WorldWideScience

Sample records for water areas

  1. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  2. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  3. SurfaceWater Source Protection Areas (SPAs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Source Protection Area (SPA) boundaries have been located on RF 24000 & RF 25000 scale USGS topographic maps by Water Supply Division (DEC) and VT Dept of Health...

  4. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    . The April 1947 flood, the largest on record, caused nearly $4 million flood damage in Flint. A proposed flood-control plan for Flint calls for channel, floodwall, and levee improvements and the removal or modification of some bridges.Analyses of water samples taken from selected streams and lakes in the Flint area indicate that the waters are of the calcium bicarbonate type and generally hard to very hard. Flint River water is relatively uniform in quality although a progressive increase in iron, sodium, and chloride concentrations was noted between Otisville and Montrose. Downstream from Flint, the dissolved oxygencontent may be low during low flows. At times, concentrations of iron, manganese, phenols, color, and turbidity in Flint River water exceed the limits recommended in drinking water standards. Water temperatures ranged from freezing to 86°F in a 4-year period. The finished water supplied by the Flint water-treatment plant is fairly uniform in quality, moderately soft, alkaline, and low in color and turbidity. The pH is nearly always above 10. Further softening and removal of iron and related minerals would be desirable for certain industrial uses.The quality of the water sampled in the Flint River tributaries was generally similar to that of the Flint River. However, no phenols or oils and waxes were found. Softening and other treatment dependent upon use would be required if these streams were developed for water supply.Waters sampled in the Shiawassee River and selected lakes were generally less mineralized than Flint River water. Water from the lakes showed the lowest concentrations of dissolved solids. Softening would be required for nearly all uses. Additional treatment would depend upon contemplated use.Shallow deposits of sand and gravel deposited as outwash along glacial meltwater streams and as deltas in the glacial lakes that covered the northwestern part of the county are sources of water to moderate- and large-capacity wells. Thick deposits of

  5. Water in the Kahuku area, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, K.J.; Valenciano, Santos

    1969-01-01

    The Kahuku area comprises the north end of the Koolau Range and its bordering coastal plain. This part of the range is less deeply eroded than oth3r parts, and except for long, narrow valleys and cliffs near the shore, it has retained the general shape of the original volcanic dome. A 21/2-mile-wide dike zone of parallel and subparallel dikes along the crest is the remnant of the fissure zone of eruption. Outcrops are mostly permeable lava flows of the Koolau Volcanic Series, which are intruded by dikes inside the dike zone and are free of dikes outside it. The lava flows constitute main aquifers, and water bodies in them are called dike water inside the dike zone and basal water outside it. Dikes, because they are less permeable than the lava flows they intrude, impound ground water, thereby controlling its movement, discharge, and storage. The top of the dike-impounded water is at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet near the south end of the Kahuku area. Dike water is discharged as leakage, the amount of which fluctuates in response to changes in storage, as flow into streams, where they intersect saturated rock, and as underflow to the basal-water body. Basal water occurs on either side of the dike zone, which forms both a structural and hydrologic boundary. It is artesian on the windward side wherever it underlies the coastal plain, and the altitude of water levels ranges from 7 to 22 feet. Leeward of the dike zone, basal water occurs only under water-table conditions because of the near absence of a coastal plain, and the altitude of water levels ranges from less than 1 foot to about 3 feet. The quality of dike water is excellent except near the north end. where it is slightly contaminated by infiltration of irrigation water that contains as much as 1,200 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) chloride. Irrigation water is also a source of contamination of the basal-water body. The major contaminant, however, is sea water, which underlies the basal-water body. In the

  6. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  7. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  8. Water Quality Assessment in the Tsunami Areas of Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment in the tsunami-affected areas conducted in Meuraxa and Kutaradja sub-districts in the area of Banda Aceh City. Water samples were collected in October 2006 from dug wells of tsunami-affected areas. These were characterized for various physical and chemical parameters. Water quality in the selected areas has shown that the surface water was contaminated due to the tsunami. Total Dissolved Solid, Total Suspended Solid, Acidity, and salinity were high in the affected areas indicating saline water intrusion into surface water tables. Dug wells in the highly affected locations showed higher values of heavy metal ions like Mn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Cu compared to the reference points. No ion Hg was found in all samples. Keywords: Banda Aceh, heavy metals, tsunami, water quality

  9. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  10. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  11. Water study report : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of this study was to assemble and evaluate water records that are in the files of the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Fallon, Nevada. The...

  12. Impacts of tourism in Slovenian alpine areas on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is not only an important economic activity but also a source of pressures on environment, including water. On the other hand appropriate water quality is of great importance for tourism development. The contribution of tourism to pressures on water is important, but not dominant. Exceptions are impacts of tourism on the uninhabited areas, where tourism and recreation are the main sources of pressures on water resources. Nonetheless, quantities of used and sewage water are relatively modest.

  13. Movement characteristics of Karst water in a deep mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Chen-ming; BAI Hai-bo; MIAO Xie-xing; YAO Bang-hua

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the movement characteristics of groundwater in a deep mining area and solve the dispute of the distri-bution rule of hydro-chemical zoning which is contradicted by lixiviation water zoning in a horizontal direction, we directed our attention to the source of deep groundwater, its seepage and hydro-chemical characteristics in a typical mining area. We used a neotectonic water-control theory, chemical and isotope methods, as well as a method for analyzing dynamic groundwater conditions. The results indicate that 1) Karst water in the deep and medium parts of this mining area is recharged by vertical leakage through neotectonic fractures rather than seepage along strata from subcrop parts or surrounding flows; 2) from surface to deep leakage paths, the variation in the types of chemical groundwater agrees with the normal lixiviation water distribution rule and the age of mixed groundwater increases; 3) the water-rich zones along neotectonic fractures correspond with water-diluted zones in a hori-zontal direction; 4) the leakage coefficient and water capacity of aquifers increases during the flow process of Kant water along the antidip direction (from west to east) and 5) Karst water in shallow mining areas forms a strong runoff belt along strikes and quickly dilutes the water from deep and medium mining areas. Overall, chemical and dynamic water characteristics actually agree with in terms of the entire consideration for differences in vertical leakage and abnormalities in the zone of water chemical distribution, along a horizontal runoff direction.

  14. Estimated water requirements : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An estimated 84,850 acre-feet of water are required annually to maintain 23,231 acres of marsh currently developed on the Stillwater WMA. An additional 34,003...

