentional Network Test to examine the neural correlates of executive attention in a large sample of N = 86 adults born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW, and N = 100 term-born controls. Executive attention was measured by comparing task behavior and brain activations associated with the processing of incongruent vs. congruent arrow flanker stimuli. Consistent with subtle impairments of executive attention, the VP/VLBW group showed lower accuracy and a tendency for increased response times during the processing of incongruent stimuli. Both groups showed similar activation patters, especially within expected fronto-cingulo-parietal areas, but no significant between-group differences. Our results argue for a maintained attention-relevant network organization in high-functioning preterm born adults in spite of subtle deficits in executive attention. Gestational age and neonatal treatment variables showed associations with task behavior, and brain activation in the dorsal ACC and lateral occipital areas, suggesting that the degree of prematurity (and related neonatal complications has subtle modulatory influences on executive attention processing.

  14. Mortality differences between the foreign-born and locally-born population in France (2004-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, Roxane; Jougla, Eric; Breem, Yves; Kunst, Anton E; Rey, Grégoire

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to the situation in many European countries, the mortality of immigrants in France has been little studied. The main reasons for the lack of studies are based on ethical and ideological considerations. The objective of this study is to explore mortality by country of birth in Metropolitan (i.e. 'mainland') France. Complete mortality data were used to study the relative risks of mortality of the foreign- and locally-born populations by gender, age and cause of death for the period 2004-2007 in Metropolitan France. Analyses were conducted by countries of birth grouped into geographic areas and by the Human Development Index (HDI). The differentials in mortality between foreign-born and locally-born populations were not homogeneous. The figures varied by age (higher foreign-born mortality for the young; lower mortality for migrants aged 15-64 years), gender (female migrants more frequently had higher relative mortality than men migrants), country of birth (Eastern European-born migrants had higher mortality, while those born in Morocco, Central Asia, 'other Asian countries' and America had lower mortality) and cause of death (migrant mortality was higher overall for deaths caused by infectious diseases and diabetes, and lower for violent death and neoplasm). Moreover, mortality relative risks for male, violent deaths and cancer were positively associated with country-of-birth HDI, while female mortality and infectious disease mortality were negatively associated with country-of-birth HDI. Some important caveats have to be considered because the study did not control for individuals socioeconomic position in France, or length of residence in the host country. A strong healthy migrant effect was suggested and its intensity varies with age and gender (which may reflect different reasons for migration). For some specific causes of death, a lifestyle effect seems to explain mortality differentials. The associations between HDI and mortality show that mortality

  15. A thermodynamic assessment of therapeutic hypothermia techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Henriques, Izabela Batista; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    According to literature, therapeutic hypothermia has been applied for treating conditions that causes an interruption in the delivery of oxygen to the brain, giving the patient better chances of survival with a neurological recovery and without any irreversible damage to the brain. Hypothermia is also used during surgeries and circulatory arrest. In this article, the objective temperature of hypothermia is 32 °C, which is considered mild: 32–35 °C. Three techniques of hypothermia induction were considered: external blood cooling, endovascular cooling with a catheter insertion and water bath. Energy and exergy analyses were performed to determine the clinical effectiveness of these techniques and to evaluate the best test parameters, from which it was possible to calculate the body internal temperature, destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency. Moreover, it was proposed an exergy performance index, which takes into account the ability of a given technique to change the exergy of the body. Results indicate that therapeutic hypothermia takes the subject to a state of lower destroyed exergy and higher body exergy efficiency. The exergy performance index shows that lower rates of cooling lead to a better transformation of the exergy removed from the body into variation of the body exergy. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic study of the human body under mild hypothermia. • Energy and Exergy analysis were applied to the human thermal model. • Calculation of destroyed exergy, exergy efficiency. • Hypothermia led the body to a state of lower destroyed exergy. • EBC achieved higher values of destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  17. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Doreen M

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is commonly recommended to optimize drug dosing regimens of various medications. It has been proposed to guide therapy in pregnant women, in whom physiological changes may lead to altered pharmacokinetics resulting in difficulty in predicting the appropriate drug dosage. Ideally, TDM may play a role in enhancing the effectiveness of treatment while minimizing toxicity of both the mother and fetus. Monitoring of drug levels may also be helpful in assessing adherence to prescribed therapy in selected cases. Limitations exist as therapeutic ranges have only been defined for a limited number of drugs and are based on data obtained in nonpregnant patients. TDM has been suggested for anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and antiretroviral drugs, based on pharmacokinetic studies that have shown reduced drug concentrations. However, there is only relatively limited (and sometimes inconsistent) information regarding the clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and the effect of subsequent dose adjustments. Further studies are required to determine whether implementation of TDM during pregnancy improves outcome and is associated with any benefit beyond that achieved by clinical judgment alone. The cost effectiveness of TDM programs during pregnancy also remains to be examined.

