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Sample records for water aspetti igienico-sanitari

  1. Hygienic and health aspects of drinking water; Aspetti igienico-sanitari delle acque destinate al consumo umano

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    Funari, Enzo; Ottaviani, Massimo [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    The quality of drinking water is a rather complex issue and involves various disciplines. To adequately treat this problem, it is necessary to use an integrated approach. The normative aspects of the problem of drinking water are reported, indicating the perspectives included in the recent EEC proposal. Some of the main aspects of the risk to human health associated with the possible exposure, through drinking water, to chemical substances (carcinogenic and non carcinogenic), and biological agents (bacteria, viruses, algae, micro and macro invertebrates) are presented. Finally, some aspects of risk management are examined in order to indicate the preventive and control measures necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water (abstraction techniques, treatment processes, protection of groundwater).

  2. Nutrizione e condizioni igienico-sanitarie dell'alimentazione in villaggi rurali indiani

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    A. Viganò

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Premesse. la malnutrizione ed una carente sicurezza alimentare impattano negativamente sulle popolazioni dei PVS (paesi in via di sviluppo, inducendo gli stati patologici di Marasma e Kwashiorkor durante l’infanzia con effetti debilitanti a medio-lungo termine.

    Obiettivi e metodi: é stata svolta un’indagine (2001, stagione monsonica per valutare: - lo stato nutrizionale della popolazione infantile (0- 59 mesi, effettuando misurazioni antropometriche; - le abitudini alimentari familiari, basandosi sul modello semiquantitativo di frequenza alimentare; - gli aspetti igienico-sanitari dell’alimentazione. Tramite due questionari rivolti alle donne intervistate presso i presidi ambulatoriali dell’IIMC (na= 281 o presso il domicilio (nb= 116.

    Risultati: la prevalenza dello stato malnutrizionale “grave” è la seguente: WAZ (wasting, crescita ponderale 59,3%; HAZ (stunting, crescita lineare 89,2%; la fascia d’età più colpita è quella dei 6-24 mesi. A livello familiare il regime dietetico pro capite corrisponde a 1433 74 kcal/die ed è in gran parte definito da pasti a base di riso e ortaggi; poco frequente è il consumo settimanale di fonti proteiche animali e di frutta. L’acqua per consumo diretto è attinta da pompe idriche manuali (95%; una consistente quota di acque stagnanti superficiali (36% è impiegata per cucinare: questa sorgente idrica è inoltre serbatoio di rifiuti domestici (54% e scarichi di servizi igienici (28%.

    Conclusioni: in un contesto socio-economico insufficiente a garantire l’apporto dietetico e la salubrità alimentare adeguati, risultano particolarmente mirati ed efficaci interventi quali: - ND (Nutritional Diet: formulazione dietetica prodotta partendo da materie prime locali, per combattere la malnutrizione materno-infantile; - HEALTH PROMOTION: educazione igienico-sanitaria, specie nel campo alimentare, articolata in

  3. Technical-economical, agronomical, pedological, hygienic and normative aspects of municipal wastewater sludges; Aspetti tecnico-economici, agronomici, pedologici, igienico-sanitari e normativi dei fanghi di depurazione civile

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    Ottavi, C. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Ottaviani, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Figliolia, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    This review is intended to give an overview on the technical, economical, agronomical, pedological and hygienic aspects of sludges from treatment plants of civil wastewater, Both Italian and European regulations on the sludge disposal are considered.

  4. Aspetti geodinamici della diga dell' Ambiesta

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    P. CALOI

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Si esamina UIL anno di registrazioni clinograflelie, ottenute
    nei concio centrale della diga dell'Ambiesta, affluente di destra del
    Tagliamento, presso Tolmezzo. Si riassumono gli aspetti dinamici fondamentali,
    che caratterizzano un anno normale di interazione fra lo sbarramento
    e le cause perturbanti, con particolare riguardo alle variazioni di
    livello del bacino idrico (invaso, della temperatura dell'aria e della insolazione.
    Si accenna inoltre alle influenze stagionali sull'andamento della verticale
    apparente della diga, quale vengono riyelate dalle registrazioni di due
    coppie di clinografl, sistemate in roccia, ai lati della diga, alia quota del
    eoronamento. Si accenna inline alle variazioni, nei tempo, delle caratteristiclie
    elasticlie del calcestruzzo, come vengono chiaramente indicate dalle
    registrazioni clinografiche di anno in anno.

  5. Smart City: aspetti geomatici di un paradigma “fuzzy”

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    Andrea Fiduccia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Il concetto di Smart City viene proposto con molte varianti non sempre tra loro coerenti. Ne sceglieremol’accezione che propone la possibilità di una migliore qualità della vita negli spazi urbani rimpiazzandone lacaotica complessità con innovazioni tecnologiche per realizzare i nostri progetti di lavoro e di vita. All’interno delparadigma ci concentreremo sugli specifici aspetti del segmento disciplinare della geomatica.Smart City: geomatics aspects of afuzzy paradigmThe label smart city is still quite a fuzzyconcept and is used in ways that arenot always consistent. We endorsethe definition that “a city can be definedas ‘smart’ when investments inhuman and social capital and traditional(transport and modern (ICTcommunication infrastructure fuelsustainable economic developmentand a high quality of life, with a wisemanagement of natural resources,through participatory governance”.Geomatics provides a set of conceptsand tools for the planningand management of Smart Cities(City Sensing,City Model, ProximalSensing, WIKI Sensing, etc. The IntegratedOperations Center (IOCis the foundation using geographictechnologies to join Smart City withSafe City. Smart Grid Systems are away to make operational the urbansosteneability in the energy sector.Some Intergraph’s technologies areused as examples of the contributionof geomatics in the implementationof Smart City paradigm.

  6. Ruolo degli aspetti morfologici e metabolici nella diagnosi differenziale tra patologie benigne e maligne della milza

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    Segreto, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    E' stato valutato il ruolo di dispositivi tomografici TC e PET/TC di nuova generazione nella diagnosi differenziale delle patologie spleniche benigne e maligne, usando l’esame cito/istologico come standard di riferimento. Nello specifico, lo scopo dello studio è stato di: 1) definire gli aspetti della TC e PET/TC capaci di differenziare le patologie spleniche benigne dalle maligne; 2) valutare se la PET/TC aggiunge informazioni addizionali ai risultati della TC.

  7. Aspetti peculiari delle neoplasie cutanee non melanoma nei pazienti trapiantati d'organo

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    Infusino, Salvatore Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Le neoplasie cutanee non melanoma (NMSCs) hanno un’aumentata incidenza tra i pazienti trapiantati d’organo. L’obiettivo di questo studio è quello di comparare gli aspetti clinico-patologici dei NMSCs dei pazienti trapiantati con quelli dei soggetti immunocompetenti. A questo scopo abbiamo analizzato i NMSCs insorti tra i pazienti trapiantati dell’ Ambulatorio Pazienti Immunocompromessi della Dermatologia di Bologna (132 SCCs e 119 BCCs), nel periodo Gennaio 2013/Dicembre 2015, confrontandoli...

  8. Mesenchymal tumors of the pancreas. CT patterns; Tumori mesenchimali del pancreas: aspetti con tomografia computerizzata

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    Ferrozzi, F.; Cusmano, F.; Zuccoli, G.; Tognini, G.; Bassi, S. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Gabrielli, M. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Anatomia Patologica

    1999-10-01

    Purpose of this item is to report the CT patterns of pancreatic mesenchymal lesions and to investigate the capabilities and limitations of this technique in terms of characterization. In selected cases, CT can provide virtually diagnostic information (lipoma and teratoma), or at least highly suggestive findings (NHL, plexiform neurofibroma, lymphangioma). Moreover, knowledge of the variable morphostructural patterns of mesenchymal hisototypes (SCH, Sarcoma etc.) permits to include them in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses. [Italian] Scopo di questo rapporto e' descrivere gli aspetti semeiologici dei tumori mesenchimali del pancreas con la TC verificandone le possibilita e i limiti per la caratterizzazione. Pur nella rarita' dei reperti considerati, la TC puo' consentire l'effettiva caratterizzazione in alcuni casi (lipoma, neurofibroma plessiforme, linfangioma) o includere anche istotipi meno comuni (Schwannoma, sarcomi, ecc.) nelle possibilita' diagnostico-differenziali nel caso di processi espansivi pancreatici.

  9. I principali aspetti biologici del volo spaziale, con particolare riguardo al microclima della cabina

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    A. SCANO

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopo un cenno ai principali aspetti biologici del volo
    spaziale e dopo aver delineato alcune limitazioni a t t u a l i di questo, l'A. espone
    brevemente, sulla scorta delle ricerche eseguite e delle ipotesi presentate
    da vari studiosi, le conoscenze sui più importanti problemi dell'ambiente
    di una cabina spaziale occupata dall'uomo.
    Vengono esaminati criticamente il rifornimento di 02 e l'eliminazione
    di C02, l'eliminazione del vapor d'acqua e delle altre sostanze gassose o
    volatili prodotte dall'uomo o dalle apparecchiature della cabina, l'eliminazione
    ed il ricupero parziale o totale degli escreti, il mantenimento della
    pressione e della composizione dell'aria o della miscela respirata, il mantenimento
    della temperatura.
    Particolare considerazione viene data ai sistemi chiusi di rigenerazione
    dei gas respiratori, dei quali vengono discussi i diversi tipi in base allo s t a to
    a t t u a l e dei risultati sperimentali, alla possibilità di pratica attuazione, alla
    sicurezza ed al rendimento assoluto e relativo al tempo di impiego.
    Si concludo che per viaggi di qualche giorno sono ancora preferibili le
    scorte di <>2 e la fissazione chimica o fisica del C02 e degli altri inquinanti,
    per viaggi di maggior durata (settimane e mesi appaiono attualmente migliori
    i cicli chiusi di rigenerazione chimica e fisico-chimica dell'02 dal C02
    espirato e dall'acqua di ricupero, mentre i cicli chiusi di rigenerazione biologica
    — peraltro interessanti perchè atti a risolvere vari problemi contemporaneamente
    presentano ancora notevoli incognite.

  10. Atmospheric lidar: legislative, scientific and technological aspects; Lidar atmosferico. Aspetti legislativi, scientifici e tecnologici

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    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The Atmospheric Lidar is one of the systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing under development at the ENEA Research Center of Frascati. This technical report addresses the legislative, scientific and technological aspects that are the basis for the identification of the requirements, the definition of the architecture and the fixation of the specifications of the Atmospheric Lidar. The problems of air pollution are introduced in section 2. A summary of the Italian laws on that topic is then given. Section 4 provides a survey of the atmospheric measurements that can be achieved with the lidar. The sensitivity in the monitoring of pollutants is discussed in section 5. The other systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing are shortly described in section 6. The last section is devoted to conclusions and perspectives. [Italian] Il lidar atmosferico e' uno dei sistemi del Laboratorio Mobile di Telerilevamento Laser in corso di realizzazione presso il Centro Ricerche di Frascati dell'ENEA. Questo rapporto tecnico discute gli aspetti legislativi, scientifici, tecnologici che sono alla base dell'individuazione dei requisiti, della definizione dell'architettura e della fissazione delle specifiche del Lidar atmosferico. La problematica dell'inquinamento dell'aria e' introdotta nella sezione 2. Segue un riassunto della legislazione italiana su tale tematica. La sezione 4 offre una panoramica delle misure atmosferiche realizzabili con il Lidar. La sensibilita' nel monitoraggio di inquinanti e' discussa nella sezione 5. Gli altri sistemi del Laboratorio Mobile di Telerilevamento Laser sono descritti brevemente nella sezione 6. L'ultima sezione e' dedicata alle conclusioni e alle prospettive.

  11. L’INSEGNAMENTO DELLE SCIENZE IN EUROPA: ASPETTI LINGUISTICI A CONFRONTO (ITALIA, DANIMARCA, GALLES

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    Silvia Marianna Bollone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La componente linguistica riveste un ruolo prioritario nell’insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze, specificamente prescritto dai programmi scolastici attualmente vigenti in Europa e pienamente accolto dalle Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell'infanzia e del primo ciclo d’istruzione, di cui D.M. 254/2012. Il presente lavoro intende indagare l’incidenza dell’aspetto linguistico-comunicativo nel processo di insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze nell’ambito di tre differenti contesti europei: l’Italia, la Danimarca e il Galles, nella fascia di età compresa all’incirca tra gli 11 e 14 anni, corrispondente per l’Italia alla Scuola secondaria di primo grado, per la Danimarca ad un segmento della Folkeskole, e per il Galles alla fase iniziale della Secondary School. La ricerca, incentrata su uno specifico argomento del programma di scienze comune ai tre sistemi scolastici, prevede un’analisi dei programmi ministeriali, delle programmazioni degli insegnanti, dei manuali in uso nelle scuole, nell’intento di definire il ruolo assegnato agli aspetti linguistici nell’insegnamento delle scienze sia livello legislativo-istituzionale che nella quotidiana pratica didattica.  Teaching science in Europe: language issues compared (Italy, Denmark, Wales The linguistic component plays a major role in the teaching and learning of science, specifically prescribed by the curriculum currently in force in Europe and fully supported by the National Guidelines for the curriculum in kindergarten and the first cycle of education, regulated by DM 254/2012. This paper aims to investigate the linguistic-communicative impact in the process of teaching and learning science in three different European contexts: Italy, Denmark and Wales in children aged 11 to 14, corresponding in Italy to Middle school, in Denmark to a segment of the Folkeskole, and in Wales to the initial phase of the Secondary school. The research focused on a

  12. La governance dei media in famiglia come arena morale ed educativa. Aspetti teorici, metodologici e primi risultati di una ricerca

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    Letizia Caronia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca sulla governance genitoriale del consumo degli audiovisivi come vettore di educazione familiare, risponde ad un rinnovato interesse, da una parte, per l’educazione familiare e i modi con cui i bambini sono socializzati a divenire membri competenti della comunità attraverso le pratiche e i discorsi che punteggiano la vita quotidiana in famiglia e , dall’altra, per il consumo sempre più precoce degli audiovisivi che – almeno nelle società occidentali - riguarda ormai i bambini fin dai primissimi mesi di vita. Questo studio concerne il consumo domestico degli audiovisivi come una pratica quotidiana che implica, per i genitori, aspetti evolutivi, morali e dunque eminentemente educativi. In particolare, esamina le pratiche e i discorsi genitoriali connessi al consumo di film e video giochi da parte dei loro figli. Film e video giochi sono dei prodotti audiovisivi accomunati da un tratto del tutto peculiare. Si tratta i testi il cui consumo è soggetto a forme di regolamentazione pubblica e/o di autoregolamentazione da parte dei produttori e distributori. Situandosi sulla frontiera tra educazione familiare e responsabilità sociale nei confronti dell’infanzia, i sistemi di classificazione si propongono come risorsa pubblica e intendono fornire ai genitori uno strumento efficace rispetto alle pratiche familiari di governance dell’audiovisivo. Come si situano i genitori rispetto a queste norme? Cosa rivendicano come proprio territorio educativo? Cosa delegano? E, sul piano delle pratiche quotidiane, cosa ne fanno i genitori di questo strumento?

  13. La lunga ombra dell’anarchico. Aspetti della narrativa di Andrés Carranque de Ríos

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    Barbara Minesso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopo anni di oblio, Andrés Carranque de Ríos (1902-1936 sta ritrovando il suo giusto spazio nella critica e presso i lettori. Il proposito del presente lavoro è delineare la figura dello scrittore, praticamente sconosciuto in Italia, e analizzare alcuni aspetti della sua prosa giornalistica e narrativa. Si studierà l’importante e controverso legame con il cinema che conosceva la sua timida alba in Spagna, si analizzeranno i racconti pubblicati sulla rivista illustrata «Estampa» e si metteranno in luce alcuni aspetti dei suoi tre romanzi: «Uno» (1934, «La vida difícil» (1935, «Cinematógrafo» (1936. Carranque appartiene a quella generazione di scrittori della Repubblica che fanno della letteratura uno strumento di denuncia sociale, convergendo sulla necessità di superare l’elitismo borghese dell’avanguardia per rivolgersi alle masse, raccontando le dure condizioni di vita della classe operaia. La letteratura di Carranque non è però propagandistica: rifiuta l’addottrinamento di partito per denunciare le ferite aperte del corpus sociale in una prospettiva neorealista. Tutto ciò viene dalla sua esperienza diretta: una vita di ristrettezze economiche che lo obbligano a dedicarsi fin da giovanissimo ai lavori più svariati, in Spagna e in Europa. Il suo anarchismo lo porta due volte in carcere e il tempo della reclusione è dedicato alla lettura disordinata a vorace. Nonostante una vita al margine nel 1935 viene scelto, insieme ad alcuni grandi della letteratura, come delegato spagnolo nel Primo Congresso Internazionale di scrittori in difesa della Cultura realizzato a Parigi. After years of being ignored as a writer by critics and readers, Andrés Carranque de Ríos (1902-1936 is finding his deserved place. The aim of this work is to outline the figure of this writer, almost unknown in Italy, and analyze some aspects of his narrative and journalistic prose. We will study as well the important and controversial relation

  14. Aquatic plants in wastewater treatments; Impianti di fitodepurazione. Aspetti ambientali, energetici ed economici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasinsig, E. [Centro di Ecologia Teorica ed Applicata di Gorizia, Gorizia (Italy); Laboratorio Area Science Park Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Vecchiet, M. [Centro di Ecologia Teorica ed Applicata di Gorizia, Gorizia (Italy); Marangon, F. [Udine Univ., Udine (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Economiche; Centro di Ecologia Teorica ed Applicata di Gorizia, Gorizia (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to contribute to the study of the water treatments plants strategies, even on the environmental aspects, in order to test the real effectiveness and application. [Italian] L'obiettivo di questo lavoro e' quello di contribuire allo studio delle tecniche di fitodepurazione anche sotto il punto di vista ambientale, al fine di verificarne la concreta applicabilita'.