  15. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  16. Water Table Dynamics of a Rocky Mountain Riparian Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Riparian areas in mountain valleys serve as collection points for local precipitation, hillslope runoff, deeper groundwater, and channel water. Little is known about how complex hydrological interactions among these water sources govern riparian water table dynamics, particularly on an event basis partly owing to a lack of high frequency spatial and temporal data. Herein I describe the magnitude and rate of change of groundwater storage in a 1.3 km2 Canadian Rocky Mountain peat riparian area. Weekly manual measurement of hydraulic heads in a network of 51 water table wells during the summers of 2006 and 2007 showed large temporal and spatial variations in well response. A near constant increase in the spatial heterogeneity of the water table was observed as the riparian area dried. Cluster analysis and principle components analysis were performed on these weekly data to objectively classify the riparian area into spatial response units. Results were classification of the standpipes into five distinct water table regimes. One well representing each water table regime was outfitted with a sensor in 2008 that measured hourly head, which was used to characterize temporal dynamics of water table response. In spring, snowmelt runoff combined with an ice lens 20-30 cm below the ground surface led to consistently high water tables throughout the riparian area. In summer, the water table fell throughout the riparian in response to declining hillslope inputs and increased evaporative demand, but rates of decline were highly variable among the water table regimes. Chloride concentrations suggest variability reflects differences in the degree to which the water table regimes are influenced by stream stage, hillslope inputs, and proximity to beaver dams. Water table regime responses to rain events were flashy, with dramatic rises and falls (up to 20 cm) in short periods of time (export and plant community composition.

  17. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  18. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  19. Regional Virtual Water Trade Strategy in Drought Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the virtual water trade in drought area in China.[Method]Taking agricultural production which was related to water resources as study object and by dint of opportunity cost and comparative advantage theory,water resources have been included into a series of state macro-objective models,such as economic growth,crops safety,and increase of people's well-fare.Virtual water resource strategy was verified effectively and relevant suggestions on virtual water trade in the drought...

  20. Water resources of the Grand Rapids area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramel, G.J.; Wisler, C.O.; Laird, L.B.

    1954-01-01

    The Grand Rapids area, Michigan, has three sources from which to obtain its water supply: Lake Michigan, the Grand River and its tributaries, and ground water. Each of the first two and possibly the third is capable of supplying the entire needs of the area.This area is now obtaining a part of its supply from each of these sources. Of the average use of 50 mgd (million gallons per day) during 1951, Lake Michigan supplied 29 mgd; the Grand River and its tributaries supplied 1 mgd; and ground water supplied 20 mgd.Lake Michigan offers a practically unlimited source of potable water. However, the cost of delivery to the Grand Rapids area presents an economic problem in the further development of this source. Even without storage the Grand River can provide an adequate supply for the city of Grand Rapids. The present average use of the city of Grand Rapids is about 30 mgd and the maximum use is about 60 mgd, while the average flow of the Grand River is 2, 495 mgd or 3, 860 cfs (cubic feet per second) and the minimum daily flow recorded is 246 mgd. The quality and temperature of water in the Grand River is less desirable than Lake Michigan water. However, with proper treatment its chemical quality can be made entirely satisfactory.The city of Grand Rapids is actively engaged in a study that will lead to the expansion of its present water-supply facilities to meet the expected growth in population in Grand Rapids and its environs.Ground-water aquifers in the area are a large potential source of supply. The Grand Rapids area is underlain by glacial material containing a moderately hard to very hard water of varying chemical composition but suitable for most uses. The glacial outwash and lacustrine deposits bordering principal streams afford the greatest potential for the development of large supplies of potable ground water. Below the glacial drift, bedrock formations contain water that is extremely hard and moderately to highly mineralized. Thus the major sources of

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  2. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  3. Promoting Sustainable Water Management in Area Development: A Regulatory Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Anoeska

    2015-01-01

    Water management is an integral part of sustainable area/urban development, and this article examines the interplay between water law and governance in three cases in the Netherlands to determine what sort of written law can provide normative guidance during governance processes, whilst at the same

  4. Water resources of the Milford area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.; Cordova, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation of the water resources of the Milford area was made as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, to investigate the water resources of the State. The primary purpose of this report is to provide basic hydrologic information needed for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the valley.

  5. Water Service Areas, Water Franchise Areas, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, CITY OF PORTAGE.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described as...

  6. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lien Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  7. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-17

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  8. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  9. Water resources of the Marquette Iron Range area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Newport, Thomas Gwyn; Skinner, Earl L.

    1967-01-01

    Large quantities of water are needed in the beneficiation and pelletizing processes by which the ore mined from low-grade iron-formations is upgraded into an excellent raw material for the iron and steel industry. Extensive reserves of low-grade iron-formation available for development herald an intensification of the demands upon the area's water supplies. This study was designed to provide water facts for public and private agencies in planning orderly development and in guiding the management of the water resources to meet existing and new requirements. Inland lakes and streams are the best potential sources of water for immediate development. The natural flow available for 90 percent of the time in the Middle and East Branches of the Escanaba River, the Carp River, and the Michigamme River is about 190 cubic feet per second. Potential storage sites are identified, and their complete development could increase the available supply from the above streams to about 450 cubic feet per second. Outwash deposits are the best potential sources of ground water. Large supplies could be developed from extensive outwash deposits in the eastern part of the area adjacent to Goose Lake Outlet and the East Branch Escanaba River. Other areas of outwash occur in the vicinity of Humboldt, West Branch Creek, and along the stream valleys. Streamflow data were used to make rough approximations of the ground-water potential in some areas. In general, however, the available data were not sufficient to permit quantitative evaluation of the potential ground-water supplies. Chemical quality of the surface and ground waters of the area is generally acceptable for most uses. Suspended sediment in the form of mineral tailings in effluents from ore-processing plants is a potential problem. Existing plants use settling basins to effectively remove most of the suspended material. Available records indicate that suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the receiving waters have not been

  10. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-11-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c{number_sign}3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters.