  19. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  20. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  1. Observational constraints on electromagnetic Born-Infeld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretón, Nora; Montiel, Ariadna [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. 14–740, D.F. (Mexico); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: nora@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Dpto. de Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080, Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    The cosmological model consisting of an electromagnetic Born-Infeld (BI) field coupled to a Robertson-Walker geometry is tested with the standard probes of SNIa, GRBs and direct Hubble parameter. The analysis shows that the inclusion of the nonlinear electromagnetic component does not contribute in a significative way to the observed expansion. The BI electromagnetic matter is considered with an abundance of Ω{sub BI}, that our best fit leads to Ω{sub BI} = 0.037 when tested with SNIa and the Hubble parameter data (0.1 < z < 1.75); while when tested with GRBs the result is of Ω{sub BI} = 0.304, which may indicate that this electrodynamics was important at epochs close to the appearance of large structure (z ≈ 7), although this late result has not as much reliability as that corresponding to the first two probes, since we know that the dispersion in GRBs data is still considerable. In view of these results we can rule out the electromagnetic Born-Infeld matter as the origin of the present accelerated expansion, this conclusion concerns exclusively the Born-Infeld theory.

  2. Observational constraints on electromagnetic Born-Infeld cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretón, Nora; Montiel, Ariadna; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The cosmological model consisting of an electromagnetic Born-Infeld (BI) field coupled to a Robertson-Walker geometry is tested with the standard probes of SNIa, GRBs and direct Hubble parameter. The analysis shows that the inclusion of the nonlinear electromagnetic component does not contribute in a significative way to the observed expansion. The BI electromagnetic matter is considered with an abundance of Ω BI , that our best fit leads to Ω BI = 0.037 when tested with SNIa and the Hubble parameter data (0.1 BI = 0.304, which may indicate that this electrodynamics was important at epochs close to the appearance of large structure (z ≈ 7), although this late result has not as much reliability as that corresponding to the first two probes, since we know that the dispersion in GRBs data is still considerable. In view of these results we can rule out the electromagnetic Born-Infeld matter as the origin of the present accelerated expansion, this conclusion concerns exclusively the Born-Infeld theory

  3. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated......BACKGROUND: Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. STUDY...... with a significantly increased height, larger HC, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and increased full-scale IQ compared to those born SGA without catch-up growth. CONCLUSION: SGA and IUGR may not be harmful for adult cognitive ability, at least not in individuals born at near-term. However...

  4. Predicting healthcare outcomes in prematurely born infants using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, Victoria; Lunt, Alan; Drysdale, Simon B; Yarzi, Muska N; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Greenough, Anne

    2018-05-23

    Prematurely born infants are at high risk of respiratory morbidity following neonatal unit discharge, though prediction of outcomes is challenging. We have tested the hypothesis that cluster analysis would identify discrete groups of prematurely born infants with differing respiratory outcomes during infancy. A total of 168 infants (median (IQR) gestational age 33 (31-34) weeks) were recruited in the neonatal period from consecutive births in a tertiary neonatal unit. The baseline characteristics of the infants were used to classify them into hierarchical agglomerative clusters. Rates of viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were recorded for 151 infants in the first year after birth. Infants could be classified according to birth weight and duration of neonatal invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) into three clusters. Cluster one (MV ≤5 days) had few LRTIs. Clusters two and three (both MV ≥6 days, but BW ≥or <882 g respectively), had significantly higher LRTI rates. Cluster two had a higher proportion of infants experiencing respiratory syncytial virus LRTIs (P = 0.01) and cluster three a higher proportion of rhinovirus LRTIs (P < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Readily available clinical data allowed classification of prematurely born infants into one of three distinct groups with differing subsequent respiratory morbidity in infancy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interpretation of second Born amplitudes in electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.; Simony, P.R.; Weaver, O.L.; Macek, J.