  15. Postoperative US of leg tendon reconstruction; Valutazione dei risultati della ricostruzione dei tendini della gamba. Aspetti ecografici

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    Draghi, F.; Calliada, F.; Fulle, I.; Madonia, L.; Bottinelli, O.; Campani, R. [Pavia Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1999-05-01

    The role of ultrasound (US) in the postoperative assessment of tendon reconstruction is not clearly defined and there is non systematic arrangement of US patterns. The authors examined 34 patients submitted to surgery or conservative treatment for total/partial tear or musculotendinous detachment of patellar or Achilles tendon in the last 5 years. All patients underwent physical and US examinations. The surgical tendon exhibited the same US patterns in 23/28 patients: it was markedly enlarged (three-/fourfold the normal diameter) and more rounded, with inhomogeneous and hypoechoic appearance not only at the tear/surgical site but also above and below it, for some cm. Small hyperechoic images, mainly dots, were seen in 19 cases, which were referable to small calcifications and stitches. More and larger calcifications were found in 8 patients, where they were associated with anechoic degeneration areas. Color Doppler US showed moderate or strong hypervascularization around the tear in the first months post injury. US patterns did not correlate with physical findings, but color Doppler patterns did. In 6 cases of musculotendinous detachment submitted to conservative treatment, US showed enlargement and hypoechogenicity in the injury site only, with no involvement of the remaining tendon. US was also used to time and guide drainage of perilesional hematomas, which were often quite large. US is the method of choice in the postoperative follow-up of tendon tears and musculotendinous detachments because it shows abnormal signs which are missed at clinics and provides additional information needed for treatment planning. [Italian] Il ruolo dell'ecografia nel controllo post-chirurgico delle rotture tendinee non e' ancora del tutto definito e non esiste trattazione sistematica degli aspetti ecografici dopo terapia. Sono stati esaminati, mediante esame clinico ed ecografico, 34 pazienti sottoposti a trattamento chirurgico o conservativo per rottura parziale, totale

  16. Aspetti della Giustizia Vaticana

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    Giuseppe Dalla Torre

    2013-05-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Un nuovo interesse per la Giustizia Vaticana – 2. Ordinamento vaticano e ordinamento canonico – 3. Peculiarità dell’ordinamento giudiziario – 4. La questione dell’interpretazione – 5. Un caso particolare nel diritto penale – 6. La nuova normativa in materia di antiriciclaggio e lotta al terrorismo – 7. Cenni di conclusione.

  17. Bio diesel blends stability. Analytical aspects and test methods; Stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. Aspetti analitici e metodi di prova

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    Pinelli, G. [Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    Bio diesel blends are receiving increasing attention as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuel for Diesel engines. This interest is based on several valuable properties of bio diesel, which, besides the production from renewable sources and its sufficient compatibility with Diesel engines, could reduce exhaust emissions. From technical point of view the main disadvantage of bio diesel is fuel un stability. As a matter of fact, bio diesel is more subject to oxidative degradation than petroleum diesel oil and this can alter the stability of bio diesel blends. In this connection the greatest controversy stability regards test methods for bio diesel blends. This review presents a synthesis of the studies performed in recent years on bio diesel blends stability. Besides considering the analytical aspects involving both products, the most important test methods for stability of bio diesel blends are discussed. [Italian] Le miscele gasolio-biodiesel stanno riscuotendo una crescente attenzione come alternative ai tradizionali comustibili diesel. Questo interesse e' dovuto ad alcune pregevoli proprieta' del biodiesel, il quale, oltre a essere prodotto da fonti rinnovabili, presenta una soddisfacente compatibilita' con i motori Diesel e potrebbe contribuire a ridurre le emissioni inquinanti. Da un punto di vista tecnico il suo grande svantaggio e' la instabilita'. Il biodiesel, infatti, e' piu' soggetto alla degradazione ossidativa rispetto al gasolio e questo puo' alterare la stabilita' delle miscele tra i due prodotti. A tal proposito l'aspetto piu' controverso riguarda i metodi di prova per la valutazione della stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. In questa rassegna viene presentata una sintesi degli studi condotti negli ultimi anni sulla stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. Oltre a considerare gli aspetti analitici riguardanti i due prodotti, vengono discussi i principali metodi di

  18. Water supply system of the Pontina plan from the Liri-Garigliano watershed; Alimentazione idrica integrativa della Piana Pontina con acque del bacino del fiume Liri-Garigliano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vito, A. [Ceseco International, Rome (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper is described a water supply system feeding a large irrigation scheme in a fertile area near Rome. The aim of the project is to resolve the water deficit in the long run, with particularly attention on climate changing, and environmental aspects. [Italian] La memoria illustra una soluzione di approvvigionamento idrico di un comprensorio particolarmente sviluppato nell'Italia centrale, per mezzo di un trasferimento extra-bacino di risorsa fluente, e con attenzione agli aspetti ambientali ed energetici.

  19. Aortic non communicating dissections. A study with helical CT; Studio dell'ematoma intramurale aortico. Aspetti con Tomografia Computerizzata spirale

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    Midiri, M.; Strada, A.; Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Interna e Medicina Pubblica, Sez. di Diagnostica per Immagini; Scialpi, M. [Ospedale SS. Annunziata, Taranto (Italy); D' Agostino, D.; De Luca Tupputi Schinosa, L. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. Emergenze Trapianto d' Organo, Sez. di Cardiochirurgia

    2000-09-01

    confused with aortic dissection. The imaging techniques (TEE, CT, MRI) have an important role in the final diagnosis of aortic hematoma. Presently Helical CT and MR angiography are the main tools in the early diagnosis of this condition before the development of complications. In this experience helical CT, before and after the administration of contrast material, was accurate in identifying the hematoma localization and extension. [Italian] Tale studio ha lo scopo di valutare con tecnica TC spirale gli aspetti semeiologici dell'ematoma intramurale dell'aorta e sottolineare il ruolo diagnostico decisivo di tale metodica nello studio di pazienti con quadro clinico acuto sospetto per dissezione aortica. E' stato condotto uno studio retrospettivo (dal 1995 al 1999) sulle immagini di 396 pazienti che avevano eseguito un esame TC in regime d'urgenza per sospetta dissezione aortica. Solo 18 pazienti (6 femmine, 12 maschi) presentavano aspetti tomodensitometrici caratteristici per ematoma intramurale aortico. Gli esami sono stati condotti tutti con TC spirale utilizzando i seguenti parametri: spessore dello strato 10 mm, image index 10, passo della spirale 1,5 mm, algoritmo standard con un minimo di 130 kV e 125 mA. Gli esami sono stati condotti prima e dopo iniezione di 130 ml di mdc in bolo rapido e ricercando i seguenti parametri: sede ed estensione longitudinale dell'ematoma spessore e densita' della parte aortica, presenza e localizzazione delle caclificazioni intimali, regolarita' del lume vero, presenza di emomediastino e/o emotorace. In tutti i 18 pazienti (8 di tipo A e 10 di tipo B) e' stato osservato ispessimento circoscritto parietale tipicamente iperdenso nelle scansioni di base e ipodenso in quelle dopo mdc. In 14/18 pazienti l'ispessimento assumeva disposizione eccentrica, in solo 4/18 era concentrico; in tutti i casi l'ispessimento e' risultato maggiore di 4 mm. In 18/18 pazienti sono state riscontrate

  20. Aspetti del Primitivismo in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nei primi due decenni del Novecento si diffonde anche in Italia uno stile espressionista, in cui le icone sintetiche del Simbolismo sono sottoposte a un trattamento brutale che elimina richiami ultra-terreni a favore di “visioni” crude e immanenti, caratterizzate da una ripresa sistematica del passato italiano. Questo “Primitivismo” si attua anche grazie a una potente “deformazione”, soprattutto in Toscana. La “linea sintetica” dell’arte toscana evidenzia il rapporto che lega gli artisti del...

  1. Feeding strategies of Rattus norvegicus: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-07-01

    the foraging behaviour of the rat, are: the constant sampling of al1 the potential foods that brings the populations to a noteworthy adaptability to the change of available resources; the social interactions among individuals (mother-pups, adult-adult that are very important in influencing the food preferences and, eventually, the food avoidance; the use of feeding-places, which is considered as a fundamental trait of the foraging behaviour of the rat, working as an information-centre of the animals. Riassunto Sono stati esaminati alcuni dei più importanti aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769 considerando in particolare il comportamento dei selvatici e i lavori in natura. Le marcate differenze individuali nelle preferenze alimentari ed il campionamento continuo di tutte le potenziali fonti alimentari, permettono alle popolazioni naturali di sfruttare un gran numero di risorse dell'ambiente, adattandosi alle sue variazioni. I1 comportamento di accumulo, ben evidenziato in laboratorio ma scarsamente documentato in natura, sembra nel ratto un meccanismo utilizzato solo per far fronte a situazioni particolari (es. surplus di cibo, allattamento. I1 grado di neofobia è variamente modulato in popolazioni che hanno un rapporto con l'ambiente umano e assente nelle popolazioni non commensali. Molto importanti risultano le interazioni sociali fra gli individui (madre-piccoli, adulti-adulti nell'influenzare le scelte alimentari. Vengono discussi i dati relativi alla predazione su Molluschi che confermano l'ipotesi di una trasmissione delle informazioni riguardo alla scoperta di nuovi alimenti e delle tecniche di apertura del guscio. La formazione di mense viene interpretata come un fondamentale aspetto del comportamento di foraggiamento del ratto, rilevante come centro per lo scambio di informazioni fra gli animali.

  2. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G.; Cantale, C.; Galeffi, P. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S. [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    points which could obstruct all future development in the biotech industry (possibly the first aim of the legislation) in cases of servile application of a law which is in reality aimed at securing rights. [Italian] Questo lavoro e' stato svolto in collaborazione con l'Universita' di Roma 3, nell'ambito della preparazione della tesi di laurea del Dott. Gianluca Fontanella. Questa trattazione si e' posta lo scopo di fornire un quadro normativo il piu' possibile omogeneo ed esauriente dell'effettiva situazione esistente nel settore biotecnologico, soffermandosi su uno degli aspetti portanti e piu' controversi in materia, quello, cioe', della definizione dell'oggetto brevettuale, alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE sulla tutela giudirica delle invenzioni biotecnologiche. Nella prima parte del rapporto, data la tecnicita' e la interdisciplinarieta' della materia, e' stato introdotto il tema da un punto di vista piu' generale con riferimento alla definizione del concetto di biotecnologie delle motivazioni che hanno indotto il legislatore ad incidere sul quadro normativo esistente, dando spazio ad un'organica e completa opera di raccolta e di interpretazione dei testi normativi nazionali ed internazionali piu' rilevanti, precedenti alla Direttiva 98/44/CE, in tema di tutela brevettuale, e di biotecnologie in particolare. Nella seconda parte, invece, si e' entrati nel merito della questione della individuazione di cosa sia possibile brevettare alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE, attraverso un accurato esame del testo normativo nella parte in cui analizza e definisce l'ogetto brevettuale in campo biotecnologico. In particolare, e' stata affrontata la questione della brevettualita' della materia vivente, analizzando anche, in modo precipuo, i concetti limitrofi, per natura del trovato, di varieta' vegetale e di razza

  3. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G.; Cantale, C.; Galeffi, P. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S. [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    points which could obstruct all future development in the biotech industry (possibly the first aim of the legislation) in cases of servile application of a law which is in reality aimed at securing rights. [Italian] Questo lavoro e' stato svolto in collaborazione con l'Universita' di Roma 3, nell'ambito della preparazione della tesi di laurea del Dott. Gianluca Fontanella. Questa trattazione si e' posta lo scopo di fornire un quadro normativo il piu' possibile omogeneo ed esauriente dell'effettiva situazione esistente nel settore biotecnologico, soffermandosi su uno degli aspetti portanti e piu' controversi in materia, quello, cioe', della definizione dell'oggetto brevettuale, alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE sulla tutela giudirica delle invenzioni biotecnologiche. Nella prima parte del rapporto, data la tecnicita' e la interdisciplinarieta' della materia, e' stato introdotto il tema da un punto di vista piu' generale con riferimento alla definizione del concetto di biotecnologie delle motivazioni che hanno indotto il legislatore ad incidere sul quadro normativo esistente, dando spazio ad un'organica e completa opera di raccolta e di interpretazione dei testi normativi nazionali ed internazionali piu' rilevanti, precedenti alla Direttiva 98/44/CE, in tema di tutela brevettuale, e di biotecnologie in particolare. Nella seconda parte, invece, si e' entrati nel merito della questione della individuazione di cosa sia possibile brevettare alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE, attraverso un accurato esame del testo normativo nella parte in cui analizza e definisce l'ogetto brevettuale in campo biotecnologico. In particolare, e' stata affrontata la questione della brevettualita' della materia vivente, analizzando anche, in modo precipuo, i concetti limitrofi, per natura del trovato, di varieta' vegetale e di razza

  4. Exhaust lead-acid batteries recycling as a tool of the environmental protection policy. Energy, environmental and economic issues; Il riciclaggio delle batterie al piombo-acido esauste come strumento della politica di salvaguardia ambiental. Aspetti energetici, ambientali ed economici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picini, P.; Battista, A. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Lead is an heavy metal that has a major impact on human health and his removal from the environment is an important action for its protection. The aim of the present work is to provide a framework of the Italian lead recycling with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of COBAT activities (COBAT is the Mandatory Consortium to collect and recycle the exhaust lead-acid batteries and lead wastes). In order to better understand the context in which COBAT works, some statistical data on the lead production, consumption and end uses in Italy and in the world are provided. An estimate of the energy consumptions and the environmental impact related to Italian lead production was also carried out. [Italian] Il piombo e' uno dei metalli pesanti a maggiore impatto ambientale e sanitario e la sua rimozione dall'ambiente costituisce un'importante azione di protezione e tutela della salute umana. Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' quello di fornire un quadro di riferimento relativo al riciclaggio del piombo in Italia evidenziandone gli aspetti ambientali ed economici in relazione alle attivita' condotte dal COBAT (Consorzio Obbligatorio delle Batterie Esauste e dei rifiuti piombosi). In tal senso, per disporre di una visione piu' completa del contesto in cui si inserisce l'attivita' del Consorzio, vengono forniti alcuni dati di carattere statistico sulla produzione, sul consumo e sugli utilizzi del piombo in Italia e nel mondo e viene effettuata una stima dei consumi energetici e dell'impianto ambientale associati alla produzione di piombo nazionale.

  5. Suburban amoebiasis. CT and US findings and percutaneous treatment of amoebic liver abscess; Amebiasi sub-urbana: aspetti diagnostici con tomografia computerizzata ed ecografia e trattamento percutaneo degli ascessi amebici del fegato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Mondillo, F. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy).Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Capuano, N. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Div. di Chirurgia; Nunziata, A. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-03-01

    The study reports ultrasonography and computerise tomography findings in 16 patients with amoebic abscesses, 12 of whom lived in a temperate peripheral area north-east of Naples (Italy). All patients have a clinical-diagnostic condition called sub-urban amoebiasis. The personal experience with the US guided therapeutic drainage of amoebic abscess with repeated cavity washing, which is important for positive parasitology. Combined US and CT assessment facilitated the diagnosis of amoebiasis and its differentiation from pyogenic abscess and hepatoma. [Italian] La colonizzazione epatica rappresenta la localizzazione piu' comune dell'amebiasi extraintestinale e gli ascessi epatici ne costituiscono la manifestazione piu' frequente sviluppandosi nel 3-9 % dei pazienti affetti da infezione parassitaria. Diversi studi confermano che la terapia medica dell'amebiasi risulta piu' efficace quando viene associato il drenaggio percutaneo degli ascessi epatici con piu' rapida guarigione clinica e risposta favorevole dell'organismo. Scopo del presente lavoro e' di descrivere gli aspetti ecografici e di tomografia computerizzata degli ascessi amebici in un gruppo di 16 pazienti, 12 dei quali residenti in zona temperata e periferica di una vasta area a nord-est di Napoli presentandosi con caratteristico e raro quadro clinico-diagnostico definito amebiasi sub-urbana. Si discute infine l'esperienza personale del drenaggio terapeutico sotto guida ecografica dell'ascesso con tecnica del lavaggio ripetuto dalla cavita', importante ai fini della positivita' dell'esame. L'associazione dei reperti tipici ecografici e TC ha consentito la diagnosi agevole dell'amebiasi differenziandola dall'ascesso piogenico e dall'epatoma.

  6. I comportamenti violenti nel sonno REM: aspetti clinici, criminologici e medico-legali / Les comportements violents pendant le sommeil MOR : aspects cliniques, criminologiques et médico-légaux / The Violent Behaviour in REM Sleep-related: Clinical, Criminological and Forensic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimino Luca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The violent behaviour of sleep represents a new frontier of forensic interest. After examining the clinical aspects of a particular form of parasomnia related to REM stage of sleep, called REM Behavior Disorder-RBD, the author highlights the criminological and forensic implications emphasizing the distinctive features in terms of responsibility and imputability.Les comportements violents pendant le sommeil MOR représentent une nouvelle “frontière” d’intérêt de la psychologie médico-légale. Après avoir examiné les aspects cliniques d’une forme particulière de parasomnie liée à la phase MOR du sommeil (denominata REM Behaviour Disorders-RBD, l’auteur de l’article met en évidence ses implications criminologiques et médico-légales; en outre, il souligne les aspects particuliers de cette parasomnie en matière de responsabilité et d’imputabilité.I comportamenti violenti del sonno rappresentano una nuova “frontiera” di interesse forense. L’autore, dopo aver esaminato gli aspetti clinici di una particolare forma di parasonnia legata alla fase REM del sonno, denominata REM Behaviour Disorders-RBD, ne sottolinea le implicazioni criminologiche e medico-legali sottolineandone gli aspetti peculiari in tema di colpa ed imputabilità.

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. La crisi: aspetti economici e sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quadrio Curzio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the introduction to the meeting on the financial crisis held in February at the Accademia dei Lincei, by Alberto Quadro Curzio, president of the division of Moral Sciences of the Accademia. The introduction deals with three main topics: a brief account of the crisis, the relevance of a distinctively European and Italian approach to political economy, the historical development within the Accademia of a critical and constructive thought in the field of the socio-economic sciences.   JEL Codes: E44, E60, G01Keywords: Cultura economica, crisi finanziaria, regole

  9. La crisi: aspetti economici e sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO QUADRIO CURZIO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the introduction to the meeting on the financial crisis held in February at the Accademia dei Lincei, by Alberto Quadro Curzio, president of the division of Moral Sciences of the Accademia. The introduction deals with three main topics: a brief account of the crisis, the relevance of a distinctively European and Italian approach to political economy, the historical development within the Accademia of a critical and constructive thought in the field of the socio-economic sciences.

  10. 1. Aspetti conoscitivi della metafora in Aristotele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Eco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Per Aristotele la metafora non è un semplice ornamento del discorso ma possiede valore conoscitivo, perché consente di conoscere il simile e di cogliere concetti affini. Negli autori medievali la metafora mantiene la funzione di strumento di conoscenza?