  11. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  12. Water in Urban Areas in a Climate Change Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Climatic changes will influence the water cycle substantially. This will have an immediate impact on the performance of urban water infrastructure. A case study from Roskilde shows that assuming an increase in design intensities of 40 % over a 100 year horizon will lead to increased cost of indiv......-of-the-art solutions to provide better liveability in urban areas by considering urban water management in a broader context. The mapping also show that further research is needed to address the challenges in a sustainable way.......Climatic changes will influence the water cycle substantially. This will have an immediate impact on the performance of urban water infrastructure. A case study from Roskilde shows that assuming an increase in design intensities of 40 % over a 100 year horizon will lead to increased cost...... planning of adaptation to the anticipated climatic changes and research to identify optimal strategies. In other areas of the world droughts and/or water resource availability in general will also become increasingly important. As such the water cycle in urban areas will be controlled more extensively...

  13. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  14. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure, paucity of fund etc. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  15. Evaluation of water resources in the Reedsport area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Joseph F.; Frank, F.J.; Leonard, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The water supply for the Reedsport area is obtained from Clear Lake, a 310-acre coastal lake that contains 16, 600 acre-feet of water at full-pool. The lake receives about 6,000 acre-feet of water annually from runoff and direct precipitation, and it loses about 600 acre-feet by evaporation. The 2,100 acre-feet diverted annually for public supply is about two-thirds of the ' usable storage capacity ' of the lake volume above the water-supply outlet pipe. Clear Lake is classified as a warm monomictic lake; that is, it is thermally stratified except during winter. The water of Clear Lake is of the sodium chloride type and is low in dissolved solids and nutrients. The water is considered to be of good quality for public supply, on the basis of biological and chemical constituents analyzed, which include trace elements pesticides, and organic material. The only ground-water source with potential to supply the needs of the Reedsport area is the dune sand-marine aquifer between U.S. Highway 101 and the coast. That aquifer consists largely of medium- to fine-grained sand with a variable saturated thickness of at least 90 feet. The aquifer is estimated to contain at least 12 billion gallons of water and to receive annual recharge from precipitation equivalent to 10 million gallons per day. Wells in the most productive part of the aquifer could be expected to yield a few hundred gallons per minute. The only identified water-quality problem is excessive iron reported in water from some wells. Either Clear Lake or the major aquifer could supply the Reedsport area 's aticipated year 2000 need of about 2.4 million gallons per day. 

  16. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  17. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  18. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  19. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  20. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  1. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  2. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  4. Tap water isotope ratios reflect urban water system structure and dynamics across a semiarid metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Yusuf; Brewer, Simon; Good, Stephen P.; Tipple, Brett J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-08-01

    Water extraction for anthropogenic use has become a major flux in the hydrological cycle. With increasing demand for water and challenges supplying it in the face of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand connections between human populations, climate, water extraction, water use, and its impacts. To understand these connections, we collected and analyzed stable isotopic ratios of more than 800 urban tap water samples in a series of semiannual water surveys (spring and fall, 2013-2015) across the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean tap water had a lower 2H and 18O concentration than local precipitation, highlighting the importance of nearby montane winter precipitation as source water for the region. However, we observed strong and structured spatiotemporal variation in tap water isotopic compositions across the region which we attribute to complex distribution systems, varying water management practices and multiple sources used across the valley. Water from different sources was not used uniformly throughout the area and we identified significant correlation between water source and demographic parameters including population and income. Isotopic mass balance indicated significant interannual and intra-annual variability in water losses within the distribution network due to evaporation from surface water resources supplying the SLV. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotopes as an indicator of water management strategies and climate impacts within regional urban water systems, with potential utility for monitoring, regulation, forensic, and a range of water resource research.

  5. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker c

  6. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker

  7. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker c

  8. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  9. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  10. Indemnification of the quality of water supply in residential areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan

    2003-01-01

    Most cities of our country now adopt the method of concentative pipe nets in water supply. In order to meet the users'' request of hydraulic pressure, some small residential areas or building groups have established water supply systems of secondary compression. Now most water supply enterprises do much work in purification processes of waterworks so as to improve the water quality; however, the secondary pollution because of water supply pipe nets is ignored. An investigation was done by special team of “security technology of water quality in residential areas” and they investigated water quality of waterworks and health and quarantine stations in big and middle cities of the whole country. The result indicates that secondary pollution of pipeline networks indeed exists. So, in order to resolve the question of secondary pollution and to provide people with clean and secure drinking water, the reason that secondary pollution came into being must be understood, moreover, concrete methods and measures aimed at each reason should be found out.

  11. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1994. Twelve wells representing 13 intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 6 wells representing 10 intervals were monitored hourly, and 10 wells representing 13 intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one, that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and pressure transducers. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1994. The mean-annual water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1994. Water levels were only an average of about 0.01 meters lower than 1993 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  12. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  13. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  14. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  15. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  16. Design of Simple Water Treatment System for Cleaning Dirty Water in the Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Haristiani, N.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce our simple home-made water treatment system for solving the clean water supply problem in rural area. We designed a water system using several materials: activated sand, activated carbon, manganese, and zeolite. As a model, we investigated the water treatment system on two wells that placed in one of the rural area (far from the main city) in West Java, Indonesia. Experimental results showed that our designed water treatment system succeeded to purify dirty water and the properties and the chemical composition of the purified water is fit with the minimum standard requirement of clean water. Analysis and discussion about the way for the cleaning water process were also presented in the paper. Finally, since the wells are installed in the elementary school and the water is typically used for daily life activity for the neighbour people, this water system can be used for educational purposes and the school can become a center of life in this rural area.

  17. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described.

  18. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  19. Thermal Water's Isotope Geochemistry Study of Evros Area, NE Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissavet, Dotsika; Paraskevi, Chantzi

    2016-10-01

    Thermal waters from Evros area were collected and subjected to chemical and isotopic analysis in order to understand all the physicochemical mechanisms (mixing, dilution, precipitating) that contribute to the shallow and deep geothermal water tables and determine the origin of these fluids as well as their mineralization. Physicochemical characteristics EC, T°C, pH was determined at the field. The ionic concentrations of samples indicate solutions with high salinity. Two chemical water types were arisen: Na-SO4 concerning low temperatures and shallow aquifers and Na- Cl concerning high temperatures and deeper geothermal circulation. The ratio Br/Cl definitely considered marine origin indicator is the same as the sea confirming the involvement of the seawater in the geothermal system. The marine component and water-rock interaction process under high temperatures seem to contribute to the mineralization of thermal waters. Moreover, water-rock interaction process is also responsible for the alternation of δ18O values. Geothermometers concluded to a middle enthalpy geothermal field.