    1982-01-01

    Exact sound Born amplitudes for 1s-1s electron capture are presented and interpreted in terms of contributions from intermediate states off the energy shell and on the energy shell. The classical model of Thomas corresponds to two-step scattering via one particular on-shell intermediate state. In the high-velocity limit for 1s-1s capture, this on-shell intermediate state of the Thomas model accounts for one-half of the total cross section, i.e., the second Born cross section. The other half comes from off-energy-shell intermediate states near the on-shell Thomas state. Above 5 MeV both the off-shell and on-shell amplitudes have a simple structure near the Thomas peak. Below 1 MeV, contributions from a broader range of intermediate states are evident in the amplitudes. Although the contribution from the Thomas state is not large below 1 MeV, other second Born effects are significant

  6. Towards violation of Born's rule: description of a simple experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    Recently a new model with hidden variables of the wave type was elaborated, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Roughly speaking PCSFT is a classical signal theory applied to a special class of signals - 'quantum systems'. PCSFT reproduces successfully all probabilistic predictions of QM, including correlations for entangled systems. This model peacefully coexists with all known no-go theorems, including Bell's theorem. In our approach QM is an approximate model. All probabilistic predictions of QM are only (quite good) approximations of 'real physical averages'. The latter are averages with respect to fluctuations of prequantum fields. In particular, Born's rule is only an approximate rule. More precise experiments should demonstrate its violation. We present a simple experiment which has to produce statistical data violating Born's rule. Since the PCSFT-presentation of this experiment may be difficult for experimenters, we reformulate consequences of PCSFT in terms of the conventional wave function. In general, deviation from Born's rule is rather small. We found an experiment amplifying this deviation. We start with a toy example. Then we present a more realistic example based on Gaussian states with very small dispersion.

  7. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  8. Born to Lead? The Effect of Birth Order on Non-Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Grönqvist, Erik; Öckert, Björn

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of birth order on personality traits among men using population data on enlistment records and occupations for Sweden. We find that earlier born men are more emotionally stable, persistent, socially outgoing, willing to assume responsibility, and able to take initiative than later-borns. In addition, we find that birth order affects occupational sorting; first-born children are more likely to be managers, while later-born children are more likely to be self-employed. We al...

  9. HIV Transmission Dynamics Among Foreign-Born Persons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Eduardo E; Oster, Alexandra M; Xu, Songli; Wertheim, Joel O; Hernandez, Angela L

    2017-12-15

    In the United States (US), foreign-born persons are disproportionately affected by HIV and differ epidemiologically from US-born persons with diagnosed HIV infection. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons is important to guide HIV prevention efforts for these populations. We conducted molecular transmission network analysis to describe HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons with diagnosed HIV. Using HIV-1 polymerase nucleotide sequences reported to the US National HIV Surveillance System for persons with diagnosed HIV infection during 2001-2013, we constructed a genetic distance-based transmission network using HIV-TRACE and examined the birth region of potential transmission partners in this network. Of 77,686 people, 12,064 (16%) were foreign born. Overall, 28% of foreign-born persons linked to at least one other person in the transmission network. Of potential transmission partners, 62% were born in the United States, 31% were born in the same region as the foreign-born person, and 7% were born in another region of the world. Most transmission partners of male foreign-born persons (63%) were born in the United States, whereas most transmission partners of female foreign-borns (57%) were born in their same world region. These finding suggests that a majority of HIV infections among foreign-born persons in our network occurred after immigrating to the United States. Efforts to prevent HIV infection among foreign-born persons in the United States should include information of the transmission networks in which these individuals acquire or transmit HIV to develop more targeted HIV prevention interventions.

  10. Large baby syndrome in singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, AA; Loft, A

    2013-01-01

    Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?......Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?...