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  12. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  13. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Agronomic by-products use from olive oil extraction: legislative, technological aspects and experimental results; Utilizzazione agronomica dei sottoprodotti dell`estrazione olearia: aspetti legislativi, tecnologici e risultati sperimentali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R. [Campobasso, Univ. del Molise (Italy). Dipt. Scienze Animali, Vegetali e dell`Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in the olive oil extraction plants is presented in this paper. These plants allow the removal or reduction of water emission by extraction process with decanter, changing the by-products characteristics of the olive oil industry. The different waste water re-use possibilities are analyzed, in relation to the new Italian law about the discharge of the olive mills effluents. Then, new technologies for the substances-mix composting from agronomic industries and some different lay-out for the specific plants in the by-products transformation are presented. Experimental test of olive pomace composting, depleted olive pomace, waste water concentrate, and directed in field distribution of the olive pomace, are given in this paper. At last, interesting results can be achieved composting the waste waters and/or their concentrate, or the olive pomace or depleted olive pomace with organic and nitrogen products, obtaining good fertilizers. [Italiano] In questa memoria si illustra lo stato attuale della evoluzione degli impianti per l`estrazione olearia che tendono ad eliminare o comunque a ridurre l`immissione di acqua di processo nella estrazione centrifuga, modificando cosi` le caratteristiche dei sottoprodotti della industria olearia. Vengono, di seguito, analizzate le possibili destinazioni d`uso delle acque di vegetazione (A.V.) alla luce della nuova legislazione italiana in materia della possibile utilizzazione degli scarichi dei frantoi oleari. Si illustrano, quindi, nuove tecnologie per il compostaggio di sostanze derivate dall`agroindustria miscelate con altre matrici organiche e alcuni criteri costruttivi di impianti specifici per il trattamento dei suddetti sottoprodotti. Si riferisce, infine, su prove sperimentali di compostaggio di sanse vergini, sanse esauste e di concentrati delle A.V., nonche` sulla distribuzione diretta in campo delle sanse vergini. L`autore conclude affermando che sia le acque di vegetazione e i relativi concentrati di

  16. The water schemes in Calabria; Gli schemi idrici in Calabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, G. F. [Provveditorato Opere Pubbliche per la Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    In this paper the hydrogeomorphological, historical and social aspects which have led to Calabrian water schemes' construction are considered, together with a syntetic graphic representation of their present state and siplacement on the territory. The studies and researches for a clear and circumstantiated vision of the several problems of the territories led to the discovery and definition of particular geohydrological phenomena which are distinctive of the region. These results convinced that only an organic intervention which considered the multiple geomorphological, water and social needs could have given satisfying outcomes. [Italian] La presente memoria e' la sintesi di unlavoro svolto dall'autore nel 1995 con il duplice scopo di avere un quadro generale cognitivo delle dighe esistenti in Calabria ed avere notizie circa la consistenza e la potenzialita' della risorsa idrica nella Regione. Nella memoria in parola si fornisce una panoramica degli aspetti idrogeomorfologici storici e sociali delle strutture idriche in questione, che fino ad oggi hanno definito e caratterizzato il settore, fornendo nel contempo una rappresentazione grafica di come gli invasi calabresi sono connessi tra loro per formare gli schemi idrici e gli assi di utilizzazione idrica.

  17. Il metalinguaggio della traduttologia: tra aspetti teorici e pratica didattica

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on various problems concerning the metalanguage of translation, such as polysemy, synonymy and terms borrowed from other disciplines. These aspects are a sign of research progress and dynamism and do not only occur in Translation Studies, but also in linguistics, with which Translation Studies have a common ground. It remains important however that Translation Studies elaborate and define thier own specific terminology. This article consists of two parts. The...

  18. Aspetti areali negli studi di slavistica: Polonia e dintorni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Brogi Bercoff

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish and East Central European Area Studies in the Last Two Decades In Western Slavic countries one may observe changes similar to those of the other Eastern European countries. Scholars have introduced new themes to investigate, they published many new texts and translations of Western books. This cultural evolution took place in Poland [and the Czech Republic] in a less dramatic way than in the Balkan or ex-Soviet areas. Czechs and Poles, political difficulties notwithstanding, have always fostered strong ties with Western tradition. The author focuses on two main aspects: the growing interest in East Central European area studies and the Polish-Ukrainian relationships in the past and present. Interest in East Central Europe has a long history, having begun with the Independence of Poland and Czechoslovakia after WWI. It was less .fashionable. in the Communist period, but has become very important immediately after 1990 as a possible alternative to the European choice. The entry of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary into the European Union does not diminish the importance of the idea of a regional East Central European community. On the contrary, the cultural integration within East Central Europe is very important for its relationship to Western Europe on the one hand and Ukraine on the other. In the last two decades Poland has made enormous efforts to investigate Ukrainian culture and to construct cultural bridges towards Ukraine. As many new publications show, Poland.s efforts concentrate both on re-thinking its own role and attitudes towards Ukraine in the past and on disseminating Ukrainian literature in Poland. Thus, Poland plays a leading role in the cultural activity of Eastern Europe and in the organisation of relationships between East Central and Western Europe, and between Ukraine, Russia and Europe as well. It is hard to say whether Ukraine will be included in the East Central European cultural (and political area. Its integration depends on many factors, internal and external to Ukraine and Poland. But it is important that the interest in these delicate problems continues in Poland, Ukraine and Western Europe at the level of cultural activity and in historical, literary and linguistic studies. This paper reviews some of the main trends and provides bibliographical information about new publications dealing with these problems in various languages.

  19. Catalogazione, un male necessario: aspetti critici di RDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Galeffi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toolkit designed by the RDA Steering Committee makes Resource Description and Access available on the web, together with other useful documents (workflows, mappings, etc.. Reading, learning and memorizing are interconnected, and a working tool should make these activities faster and easier to perform. Some issues arise while verifying the real easiness of use and learning of the tool.The practical and formal requirements for a cataloguing code include plain language, ease of memorisation, clarity of instructions, familiarity for users, predictability and reproducibility of solutions, and general usability. From a formal point of view, the RDA text does not appear to be conceived for an uninterrupted reading, but just for reading of few paragraphs for temporary catalographic needs.From a content point of view, having a syndetic view of the description of a resource is rather difficult: catalographic details are scattered and their re-organization is not easy.The visualisation and logical organisation in the Toolkit could be improved: the table of contents occupies a sizable portion of the screen and resizing or hiding it is not easy; the indentation leaves little space to the words; inhomogeneous font styles (italic and bold and poor contrast between background and text colours make reading not easy; simultaneous visualization of two or more parts of the text is not allowed; and Toolkit’s icons are less intuitive than expected.In the conclusion, some suggestions on how to improve the Toolkit’s aspects and usability are provided.

  20. Aspetti di tecnica colturale in canapa da cellulosa: scelta varietale

    OpenAIRE

    Marras, Gian Franco; Spanu, Antonino; Attene, Giovanna

    1981-01-01

    During 1976 and 1977 in Oristano, Italy, has been carried out a trial concerning the yield of 5 dioecious (Superfibra, Fibranova, Eletta Campana, Carmagnola, Carmagnola selezionata) and 2 monoecious (Fibrimon 56 e Fedrina 76) cultivar of hemp. The monoecious cultivar were of French origin. The 7 cultivar yielded well with 140-160 q/ha of stalks at 15% of humidity. No difference of mean production of all cultivar has been observed between 1976 and 1977. The number of plants/m...

  1. La valutazione del paesaggio fluviale: aspetti metodologici e tecniche applicative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Campeol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay intend to tackle the methodological questions and the applicable techniques linked to the reading of the landscape transformations. The evaluation approach overcomes the traditional landscape readings, usually detailed, but strongly affected by the cultural formation and merely descriptive. The overcoming happens thanks to the research of coherence, logical and rationality between the analytical and the project and planning apparatus. Using a studying case it will be possible to check the efficacy of the evaluation approach, understanding the landscape transformations. 

  2. Five Improvisations: aspetti nonlineari di un’improvvisazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirio Cosottini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how it is possible to enrich our knowledge of music through a linear and nonlinear analysis of sound. For this purpose, 1. I conduct a nonlinear analysis of a specific improvised music for winds and percussion, 2. I describe the sound characteristics of the invariants present in the improvisation, and 3. I finally show the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties of music.

  3. Dose evaluation for workers employed in an industry involving enamel paints containing zirconium silicate; Valutazione di dose per i lavoratori occupati in una industria che utilizza vernici a smalto contenenti silicato di zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Berico, M.; De Zaiacomo, T.; Formignani, M.; Ianni, A.; Nobili, C.; Sandri, S.; Vasselli, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the European Recommendations for radiological protection, an evaluation of the annual dose has been made for workers employed in an industry for the production of sanitary equipment involving the use of enamel paints containing zirconium silicate. [Italian] Nella prospettiva dell'applicazione della direttiva europea relativa alla protezione radiologica dei lavoratori, vengono presentati i risultati relativi alla valutazione di dose annuale complessiva per i lavoratori occupati in una industria per la produzione di articoli igienico-sanitari che utilizza vernici a smalto contenenti silicato di zirconio. Il fine e' la valutazione del problema radioprotezionistico per gli addetti a causa delle impurezza radioattive presenti nei materiali utlizzati.

  4. L'Acqua e la città. Urbanistica involontaria / Water and the City. Unintentional Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stessens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo tratta di «epifenomeni», una parola relativamente indefinita che si rivolge ad effetti di sfondo o collaterali dei quali la relazione con la loro causa è piuttosto sfocata. In questo caso, ci concentriamo specificamente sugli aspetti fisici dell’ambiente urbano-bioclimatico come i flussi d’acqua, i flussi termici e la presenza di spazi verdi. Più specificamente, analizzeremo come questi sono soggetti a diversi tipi di urbanizzazione. Sulla base di una breve trattazione su Bordeaux, giungiamo alla conclusione che l’acqua - in tutte le sue presenze - sta riconquistando importanza nel funzionamento e la progettazione della città, seppur in modo più astratto e computazionale. / This paper is framed by the word «epiphenomena», a rather undefined word pointing to background or side effects of which the relation with their cause is relatively blurry. In our case, we focus on physical aspects of the bio-climatic urban environment, such as water flows, heat flux and presence of green space. More specifically, we look at how these are subject to different types of urbanization. Based on a brief discussion of Bordeaux, we arrive at the conclusion that water - in all of it's appearances - is regaining importance in the functionning and designing of the city, albeit in a more abstract and computational way.

  5. Application of GIS-based models for the evaluation of water resources; Analisi GIS-based dei fenomeni idrologici per la pianificazione territoriale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistocchi, A.; Neri, D. [Studio di Ingegneria per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Cesena, FO (Italy)

    2000-08-01

    The paper illustrates the application of GIS-based models for the evaluation of water resources in a hilly area for land use planning at the municipality level. The method, suitable for integration with more detailed analyses for specialistic purposes, provides the fundamental elements for decision in areas of the kind hereby considered, by describing the terms of water budget, diffuse pollution and soil erosion at a regional level. [Italian] Il presente lavoro illustra l'applicazione di tecniche di cartografia modellistica per la caratterizzazione degli aspetti idrologici rilevanti ai fini della pianificazione territoriale di un comune collinare in Emilia Romagna. La metodologia viene proposta in senso generale per la valutazione preliminare delle risorse idriche e dei fattori che limitano la qualita' e gli usi, attraverso la descrizione regionalizzata dei termini del bilancio idrologico, dell'inquinamento diffuso e dell'erosione dei suoli. Pur non sostituendo analisi di maggiore dettaglio a fini specifici, si ritiene che la valutazione fornisca gli elementi fondamentali per le decisioni sull'uso del suolo in aree del tipo considerato.

  6. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  8. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  9. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  10. Environmental recovery of the Scoglio of S. Maria in Tropea (Southern Italy). A case of geologic and preservation normative in environmental wealth; Aspetti geologici e normativi del recupero conservativo dei beni ambientali culturali. Lo scoglio di Santa Maria dell'Isola di Tropea (Calabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ietto, F. [Arcavacata Universita' della Calabria, Arcavacata, CS (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    , imposing some rapid intervention and effective consolidation. Therefore the plan becomes an element of forecast that requires of substantial technical progressive adjustments, which are prevented and anyway not admitted from the present normative. Therefore is suggested a modification of the Law that currently is checking and governing all the jobs of consolidation and recovery of the environmental wealth. The preservation and recovery of environmental wealth constitute, behind any doubt, a culture of management of the natural capital to transmit to the future generations. In this respects, environmental and architectural wealth, having no economic value, and being thus wealth of public property, are most easily subject to the risk of deterioration. The preservation of environmental wealth (both natural and man-made) together with their aesthetic value, is linked to the preservation of the fundamental resources of a territory, such as water, the agricultural soil, the ore materials, etc. The economy and the economical development of many countries in the World, for example Egypt and Israel, but also Italy, and southern Italy (notably Calabria) in particular depend upon the correct use of this cultural and environmental wealth. For this reason there is nowadays in Italy a critical re-evaluation of the criteria to manage the preservation and recovery of environmental wealth. However, it must be stressed here that for a correct management of the environment, the technical aspects must be adequately substained by appropriate laws and rules. [Italian] I beni ambientali, intesi come ricchezze paesaggistiche, architettoniche e insediamenti urbani, costituiscono in Italia un patrimonio d'ordine superiore; spesso in tali condizioni di degrado da non garantire la sua persistenza nel tempo. Degrado strutturale, cattivo uso antropico, terremoti ed erosione si sommano ad una consolidata mancanza di attenzione sociale e, quindi, di manutenzione e salvaguardia; eccetto che in

  11. Petrarca e il petrarchismo: aspetti della traduzione del sonetto in croato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Avirović

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available II Canzoniere di Petrarca (1304-1374 ha ricevuto quasi sempre in croato il titolo con cui quest' opera e passata alia storia (e non gia quello originario di Rerum vulgarium fragmenta, seppure nella trascrizione ortografica della lingua di arrivo (Kanconijer. Non che ai traduttori croati mancasse l'opportunita di renderlo con il suo equivalente Pjesmarica (canzoniere- che del resto e il titolo con cui spesso Ia storiografia letteraria croata designa il capolavoro di Petrarca -, ma nella loro scelta si ravvisa l'intento di indirizzare in qualche modo illettore, che sin dal titolo del testo viene informato circa l'opportunita della traduzione di alcuni termini dalla forte connotazione semantica. Cio vale anche per la traduzione di una delle forme metriche piti frequenti nel Canzoniere, qual e appunto il sonetto. La trasposizione del sonetto italiano racchiude Ia summa dei problemi della traduzione metrica, richiedendo nella lingua di arrivo il massimo della versatilita traduttiva. La trasposizione dell'endecasillabo giambico del sonetto costituisce da secoli un problema particolarmente sentito presso i traduttori croati.

  12. Enteriti acute e protratte nell’uomo: prevalenze eziologiche ed aspetti di metodologia diagnostica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe methodological diagnostic course related to microbiological examination of faeces specimens. During 2004, 511 samples of 247 children and 264 adults were analysed for acute (389 subjects or prolonged diarrhoeas (122. Campylobacter was observed in 57 cases (11.0%, in 36 children (14.2% and 21 adults (8.0%; Salmonella was observed in 28 cases (5.4%, in 15 children (6.1% and 13 adults (4.9%; toxin A of C. difficile was detected in 11 cases (2.2%; other bacterial pathogens were very rare. Rotavirus was detected in 31 children (12.5% while Adenovirus in 3 children (1.2%. Protozoa were identified in 13 cases (2.5%: 3 in children (1.2 % and 10 in adults (3.7%; among these, D. fragilis prevailed in respect of G. duodenalis: 10 cases (2.0% vs 3 cases (0.6%; other protozoa never were observed. So, the positivities were only 151 for 29.5% (91 in children, 36.8% and 60 in adults, 22.7%. Finally some considerations relating sex, clinical features and epidemiological findings are reported.The Authors reaffirm the need for a rational and functional research, because is necessary to minimize and direct these ones towards local epidemiology, but underline the opportunity to increase the investigations when diversified risk factor are reported.

  13. Non scommettere la tua vita. Gioco d'azzardo nella famiglia e aspetti neurobiologici del gap.

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Nel presente lavoro è stato condotto uno studio con lo scopo di descrivere il gambling, ossia il disturbo da gioco d’azzardo ed i problemi o le conseguenze negative ad esso associate. Il lavoro è stato suddiviso in tre capitoli: nella prima parte viene data un descrizione generale del gioco d’azzardo, descrivendo il passaggio da attività ricreativa a dipendenza; nel secondo capitolo viene affrontato il tema relazionale considerando non solo il gambler, ma la famiglia stessa, in cui si crea un...

  14. Aspetti Moderni della Fisica Greca : Modern Aspects of Ancient Greek Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Recami, Erasmo

    1970-01-01

    Plutarchus, circa 100 AD, in his early book on "astrophysics" --in which he exposed, in a sense, a general theory of gravitation-- wrote the noticeable passage: The Moon gets the guarantee of not falling down just from its motion and from the dash associated with its revolution, exactly as stones in slings cannot fall due to their circular whirling motion; in fact, each thing is dragged by its mere natural motion only if it isn't deviated by something else. The Moon, therefore, is not dragged down by its weight, because its natural tendency is frustrated by its revolution. And, on the contrary, it would be really amazing if it could remain at rest always at the same place, like the Earth. While Posidonius (circa 135-51 BC) had written: Matter is endowed with a cohesion that keeps it together and against which the surrounding vacuum has no power. Indeed, the material world is supported by an immense force, and alternately contracts and expands in the vacuum following its own physical processes, now consumed by...

  15. Instrumental aspects of TPD / TRP techniques; Aspetti strumentali delle tecniche TPD / TRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossi, C.; Recchia, S. [CNR, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica

    1997-11-01

    Criteria for designing the most suitable experimental setup for TPD / TRP measurements are discussed in detail. Interfacing the control and measurement components with a PC represents a crucial step in this operation. Two different approaches are considered: the first based on a computer-linked gas chromatographic integrator, the second featuring an analogic/ digital conversion module. When complex probe molecules or chemical reactions are involved, combining selective detectors such as GC and MS is recommended as the best solution.

  16. Campylobacteriosi nel perugino nel primo biennio del nuovo secolo: alcuni aspetti e considerazioni di microbiologia clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available 794 faecal specimens of outpatients with enteritis during 2001-02 were examined for pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni/coli (14.2% and Salmonella spp (15.1% prevailed among bacteria. 3 strains of Arcobacter butzleri were isolated too (0.4%. C. jejuni prevailed (85.7% in respect of C. coli (11.8% and A. butzleri (2.5%, as in children as in adults. C. jejuni biotype 1 was prevalent (68.6% in respect of C. jejuni b. 2 (29.4% or C. jejuni b. 3 (2.0%; also C. coli b. 1 prevailed (78.6%.The average of infected people was 4 years for children (0-14 years old and 48 for adults, with a range between 3 moths and 84 years. Regarding patterns of resistance to antibiotics, were observed 6.7% of resistance (R to erytromycin, 49.5% to norfloxacin (and similar quinolones, 37.8% to tetracycline, 31.1% to minocycline, 1.7% to amoxicyllin + clavulanate, 0.8% to gentamycin and chloramphenicole. No particular correlations were observed between age, sex, clinical findings and species or biotype of isolated Campylobacter. Concluding, the filter membrane technique is preferable for isolating these spirilla, the identification of genus and species could be rational, macrolides are always the first choice molecules for therapy when mandatory.