  20. Water resources of the Hartford-New Britain area, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum; Tanski, D.; Thomas, M.P.

    1964-01-01

    The Hartford-New Britain area includes the metropolitan areas of Hartford and New Britain and parts of several adjoining towns. Water used in the area is withdrawn from the principal streams and aquifers at an average rate of 463.5 mgd (million gallons per day). Sufficient water is available from these sources to meet present requirements and those for many years to come, although local shortages may develop in some areas as the result of problems of distribution and treatment. About 98 percent of all water used in 1957 was from surface sources. More than 425 mgd was required by industry, and about 23 mgd was for domestic water supply. The Farmington River upstream from Collinsville is the chief source of water for public supply in the Hartford-New Britain area, whereas the Connecticut River is the chief source of water for industry. An average of about 40 mgd is withdrawn from the upper Farmington River for public supply, and about 404 mgd is withdrawn by industry from the Connecticut River for nonconsumptive use and returned directly to the stream. The Connecticut River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream at Thompsonville may be expected to equal or exceed about 2,000 mgd 95 percent of the time, and the flow should not be less than this amount for periods longer than 12 days. The flow below Thompsonville is increased by additions from the Scantic, Farmington, Park, and Hockanum Rivers and from numerous smaller tributary streams. The available streamflow data for the aforementioned rivers have been summarized graphically in the report. The chemical quality of water in the Connecticut River is good, except for short periods when the iron concentration is high. In addition to the removal of iron some other treatment may be necessary if water from the Connecticut River is used for special purposes. The chemical quality of the tributary streams is good, except the quality of the Park River, which is poor. Thus the

  1. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  2. Hydrologic control on water trade in dry land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water resource (and agriculture) in arid/semi arid areas, especially in developing countries, is increasingly under pressure in the face of global change. While expansion of physical infrastructure such as expansion of irrigation or dam structures can help, many (such as International Monetary Fund) have emphasized introduction of other adaptive mechanisms, such as the use of financial instruments, to smooth out fluctuations in water availability (or agricultural income) caused by (even increasing) erraticity in rainfall patterns. One such mechanism is water trade, where a downstream agent makes a payment to an upstream agent for additional natural flow and if the upstream agent agrees she releases additional flow by changing her landuse pattern. However, such a mechanism is fraught with questions ranging from region to region physical and financial viability of trade in water, role of hydrology in its viability, to the challenges of implementing it in developing countries. Answers to such questions are of utmost importance if water trade is to be considered as a serious coping mechanism. This paper delves on the role that hydrology, specifically hydrologic properties, plays in viability of water trade in a region. We consider water management at basin level, each of the agents (here a ‘representative’ water use, for eg. a farmer) occupies a sub-catchment within a basin and hydrology underlying each such agent is represented by a lumped single linear reservoir model. This allows us to consider non-steady state conditions at monthly scale while calculating prices of water trade securities between contiguous agents based on partial equilibrium modeling. A novel result from this innovative approach is that equilibrium pricing of water trade depends on “effective” hydraulic conductivity of the basin as well as erraticity in rainfall. We implement and present the results for basins in Gujarat and Rajasthan, two semi-arid states in western India that are most

  3. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  4. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  5. Estimated Depth to Ground Water and Configuration of the Water Table in the Portland, Oregon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable information on the configuration of the water table in the Portland metropolitan area is needed to address concerns about various water-resource issues, especially with regard to potential effects from stormwater injection systems such as UIC (underground injection control) systems that are either existing or planned. To help address these concerns, this report presents the estimated depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps for the Portland area, along with estimates of the relative uncertainty of the maps and seasonal water-table fluctuations. The method of analysis used to determine the water-table configuration in the Portland area relied on water-level data from shallow wells and surface-water features that are representative of the water table. However, the largest source of available well data is water-level measurements in reports filed by well constructors at the time of new well installation, but these data frequently were not representative of static water-level conditions. Depth-to-water measurements reported in well-construction records generally were shallower than measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the same or nearby wells, although many depth-to-water measurements were substantially deeper than USGS measurements. Magnitudes of differences in depth-to-water measurements reported in well records and those measured by the USGS in the same or nearby wells ranged from -119 to 156 feet with a mean of the absolute value of the differences of 36 feet. One possible cause for the differences is that water levels in many wells reported in well records were not at equilibrium at the time of measurement. As a result, the analysis of the water-table configuration relied on water levels measured during the current study or used in previous USGS investigations in the Portland area. Because of the scarcity of well data in some areas, the locations of select surface-water features including major rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and

  6. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured

  7. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  8. Radon concentrations in the water of Misasa area (Tottori Pref.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Mifune, Masaaki

    1997-02-01

    UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) Report (1988, 1993) indicated that the internal exposure dose of absorption of radon (Rn-222) and the short-lived decay product nucleus occupied about half of 2.4 m Sv of the global average of annual dose of natural radiation source. It is said to be the largest factor of radiation dose of natural radiation. Sample collection and the method, the elution properties by the concentration of Rn-222 in water and the comparison of characteristics among the different methods are explained. The detection limit of concentration of radon in water by OPTI-FLUOR direct method using the liquid scintillator spectrometer was 1.5 Bq/l for 20 mins counting. The maximum radon concentrations determined by this method showed 1700 Bq/l of the spring water in Misasa area, 400 Bq/l of the small water supply system and well and 18 Bq/l of Mitoku river. (S.Y.)

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  10. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  11. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sharvit

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection andaccurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. Thesystem comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installedon a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition wepresent the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a townsituated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primarypurpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960.A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid was created revealing theanomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a correspondingferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of thecrashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of theactual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  12. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

  13. Linking water and energy objectives in lowland areas through the application of model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overloop, P.J.A.T.M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Weijs, S.V.; Malda, W.; Bruggers, M.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike mountainous areas, lowland areas have limited potential to generate energy from water flows. Instead, for water systems in lowland areas that continuously need to pump water out of the system, the focus should be set to saving energy in the present water management. This paper gives an introd

  14. Simulation analysis of domestic water demand and its future uncertainty in water scarce areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouke WEI; Albrecht GNAUCK; Alin LEI

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a practical simulation approach to analyze domestic water demand and its future uncertainty in water scarce areas through a case study of Beijing, China. Analytic models and a forecasting model were constructed using statistic and econometric regres-sion approaches. The analytic models were used to analyze the interrelationships between domestic water demand and some socio-economic factors of Beijing. The forecasting model was applied to predict domestic water demand from 2009 to 2015, and this model was validated by comparing the prediction values with the observations. Scenario analysis was applied to simulate uncertainty and risks in domestic water demand in the future. The simulation results proved that domestic water demand will increase from 13.9×108 m3 to 16.7×108 m3 from 2009 to 2015. Three more sustainable strategies were also found through scenario analysis. The simulation and modeling approaches and results would be very supportive for water decision makers in allocating water efficiently and making sustainable water strategies.