  11. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  12. Foreign-Born Instructors in the U.S.: Intercultural Competence, Teaching Strategies, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilik, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    This study examines intercultural competence, teaching strategies, and job satisfaction of foreign-born instructors in a small U.S. higher education institution. The research questions addressed by this study are: (1) How do foreign-born instructors score on intercultural competence? (2) How do foreign-born instructors' teaching strategies differ…

  13. Predictors That Influence Job Satisfaction of Foreign-Born Faculty at a Midwest Higher Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increase of foreign-born faculty in U.S. higher educational institutions, studies of the factors that challenge foreign-born faculty at higher educational institutions in the U.S. remain scarce. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine factors that impact the level of job satisfaction of foreign-born faculty at a Midwestern…

  14. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years. Study design: Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born

  15. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

  16. Cancer risk in children born after donor ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Bunch, K J; Murphy, M F G; Stiller, C A; Botting, B J; Wallace, W H; Davies, M C; Sutcliffe, A G

    2018-01-01

    Do children born after donor ART have an increased risk of developing childhood cancer in comparison to the general population? This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART. Most large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers. Cancer risk specifically in children born after donor ART has not been investigated to date. This retrospective cohort study utilized record linkage to determine the outcome status of all children born in Great Britain (1992-2008) after donor ART. The cohort included 12 137 members who contributed 95 389 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up 7.86 years). Records of all children born in Great Britain (England, Wales, Scotland) after all forms of donor ART (1992-2008) were linked to the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) to determine the number who subsequently developed cancer by 15 years of age, by the end of 2008. Rates of overall and type specific cancer (selected a priori) were compared with age, sex and calendar year standardized population-based rates, stratifying for potential mediating/moderating factors including sex, age at diagnosis, birth weight, multiple births, maternal previous live births, assisted conception type and fresh/ cryopreserved cycles. In our cohort of 12 137 children born after donor ART (52% male, 55% singleton births), no overall increased risk of cancer was identified. There were 12 cancers detected compared to 14.4 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.83; 95% CI 0.43-1.45; P = 0.50). A small, significant increased risk of hepatoblastoma was found, but the numbers and absolute risks were small (ART, the rarity of specific diagnostic subgroups of childhood cancer results in few cases and therefore wide CIs for such outcomes. As this is an

  17. Structurally Based Therapeutic Evaluation: A Therapeutic and Practical Approach to Teaching Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explains structurally based therapeutic evaluation of drugs, which uses seven therapeutic criteria in translating chemical and structural knowledge into therapeutic decision making in pharmaceutical care. In a Creighton University (Nebraska) medicinal chemistry course, students apply the approach to solve patient-related therapeutic problems in…

  18. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  19. The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Pebley, Anne R; Hsih, Katie; Chung, Chang Y; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-02-01

    Obesity among the Mexican-origin adult population in the US has been associated with longer stays in the US and with being US- vs. Mexican-born, two proxies for acculturation. This pattern is less clear for Mexican-origin children and young adults: recent evidence suggests that it may be reversed, with foreign-born Mexican youth in the US at higher risk of obesity than their US-born Mexican-American counterparts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the immigrant advantage in obesity prevalence for Mexican-origin populations in the US does not hold for children and young adults. We use data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1143) and the California Health Interview Survey (N = 25,487) for respondents ages 4-24 to calculate the odds of overweight/obesity by ethnicity and nativity. We find support for the hypothesis that overweight/obesity prevalence is not significantly lower for first-generation compared to second- and third-generation Mexican-origin youth. Significantly higher obesity prevalence among the first generation was observed for young adult males (ages 18-24) and adolescent females (ages 12-17). The previously-observed protective effect against obesity risk among recent adult immigrants does not hold for Mexican-origin youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrology, water resources and the epidemiology of water-related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Water-borne and water-based diseases are infections in which the causative agent (or one of its hosts) spends at least part of its lifecycle in water [1]. They still represent a major threat to human health, especially in the developing world. As an example, diarrhoea, commonly linked to water-borne diseases like cholera, is responsible for the death of about 525,000 children under five every year (out of nearly 1.7 billion cases globally), thus representing one of the leading causes of death among infants and children in low-income countries [2]. A wide range of micro- (protozoa, bacteria, viruses, algae) and macro-parasites (mostly flatworms and roundworms) is associated with water-borne and water-based diseases. Infection is generally caused by ingestion of, or exposure to, contaminated water, and is thus tightly linked to water excess, scarcity, availability or quality. More broadly, the term water-related diseases may also include vector-borne infections in which the ecology of the vector population is closely related to the presence of environmental water. This is the case, for instance, of mosquitoes acting as vectors of deadly diseases like malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever. Malaria alone exacted a toll of 429,000 deaths in 2015 (out of 212 million cases globally), according to the latest WHO estimates [3].