  17. Epidemiological review on chlorine dioxide; Il biossido di cloro: efficacia e aspetti epidemiologici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansebastiano, G. [Parma Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Agraria; Zoni, R.; Mezzetta, S.

    1998-04-01

    The Hygiene Institute of the University of Parma carried out inactivation test on poliovirus l, Coxsachievirus B3 and Echovirus 7, using Chlorine dioxide at varying pH values and varying temperatures. The results high lightened the high virus killing potential of ClO{sub 2} and that this was more active under slightly more alkaline conditions and at temperatures higher than 20 C degrees. The literature relating to experimental and analytical epidemiological studies carried out on man were also surveyed so as to evaluate the toxic effects of ClO{sub 2} and ClO{sub 2}{sup -}. This survey found no evidence of any significant changes in hematologic parameters (red cells, hemoglobin, average-cell volume, average cell concentration) or in total cholesterol, HDL, apolipoprotein B, methaemoglobin and thyroid hormones. [Italiano] L`Istituto di Igiene dell`Universita` di Parma ha condotto test di inattivazione su Poliovirus l, Coxsakcievirus B3 ed Echovirus 7, usando biossido di cloro a diversi valori di pH e temperatura. i risultati hanno evidenziato l`elevato potere di inattivazione del ClO{sub 2} e che questo e` piu` attivo in condizioni lievemente alcaline ed a temperature superiori a 20 gradi C. E` stata rivista la letteratura relativa a studi di epidemiologia analitica e sperimentale condotti sull`uomo per valutare gli effetti tossici di ClO{sub 2} e ClO{sub 2}{sup -}. Tali controlli non hanno evidenziato alcun cambiamento nei parametri ematologici (globuli rossi, emoglobina, volume cellulare medio, concentrazione cellulare media) come anche nel colesterolo totale, HDL, apolipoproteina B, metaemoglobina ed ormoni tiroidei.

  18. La musicologia afro-americana e il documento sonoro. Aspetti fondativi e disciplinari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cerchiari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Afro-American musicology and the sound document. Disciplinary and foundation aspects After an introduction about the production of sound documents, both written and recorded, within Afro-American music, the author considers the importance of the subject of jazz documentation in terms of sound and the basic contribution to discography within these repertoires. The contribution given by the sound document to Afro-American musicology and its didactics, in addition to the transmission of contents, has a primary importance: transcriptions of solos and improvisations, analyses and comparisons, these are the basis of studies done directly on sound documents. Mentioned are also other types of documents, such as pianola rolls and mechanical instruments. The contribution to ancillary information connected to sound documents is considered (record envelopes, containers, illustrated booklets, cover notes as well as the importance of the whole production process to the creation of collections and sound archives, both public and private ones, based on that repertoire, giving birth also to restoration and retrieval activities.

  19. Carnivore rabies: ecological and evolutionary aspects / La rabbia nei Carnivori: aspetti ecologici ed evolutivi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wandeler

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Populations of a number of species of the order Carnivora sustain independent rabies epidemics in different parts of the world. These main hosts are all small to medium size (0.4 - 20 kg omnivores, scavenging, and foraging on small vertebrates, invertebrates, fruit, and refuse produced by humans. They reach highest population densities in and near human settlements. High intrinsic population growth rates allow rapid recoveries of populations decimated by persecution or disease. The rabies virus is very uniform, so strains circulating in different host populations can be distinguished by the use of monoclonal antibodies. Rabies virus strains and their hosts have to be coadapted in order to allow their prolonged coexistence. The coadapted (or coevolved? traits are pathogenicity, cell specificity (including species specificity, length of incubation period, duration and magnitude of virus excretion, duration and symptoms of clinical illness, per capita population growth rate of the host, its use of resources (habitat use, social organization and behaviour, and mortality factors other than rabies. These virus and host properties determine rates of infectious contacts and all other epidemiological parameters such as incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates. Riassunto Diverse specie di Carnivori mantengono indipendentemente epidemie di rabbia in varie parti del mondo. Questi Carnivori sono tutti di piccola o media taglia (0,4 - 20 kg; sono onnivori, spazzini, e si alimentano di piccoli vertebrati, invertebrati, frutti e di vari rifiuti antropici. Essi raggiungono le densità più elevate nelle aree ubane e suburbane. I1 loro elevato tasso di crescita consente una rapida ripresa delle popolazioni decimate dagli abbattimenti o dalle malattie. Il virus della rabbia è molto uniforme, così che i diversi ceppi presenti nelle popolazioni ospite, possono essere distinti con l'impiego degli anticorpi monoclonali. I diversi ceppi di virus della rabbia ed i rispettivi ospiti si sono coadattati, al fine di consentire la loro prolungata coesistenza. I caratteri che hanno subito un coadattamento (o una coevoluzione? sono la patogenità, la specificità cellulare (compresa la specificità specifica, la durata del periodo di incubazione, la durata e l'intensità della escrezione virale, la durata e i sintomi delle manifestazioni cliniche, il tasso di crescita pro capite dell'ospite, il suo utilizzo delle risorse (uso dell'habitat, l'organizzazione sociale e il comportamento, e i fattori di mortalità diversi da quelli riconducibili alla rabbia. Tutte queste proprietà dei virus e dell'ospite determinano l'andamento dei contatti infettanti e di tutti gli altri parametri epidemiologici quali l'incidenza, la prevalenza, la morbosità e la mortalità.

  20. Urologia: aspetti medico-legali. Cosa l'urologo non può non sapere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzotto, Antonio

    2014-12-03

    Medico-legal notes in urologyIn recent years, claims for damages for medical liability have significantly increased. This implies that urologists need to know at least some basic concepts and updates regarding Forensic Medicine. Hence it is mandatory that, beyond the requirements of the law, every physician is covered by insurance liability for medical professionals. With the aim to protect and help the urologist in response to a claim for damages, the Italian Society of Urology has established and activated a "urological first aid", which any member can turn to in a moment of need. In the case of an accident, urologists can contact the "urological first aid" otherwise they can send a letter within 3 days to his/her insurance company, which will analyze the complaint and prepare a brief statement of defence and choose a civil lawyer specializing in medical professional liability. In this paper we will deal with some concepts of forensic medicine, distinguishing between public-liability and penal setting.

  1. Il dolore in ambito urologico: aspetti fisiopatologici del dolore e della cronicità

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, Cesare; Demartini, Laura; Angelini, Lucia; Armiento, Luciana; Jallous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Pain in urology: pathophysiological aspects of pain and chronicityChronic pain has been traditionally defined by pain duration, but this approach has limited empirical support and does not account for chronic pain multidimensionality. Defining chronic pain solely by duration is based on the view that acute pain signals potential tissue damage, whereas chronic pain results from central sensitization in which pain is sustained after nociceptive inputs have diminished. Chronic urological pain is a prevalent condition, which can represent a major challenge to health care providers due to its complex aetiology and poor response to therapy. In most cases, clear signs of on-going tissue trauma, inflammation or infection are not present. Despite this, more underhanded pathophysiological mechanisms, affecting the urinary system or other pelvic organ systems (musculoskeletal, neurologic, urologic, gynaecologic) and some psychological aspects may be present. In this article, some pathophysiological aspects of visceral pain are discussed; the definition of 'chronic pain', the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of pain and the rationale for association therapy are also reviewed.

  2. Terapia del dolore: nuove norme e aspetti pratici per l’uso degli analgesici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, pain therapy in Italy was conducted with largely sub-optimal standards, as revealed by one of the lowest mean morphine consumption values, an important indicator of pain therapy quality according to the WHO, among industrialized countries. The recognition of such a negative situation has led to an important effort to improvement, carried out by the law-maker, institutions and health professionals. As suggested by the WHO, these efforts aimed at three main objectives: reducing the cultural barriers to appropriate opioid use through targeted education and information, easing of analgesic drug prescription and availability, and improvement of the integration among hospital-based and domiciliar pain management and care-giving. In this article, the new legal framework concerning the prescription and administration of analgesics - regulatory innovations started in February 2001 - is presented and its practical implications for health professionals are discussed. Alongside the new laws, some regulatory interventions recently adopted by the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA are presented and discussed, as they share the proposition of simplifying pain therapy and permit the prescription of more analgesics paid for by the National Health Service. In the last years, the premises for a more rational and modern approach to pain therapy in Italy have been created, which will need to be followed by cultural, organizing and clinical practice adaptations in order to warrant effective and efficient management of algic patients.

  3. L’introduzione dell’opera riquadrata nella Liguria nel medioevo: aspetti tecnologici e contesto sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagnana, Aurora

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza (el empleo la reintroducción de la arquitectura en sillares en época medieval en la ciudad de Génova. Las investigaciones realizadas en esta ciudad y su territorio han mostrado como este tipo de tecnologías constructivas, empleadas en el período altoimperial, se han abandonado a partir del medio imperio, y solamente se documentan en Génova a partir del siglo XII en el contexto de arquitecturas realizadas por las élites urbanas. A través de las fuentes escritas se ha podido identificar a los autores de estas primeras construcciones, que aparecen en la documentación con el nombre de «magistri Antelami», que podríamos identificar como canteros especializados provenientes del valle del río Intelvi. Se conoce la presencia de estos canteros a partir del siglo XII en fábricas realizadas por aristócratas residentes en la colina Castello de Génova. Como estos maestros estaban con anterioridad especializados en el trabajo de la madera, se sugiere que se hayan especializado en la estereotomía en Medio Oriente a través de las operaciones militares y comerciales realizadas en Tierra Santa por Génova en este siglo.

  4. Aspetti di tecnica colturale in canapa da cellulosa: epoca di raccolta

    OpenAIRE

    Marras, Gian Franco; Spanu, Antonino

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978 the productive response of hemp pulpe use at various different harvest times was examined at the Ente Nazionale Cellulosa e Carta Campulongu farm (Oristano). In 1977 three different harvest times were compared using the cultivars Superfibra and Carmagnola Selezionata: the first harvesting took piace during female flowering, the second twenty days from the first and the third twenty days from the second. To the three test periods of the previous year a further e...

  5. L'articolazione territoriale del sistema bancario: aspetti teorici e alcune evidenze empiriche per la Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zazzaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The banking system of the Italian Mezzogiorno is living a difficult season. The major banks were absorbed by banks external to the area, while many small local banks are still operating in marginal market niches. Starting from this point, the paper deals with the problem of the geographical articulation of the banking system, and of the role of the local banks. The main conclu-sion is that local banks are indispensable for a regional banking system to be able to favour the regional economic development. However, local banks cannot remain isolated relying on informative advantages only, but they must become part of networks with both local and national banks. Finally, the paper analyses the structure and performance of Campania's regional banking system.  JEL Codes: G21Keywords:

  6. Alcuni aspetti di dinamica non lineare con applicazioni in dinamica dei fasci

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051254

    1993-01-01

    With the new generation of superconducting accelerator machines, like the planned Large Hadron Collider, the beam dynamics will be dominated by nonlinear effects induced by the magnetic field errors. \\\\ Those nonlinear effects are potentially harmful for the operation of the machine, as they could generate particle losses in the superconducting magnet and therefore induce quenches. \\\\ Three main problems are discussed in this dissertation: \\begin{itemize} \\item The computation of the stability domain for Hamiltonian maps in two-dimensions. \\item The compensation of the nonlinear effects due to the magnetic errors using analytical techniques like normal Forms analysis. \\item The analysis of transport phenomena induced by slow modulation of the linear parameters of the accelerator. \\end{itemize}

  7. Termodinamica aspetti recenti e applicazioni alla chimica e all'ingegneria

    CERN Document Server

    Carrà, Sergio

    1990-01-01

    Dalla fine del secolo scorso la termodinamica è stata applicata allo studio delle proprietà della materia e delle sue trasformazioni e si è andata via via evolvendo interessando campi diversi, come la meccanica statistica, la fisica molecolare, le scienze ambientali, la biofisica, la scienza dei materiali e le tecnologie chimiche....

  8. Prevenzione e terapia precoce del diabete mellito di tipo II: aspetti farmacoeconomici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Type II (non-insulin-dependent diabetes is one of the most widespread chronic patologies in the developed countries and its prevalence in Italy is about 2-3% of the population. Type II diabetes is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities such as central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which contributes to the very high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore Type II diabetes involves a significant financial burden on the health care system. The purpose of this paper is to explain the composition of the healthcare costs of managing people with Type II diabetes and the economic repercussions due to the adoption of an aggressive strategy against the pathology. To carry out this evaluation we considered the CODE-2 (The Cost of Diabetes in Europe - Type II Study results, the American Diabetes Association Position Statement, the Diabetes Prevention Program and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study. Evidence exists to show that introducing prevention program or an early therapy can avert or delay significantly the onset of cardiovascular morbidity in Type II diabetes patients. According to the pharmacoeconomical criteria, this very desiderable clinical goal is associated to a little increase of the health expenditures, and sometimes also to a costs saving.

  9. NUOVA PROSPETTIVA DI TERAPIA E ASPETTI ETICI NEL TRATTAMENTO DI NEOPLASIE LINFOIDI IN ETA’ PEDIATRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Di Santi, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Nell’ambito della sperimentazione clinica, che viene svolta nei paesi industrializzati, si rende necessario porre una specifica attenzione ai criteri etici di riferimento affinché siano salvaguardati i beni e i valori umani fondamentali. Il rischio è che gli interessi commerciali possano nascondersi dietro gli interessi scientifici, danneggiando il benessere psichico del malato e la sua dignità di essere umano. Nei pazienti oncologici la sofferenza fisica, che rappresenta soltanto un ...

  10. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  11. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  12. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  13. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Newsroom, Features, & Announcements CDC at Work: Healthy Water Fast Facts WASH-related Observances Top Causes of Drinking ... Features, & Announcements Training & Education CDC at Work: Healthy Water Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics By A- ...

  14. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  15. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  16. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  17. The efficiency of sand filters for the treatment of drinking water. A case study; Studio sull'efficienza di filtri a sabbia per la potabilizzazione dell'acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M.; Marrale, D.; Fabiano, M. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse; Palumbo, F. [Servizi Tecnologici e Ambientali SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The efficiency of a drinking water treatment plant was investigated through the study of biochemical and microbial measures of the sand filter and the structure of the meiobenthic community. Filter and water samples were taken monthly and according to the different operation time. The efficiency of the biofilm was evaluated by the study of both structural (i.e. organic load before and after filtration, bacterial and meiobenthic density) and functional parameters (i.e. bacterial enzymatic activity and Frequency of Dividing Cells) and the analysis of the particulate organic material. The filters showed a high bacterial density and metabolic activity. The meiobenthic community, composed mainly by rotifers, nematodes and copepods, displayed a high degree of biodiversity during the studied period. The informative value of all the considered parameters and the efficiency of the filter during the operating period are discussed. [Italian] In un impianto di potabilizzazione delle acque l'analisi quali-quantitativa delle caratteristiche biochimiche e microbiche di un filtro a sabbia e del comparto acquatico associato ha permesso di valutare l'efficienza del sistema filtrante. I prelievi sono stati effettuati mensilmente in corrispondenza di differenti momenti operativi del filtro. Sono stati presi in considerazione aspetti funzionali, quali le attivita' idrolitica e duplicativa della comunita' batterica, e descrittivi (carico organico pre- e post-filtrazione, densita' batteriche e meiobentoniche). La valutazione relativa al materiale organico sospeso ha permesso di stimare l'efficienza di abbattimento attuata dal biofilm. I filtri presentano densita' batteriche molto elevate ed attivamente metabolizzanti. La comunita' meiobentonica, dominata da rotiferi, nematodi e copepodi, e' pero' sempre caratterizzata da un grado elevato di biodiversita'. Viene infine discusso il valore informativo dei diversi parametri e indici

  18. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of their water needs from rainwater harvesting. • Water quality: The quality of water is matched with use. For instance, the best quality water may be used for drinking and cooking and poorer quality water, such as grey water, used for flushing toilets... and irrigation. • Onsite retention: In natural environments vegetation and soil absorb and retain a large proportion of rain water that falls on to it. Green buildings aim to emulate this by ensuring that buildings and sites absorb and retain rain water...

  19. Water uptake and water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The water uptake and the water supply do not directly affect the mineral absorption of plants. However, many connections exist between the management of minerals and water. The most evident of those connections are following

  20. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  1. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  2. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  3. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  5. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  6. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  7. Water Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  8. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 43, No 2 (2017) ... WaterSA publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology and engineering. ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains original research articles ... via linearized calibration method in the upstream of Huaihe River Basin, China ...

  9. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  10. Fast Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Water Cube tailor made for swimming success The water in the Water Cube pool is tranquil now. The predatory power of American Michael Phelps churning his way to an unprecedented eighth gold medal in the men’s 4x100 meters medley relay, took swimming to new heights. And there is no doubt that Beijing’s bubbleshaped aquatics center helped in the process of the 21 new world swimming records.

  11. Supercritical water

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-01-01

    Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical wa

  12. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  13. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  14. WATER WARNINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the country's water supply goes down the drain, conservation and wastewater recycling have become urgent tasks for China At a news briefing ahead of the World Water Congress and Exhibition in Beijing, scheduled to begin September 10, Acting Chairman of the Organizing Committee and Vice Minister of Construction Qiu Baoxing delivered a statement that cut to the heart of the problem:

  15. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  16. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  17. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  18. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  19. Water Pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2005-01-01

    A water bearer in India had two large pots, each hung on each end of a pole which he carried across his neck. One of the pots had a crack in it, while the other pot was perfect and always delivered a full portion of water at the end of the long walk from the stream to the master's house, and the cracked pot was only half full when the water bearer arrived. For two years this went on daily. Of course, the perfect pot was proud of its perfection to which it was brought. But the poor cracked pot was ashamed of...

  20. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  1. Water Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平

    2003-01-01

    一只有裂缝的水罐为自己的缺陷而深感内疚,但它忽略了由它浇灌出的美丽花朵。人人都有属于自己的不足,只要正视它们,那么……A water bearer in India had two large pots, each hung on each end of a pole, which he carried across his neck. One of the pots had a crack(裂缝) in it, and while the other pot was perfect and always delivered a full portion of water at the end of the long walk from the stream to the master蒺s house, the cracked pot arrived only half full.For two years this went on daily, with the water bearer delivering one and one鄄half pots full of water to his master...

  2. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Agents Water Pollution Environmental Science Basics Population Research Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  3. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  4. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... diaper. Wash hands after using the bathroom or changing diapers. Avoid swallowing or getting water in your ...