  15. Hydrogeology and water quality of areas with persistent ground- water contamination near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Groveland-Collins area near Blackfoot, Idaho, has a history of either periodic or persistent localized groundwater contamination. Water users in the area report offensive smell, metallic taste, rust deposits, and bacteria in water supplies. During 1984 and 1985, data were collected to define regional and local geologic, hydrologic, and groundwater quality conditions, and to identify factors that may have affected local groundwater quality. Infiltration or leakage of irrigation water is the major source of groundwater recharge, and water levels may fluctuate 15 ft or more during the irrigation season. Groundwater movement is generally northwestward. Groundwater contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions and characteristically has more than 200 mg/L hardness. Groundwater near the Groveland-Collins area may be contaminated from one or more sources, including infiltration of sewage effluent, gasoline or liquid fertilizer spillage, or land application of food processing wastewater. Subsurface basalt ridges impede lateral movement of water in localized areas. Groundwater pools temporarily behind these ridges and anomalously high water levels result. Maximum concentrations or values of constituents that indicate contamination were 1,450 microsiemens/cm specific conductance, 630 mg/L bicarbonate (as HCO3), 11 mg/L nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen), 7.3 mg/L ammonia (as nitrogen), 5.9 mg/L organic nitrogen, 4.4 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, 7,000 micrograms/L dissolved iron, 5 ,100 microgram/L dissolved manganese, and 320 microgram/L dissolved zinc. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.9 mg/L in uncontaminated areas to 0 mg/L in areas where food processing wastewater is applied to the land surface. Stable-isotope may be useful in differentiating between contamination from potato-processing wastewater and whey in areas where both are applied to the land surface. Development of a ground-water model to evaluate effects of land applications

  16. FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN WATER AT THE AREA SUPPLIED BY THE WATER TREATMENT STATION OF BAURU, SP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. Material and methods: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. Conclusion: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply. PMID:19089059

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  18. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    .... For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans...

  19. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  20. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  1. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  2. Experiences of improving water access in rural areas in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bresci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GESAAF Department of the UNIFI has been involved in the project “Gestione ambientale e del rischio nel dipartimento di Sololà” in the period 2011-’12 aiming at guaranteeing water access to people leaving in rural areas in the Sololà Department in Guatemala, in collaboration with the two NGOs Movimento Africa ’70 and Oxfam Italia. Appropriate technologies, such as EMAS pump and well drilled with the Baptista- Boliviana technique, have been proposed and utilized for improving water access in areas where lack of water represented a limiting factor for the human development. They can be both considered compatible with local, cultural and economic conditions: in fact locally available materials are used and the tools can be maintained and operationally controlled by the local users. At the end of the project, 52 EMAS pumps have been installed and 19 wells drilled, 33 pumps have been installed in already existing wells tank. Formation activities of local people played an important role: diffusion actions of the methodology started from schools, 20 workers participated to an in class course and more than 100 participated in the field work. Monitoring activities on the 52 installed pumps have been carried out in order to check the performances of the pumps and the knowledge level acquired by the users. After some months of operation, more than 80% of the pumps were correctly functioning and the required maintenance activities have been carried out in collaboration with the local users. In order to analyze the project results, a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats has been carried out for developing a strategy able to tackle the weaknesses and threats of the procedure. The application of the SWOT analysis showed to be an useful tool to analyse the current situation coming from the ended project. It has been helpful to gauge how the project performed. The analysis results may be also utilized for exploring

  3. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan summarizes last years planned water management program and actual CY 1983 water events. A more detailed summary is available in the CY 1983 Annual Water...

  4. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  5. Influence of the transition area on efficiency of the water jet cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Říha, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    The transition area between big and small pipe diameter in the tool for water jet cutting creates subject of researching. Three kinds of transition areas were tested such as conical change, radius change and step change. The efficiency of the water jet cutting was evaluated for above mentioned transition areas. This work brings new possibilities for design of the water jet cutting tool.

  6. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  7. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  8. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  9. Rn-222 concentrations in private well water and in river water around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Eiji [Okayama, Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The Ningyo-Toge Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have started the pilot plant for uranium refining and conversion in 1984 and thereafter been producing 6-uranium fluoride, which is a raw material for an uranium concentration plant. The operation of prototype reactor has started since 1989. In this study, radioactive contamination around the works under these circumstances has been monitored in the respects of Rn concentrations in well water and river one for more than 10 years. The radioactivities of well water sampled at 4 points in this area were in a range of 0.6-82.9 Bq/l. The differences in the activities seemed to be depending on petrological properties. For the river water, the Rn concentration was determined at 13 points in the area. Seasonal changes in the Rn concentrations were not significant (p<0.05) but there were significant changes among years during 1985-1995. Further, the radioactive levels of soils collected from riverbed at 5 points were significantly different both for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, but the ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra were consistent. Furthermore, there was no correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the river water. (M.N.)

  10. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC. Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells. E. coli was present in 5 (5.6% samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4 MPN/100mL and in 70 (39.5% well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4 MPN/100mL. Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5% samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL and in 142 (80.2% well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL. C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5% community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5% wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL. HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6% waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4 CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L, except in 20 (22.5% samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

  11. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  12. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  13. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the 'most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  14. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  15. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the 'most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  16. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  17. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Notice of Study Findings. Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    GRAND ISLE - PLAN 2 Seawater Desalinization 73 11 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 3 Brackish Water Desalinization 75 12 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 4 Recycle Wastewater 76 13...32 CAYERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 20 Import Water from Intracoastal Waterway 127 33 CAMERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 21 Brackish Water Desalinization 129 34...becomes salty and an alternate source, Bayou Black, must be used. However, Bayou Black is also connected to the GIWW so its use for fre~h water is

  18. Water resources outlook for the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvitch, R.F.; Ross, T.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The water resources were studied within an area whose natural ground-water flow is largely towards the center of the metropolitan area. This area coincides with the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone aquifer. Thus, the general geohydrology of the area bounded by the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone (about 6,000 square miles) as it relates to the hydrology of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area is described. Greater emphasis is placed on the area underlain by the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer (about 2,000 square miles), from which approximately 75 percent of the ground-water for the metropolitan area is pumped.