  1. Novel therapeutic approaches in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronidou, Genovefa; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Pollack, Seth M; Huang, Paul H; Lee, Alex; Jones, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of bones, characterized by the production of cartilage matrix. Due to lack of effective treatment for advanced disease, the clinical management of chondrosarcomas is exceptionally challenging. Current research focuses on elucidating the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of this rare bone malignancy, with the goal of developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Signaling pathways suggested to have a role in chondrosarcoma include Hedgehog, Src, PI3k-Akt-mTOR and angiogenesis. Mutations in IDH1/2, present in more than 50% of primary conventional chondrosarcomas, make the development of IDH inhibitors a promising treatment option. The present review discusses the preclinical and early clinical data on novel targeted therapeutic approaches in chondrosarcoma.

  2. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Benhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin.

  3. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

    2010-01-01

    Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

  4. Angiogenesis and Its Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays critical roles in human physiology that range from reproduction and fetal growth to wound healing and tissue repair. The sophisticated multistep process is tightly regulated in a spatial and temporal manner by “on-off switch signals” between angiogenic factors, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial cells. Uncontrolled angiogenesis may lead to several angiogenic disorders, including vascular insufficiency (myocardial or critical limb ischemia and vascular overgrowth (hemangiomas, vascularized tumors, and retinopathies. Thus, numerous therapeutic opportunities can be envisaged through the successful understanding and subsequent manipulation of angiogenesis. Here, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis and discuss pro- and antiangiogenic agents that offer potential therapy for cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  5. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar [Blacksburg, VA; Jani, Dewal [Blacksburg, VA; Nagarkatti, Rana [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  6. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kendi Celebi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1960's, with succesfully renal transplantations, acute rejection became to be a serious problem for graft survival. From 1965 to 2010, with the introduction of new immunosuppressant agents such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetile and tacrolimus, the acute rejection rates declined from 80% to 10% . There is an ongoing gradual improvement in allograft survival. Use of Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE is not evidence based treatment, but TPE is necessary for pre- and also post transplantation in patients with DSA. TPE is also a main treatment for antibody mediated rejection (AMR , but in clinical practice the duration and frequency of TPE and individual difference of antibody production is unclear. There is a requirement for more specific antibody elimination. Further randomised controlled studies are needed to elucidate TPE use before and after kidney transplantation. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(1.000: 8-10

  7. Therapeutical uses of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Graciela.

    1994-01-01

    Physiology of thyroid gland, pathology of thyroid , papillary, follicular cancer is considered together as differentiated thyroid cancer with very good results under therapy with iodine, invitro determination of calcitonin, search of metastasis, anaplastic carcinoma, as indifferentiated carcinoma with similar results as medullary carcinoma. This work gives a protocol for therapeutical use of 131I , in hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, thyrotoxic adenoma or Plummer disease, toxic multi nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis. Is studied too the treatment with pharmaceuticals, surgery and radioactive iodine. A recommended use of each and protocol for iodine administration, fixed dose technique, dose estimation,absorbed dose, recommendations about when to use and not use 131I are included in this work

  8. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  10. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  11. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  12. The sexual and reproductive health of foreign-born women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapales, Athena; Douglas-Hall, Ayana; Whitehead, Hannah