  5. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  6. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  7. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  8. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  9. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  10. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  11. WATER USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimasu Woldesenbet Worako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Hawassa is one of the Major Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes which is situated in southernregional state, which has a closed basin system and receives water from only Tikurwuha Riverand runoff from the catchment. Quality of the lake water is vital for the surrounding communityfor proper and safe use of the lake. The present study was designed to examine thephysicochemical and biological water quality suitability for multiple purposes and to determinetrophic state index of the lake for a period of three months from December to February,2011/12. Water samples were collected from the lake on monthly basis and analyzed for allwater quality parameters by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed bydescriptive, multivariate analysis (MANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test. The overall waterquality parameters analytical results have been observed as pH (7.5, TDS (450.1, temp.(21.23°C, DO (17.85, turbidity (8.44 NTU, COD (48.73, BOD5 (117, Fˉ (12.8, NO3ˉ (5.27,PO43- (1.12, NO2ˉ (0.04, TN (5.42, TP (0.37, Clˉ (30.84, Mn (0.09, Zn(0.19, Na+(331,Chlorophyll-a(25.45μg/L, TC(11,883MPN/100ml and FC (99.67MPN/100ml and units forothers in mg/L. On the other hand, the value of indices for irrigation water quality was SAR(12.2-16, SSP (83.77-84.34%, MAR (93.83-95.37% and KR (5.71-7.18. The values of thewhole analyzed parameters have shown significant variation in site (P<0.05. As irrigation waterquality mainly focuses on the indices of SAR and EC/TDS, the lake water is in good conditionfor the purpose. The values of trace heavy metals were under permissible limits for multipleaspects. On average, the trophic state index of the Lake Hawassa was hypereutrophic(TSI = 72.6, as Carlson value category. In general, the lake water is not suitable for drinking,recreational and irrigation of some raw consuming crops but it is suitable for aquatic life.

  12. Light & Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Natividad Puig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal explores the Caos Theories, specifically, how applicable they are on local architectural interventions. It compiles a short study about possible variations of a same piece, in order to create difeerent ruled surfaces. Those pieces are distributed around a fractal attractor. The cores of these attractors are the ones responsible of collecting all the water flowing through the system. Once built, the project will enclose an open but covered space. Within this space, many different activities can be embraced, which allows its adaptability to each community where it?s placed. An open market will be the most common use though. It will allow selling agricultural products developed among the same community. Products irrigated with the extra water source collected by the cores of the fractal attractors.

  13. Troubled Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CHONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The diplomatic row between China and Japan over the latter's illegal detention of a Chinese fishing boat was initially resolved on September 24 when Japanese authorities released the boat's captain.But its repercussions have yet to be fully addressed. The Chinese Government and public protested strongly after Japanese coast guards captured the boat in waters off the Diaoyu Islands on September 7.Six days later,Japan freed all other crew members while keeping the captain in custody.

  14. Radiopreservation of food: Toxicological and microbiological safety aspects; Aspetti tossicologici e microbiologici nel trattamento di alimenti con radiazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, M.; Mauro, F.; Spano`, M. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    This paper reviews the findings and opinions of leading world health groups (e.g., the US Bureau of Foods - Irradiated Foods Committee, the World Health Organization, the European Communities Selected Committee, etc.) regarding the toxicological and microbiological safety aspects of food radiopreservation. For that which regards toxicology, research studies considered the practice of radiopreservation similar to that of the use of chemical preservatives, i.e., it adds to or forms new substances in the treated food, and care must be taken not to alter normal dietary balance during the performance of health effects studies. The paper notes that toxicological tests are insensitive to the effects induced by radiolysis products since the concentrations of these products are simply far too low. With regard to radiation induced mutations in radiopreserved foods, the paper notes that many study groups share the opinion that radiopreservation induced mutations are not qualitatively different from those produced in conventional treatment methods, and that the practice of radiopreservation appears to be, from a purely microbiological point of view, similar to cold pasteurization of solid foods. It is recommended that more effort be given to the dissemination of public information with regard to the possible health benefits afforded through the use of this food preservation technology.

  15. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems; Il gas naturale in autotrazione, aspetti energetici ed ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt.Energia

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology. [Italiano] Il rapporto e` dedicato all`esposizione ed all`analisi delle principali tematiche afferenti all`introduzione del metano nel settore dell`autotrazione. Vengono quindi esaminati nell`ordine la situazione del mercato della domanda e dell`offerta di metano, le realizzazioni veicolari oggi disponibili, la tecnologia e le prestazioni dei motori alimentati a metano e quelle dei sistemi di accumulo a bordo, l`impatto ambientale di questi veicoli. Vengono infine trattati i temi dello sviluppo del mercato e degli attori di questo sviluppo, evidenziandone i possibili sbocchi insieme agli ostacoli che ne limitano la diffusione.

  16. Alcuni Aspetti dello Sviluppo Morfosintattico in Italiano (Some Aspects of the Development of Morphology and Syntax in Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, A; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research that gathered language samples via videotape recordings from 2 Italian children (one upper class, the other lower class) from the age of 18 months to 36 months, and then analyzes the data to determine the development of morphology and syntax in these children. (19 references) (CFM)

  17. Alcuni Aspetti dello Sviluppo Morfosintattico in Italiano (Some Aspects of the Development of Morphology and Syntax in Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, A; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research that gathered language samples via videotape recordings from 2 Italian children (one upper class, the other lower class) from the age of 18 months to 36 months, and then analyzes the data to determine the development of morphology and syntax in these children. (19 references) (CFM)

  18. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  19. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer t

  20. Reuse & Recirculation of Filter Backwash Water of Water Treatment Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh L. Jibhakate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plant, filtration is done by means of sand filtration process. Due to continuous filtration process, sand pores get clogged and decreases the efficiency. For mitigating such problem, reverse flow of water & air i.e. backwashing process is carried out. To carry out backwashing operation, 4% of treated water has been utilized and will result in muddy water known as backwash water. This backwash water is then discharged into a natural stream or storage tank near the plant for recirculation. The present study includes a trial for the reuse & recirculation of backwash water.

  1. Improved water does not mean safe water

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  2. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  3. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  4. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  5. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  6. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  7. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  8. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  9. Everyone into the Water!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  10. Testing the Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  11. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging station, stage for 5 stream station, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  12. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  13. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Deiwert, Clyde E.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 183 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 95 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal Agencies.

  14. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  15. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  16. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  17. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 163 stream-gaging stations, stage for 8 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 1 stream, water temperature at 11 sites, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 78 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  18. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  19. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  20. Crowdsourcing Water Quality Data

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile phone technologies coupled with water quality testing, there is great opportunity to increase the awareness of water quality throughout rural and urban communities in developing countries. Whether the focus is on empowering citizens with information about the quality of water they use in daily life or providing scientific data to water managers to help them deliver safe water to the ...

  1. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  2. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and inco

  3. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2001-01-01

    Water resource data for the 2000 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 166 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 2 streams, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 79 lakes and 89 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  4. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  5. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  6. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  7. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  8. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  9. Alles is water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Electrochemical Water Treatment. De aandachtsgebieden in zijn professoraat richten zich achtereenvolgens op: a) energiezuinige ontzouting van water, b) selectieve verwijdering van ionen uit water, c) terugwinning van waardevolle

  10. Water in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the weight of the human body. Without water, humans would die in a few days. All the ... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, ...

  11. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  12. Water Safety Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prepare for Emergencies Types of Emergencies Take the Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe Around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish ...

  13. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  14. The Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of water distribution in China is that there is a deluge of water in the south and a deficiency in the north. To ease the water shortage in the north, the Chinese Government

  15. Alles is water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Electrochemical Water Treatment. De aandachtsgebieden in zijn professoraat richten zich achtereenvolgens op: a) energiezuinige ontzouting van water, b) selectieve verwijdering van ionen uit water, c) terugwinning van waardevolle

  16. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  17. Water Innovation and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  18. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  19. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  20. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  1. Water management strategy overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducette, B. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Suncor's oil sands operations produce 225,000 bbl/day of crude oil products from Alberta's Fort McMurray area. Water is a key resource used for enhanced recovery methods to produce crude oil products from oil sands. A water management strategy is required to monitor and control the amount of water used in the bitumen liberation process, cooling, the steam assisted gravity drainage process, steam for cogeneration, an energy transfer medium, a transportation medium, feedstock, and potable water. The water management strategy is designed to manage both short and long term water issues and develop sustainable water management strategies in an integrated manner. The strategy also encourages open communication on water to optimize synergy between operators, energy producers, and governments. The opportunities and challenges of a water management strategy were outlined with reference to recycling opportunities, managing water chemistry, and improving the ability to measure water use.

  2. Sustainability and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  3. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  4. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  5. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  6. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water tr

  7. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  8. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the hydro(geo)lo

  9. No Watered Down Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Droughts and floods have plagued the Chinese people for the entire summer. Along with alarming news of toxic spills in rivers and polluted water, the current situation of China's water resources is extremely worrying. Threatened by global warming, water pollution and soil erosion, sustainable development in China is becoming more difficult to maintain as the precious water resources are threatened.

  10. Water and Something Else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  11. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water tr

  12. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  13. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  14. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  15. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  16. WATER FOOTPRINT IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    More and more news report on water-related extreme environmental phenomena. Some of these are natural, which are often beyond the human race. But others are definitely due to anthropogenic effects. I think the water footprint index is able to highlight national and international water-use processes and gives us the opportunity of organizing a sustainable, consumer-, environmental- and governancefriendly management. 81% of the fresh water withdrawal is from surface water bodies in the EU. In E...

  17. The global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  18. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  19. REUSE OF WASTE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Nathália Leal; Hentz,Paulo; Silva, Josemar Marques; Barcellos, Afonso Lopes

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236130812585Given that water is a limited natural resource essential to life, questions about the conservation and preservation of water resources has been the focus of studies by bodies which conservationists seek alternatives for better use of natural resources. The technologies use water solutions are sustainable and contribute to the rational use of water, providing the conservation of water resources for future generations. The continuous increase of the world ...

  20. Drinking water and cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these,...

  1. Drought Water Right Curtailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W.; Tweet, A.; Magnuson-Skeels, B.; Whittington, C.; Arnold, B.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    California's water rights system allocates water based on priority, where lower priority, "junior" rights are curtailed first in a drought. The Drought Water Rights Allocation Tool (DWRAT) was developed to integrate water right allocation models with legal objectives to suggest water rights curtailments during drought. DWRAT incorporates water right use and priorities with a flow-forecasting model to mathematically represent water law and hydrology and suggest water allocations among water rights holders. DWRAT is compiled within an Excel workbook, with an interface and an open-source solver. By implementing California water rights law as an algorithm, DWRAT provides a precise and transparent framework for the complicated and often controversial technical aspects of curtailing water rights use during drought. DWRAT models have been developed for use in the Eel, Russian, and Sacramento river basins. In this study, an initial DWRAT model has been developed for the San Joaquin watershed, which incorporates all water rights holders in the basin and reference gage flows for major tributaries. The San Joaquin DWRAT can assess water allocation reliability by determining probability of rights holders' curtailment for a range of hydrologic conditions. Forecasted flow values can be input to the model to provide decision makers with the ability to make curtailment and water supply strategy decisions. Environmental flow allocations will be further integrated into the model to protect and improve ecosystem water reliability.

  2. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  3. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  4. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  5. Paying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  6. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  7. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Reuse of water (unspecified) 3. Flushinb toilet with greywater 4. Reduce amount of water used per shower and/or bath 5. Reduce frequency of showers and/or...government, and has held training seminars on water supply and water conservation planning and on water reuse . A water supply and conservation...Planning 9 Water Reuse 9 Water Demand Forecast and Analysis 9 Drought Management 10 Water Conservation in Water Supply Planning 10 Urban Water Supply 11

  8. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  9. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  10. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  11. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  12. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  13. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  14. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  15. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  16. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  17. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  18. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity.

  19. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  20. Smart Growth and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains resources that communities can use to integrate green infrastructure into streets and neighborhoods to reduce stormwater runoff, use water more efficiently, and protect water from pollution.

  1. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  2. WaterHydro_LKBSPRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from 1:24,000 (or 1:25,000)...

  3. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  4. Water Safety (Recreational)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  5. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  6. Water on the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee joint. Some people call this condition "water on the knee." A swollen knee may be ... Choose low-impact exercise. Certain activities, such as water aerobics and swimming, don't place continuous weight- ...

  7. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  8. VT Water Classifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Water Quality Standards (VTWQS) are rules intended to achieve the goals of the Vermont Surface Water Strategy, as well as the objective of the federal...

  9. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  10. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  12. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  13. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  14. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  15. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  16. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability/supply for shale gas development (SGD) in the assessment study area is severely constrained. Surface water availability is generally low, with large areas of non-perennial, episodic and ephemeral streams experiencing very high...

  17. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  18. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  19. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  20. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  1. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  2. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  3. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainab

  4. Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    where droughts endure long enough that water managers have opportunities and motivation to test innovative water management strategies . With literally...water demands expand. This serves to motivate examination and experimentation with novel water management strategies , such as water transfers. 10... management strategies to which water transfers can be applied. The latter part of the chapter identifies several additional types of water transfers

  5. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological

  6. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  7. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  8. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  9. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  10. Save water, save money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  11. Exploding Water Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  12. Water Policies of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu; Tayfun Kir

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from wate...

  13. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  14. Water at a crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Climate and water expert Pavel Kabat -- director and CEO of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis in Austria -- calls for a long-term system approach to water research, new partnerships with the developing world and a change in donor practices, to tackle water-climate issues. He talks to Nature Climate Change.

  15. Water beheren en communiceren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijklema, S.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication with the public are self-evident for water authorities. Its aim is often formulated as 'creating or strengthening public support' for water management or for the water authorities. A lot of time and money is being spent on this, while the necessity of having p

  16. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  17. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  18. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfun KIR; Zakir COBANOÐLU

    2004-01-01

    Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000): 103-104

  19. Shallow-Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  20. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  1. Growing Water Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  2. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  3. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  5. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70 physi

  6. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  7. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  8. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  9. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  10. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  11. Water and poverty: Implications for water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, S. M.

    1993-07-01

    Although it recognizes the tangible economic benefits to health and income that may derive from greater safety of supply and improved time savings in procurement, planning for improvements of urban water systems in developing countries has overlooked other ways in which water may influence health and income among the poor. In these populations the price of water may further affect health and labor productivity, both directly through its impact on nutrition and indirectly through its impact on housing size and quality and on residential density. What at first might seem a straightforward equity issue in planning may thus be an issue of economic efficiency as well. Failure to account for the fuller range of tangible benefits associated with improvements in water supply may lead to underestimation of returns to investment and therefore to economically inefficient investment.

  12. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  13. What is water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1965-01-01

    If a schoolboy asked this question, you would answer it easily enough. "Why, water is a liquid found in and around the earth. Water is the sea, lakes, streams, springs and what comes gushing out of the tap when we turn it on." If he still looks a little unsatisfied, you would explain that our bodies are three-fourths water, and that water covers threefourths of the earth's surface. But you would have to admit to yourself that these facts, interesting as they are, do not quite answer the boy's question: "What is water?"

  14. Health and Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , bacteria, parasites and toxins, and it is a symptom of many of the illness caused by the various pathogens that might be involved in water-related disease. Non-specific diarrhoeal disease is more frequent and causes more deaths globally than cholera...-borne, water-washed, water-vectored or water-based diseases. Among the most typical water-related disease are gastroenteritis, amoebiasis, salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever and hepatitis. Although there has been a general decline...

  15. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water......, for wood in equilibrium with surrounding climate in the RH range 0-99.5 %, water is only significantly present within cell walls. A structural model of a wood cell is developed in this study using Finite Element Method for predicting the mechanical performance of wood. The starting point for the model...... is the physical behaviour on the molecular level since water interferes with wood at this level. The elastic material properties of the wood cell wall are explained by the organisation of wood constituents and their properties. The effect of water as well as temperature is incorporated by considering the amount...

  16. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  17. Dying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-afari, A

    1993-01-01

    In Danchira village in Ghana for the last 5 years, women and children rise before dawn every day to fetch water from a tributary or the River Densu, which is 5 miles from the village. Diminished rainfall has dried the village's 3 ponds and bore-hole where the women and children used to fetch water. To exacerbate the water problem, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation no longer comes to fill the huge water tank it brought to Danchira when water scarcity first occurred. The villagers could not afford to pay for the water. A 55-year-old mother of 5, Dede Aryehteye, takes her morning bath at the river. When she has dirty laundry, she cleans it in the river. She returns to the village around 8 am. She uses the next hour to filter the dark water 2 times with a device provided free of charge by the national Guinea Worm Eradication Programme to keep the larvae out of the water. Next she sort the water for 3 uses: drinking, household use, and evening bath. Dede then does other domestic chores. She would rather go to her cassava farm in the early morning when it is cool but has to fetch water instead. When she is not too tired and after finishing domestic chores, she goes to the farm. Water-fetching also exhausts the children and gets them to school rather late. Children make up the majority of the 500 people living in Danchira. Water scarcity forced most of the young villagers to flee to the cities. For example, Dede's 4 older children now live in Accra. The water scarcity keeps the farmers from growing maize, cassava, and vegetables.

  18. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  19. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  20. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  1. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  2. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  3. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  4. Quantifying Water Stress Using Total Water Volumes and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water will follow oil as the next critical resource leading to unrest and uprisings globally. To better manage this threat, an improved understanding of the distribution of water stress is required today. This study builds upon previous efforts to characterize water stress by improving both the quantification of human water use and the definition of water availability. Current statistics on human water use are often outdated or inaccurately reported nationally, especially for groundwater. This study improves these estimates by defining human water use in two ways. First, we use NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to isolate the anthropogenic signal in water storage anomalies, which we equate to water use. Second, we quantify an ideal water demand by using average water requirements for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use sectors. Water availability has traditionally been limited to "renewable" water, which ignores large, stored water sources that humans use. We compare water stress estimates derived using either renewable water or the total volume of water globally. We use the best-available data to quantify total aquifer and surface water volumes, as compared to groundwater recharge and surface water runoff from land-surface models. The work presented here should provide a more realistic image of water stress by explicitly quantifying groundwater, defining water availability as total water supply, and using GRACE to more accurately quantify water use.

  5. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  6. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  7. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  10. Water transport in brain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...

  11. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  12. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  13. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  14. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  15. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-043016 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to...improve our understanding. During the past few years, the physics effects studied have been three-dimensional propagation on global scales, deep water

  16. Water recovery from dew

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, D; Gioda, A; Milimouk, I; Katiushin, E; Morel, J.-P

    1996-01-01

    International audience; The recovery of clean water from dew has remained a longstanding challenge in many places all around the world. It is currently believed that the ancient Greeks succeeded in recovering atmospheric water vapour on a scale large enough to supply water to the city of Theodosia (presently Feodosia, Crimea, Ukraine). Several attempts were made in the early 20th Cent. to build artificial dew-catching constructions which were subsequently abandoned because of their low yield....