  19. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Wakasa area, Fukui Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi [Fukui Prefectural Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center, Tsuruga (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentration in drinking water was surveyed to make basic data for the investigation of radiation dose due to natural radioisotopes in the general public. Here, the survey data in the Wakasa region were reported. Sampling was carried out at 126 points in this region (ca. 70x50 km{sup 2}). A total of 167 samples were taken from the tap of private wells, and small and large public water supplies. The radon concentration was determined by direct measuring method. The mean concentration of ground water from the wells was 28.5 Bq/l, significantly higher than those of the tap water from small and large water supplies, 5.0 and 11.2 Bq/l, respectively. Rn concentration of ground water was dependent on geological features and it was comparatively high in the granite region. Ground water containing a high concentration of Rn was mixed into the water of some large water supply in the cities, showing that its Rn concentration was higher compared to those for the small water supply. This survey was conducted only in the winter seasons from 1989 to 1993. Therefore, there are no data concerning seasonal changes in Rn concentration to drinking water. (M.N.)

  20. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davis, A.J.; Lavaleye, M.M.S.; Rosso, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.J.N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off thecoast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmostcold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau inthe NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookoutare occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterisedby oligotrophic

  1. Water use of tree lines: importance of leaf area and micrometeorology in sub-humid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.; Ong, C.K.; Coe, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the relative importance of leaf area and microclimatic factors in determining water use of tree lines was examined in sub-humid Western Kenya. Measurements of tree water-use by a heat-balance technique, leaf area, bulk air saturation deficit, daily radiation, and soil water content

  2. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix F. Structural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Influent Chamber L,C Filtered Water Clearwell L,C Backwash Water Holding Tank L,C Carbon Column Effluent Clearwell L,C Finished Water Clearwell C...in fiters and carbon columns, f. Clearwell levels, g. Chemical dosage rates, h. Filter and GAG backwash times, i. On-line turbidity and chlorine... Clearwell levels, b. Flows through each unit processes-recorded as gallons per 24 hours, c. Flow losses-through backwashing, sludge withdrawal, d

  3. An analysis on the water landscape design of residential area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆雷

    2012-01-01

    Water is an essential factor in our daily life and one of the most vivid scenery in the nature. Water may modify the local atmosphere, purify the air, irrigate plants, breed fish and prevent from fire, all of which are the important factors for the landscape design.

  4. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  5. Use of coal in areas of water shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, G.

    2005-11-01

    Large amounts of water are needed for power generation, mainly for cooling the exhaust steam from the turbine, although it is also needed for the steam used in the boiler and turbine; for some flue gas cleaning processes and for ash handling. Water is also used for coal preparation, while mining operations often give rise to substantial quantities of acid mine drainage which requires treatment. The world's major coal producers, including China, India, South Africa and the USA, are all expected to be subject to increasing competition for the available water. The situation in each country is discussed - in the context of the projected growth in worldwide coal-fired power capacity from 1400 GWe to some 2300 GWe by 2030. Recent developments have brought about a much better understanding of the role of the plant chemist or water engineer in connection with power plant operation. Water chemistry plays a key role in determining the cost of the necessary treatments. Technical advances with the membranes used for reverse osmosis have contributed to the availability of new options. The water managers job is to facilitate water recycle and the use of low grade waters, providing adequate and economic treatment to prevent deposition and corrosion in the equipment where it is used. Various approaches to reducing water use and to treating lower grade waters to facilitate reuse are discussed. Case studies are presented where minewaters are used for supplying power plants, and of sites which have been required to implement a zero discharge policy. 155 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Water Service Areas, Water Service Area in Berrien County, GA, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  7. Water Service Areas, Water Service Area in Turner County, GA, Published in 1999, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1999. It is described as...

  8. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplies have developed or threaten to develop to such a degree as to create a water shortage or to impair... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  9. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  10. Economic burden of diarrhoea in the Olifants Water Management Area, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights the economic burden of diarrhoea in the Olifants Water Management Area, South Africa. It concludes that water pollution prevention is cheaper than diarrhoea treatment....

  11. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  12. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  13. Depth to ground water contours of hydrographic area 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of depth to ground water contours for hydrographic-area (HA) 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada. These data represent static ground-water levels...

  14. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1972 to December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1972 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  15. Health and Safety Deficiencies Found at Water Recreation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-15

    Power Resources Service areas Lake Berryessa California Black Canyon Dam Idaho Boysen Reservoir Wyoming Caballo Reservoir New Mexico East Park Reservoir...Natural Resources Department could no longer maintain recreation facilities at Caballo Reservoir, then the recrea- tion area might be returned to the...Service. The State of New Mexico has never indicated to the Service that they are considering returning the area. The Service feels that Caballo Reservoir

  16. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  17. Inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water supplies in urban areas: the case of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rusca, Maria; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015. Faecal contamination (Escherichia coli) was detected in 10% of the 40 samples collected from planned areas, in 59% of the 64 samples collected from kiosks in the unplanned areas and in 75% of the 32 samples of water stored at household level. Differences in water quality in planned and unplanned areas were found to be statistically significant at p water are produced by decisions both on the development of the water supply infrastructure and on how this is operated and maintained.

  18. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, ... would ultimately include the roads, parks and public open ...... (1995) A strategy and master plan for water supply, storage and dis-.

  19. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An estimated 70,000 acre feet (AF) of water are needed annually to maintain 14,000 acres of marsh currently regulated by Operating Criteria and Procedures (OCAP) on...

  20. Geology and water quality at selected locations in the San Antonio area, Texas, Progress Report, 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Increasing urban development on or adjacent to the recharge area of the aquifer is causing great concern because of possible pollution of the ground water. A detailed map of the surface geology has been prepared for areas where the greatest threat of pollution exists. Water-quality data are being collected throughout the San Antonio area to provide background reference information and to detect any current pollution of the ground water in the Edwards and associated limestones.