    2018-02-14

    To explore the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviors, health insurance coverage and use of SRH services of women in the United States (U.S.) by nativity, disaggregated by race and ethnicity. We analyzed publicly available and restricted data from the National Survey of Family Growth to assess differences and similarities between foreign-born and U.S.-born women, both overall and within Hispanic, non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and NH Asian groups. A larger proportion of foreign-born women than U.S.-born women lacked health insurance coverage. Foreign-born women utilized SRH services at lower rates than U.S.-born women; this effect diminished at the multivariate level, although race and ethnicity differences remained. Overall, foreign-born women were less likely to pay for SRH services with private insurance than U.S.-born women. Foreign-born women were less likely to use the most effective contraceptive methods than U.S.-born women, with some variation across race and ethnicity: NH white and NH black foreign-born women were less likely to use highly effective contraceptive methods than their U.S.-born counterparts, but among Hispanic women, the reverse was true. Our findings demonstrate that the SRH behaviors, needs and outcomes of foreign-born women differ from those of U.S-born women within the same race/ethnic group. This paper contributes to the emergent literature on immigrants in the U.S. by laying the foundation for further research on the SRH of the foreign-born population in the country, which is critical for developing public health policies and programs to understand better and serve this growing and diverse population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EVALUATION OF A NOVEL UAV-BORNE TOPO-BATHYMETRIC LASER PROFILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mandlburger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel topo-bathymetric laser profiler. The sensor system (RIEGL BathyCopter comprises a laser range finder, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver, a control unit, and digital cameras mounted on an octocopter UAV (RiCOPTER. The range finder operates on the time-of-flight measurement principle and utilizes very short laser pulses (<1 ns in the green domain of the spectrum (λ=532 nm for measuring distances to both the water surface and the river bottom. For assessing the precision and accuracy of the system an experiment was carried out in October 2015 at a pre-alpine river (Pielach in Lower Austria. A 200 m longitudinal section and 12 river cross sections were measured with the BathyCopter sensor system at a flight altitude of 15-20 m above ground level and a measurement rate of 4 kHz. The 3D laser profiler points were compared with independent, quasi-simultaneous data acquisitions using (i the RIEGL VUX1-UAV lightweight topographic laser scanning system (bare earth, water surface and (ii terrestrial survey (river bed. Over bare earth the laser profiler heights have a std. dev. of 3 cm, the water surface height appears to be underestimated by 5 cm, and river bottom heights differ from the reference measurements by 10 cm with a std. dev. of 13 cm. When restricting the comparison to laser profiler bottom points and reference measurements with a lateral offset below 1 m, the values improve to 4 cm bias with a std. dev. of 6 cm. We report additionally on challenges in comparing UAV-borne to terrestrial profiles. Based on the accuracy and the small footprint (3.5 cm at the water surface we concluded that the acquired 3D points can potentially serve as input data (river bed geometry, grain roughness and validation data (water surface, water depth for hydrodynamic-numerical models.

  14. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  15. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. METHODS: A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases...... language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care factors, major...

  16. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women...... and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post...

  17. Firms' degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Kuivalainen, Olli; Sundqvist, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    Despite the recent increase in 'born-global' studies, there has been little research on how the scale and scope of being a born-global firm affects performance: most of the earlier research takes no account either the number of or the distances between the countries on firm or export performance...... born-global pathways. The results of our empirical study on 185 Finnish exporting firms show that those that qualified as true born-globals had better export performance. Furthermore, depending on the degree of born-globalness, different dimensions of EO were of importance....

  18. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  19. Zika Virus: Recent Advances towards the Development of Vaccines and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A

    2017-06-13

    Zika is a rapidly emerging public health threat. Although clinical infection is frequently mild, significant neurological manifestations have been demonstrated in infants born to Zika virus (ZIKV) infected mothers. Due to the substantial ramifications of intrauterine infection, effective counter-measures are urgently needed. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. This review will summarize what is currently known about ZIKV, the clinical manifestations and epidemiology of Zika as well as, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection, host immune responses against ZIKV, and the current state of development of vaccines and therapeutics against ZIKV.

  20. Developmental outcomes of Japanese children born through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ogawa, Kohei; Horikawa, Reiko; Sago, Haruhiko

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate developmental outcomes of Japanese babies born through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) at ages 2 and 3. The data were gathered from 1085 children in a hospital-based cohort study conducted in Japan. The children's level of development was assessed through a parent-rated questionnaire, the Kinder Infant Development Scale, which consists of nine developmental domains. We compared the development of children born through ART and those born naturally by conducting analyses of covariance. For the analyses, the effect of maternal age, family income, parental education and multiple birth were controlled for. At 24 months, no significant difference was found between children born through ART and those born naturally in development in any domain. At 36 months, a significant difference was found in development of Receptive language (F (1, 845) = 6.148, P = 0.013), Expressive language (F (1, 845) = 4.060, P = 0.044) and Language concept (F (1, 845) = 6.968, P = 0.008). For these domains, children born through ART had a significantly higher developmental age compared to children born naturally. At age 2, no significant difference was found between the children born through ART and those born naturally in nine developmental domains, although at age 3, the children born through ART showed significantly better language development than the children born naturally. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.