  17. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  18. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  19. [Water hygiene in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-10-01

    As a general rule drinking water in hospitals does not represent a risk for the normal patient. However, for high-risk patients with compromised immune defense systems drinking water in hospitals may become a source of nosocomial infections. It may be contaminated with microorganisms that may have the potential to be infectious agents in the hospital environment. Of particular significance in such circumstances are the Gram-negative rods such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Legionella bacteria. Accordingly, specific behavior patterns and measures in the handling of drinking water in hospitals are meaningful in order to reduce the risks of water-associated nosocomial infections.

  20. Water and Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小诗

    1999-01-01

    A tourist got separated from his tour group in the Sahara. He begged apassing nomad (游牧部落的人) for water." Sorry," said the tribesman (部落男子), "I have no water, but I do have some lovely neckties I’ll sell you." "Youmust be crazy," the tourist mumbled (喃喃而语). Nearly dead from thirst, hespied (发现) another man." Water!" the tourist gasped. "Please, give mewater. ""I have no water," came the reply, "only these handsome ties, which Iwill happily sell you."

  1. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  2. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  3. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available . SPRODI, O.J. (1973) Quality of recycled water. Fate of infectious agents. Jour. Inst. Can. Sd. Technol. Aliment 6 (2), 91. 6. SPROUL, O.J., LAROCHELLE, L.R., WENTWORTH, B.?. and PHORUP, R.T. (1967) Virus removal in water re?use treating processes... to assess the present and future needs f?r such water~ and the virus risk involved in their usage. The available knowledge of the efficiency of natural purification processes in virus removal, by water purification techniques treating possibly polluted...

  4. Jumping on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    Water striders can jump on water as high as they can jump on land. Quick jumps allow them to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore understanding how they make such a dramatic motion for survival can shed light on the ultimate level of semi-aquatic motility achievable through evolution. However, the mechanism of their vertical jumping from a water surface has eluded hydrodynamic explanations so far. By observing movements of water strider legs and theoretically analyzing their dynamic interactions with deforming liquid-air interface, we have recently found that different species of jumping striders always tune their leg rotation speed with a force just below that required to break the water surface to reach the maximum take-off velocity. Here, we start with discussing the fundamental theories of dynamics of floating and sinking of small objects. The theories then enable us to analyze forces acting on a water strider while it presses down the water surface to fully exploit the capillary force. We further introduce a 68-milligram at-scale robotic insect capable of jumping on water without splash, strikingly similar to the real strider, by utilizing the water surface just as a trampoline.

  5. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  6. Ghana - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification...

  7. Water: A looming crisis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available water footprint extends to its supply chain. Coca-Cola thought it was using 2.5 litres of water to produce a litre of coke, but when it looked at its supply chain it realised the actual ¦gure was 200 litres. †is prompted it to link up with the WWF... also need to start thinking about food production in neighbouring countries with higher rainfall. Hope- fully we will learn to use water far more e‡ciently, and to appreciate our ground water. Martin Ginster Environmental advisor, Sasol SOUTH...

  8. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  9. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water product

  10. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  11. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  12. WaterWatch -- Current Water Resources Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — WaterWatch (http://waterwatch.usgs.gov) is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that displays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent,...

  13. Water footprints and sustainable water allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global

  14. Recent Water Issues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The rapid urbanization process in China over the past thirty years has significantly improved the living standards of Chinese people. But it also poses severe environmental pressure on environment including water. This paper discusses the water issues like urban water supply, water pollution and water quality of water system in the context of the rapid urbanization process in China. It then proposes strategic measures to tackle those water issues and discusses the progress of providing safe drinking water and protecting water resources by new technologies in-cluding membrane technology. It concludes that water is a global issue and should be tackled by global community together.

  15. Values of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.; Dicke, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for human life. However, due to its scarcity, the management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to famines, food insecurity, ecological destruction, and resource-based conflicts, and eventually to human suffering and the loss of millions of human

  16. The Dirty Water Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    "The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…

  17. Asia's water balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    The availability of water for human consumption and agriculture can no longer be taken for granted. Various facets of water stress at different spatial scales, such as groundwater depletion1,2, climate change and population increase3, and glacier and snow melt4,5, have been recognized as

  18. Auto's te water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, A.A.

    1970-01-01

    Yearly in the Netherlands, about 1200 vehicles fall into the water, out of which 80 to 100 occupants are killed. Investigations done on this subject showed that a) a vehicle fallen into the water can already be vacated in several ways during the drifting b) the construction and equipment of the vehi

  19. Values of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.; Dicke, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for human life. However, due to its scarcity, the management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to famines, food insecurity, ecological destruction, and resource-based conflicts, and eventually to human suffering and the loss of millions of human

  20. Electrofreezing of confined water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Mark, AE

    2004-01-01

    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing transition of TIP5P water molecules confined between two parallel plates under the influence of a homogeneous external electric field, with magnitude of 5 V/nm, along the lateral direction. For water confined to a thickness of a

  1. Economics of Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource. It is not only used as an input to economic activity such as irrigation, household and industrial water use, and hydropower generation, but also provides ecosystem services such as the maintenance of wetlands, wildlife support, and river flows for aquatic

  2. Water on Stream Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Sichuan Province has repaired quake-damaged hydro infrastructure and aspires to further expand its irrigation facilities As crops grow taller in warm April farmers are busy with watering them. The sound of gurgling water is heard along the road to the Guansong Pengyan

  3. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Shallow water tides

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  5. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  6. Water-filled telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2014-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the case of the thought experiments on water-filled telescopes and their realizations during 18th and 19th century. The story of those instruments shows that the scientific progress occurs in a curious way, since there was no stringent reason for the construction of a water-filled telescope.

  7. EPANET water quality model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  9. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  10. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  11. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  12. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  13. Managing water for life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel P. LOUCKS; Haifeng JIA

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for life. In spite of the entire engineering infrastructure devoted to the treatment, regulation and beneficial uses of water, occasionally sufficient quantities and qualities of water become scarce. When this happens, just how do we decide how much less water to allocate to all of us and the activities we engage in to sustain and enhance our quality of life? This paper addresses some of the complexities of answering such a question, especially as society increasingly recognizes the need to provide flow regimes that will maintain healthy aquatic and floodplain ecosystems that also impact the economic, physical and even the spiritual quality of our lives. For we depend on these ecosystems to sustain our wellbeing. We are indeed a part of our ecosystems. We depend upon on aquatic ecosystems to moderate river flow qualities and quantities, reduce the extremes of floods and droughts, reduce erosion, detoxify and decompose water- borne wastes, generate and preserve flood plain soils and renew their fertility, regulate disease carrying organisms, and to enhance recreational benefits of river systems. This question of deciding just how much water to allocate to each water user and for the maintenance of viable aquatic ecosystems, especially when there is not enough, is a complex, and largely political, issue. This issue is likely to become even more complex and political and contentious in the future as populations grow and as water quantities and their qualities become even more variable and uncertain.

  14. Deficiencies in Water Conservancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recent droughts and floods show the fragility of China’s water conservancy capabilities Be it extreme flooding or severe droughts,China has yet to find a stable middle ground concerning its water supply.These disasters,primarily in the Yangtze

  15. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  16. Drinking Water and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  17. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  18. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  19. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  20. Trees, forests and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, David; Morris, Cindy E.; Locatelli, Bruno; Sheil, Douglas; Cohen, Jane; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gutierrez, Victoria; Noordwijk, van Meine; Creed, Irena F.; Pokorny, Jan; Gaveau, David; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Tobella, Aida Bargués; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis; Sands, David C.; Muys, Bart; Verbist, Bruno; Springgay, Elaine; Sugandi, Yulia; Sullivan, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Forest-driven water and energy cycles are poorly integrated into regional, national, continental and global decision-making on climate change adaptation, mitigation, land use and water management. This constrains humanity's ability to protect our planet's climate and life-sustaining functions. The

  1. Water footprints and 'pozas'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez Guzmán, Carolina; Verzijl, Andres; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other and to discuss what happens when the two logics meet. Rather than

  2. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  3. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  4. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  5. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  13. Water for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Human civilization has always rested on access to water, and, more specifically, on its utilization. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the critical linkages between water and energy and the impact on both of climate change. It identifies areas of opportunity where investment and new regulations are needed, to ensure sustainable global development.

  14. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  15. Where the water is: Mapping global drivers of water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.

  16. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  17. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  18. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  19. Analysis of China's Water Security and Virtual Water Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongrui; Liu Xinghan; Dong Yanyan; Wang Junhong

    2006-01-01

    Producing goods and services all needs water consumption. The water used in the process of an agricultural or industrial product is called the "Virtual Water" contained in this product.Through international trade, water-scarce countries and regions could purchase water-intensive products--especially foods, from water-rich countries to balance their water deficits and achieve water safety. China is one of the 13 most water-deficit countries whose water safety have been severely challenged. This paper generalized the recent global research development and made a brief introduction about the methods calculating virtual water content in specific products. As a case study, we qualified China's annual virtual water flows from year 2000 to 2002 with trade in crops, and ended with some policy advice for application and practice of virtual water strategy.

  20. Water supply assessment 2003 : St. Johns River Water Management District

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report identifies future water supply needs, and areas where those needs cannot be met by the water supply plans of major water users without unacceptable impacts to water resources and related natural systems (which are priority water resource caution areas). (186pp.)

  1. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  2. The politics of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  3. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  4. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  5. Adsorbed Water Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil. In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  7. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  8. Wetting Transition in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. R.; Khalil, M.; Taborek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Optical images were used to study the wetting behavior of water on graphite, sapphire, and quartz along the liquid vapor coexistence curve from room temperature to 300°C. Wetting transitions were identified by the temperature at which the contact angle decreased to zero and also by the disappearance of dropwise condensation. These two methods yielded consistent values for the wetting temperatures, which were 185°C, 234°C, and 271°C for water on quartz, sapphire, and graphite, respectively. We compare our results with the theoretical predictions based on a simplified model of the water-substrate potential and sharp interfaces.

  9. Wind/Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  10. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  11. Remember the water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative...... effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of "pools of water" are false. Data on swelling properties of EPS as a function of pH suggests that the colligative properties are largely determined by the counterions of charged polymers and surfaces....

  12. Remember the water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative...... effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of "pools of water" are false. Data on swelling properties of EPS as a function of pH suggests that the colligative properties are largely determined by the counterions of charged polymers and surfaces....

  13. Water Powered Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Space Spin-Offs, Inc. under a contract with Lewis Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center produced a new water-powered saw that cuts through concrete and steel plate reducing danger of explosion or electric shock in rescue and other operations. In prototype unit efficient water-powered turbine drives an 8 inch diameter grinding disk at 6,600 rpm. Exhaust water cools disk and workpiece quenching any sparks produced by cutting head. At maximum power, tool easily cuts through quarter inch steel plate. Adapter heads for chain saws, impact wrenches, heavy duty drills, and power hack saws can be fitted.

  14. Water in Asbestos

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Yu D; Tsiok, E N

    2015-01-01

    We present the molecular simulation study of the behavior of water and sodium chloride solution confined in lizardite asbestos nanotube which is a typical example of hydrophilic confinement. The local structure, orientational and dynamic properties are studied. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient drops about two orders of magnitude comparing to the bulk case, and water in lizardite asbestos tubes experiences vitrification rather then crystallization upon cooling in accordance with the results for some other hydrophilic confinements. The behavior of sodium chloride solutions also considered and the formation of double layer is observed. It is shower that both sodium and chlorine have larger diffusion coefficients then water.

  15. When water molecules meet air

    OpenAIRE

    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  16. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  17. Global monthly water stress: 2. Water demand and severity of water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Viviroli, Daniel; Dürr, Hans H.; Weingartner, Rolf; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted with global monthly water demand. Water demand is defined here as the volume of water required by users to satisfy their needs. Water demand is calculated for the benchmark year of 2000 and contras...

  18. Global monthly water stress: 2. Water demand and severity of water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshihide; Beek, L. P. H.; Viviroli, Daniel; Dürr, Hans H; Weingartner, Rolf; Bierkens, Marc F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted with global monthly water demand. Water demand is defined here as the volume of water required by users to satisfy their needs. Water demand is calculated for the benchmark year of 2000 and contras...

  19. Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ment of water distribution systems based on the water balance and performance .... The first comprehensive concept of real loss components and influenc- ...... residual pressure as design criterion for South African water distri-.

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP) for Water Year 2003 (WY 2003) (October I, 2002 to September 30, 2003) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at...

  1. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  3. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  4. WATER STATES IN SBR BASED WATER SWELLING RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Water swelling rubber (WSR) was prepared by reaction blending SBR and sodium polyacrylate (PAANa). The existing states of water in the WSR was studied by means of DSC and TG. It was found that water exists in three states: nonfreezing water,bound freezable water and free water. The relationships between water states and structure of PAANa were investigated. The results showed that the amount of non-freezing water was related to total water content, and the ratio of non-freezing water versus -COONa groups on PAANa (mol/mol) was about 4. However, total water content slightly affected the content of bound freezable water and remarkably affected the amount of free waer.

  5. Aspetti di continuità di lungo periodo dell’architettura di Venezia e osservazione sulla tipicità di alcuni processi di stratificazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovò, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to interpret the links between Venice and Byzantium, it is firstly described how earliest houses in Venice were decorated by using sculptures coming from trading places. It is described the use of disassembled elements and the replacement of others, such as cornices, windows’ elements, coats of arms, among others. These were used firstly as a revival (Neo-Byzantine, 15th century, and later as reflection of the Venetian society «prudence», related to its behaviours and traditions. This prudence is mainly shown in the Renaissance. Besides this, other aspects such as the type of building and the façades, which are the main transformed surface, are analysed with the aim of researching periodical and characteristic dynamics, mainly in those façades showing stylistic renewal and new elements. Some external façades have maintained specific and easy observable characteristics, so they can be associated to a determined stylistic and morphological period. Other façades are stratified, as it is shown by the presence of elements (windows, cornices, … of different building phases. After tracing the main stratifying processes in about 40 study-cases, thanks to a macroscopic analysis, some ways of new composition elements and different stratified units are described. According to this, it is clear that the main principle is the searching for symmetry. Finally, some ways of intervention on the façades are described, highlighting some significant cases.[it] Nella prima parte dell’articolo viene descritto il modo di adornare le prime case veneziane con sculture importate dai luoghi del commercio, come ricostruzione del legame fra Venezia e Bisanzio. Si descrive l’uso di disaggregare e riposizionare vari elementi, come cornici, elementi di finestre, stemmi, prima come un iniziale revival, sia esso neobizantino o riferito al XV secolo, poi come manifestazione di «prudenza» della società veneziana, legata ai costumi, alle tradizioni. La principale manifestazione di tale prudenza è evidente nel periodo del rinascimento. Oltre alle tematiche maggiormente studiate come il concetto di tipo edilizio, anche le facciate, il luogo di maggior trasformazione, consentono la ricerca di dinamiche periodiche e caratterizzanti, soprattutto sui fronti che presentano aggiornamenti stilistici e una nuova composizione delle parti. Alcune facciate esterne hanno mantenuto una caratterizzazione specifica ben osservabile; in tal modo possono essere associate ad un preciso periodo stilistico-morfologico. Altre facciate sono stratificate, per la presenza di differenti fasi costruttive, leggibili attraverso diversi elementi (finestre, cornici…. Dopo l’illustrazione dei diversi processi di stratificazione su circa 40 casi studio, osservabili attraverso una lettura macroscopica, vengono descritte alcune modalità seguite nei processi di nuova composizione, leggibili a partire dal riconoscimento delle differenti unità stratigrafiche: risulta chiaro che il più importante principio è la ricerca di simmetria. Nell’ultima parte dell’articolo vengono descritti alcuni modi di intervento, sottolineando alcuni casi significativi.

  6. Clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy. Jurisprudential aspects; Ricerca scientifica clinica con radiazioni ionizzanti in Italia: aspetti normativi e giuridici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, G.; Frusciante, V. [Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, S. Giovanni Rotondo, FG (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Petrucelli, L. [Ospedale Civile Comiugi Bernardini, Palestrina, RM (Italy). Lab. di Analisi; Podagrosi, V. [Ospedale Santo Spirito, Rome (Italy). Div. di Chirurgia Generale e d' Urgenza; Giustini, A. [Ospedale Santo Spirito, Rome (Italy). Pronto Soccorso

    1999-09-01

    The paper reviews the laws that regulate the clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy and the effects of ICRP 62, introduced in Italy by the Minister's Decree 21/11/1997, renders invalid all previous rules and regulations which contrast with them. [Italian] Vengono esposte le norme di legge che regolano in Italia la ricerca scientifica clinica con radiazioni ionizzanti e discusse gli effetti dell'introduzione dell'ICRP 62 nella normativa italiana (DM 21/11/1997). Esso tratta in maniera esaustiva l'intera tematica e offre le fondamentali linee guida.

  7. Agro-industrial anaerobic digestion cost benefits: Technology utilization in distillery; Aspetti economici della digestione anaerobica nell`agroindustria: Applicazione di una nuova tecnologia in una distilleria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Poli, F.; Mela, E.; Pasqualini, S.

    1991-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion, followed by aerobic post treatment, is widely used as a treatment technology of distillery wastes. An economic comparison between two different treatment processes; a traditional concentration unit and the termophilic hybrid anaerobic digester, was done. The costs/benefits balance shows the strong advantage of the anaerobic process, even if the value of by-products from the concentrator is higher than the ones from the digester; the operation costs (mainly labour and energy) of the concentrator are strongly higher, and the balance becomes negative. The NPV of the two plants shows always negative values for the concentrator, while the digester can become convenient under some conditions.