  1. Water Supply Protection Areas, Surface Water Protection Areas; Drainage areas contributing to drinking water supply reservoirs serving public water systems in Rhode Island. Includes areas in Massachusetts contributing to Woonsocket Water Supply, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Protection Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2002....

  2. Ship Domain in Open Sea Areas and Restricted Waters: an Analysis of Influence of the Available Maneuvering Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Wielgosz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A ship domain is nowadays an important navigational safety assessment criterion. Its shape and size depend on many factors. The available maneuvering area seems to be one of the most important of them. This article examines the influence of the available manoeuvring area on the shape and size of ship domain in the open sea and restricted waters. The research was conducted using a simulation method. Expert navigators participated in simulations using the ECDIS system. The domains of ship passages in open sea area and restricted area have been compared.

  3. Biologically Important Areas for Cetaceans within U.S. Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group identified Biologically Important Areas (BIAs) for 24 cetacean species, stocks, or populations in seven...

  4. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu due to cement production. ... as well as potentially toxic metals such as copper, lead, zinc, iron and cadmium. ... It was also observed that the levels of sulphate was higher that the WHO ...

  5. Biologically Important Areas for Cetaceans within U.S. Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biologically important areas (BIAs) for cetaceans were defined by compiling the best available information from scientific literature (including books, peer-reviewed...

  6. Analysis of Water Features in Gas Leakage Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huaishan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a certain frequency range, gas is an effective absorber and scatterer of sound, which changes the compressibility of water, and then changes the speed and frequency of sound. Gas continues rising, deforming, and dissolving. The same bubble of natural gas has different radii at different depths. By analyzing these changes, the resonance frequency of gas bubble, and its impacts on sound wave, characteristics of the influences of gas at different depths on the incident sound wave can be obtained. The main sound features of gas are relevant to the gas size, gas content, velocity, attenuation, resonance frequency, the scattering cross-section, and so forth. Sound models with hydrate and free gas in the water and sediment are established. Through the practical application to actual data, the sound characteristics yielded when the gas (or gas hydrate dissociation escaped the water of seismic data are very clear.

  7. Water supply and hydrosocial scarcity in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Carneiro,Paulo Roberto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to analyse the water supply systems in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area in the light of the hydrosocial scarcity concept and the human right to water. It also assesses how bulk water availability may aggravate this situation. We argue that water access-related problems are directly related to several aspects: the way that water and sanitation services are managed, deficiencies in planning, technical choices, and the way in which existing systems are operated. In a...

  8. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  10. Management of microbial water quality: New perspectives for developing areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steynberg, MC

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available and physical characteristics of the river and the difficulty in determining flow, the usefulness of a steady-state stream water quality model as a management tool is limited. Determining the decay rate of micro-organisms by means of chamber studies, may be a...

  11. Water Residence Times and Their Relation to Soil and Aquifer Properties and Degree of Urbanization (Croton Water Supply Area, NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D.; Kendall, C.; McDonnell, J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times were determined in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1 km2 drainage area) have different amounts of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wetlands, hillslopes) . Measurements of the Oxygen-18 content of throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period of 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water, soil water and groundwater were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are small but significant differences in the isotopic content of waters in each watershed, along with soil and aquifer properties as a function of the level of urbanization. Longer groundwater residence times (up to more than 2 years) were estimated in wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to more than 1 year). In highly urbanized areas, mixing of natural runoff generation processes with urbanization effects such as the influence of septic plumes results in a complex spectrum of residence times in soil waters and groundwaters. We illustrate the possibilities of using stable isotope measurements to describe small-scale complex runoff generation processes in watersheds.

  12. Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C.; Scheidt, D.J.; Federico, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Report on the water requirements and water use of the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and Management Area Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to review past use and establish the minimum future water requirements for that portion of the Stillwater NWR and Management Area...

  14. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buor, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services.

  15. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  16. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  17. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  18. Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape Flats, Cape Town, ... samples so as to assess effects of evaporation on water quality and salinity. ... African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) and the Food and ...

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  20. A microbiological assessment of the surface water quality in the Bodva river drainage area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Maťašová

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the surface water quality assessment in the partial drainage area of the Bodva river and its tributaries. The water quality in the sampled areas ranged between polluted and strongly polluted. The main cause of the pollution is the increased abundance of coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci. The reason the increase in their abundance is the dumping of the household waste water containing excrements and animal remains, and the unsatisfactorily treated water from the water treatment stations.

  1. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  2. Follow up of water use in a tin mining area affected with arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Lim, A; Dueravee, M; Geater, A; Ritsamitchai, S; Oshikawa, S

    2000-12-01

    Ron Phibun district in southern Thailand has been known as an endemic area for arsenic contamination. The government has been trying to improve the situation by encouraging the use of rainwater and piped water. This study aimed to document the change of water use and to identify factors associated with safe water use in 1997 compared to that in 1994. Home visits and face-to-face questionnaire interviews were undertaken. Information on water use for drinking, cooking, washing food and washing utensils in 1994 and 1997 was obtained. Among 3,849 households from which data could be obtained (estimated 79% of total households), the percentages of using safe water (including water from bottled rain water, piped and artesian well water) for drinking and cooking rose from 72.5 and 57.9 in 1994 to 93.6 and 80.9 in 1997, respectively. The percentages for washing foods and for washing utensils rose from 28.6 and 20.5 to 59.1 and 53.8, respectively. In 1997, percentage of households using piped water for drinking and cooking was still low (3.6 and 12.3) compared to those using piped water for washing food and utensils (39.1 and 43.6). Multivariate analysis shows that independent factors of the household predicting safe water use are: high arsenic area, near main road and having piped water installed. The influence of these factors (as judged by the level of odds ratio) operates more or less equally on water use for all purposes, except that installation of piped water has more influence on washing water than drinking and cooking water. We conclude that safe water supply in the area is still inadequate. Even if piped water is installed, it is often not used for drinking and cooking. The reasons for not using piped water for drinking and cooking need to be identified.