  8. Il progetto “iVincoli” del Politecnico di Torino. Aspetti di innovazione tecnologica e digitale a supporto del processo di riforma della Pubblica Amministrazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coscia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nello scritto si illustra l’esperienza condotta dal Politecnico di Torino nel 2007 - su istanza della Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici del Piemonte - denominata “Progetto iVincoli” (2007-2008: l’esito, nella sua versione prototipale, è la configurazione e realizzazione di una piattaforma tecnologica predisposta per la definizione di linee-guida destinate al monitoraggio e alla pubblicazione on line delle attività vincolistiche. Tale SIT ad accesso multiprofilo consente, tra le funzionalità previste: la consultazione pubblica delle informazioni relative agli edifici monitorati anche sottoposti a vincolo di tutela; il monitoraggio dell’iter delle pratiche di vincolo da parte della Direzione Regionale, degli Enti Locali e dei soggetti privati coinvolti, denominato “work flow delle pratiche amministrative”; la creazione di specifici percorsi tematici di tipo turistico. Tale esperienza parte da una precisa premessa: ogni architettura informativa a servizio di atti e processi della Pubblica Amministrazione viene a configurarsi quale strumento prototipale di supporto alla riforma della stessa PA e alla governance. A fronte di tali ragionamenti, le Pubbliche Amministrazioni al momento attuale si stanno confrontando, da una parte, con i processi e i dibattiti in corso sul trasferimento delle funzioni centrali; dall’altra, per l’aspetto di innovazione tecnologica con le direttive introdotte a partire dal Codice Unico della Pubblica Amministrazione Digitale. Di fatto, uno dei tasselli per la messa a punto di atti che innestino sinergie tra innovazione, efficienza amministrativa e gestione del territorio per una sua valorizzazione è costituito da processi d’implementazione di architetture informative configurate in SIT. In tale logica, il progetto “iVincoli” si incardina tra le attività dell’Osservatorio Immobiliare della Città di Torino (OICT, che rappresenta uno strumento attraverso cui innescare sinergie fra decisori, organismi amministrativi, operatori ed imprese, per costituire una rete di relazioni e di interscambio di informazioni.

  9. IL DECRETO LEGISLATIVO N. 231/2001 ALLA PROVA DEI REATI AMBIENTALI. Aspetti problematici di ascrizione della responsabilità all’ente.

    OpenAIRE

    Casellato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    My Phd research is focused on the theme of the extension of the corporate liability to environmental crimes. This “reform” has been realized by the legislative decree n. 121/2011 on which also corporations are responsible for environmental offences, as provided by the art. 25 undecies of the legislative decree n. 231/2001. The new statutory legislation puts into effect the European regulation: the EU directive 2008/99/CE on the protection of the environment through Criminal law, and the on...

  10. “Ho paura di essere consegnata in dono!” Aspetti della schiavitù femminile nell’antica Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Tonietti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Freedom in Ancient Near East was a relative, not an absolute state, as the ambiguity of the term for “slave” in all the region’s languages illustrates. Slavery is widely attested in Ancient Mesopotamia even if it had not here the relevance it had in Roman society. A major distinction was made between foreigners, enslaved through capture in war, kidnapping or force, and natives, forced in slavery mostly by debt or famine. While in the first case slavery was a permanent chattel condition, with little succour from the local legal system, in the second case it was protected by authorities. In law, in fact, slavery was for citizens a voluntary and temporary condition. A natural conflict existed between family law, which applied to slaves as persons, and property law, which applied to slaves as chattels. It is particularly in this field that major and interesting differences between male and female slavery existed.Keywords: schiavitù, Mesopotamia, schiavitù per debito, diritto di famiglia, proprietà (leggi riguardanti la; slavery, Mesopotamia, debt-slavery, family law, property law.

  11. “Ho paura di essere consegnata in dono!” Aspetti della schiavitù femminile nell’antica Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Tonietti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Freedom in Ancient Near East was a relative, not an absolute state, as the ambiguity of the term for “slave” in all the region’s languages illustrates. Slavery is widely attested in Ancient Mesopotamia even if it had not here the relevance it had in Roman society. A major distinction was made between foreigners, enslaved through capture in war, kidnapping or force, and natives, forced in slavery mostly by debt or famine. While in the first case slavery was a permanent chattel condition, with little succour from the local legal system, in the second case it was protected by authorities. In law, in fact, slavery was for citizens a voluntary and temporary condition. A natural conflict existed between family law, which applied to slaves as persons, and property law, which applied to slaves as chattels. It is particularly in this field that major and interesting differences between male and female slavery existed.

    Keywords: schiavitù, Mesopotamia, schiavitù per debito, diritto di famiglia, proprietà (leggi riguardanti la; slavery, Mesopotamia, debt-slavery, family law, property law.

  12. Quality assurance in radiotherapy: Proposal of guidelines concerning clinical and technological aspects; Assicurazione di qualita` in radioterapia: Proposta di linee guida in relazione agli aspetti clinici e tecnologici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The document, based on European guidelines, was jointly developed by radiation oncologists, radiation physicists and radiation technologists. It contains the aims of the guidelines, professional profiles, roles and responsibilities, personnel and equipment requirements, procedures.

  13. Liver trauma from penetrating injuries. Miscellanea, personal series, clinical and CT findings; Traumi epatici da lesioni penetranti. Miscellanea, casistica personale, aspetti clinici e con Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; Nocera, V. [Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio di Frattamaggiore, Servizio di Radiologia, Frattamaggiore, NA (Italy); De Rosa, A.; Vigliotti, A. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale NA1, Radiologia, Naples (Italy); Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Gatta, G. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Vitale, L. [Ospedale di Sorrento, Servizio di Radiologia, Sorrento, NA (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Penetrating liver wounds are related to many causes and rank second after blunt abdominal and liver trauma. In this report are examined the clinical and radiological findings of personal series of patients with penetrating trauma, especially by firearms and stab and cut wounds. It will also tried to define the diagnostic workup of these traumas, which is especially based on CT signs of liver damage and associated changes and which is of basic importance for following treatment, both surgical or conservative. In the last seven years it was retrospectively reviewed 31 cases of penetrating liver trauma. The patients were 19 men and 12 women, ranging in age 18 to 73 (mean 42), with penetrating liver injuries from firearms (16 patients) and stab (9 cases) wounds; 6 patients had injuries from different cases. Abdominal CT was carried out in emergency with the CT Angiography (CTA) technique in all patients. In the patients with suspected chest and abdomen involvement CT was performed from the mid-chest for accurate assessment of diaphragm and lung bases and to exclude associated pleuropulmonary damage. Penetrating liver wounds were caused by firearms in 70% of cases, by stabbing in 12% and, in the extant 18%, by other cases such as home accidents, road and work traumas, and liver biopsy. In this series, the liver was most frequently involved, especially by firearms wounds; in the 16 cases the most frequent injuries were hemorrhagic tears. It was found bullets in the liver in 6 cases. In one case of home accident the patient wounded himself while slicing bread with a long knife, which cut into the anterior abdominal wall and tore the anterior liver capsule, as seen at CTA. Penetrating wounds to liver and abdomen are less frequent than those to the chest. In the past decade the use of CT has changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to such injuries completely, decreasing the resort to explorative laparotomy and hepatorrhaphy. Indeed, CT provides a clear picture of the extent and severity of damage, which permits to choose a conservative treatment in case of intraparenchymal hematomas and lacerocontusive foci without hemoperitoneum, which can be followed-up with physical and CT examinations. Moreover, Helical CT could provide the early diagnosis of active bleeding in the peritoneum and of focal bleeding in the liver, thus permitting prompt hepatorrraphy or targeted hepatectomy. A diaphragm injury suspected at CT should always prompt the surgeon to intervention, especially when hemothorax, lung base pneumothorax, large liver hematoma or tear of the liver dome are associated. Finally, subdiaphragmatic free gas indicates gut perforation associated with liver damage, in which case surgery is necessary too. [Italian] Le ferite penetranti del fegato sono dovute a molteplici cause, e occupano il secondo posto dopo i traumi chiusi epato-addominali. Scopo del lavoro e' di illustrare i vari quadri clinico-radiologici della nostra casistica personale, determinati da lesioni penetranti da armi da fuoco e da punta e taglio. Definire inoltre la modalita' di diagnosi, soprattutto in base ai segni TC del danno epatico e di lesioni associate, che condizionano in modo decisivo la terapia e l'approccio chirurgico o conservativo. Negli ultimi sette anni sono stati studiati retrospettivamente 31 casi (19 maschi e 12 femmine; eta' media 42 anni, compresa tra 18 e 73 anni), con lesioni penetranti del fegato, dovute prevalentemente a armi da fuoco (16 pazienti), a armi da punta e taglio (9 casi) e miscellanee in 6. L'esame TC dell'addome e' stato eseguito in emergenza e con tecnica angio-TC in tutti i pazienti. Nei casi di ferite con sospetto coinvolgimento toraco-addominale, la TC veniva iniziata dal medio-torace al fine di una valutazione accurata del diaframma, delle basi polmonari e per escludere lesioni pleuropolmonari associate. Nel 70% dei casi le ferite penetranti epatiche erano in relazione ad arma da fuoco, nel 12% da punta e taglio, e nel 18% per cause varie come incidenti domestici, traumi della strada, del lavoro e agobiopsie epatiche. Nel nostro studio TC, il fegato e' risultato l'organo maggiormente coinvolto nei traumi penetranti dell'addome, con maggiore frequenza per le ferite da arma da fuoco; nei 16 casi osservati, le lesioni parenchimali piu' comuni erano lacerazioni emorragiche. I proiettili ritenuti nell'organo sono stati riscontrati in 6 casi. In un caso di incidente domestico il paziente si era provocato una vasta ferita penetrante della parete addominale anteriore, affettando del pane con un lungo coltello, con lacerazione capsulare anteriore del fegato documentata con TC. Le ferite penetranti del fegato e dell'addome sono meno frequenti di quelle toraciche. Nell'ultimo decennio il ricorso alla metodica TC per la valutazione del danno epatico nelle ferite penetranti ha cambiato radicalmente l'approccio diagnostico e terapeutico, riducendo la frequenza delle laparotomie esplorative e abstract truncated)

  14. Analisi della traduzione all'italiano del libro 'El país de las mujeres'. Aspetti culturali del linguaggio evocativo

    OpenAIRE

    Santarella, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    In questo lavoro si analizza il linguaggio evocativo relativo alla donna attraverso una lettura critica della traduzione ufficiale del romanzo '“El país de las mujeres' di Gioconda Belli. Si offrono traduzioni alternative giustificate mediante la contestualizzazione linguistica e culturale En el presente trabajo se analiza el lenguaje evocativo relacionado con la mujer a través de una lectura crítica de la traducción oficial de la novela 'El país de las mujeres' de Gioconda Belli. Se ofrec...

  15. US patterns of the diaphragmatic crura. Normal anatomy and its variants; Aspetti ecografici dei pilastri diaframmatici. Anatomia normale e sue varianti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, G.; Martinoli, C.; Cicio, G.R. [Genua Univ., Genua (Italy). Cattedra R di Radiologia DICMI; Zappasodi, F. [Sobborgo Valzania, Cesena, FO (Italy); Valle, M. [Istituto Gaslini, Genua (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia

    2000-06-01

    Purpose of this work is to report the various US patterns of the diaphragmatic crura and the changes occurring during the different phases of respirations. The diaphragm has two US patterns: the central membranous part appears highly reflective while the posterior, upper and lateral muscular portions are hypoechoic and thick. The crura can sometimes appear quite bulky, which appearance is easy to misinterpret. It was carried out a three-stage work: first it was reviewed the US examinations of 23 subjects with a nodular appearance of the posteromedial bundles and studied the changes in thickness during respiration. Second it was studied the diaphragmatic crura in 30 subjects aged 18-71 years, 15 men and 15 women. It was used a commercially available unit with sector and convex 3.5 MHz probes at baseline and during breath hold and acquired multiple parasaggittal and transverse scans. The crura thickness was measured in all patients. Last, it was studied the diaphragmatic regions of 10 patients with right pleural effusion and of 8 patients with associated ascites and pleural effusion using 2.0-5.0 MHz convex phased-array transducers. It was found that focal thickening of the crura in 11 of 23 patients with US findings of diaphragmatic nodules, but only in deep inspiration. The thickening was 1.5-2.2 cm long and maximum thickness was 10 mm. In the other 12 subjects it was found 9 small lobules in the right and 3 in the left crus. In the anatomic study, it was observed a 3-band appearance of the diaphragmatic crura, probably referable to muscle bundles, in 30 subjects on sagittal images, in 12 on coronal images and in 28 on anterior transverse images. The diaphragmatic crura were identified in 26 subjects only. The left posterior crus was identified in 29 subjects on left coronal images and in 15 on anterior transverse images; it was demonstrated on anterior sagittal images in close proximity to the aorta in only 4 subjects. Right crus thickness, measured on sagittal scans, ranged 3-10 mm in deep inspiration and 1-4 mm in expiration while the left crus was 3-6 mm in inspiration and 1-2 mm in expiration. The length of the right crus, studied in the preaortic portion, ranged form 7 mm in deep inspiration to 9.7 cm in expiration while the left one was 6.5 to 8.8 cm. The right lateral diaphragmatic bundles were seen in 28 subjects only on repeated subcostal oblique scans and the left ones in 11 subjects only. Finally the thin anterior bundles were shown on parasagittal images in 13 cases in the right side and in 2 in the left. A 2-band appearance of the diaphragm was seen 10 patients with pleural effusion and in 8 patients with associated ascites. A single band was found only in the tendinous portion of the diaphragm. US is presently considered the imaging method of choice in the assessment of changes in thickness and length of the diaphragmatic crura. These structures have different US patterns and can sometimes appear quite bulky and thus be easily mistaken for other anatomic or abnormal structures; orthogonal scans may be required for the differential diagnosis. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' quello di analizzare mediante ecografia, la differente morfologia dei fasci muscolari del diaframma in diverse scansioni e con il variare degli atti respiratori, tenendo conto dell'ampia variabilita' individuale che queste strutture possono presentare. In condizioni normali l'aspetto ecografico del diaframma e' duplice; la porzione tendinea centrale appare come una linea iperecogena, la parte muscolare periferica e' caratterizzata da strutture allungate che assumono morfologia trilaminare nel punto di maggiore spessore. Talvolta lungo il decorso dei pilastri diaframmatici possono presentarsi nodulazioni, reperto che va correttamente identificato al fine di evitare errori interpretativi. Il lavoro e' stato suddiviso in tre parti. Prima si sono esaminate retrospettivamente le immagini di 23 soggetti che presentavano aspetto nodulare dei fasci posteromediali e valutato le loro variazioni durante gli atti respiratori. Indi si sono analizzate in condizioni basali e in apnea respiratoria, con trasduttori convex e sector da 3,5 MHz, le regioni diaframmatiche di 30 soggetti con eta' compresa tra 18 e 71 anni (15 femmine, 15 maschi). In ciascuna scansione e' stato misurato lo spessore dei pilastri nell'espirazione e nell'inspirazione forzata. Si sono quindi esaminate, con sonde in fase con alta definizione e ampia banda di frequenze compresa tra 2,0 e 5,0 MHz, le regioni diaframmatiche di 10 pazienti con versamento pleurico e di 8 con versamento pleurico e ascite. In 11 dei 23 soggetti che presentavano all'ecografia immagini nodulari del diaframma, nella sola inspirazione forzata, si e' riscontrato un inspessimento focale del muscolo; la lunghezza dell'ispessimento variava da 1,5 a 2,2 cm.; lo spessore massimo era di 10 mm. Negli altri 12 soggetti sono state identificate piccole lobulazioni, di cui 9 a(abstract truncated)

  16. Quality assurance in radiotherapy: Proposal of guidelines concerning clinical and technological aspects; Assicurazione di qualita` in radioterapia: Proposta di linne guida in relazione agli aspetti clinici e tecnologici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group of study `Assicurazione di qualita` in radioterapia` [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy)

    1996-12-01

    The document, based on European guidelines, was jointly developed by radiation oncologists, radiation physicists and radiation technologists. In contains the aims of the guidelines, professional profiles, roles and responsibilities, personnel and equipment requirements, procedures.

  17. Large energy plant siting: Treatment of social aspects in site selection feasibility studies; Elementi metodologici per la localizzazione dei grandi impianti energetici: Aspetti sociali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Focus here is on the incorporation, in energy plant site selection studies, of analysis methods which take into account, not just spatial related aspects of human activities, but also the future impacts of a proposed project`s input/output loops on territorial factors interrelating geographical characteristics, and socio-territorial and cultural systems. The author evidences the important links between multi-disciplinary site selection analysis methods and the overall project decision making process. Comparisons are made between the concept of the public`s perception of risk and the public`s overall impression of the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages of proposed high-technology power installations.

  18. Feeding strategies of Rattus norvegicus: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Some of the most relevant aspects of the feeding behaviour of the rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout, 1769) were examined with particular interest in the data collected on wild rats and in natural environments. The rat is considered as an omnivore and generalist species, but both in the wild and in the laboratory marked individual differences were recorded in food preferences and diet spectrum, which probably allow the natural popula...

  19. [Clinical and juridical aspects of management of neonates with invasive fungal infections] [Article in Italian] • Aspetti clinici e giuridici della gestione del neonato con infezioni fungine invasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatology, especially in the case of neonates weighing ≤ 1500 grams (VLBW at birth. In this review only those drugs indicated for paediatric use and commonly employed in neonatology are discussed in depth, which is to say fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin and micafungin. Firstly, a review of the literature is presented by the neonatologist as concerns criteria for clinical use, with special emphasis on the efficacy/tolerability balance, underscoring the need not only for early diagnosis but also timely treatment and above all one that is “appropriate” to the seriousness of the pathology. Then the legal viewpoint concerning on-label and off-label antifungal therapies is presented. The choice of an antifungal drug for neonatal use cannot disregard certain preliminary considerations, in particular whether the drug has been properly tested for application in the neonatal field. Micafungin is the only on-label echinocandin adequately studied and authorized by the EMA for use in neonates. From a strictly juridical standpoint the on-label choice is a sign of diligent and prudent professional conduct; it is preferable since it is advantageous for patients’ health and, in the case of litigation, provides the “best protection” for the physician. As concerns the use of off-label antifungals in neonatal intensive care, one of the requisites expressly prescribed by law is lacking, which is to say the “lack of a valid alternative” to their use.

  20. Schools--and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gunnard

    1970-01-01

    This report on water receptacles argues that, in building planning, drinking fountains and classroom sinks should not be afterthoughts. Choices must meet aesthetic demands while fulfillling maintenance requirements. (JF)

  1. Minnesota Water Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...

  2. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  3. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  4. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stronger as the body’s need for water increases, motivating a person to drink the needed fluids. When ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge The body has two adrenal glands, one near ...

  5. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductance (an indirect indicator of dissolved minerals in the water). Analyses of ... in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, signal that disease-causing pathogens may be present. Giardia ...

  6. Tanzania - Water Sector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  7. Water Properties Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Kaitech proposes to design a Water Properties Sensor (WPS) sensing system to synchronously measure the spectral inherent and apparent...

  8. Water Properties Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II project, Kaitech proposes to develop and demonstrate a Water Properties Sensor (WPS) sensing system to synchronously measure the spectral inherent...

  9. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  10. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  11. Water Use: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  12. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  13. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  14. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  15. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  16. Public Water Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This GIS layer consists of the geographic location of active and inactive public (Community, non-transient non-community and transient non-community) water sources...

  17. Urban Waters Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page will house information leading up to the 2017 Urban Waters National Training Workshop. The agenda, hotel and other quarterly updates will be posted to this page including information about how to register.

  18. "The Water Babies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the loss of esteem as a children's classic of "The Water Babies," discusses the literary justification for keeping it in circulation, and offers suggestions for using it in children's education. (JM)

  19. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  20. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  1. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    , including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding......Once a thriving center with commercial links to the Indian Ocean, what remains of Great Zimbabwe is its monumental architecture. Its rise and decline have long been linked to environmental changes in southern Zimbabwe, beginning in the second half of the 13th century with agropastoralists thriving...... of the local environment was vital in managing both water excesses and shortages in the past, and show that some of this knowledge survives among indigenous communities linked to the site and living in the surrounding landscape. While nearby Masvingo town has persistently lived under water-emergency conditions...

  2. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Vicente; de Oliveira, Sonaly; Hoekstra, Arjen; Dantas Neto, José; Campos, João; Braga, Célia; de Araújo, Lincoln; Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, José; de Souza, Márcio; de Holanda, Romildo

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil's national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well...

  3. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  4. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  5. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  6. Water Stress Projection Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    facility. Stationing analysis done with climate forecasting in mind recognizes an unpredictable future, while striving to best prepare for the...to support additional growth. This attribute places a threshold ca- pacity on water supply and treatment, which may be related to treat- ment plant ...et al. 2013). 3.3 Military impacts reduced water Extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, snow, and ice storms have significant impacts on

  7. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  8. Water-Trapped Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  9. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  10. Polyamorphism in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Water, the most common and important liquid, has peculiar properties like the density maximum at 4 degrees C. Such properties are thought to stem from complex changes in the bonding-network structure of water molecules. And yet we cannot understand water. The discovery of the high-density amorphous ice (HDA) in 1984 and the discovery of the apparently discontinuous change in volume of amorphous ice in 1985 indicated experimentally clearly the existence of two kinds of disordered structure (polyamorphism) in a one-component condensed-matter system. This fact has changed our viewpoint concerning water and provided a basis for a new explanation; when cooled under pressure, water would separate into two liquids. The peculiar properties of water would be explained by the existence of the separation point: the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP). Presently, accumulating evidences support this hypothesis. Here, I describe the process of my experimental studies from the discovery of HDA to the search for LLCP together with my thoughts which induced these experiments.

  11. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  12. Water consumption in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Weber Miguel Ángel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Special considerations must be taken to calculate water require- ments of newborns and breastfeeding children; however, all their water needs should be covered with breast milk or breast-milk substitute formula. There is a need for 100 mL of water per 100 kcal consumed, or of 1,800 mL per square meter body surface area. From the age of six months, it is advisable to start providing 30 to 60 mL of water per day, with progressive increase; before that age, any other liquid must be avoided. Inadequate preparation of a substitute formula may cause hydric intoxication, or infections if the water used is contaminated. The increase in obesity and overweight is the result of increased intake of sugary beverages in children. This increased intake can also be linked to diabetes and other physiological and cognitive problems. Mexican children and teenagers have increased their caloric intake from sugary beverages in 126% between 1999 and 2006. As one of many healthy habits that children must acquire from home, is the avoi- dance of sugary beverages and the acknowledgment of water as a preferred hydration source.

  13. Technology for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  14. Water in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Due to its specific chemical and physical properties, water is essential for life on Earth. And it is assumed that this would be the case for extraterrestrial life as well. Therefore it is important to investigate where water can be found in the Universe. Although there are places that are completely dry, places where the last rainfall happened probably several 100 million years ago, surprisingly this substance is quite omnipresent. In the outer solar system the large satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are covered by a thick layer of ice that could be hiding a liquid ocean below. This of course brings up the question of whether the recently detected extrasolar planets could have some water on their surfaces and how we can detect this. Water molecules are also found in interstellar gas and dust clouds. This book begins with an introductory chapter reviewing the physical and chemical properties of water. Then it illuminates the apparent connection between water and life. This is followed by chapters dealing with ...

  15. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water ... in healthy tooth development and cavity prevention. About Fluoride Fluoride, which exists naturally in water sources, is ...

  16. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  17. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  18. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  19. 1988 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1987 Annual Water Management Report 1988 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1987 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1987...

  20. Hydrography - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  1. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  2. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  3. World water dynamics: global modeling of water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2002-11-01

    The growing scarcity of fresh and clean water is among the most important issues facing civilization in the 21st century. Despite the growing attention to a chronic, pernicious crisis in world's water resources our ability to correctly assess and predict global water availability, use and balance is still quite limited. An attempt is documented here in modeling global world water resources using system dynamics approach. Water resources sector (quantity and quality) is integrated with five sectors that drive industrial growth: population; agriculture; economy; nonrenewable resources; and persistent pollution. WorldWater model is developed on the basis of the last version of World3 model. Simulations of world water dynamics with WorldWater indicate that there is a strong relationship between the world water resources and future industrial growth of the world. It is also shown that the water pollution is the most important future water issue on the global level.

  4. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...... of water. In the former case, the water is lost by evaporation and polluted. In the latter case, the water is not lost but heavily polluted. With increasing scarcity, the value of water and the need for controls increase. In this situation, water reuse becomes an option that has been considered exotic...

  5. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  6. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  7. USGS Urban Waters Portal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses urbanization and water quality trends, major stories on contaminants and biota, scientific and educational tools for watershed organizations, and the USGS Urban Waters Portal.

  8. Open water bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  9. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  10. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  11. Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  12. How Water Meets Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Fenter, Paul; McDonough, Jake; Presser, Volker; Gogotsi, Yuri; Wander, Matthew; Shuford, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    The interactions of electrolyte fluids with solids control many complex interfacial processes encountered in electrochemical energy storage systems. In this talk, we will demonstrate how to develop a fundamental atomic-scale understanding of interfacial structures at the water-graphene interface, a model fluid-solid interface combination. We have performed systematic measurements of high resolution X-ray reflectivity from epitaxial graphene films in contact with electrolytes including deionized water and aqueous salt solutions. The electron density profiles and structural models from the fully analyzed data reveal the intrinsic interfacial structures. It is noted that the interfacial water structure above the first graphene layer exhibits remarkable differences with those of subsequent graphene layers. The latter one, resembling water on freestanding graphene, is well predicted by parallel computational simulations. Moreover, the pH of aqueous solutions was found to have a subtle influence on the interfacial water structure above the first graphene layer. This may well be an indication of the interfacial structural distortions that might exist in this layer, and which may play an important role in controlling the chemical activity of monolayer epitaxial graphene.

  13. Water on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment 3.8 Ga ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred metres spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The mantle of Mars is much drier than that of the Earth, possibly as a result of global melting at the end of accretion and the lack of plate tectonics to subsequently reintroduce water into the interior. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometres-thick megaregolith created by the high impact rates. Under today's climatic conditions groundwater is trapped below a thick permafrost zone. At the end of heavy bombardment any permafrost zone would have been much thinner because of the high heat flows, but climatic conditions may have been very different then, as suggested by erosion rates 1000 times higher than subsequent rates. Water trapped below the permafrost periodically erupted onto the surface to form large flood channels and lakes. Given abundant water at the surface and sustained volcanism, hydrothermal activity must have frequently occurred but we have yet to make the appropriate observations to detect the results of such activity.

  14. Water on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M H

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment 3.8 Ga ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred metres spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The mantle of Mars is much drier than that of the Earth, possibly as a result of global melting at the end of accretion and the lack of plate tectonics to subsequently reintroduce water into the interior. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometres-thick megaregolith created by the high impact rates. Under today's climatic conditions groundwater is trapped below a thick permafrost zone. At the end of heavy bombardment any permafrost zone would have been much thinner because of the high heat flows, but climatic conditions may have been very different then, as suggested by erosion rates 1000 times higher than subsequent rates. Water trapped below the permafrost periodically erupted onto the surface to form large flood channels and lakes. Given abundant water at the surface and sustained volcanism, hydrothermal activity must have frequently occurred but we have yet to make the appropriate observations to detect the results of such activity.

  15. Ageing and water homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  16. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  17. Water in exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan; Griffith, Caitlin A; Waldmann, Ingo

    2012-06-13

    Exoplanets--planets orbiting around stars other than our own Sun--appear to be common. Significant research effort is now focused on the observation and characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Species such as water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have been observed in a handful of hot, giant, gaseous planets, but cooler, smaller planets such as Gliese 1214b are now analysable with current telescopes. Water is the key chemical dictating habitability. The current observations of water in exoplanets from both space and the ground are reviewed. Controversies surrounding the interpretation of these observations are discussed. Detailed consideration of available radiative transfer models and linelists are used to analyse these differences in interpretation. Models suggest that there is a clear need for data on the pressure broadening of water transitions by H(2) at high temperatures. The reported detections of water appear to be robust, although final confirmation will have to await the better quality observational data provided by currently planned dedicated space missions.

  18. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative ef...

  19. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and groundwaters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for the study area.

  20. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  1. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  2. Water-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Nanoplates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Mark; Opdam, Joeri; van 't Oor, Ingo S. J.; Soligno, Giuseppe; van Roij, Rene; Tromp, R. Hans; Erne, Ben H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin plate-like colloidal particles are effective candidates for Pickering stabilization of water-in-water emulsions, a stabilization that is complicated by the thickness and ultralow tension of the water-water interface. Plate-like particles have the advantage of blocking much of the interface

  3. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  4. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 陈明

    2001-01-01

    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  5. The Karst Waters Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karst Waters Institute (KWI) is a U.S. research organization that was formed to combine the skills of academic, governmental, and private sector specialists to solve existing karst water problems and anticipate future problems. KWI has been incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation in West Virginia to provide the human expertise and database needed to assist the nation in the preservation and utilization of its water resources. KWI plans to develop a core of resident and visiting scientists from across the nation and overseas, technicians, support staff, and graduate students. Its mission is to conduct research to improve our understanding of karst phenomena, to develop techniques to prevent environmental problems from occurring in karst areas, to assist in rectifying existing environmental problems, and to provide education and training for professionals and the general public on the risks and benefits of karst areas.

  6. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  7. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  8. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  9. Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together four lecture courses on modern aspects of water waves. The intention, through the lectures, is to present quite a range of mathematical ideas, primarily to show what is possible and what, currently, is of particular interest. Water waves of large amplitude can only be fully understood in terms of nonlinear effects, linear theory being not adequate for their description. Taking advantage of insights from physical observation, experimental evidence and numerical simulations, classical and modern mathematical approaches can be used to gain insight into their dynamics. The book presents several avenues and offers a wide range of material of current interest. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the book should be of interest to mathematicians (pure and applied), physicists and engineers. The lectures provide a useful source for those who want to begin to investigate how mathematics can be used to improve our understanding of water wave phenomena. In addition, some of the...

  10. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  11. Water security assessment using blue and green water footprint concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative assessment of water security using the concept of blue and green water footprints can improve water resources management at local to regional scale. We developed an integrated modeling framework by considering both climatic and anthropogenic factors to investigate spatio-temporal variability of blue and green water availability and to quantify the water security in a river basin. The proposed modeling framework can be useful for providing an overview of the water security within the watershed and to identify water stress (hot spots) regions within the river basin. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to quantify the availability of fresh water (blue water and green water) in Savannah River Basin (SRB), USA. The anthropogenic factors (e.g., water demand) and Environmental Flow Requirement (EFR) information are incorporated to quantify the water security in terms of scarcity and vulnerability indices. A higher amount of blue water was observed for counties located in the upper part of SRB and higher green water flow was observed for counties that has the presence of intensive agriculture and large water bodies (e.g., reservoir). A time lag exists between the maximum rainfall during June-September and the maximum blue water observed in December-March. The study also analyzed the monthly variation of blue and green water flow for counties located in SRB. We expect that the water security assessment can provide useful information for understanding the emerging hot spots within a river basin (eco-system) due to the abstraction of water for human activities, such as irrigation, industrial use, energy production and domestic use.

  12. Troubled Waters: Water and the Israeli-Palestinian Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    issues. Wording in the Annex called for the creation of a Water Development Program staffed by both Israeli and Palestinian experts, which would...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TROUBLED WATERS : WATER AND THE ISREALI- PALESTINIAN DILEMMA by Brian Anthony...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Troubled Waters : Water and the Israeli-Palestinian Dilemma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  13. Vision in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  14. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  15. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  16. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  17. Water Purification Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  18. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment.

  19. Water Energy Simulation Toolset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Water-Energy Simulation Toolset (WEST) is an interactive simulation model that helps visualize impacts of different stakeholders on water quantity and quality of a watershed. The case study is applied for the Snake River Basin with the fictional name Cutthroat River Basin. There are four groups of stakeholders of interest: hydropower, agriculture, flood control, and environmental protection. Currently, the quality component depicts nitrogen-nitrate contaminant. Users can easily interact with the model by changing certain inputs (climate change, fertilizer inputs, etc.) to observe the change over the entire system. Users can also change certain parameters to test their management policy.

  20. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  1. Light water detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the

  2. Mineral/Water Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  3. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  4. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  5. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Chapagain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is

  6. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  7. Water drives peptide conformational transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Transitions between metastable conformations of a dipeptide are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water with the peptide's configurational motions indicate that water is the main driving force of the conformational changes.

  8. Distinguishing drought and water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    Water resources can become strained by both natural factors such as drought and human factors such as unsustainable use. Water resource managers can develop practices to reduce overuse of water resources, but they cannot prevent droughts, so distinguishing the causes of water stress can be useful.

  9. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  10. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  11. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical...

  12. The water footprint of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Förare, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    The international trade in agricultural commodities at the same time constitutes a trade with water in virtual form. Water in external areas has been used to produce the food and feed items that are imported. The water footprint of a good or a service is the total amount of water, external and

  13. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  14. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  15. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  16. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  17. Coriolis effect on water waves

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Melinand

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of water waves under the influence of the gravity and the Coriolis force. It is quite common in the physical literature that the rotating shallow water equations are used to study such water waves. We prove a local wellposedness theorem for the water waves equations with vorticity and Coriolis force, taking into account the dependence on various physical parameters and we justify rigorously the shallow water model. We also consider a possible non constant pr...

  18. Water: Source of Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    domestic purposes.6 In addition, another two-thirds of the world population could be under conditions of water stress . Water stress is defined as the...by engaging in better water management practices. For example, growing tomatoes with traditional irrigation systems requires far more water than...growing tomatoes that use drip systems. This example suggests that even our daily diet has an effect on our overall water needs.21 Growing a pound of

  19. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  20. Urbanization and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, W.A.; Slijkoord, F.; Wiggers, J.B.M.; Kremer, R.H.J.; Schultz, E.; Vliet, J.H. van der; Dragt, J.S.J.

    1978-01-01

    On May 4th 1977, a symposium was held at Lunteren, Netherlands, that had been jointly organized by TNO's Committee for Hydrological Research, the Netherlands Association of Water Boards and the Netherlands Institute for Directors and Engineers of Municipal Public Works Departments. The symposium's c

  1. Safe Drinking Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-23

    Listen to this podcast to learn more about the steps that are taken to bring you clean tap water.  Created: 4/23/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  2. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  3. Solidarity in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Keessen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change can be an inclusive and collective, rather than an individual effort. The choice for collective arrangements is tied to a call for solidarity. We distinguish between one-sided (assisting community members in need and two-sided solidarity (furthering a common interest and between voluntary and compulsory solidarity. We assess the strength of solidarity as a basis for adaptation measures in six Dutch water management case studies. Traditionally, Dutch water management is characterized by compulsory two-sided solidarity at the water board level. Since the French times, the state is involved through compulsory national solidarity contributions to avoid societal disruption by major floods. In so far as this furthers a common interest, the contributions qualify as two-sided solidarity, but if it is considered assistance to flood-prone areas, they also qualify as one-sided solidarity. Although the Delta Programme explicitly continues on this path, our case studies show that solidarity continues to play an important role in Dutch water management in the process of adapting to a changing climate, but that an undifferentiated call for solidarity will likely result in debates over who should pay what and why. Such discussions can lead to cancellation or postponement of adaptation measures, which are not considered to be in the common interest or result in an increased reliance on local solidarity.

  4. Towards sustainable water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Wietske; Adamowski, Jan; Orr, Christopher J.; Wals, Arjen; Milot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on multi-loop social learning processes required to move towards more sustainable water governance. Multi-loop social learning is recognized as a crucial element to decision-making involving a process of managing change where the central methodological concern is with

  5. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters. PMID:17370528

  6. Water Fit to Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  7. Superpermittivity of nanoconfined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renou, Richard; Szymczyk, Anthony; Maurin, Guillaume; Malfreyt, Patrice; Ghoufi, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, it is well established that the physical properties of confined liquids strongly differ from those in bulk phase. While dynamical and structural properties were strongly explored, dielectric properties are poorly studied despite their importance in the understanding and the modelling of molecular mechanism in a number of nano-applications such as nanofluidics, nanofiltration, and nanomedicine. Among them, the dielectric permittivity is probably one of the most important. The lack of knowledge about it strongly limits our ability to model fluid-material interactions and more generally our understanding of the behaviour of confined fluids. Recently, the dielectric permittivity of confined water in silica, Metal Organic Frameworks, and graphene materials was found to be slightly higher than the permittivity of water in bulk phase. In this work, the permittivity of water and dichloromethane confined in carbon nanotubes was predicted by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The static dielectric constant was found to be 700, i.e., 10-fold higher than the bulk value. This superpermittivity has, for origin, the excluded volume and the presence of an unconfined direction leading to a pre-orientation of water molecules close to the pore wall and an increase in dipolar fluctuations.

  8. Fresh water goes global

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vörösmarty, C.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Bunn, S.E.; Conway, D.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water management is a central responsibility of civil society. Major questions persist regarding practice, policy, and the underlying evidence and methods to inform both. Over the next 3 weeks, Science presents essays invited to debate key issues in freshwater research and management. This week: loc

  9. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  10. NMR, Water and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    1982-01-01

    This Thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and

  11. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  12. Salty vs. Fresh Water

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2012-11-14

    One possibility of obtaining sustainable energy from seawater is the use of osmosis. The key to this technology is the development of efficient membranes which allow water to pass through, but not salt. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  14. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  15. WATERS Expert Query Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Expert Query Tool is a web-based reporting tool using the EPA’s WATERS database.There are just three steps to using Expert Query:1. View Selection – Choose what...

  16. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  17. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  18. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  19. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  20. Determining TOC in Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental method for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water samples is detailed. The method's limitations are discussed and certain precautions that must be taken are emphasized. The subject of TOC versus COD and BOD is investigated and TOC is determined to be a valid indication of biological demand. (BT)