  3. A provider-based water planning and management model--WaterSim 4.0--for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D A; Escobar, V; Tschudi, M K; Lant, T; Gober, P

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their response: (1) we examined groundwater reliance (GWR; that proportion of a providers' portfolio dependent upon groundwater) from the runoff sensitivity analysis, and (2) we used 100% of the historical runoff simulations to examine the cumulative groundwater withdrawals for each provider. Four groups of water

  4. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12, 1989-91, Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    Water levels have been measured in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, since 1981 in order to gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow system in the area. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12 have been periodically measured using calibrated reeled steel tapes since 1989, however, calculation of water-level altitude was not possible prior to 1993 due to missing reference elevations. These elevations were determined in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-11 ranged from 732.09 to 732.40 meters and the mean water-level altitude was 732.19 meters. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-12 ranged from 727.84 to 728.03 meters, and the mean water-level altitude was 727.95 meters.

  5. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  6. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  7. Conceptual model for simulating the water cycle of the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen; Ladekarl, Ulla Lyngs

    2008-01-01

    A complete water cycle model has been constructed for the Copenhagen area (966 km2) in order to study the development of the water cycle during the period 1850-2003. The urban water cycle is quantified in terms of root zone water balance, water supply, waste water, storm water, groundwater flow......, and the interactions between these systems. The water cycle is simulated by combining a root-zone model, a grid distribution tool, and a modified Modflow-2000 model using existing flow packages and a new sewer package that simulates the interactions between ground water and sewers (or rain drains). Long time series...... cycle. It is also the hope that the model will provide a better and more complete overview of the consequences of different water management scenarios. The model concept and selected simulation results is presented....

  8. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  9. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness - A long history of management guided by science

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cole

    2016-01-01

    The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota is one of the most iconic and cherished wilderness areas in the United States. One of the original wilderness areas established in 1964, the BWCAW protects a glaciated landscape of about 1,175 lakes, connected by several hundred miles of streams. Located adjacent to Canada's Quetico Provincial...

  10. Leaf area compounds height-related hydraulic costs of water transport in Oregon White Oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Phillips; B. J. Bond; N. G. McDowell; Michael G. Ryan; A. Schauer

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of leaf to sapwood area generally decreases with tree size, presumably to moderate hydraulic costs of tree height. This study assessed consequences of tree size and leaf area on water flux in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook (Oregon White Oak), a species in which leaf to sapwood area ratio increases with tree size. We tested hypotheses that...

  11. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

    2001-02-01

    The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys

  12. Iron Excess in Drinking Water of Darrang District of Assam and Some Adjoining Areas

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Das; K. Borah

    1983-01-01

    A study on the quality of drinking water in Darrang District (Assam) and some adjoining areas carried out during 1975-79 has been reported. A total of I126 water samples (962 treated and 164 untreated) collected from different      units/water distribution centres of army interest were analysed. It was observed that the underground waters of six deep tube wells were generally soft, acidic and highly ferruginous in character. All physicochemical constituents except the iron content were within...

  13. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  14. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  15. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FLUORIDE WATER SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some rural areas of Jaipur city (Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. In present analysis a review of fluoride toxicity in drinking water along with the various deflouridation processes has been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 11 different places of Jaipur District was analyzed to identify the fluoride content in water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory.

  16. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  17. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  18. [Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of lake water and geothermal spring water in arid area of south Tibet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Shen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Peng

    2014-08-01

    The condition of water cycles in Tibet Plateau is a complex process, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes contain important information of this process. Based on the analysis of isotopic composition of freshwater lake, saltwater lake and geothermal water in the southern Tibetan Plateau, this study investigated water cycling, composition and variation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and the influencing factors in the study area. The study found that the mean values of delta18O and deltaD in Daggyaima lake water (-17.0 per thousand for delta18O and -138. 6 per thousand for deltaD), Langcuo lake water (-6.4 per thousand for delta18O and -87.4 per thousand for deltaD) and Dagejia geothermal water (-19.2 per thousand for delta18 and -158.2 per thousand for deltaD) all showed negative delta18O and deltaD values in Tibetan Plateau by the influence of altitude effects. Lake water and geothermal water were influenced by evaporation effects in inland arid area, and the slope of evaporation line was less than 8. Deuterium excess parameters of lake water and geothermal water were all negative. The temperature of geothermal reservoirs in Dagejia geothermal field was high,and oxygen shift existed in the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes.

  19. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  20. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.122 Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters...

  1. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  2. Ground-water geology of the Bruneau-Grand View area, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert Thomas; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1957-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area is part of an artesian basin in northern Owyhee County, Idaho. The area described in this report comprises about 600 square miles, largely of undeveloped public domain, much of which is open, or may be opened, for desert-entry filing. Many irrigation-entry applications to the Federal Government are pending, and information about ground-water geology is needed by local citizens and well drillers, by Federal agencies that have custody of the land, and by local and State agencies that administer water rights. The areal geology and ground-water conditions in the Bruneau-Grand View area seemingly typify several basins in southwestern Idaho, and this study is a step toward definition and analysis of regional problems in ground-water geology and the occurrence and availability of ground water for irrigation or other large-scale uses. Owyhee County is subdivided physiographically into a plateau area, the Owyhee uplift, and the Snake River valley. The Bruneau-Grand View area is largely within the Snake River valley. The climate is arid and irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. Nearly all usable indigenous surface water in the area is appropriated, including freshet flow in the Bruneau River, which is used for power generation at the C. J. Strike Dam. However, with storage facilities additional land could be irrigated, and some land may be irrigated with Snake River water if suitable reclamation projects are constructed. Sedimentary and igneous rocks exposed in the area range in age from Miocene to Recent. The igneous rocks include silicic and basic intrusive and extrusive bodies, and the sedimentary rocks are compacted stream and lake sediments. The rocks contain economically important artesian aquifers; the principal ones are volcanic rocks in which ground water is imperfectly confined beneath sediments of the Idaho formation, thus forming a leaky artesian system. The altitude of the piezometric surface of the artesian

  3. Exploration of Water Resource and Multiple Model for Water Resource Development in Karst Areas with the Preferred Plane Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    According to the theory of preferred plane, preferred planes (faults) always control the distribution of bedrock fissure water and hold abundant groundwater. Thus, the exploration of fissure or karst water can be converted into searching for the watery preferred plane (WPP). In the paper, the characteristic of watery preferred planes is analyzed and a series of superior indices has been set up. It is introduced that WPPs are determined by the methods of geological analysis, superior index and complex geophysical analysis. Meanwhile, new multiple model for water resource development in the water-scarce areas of karst mountainous regions are advanced.

  4. Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

  5. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Ichinose, M.; Gottfried, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

  7. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  8. Operational water management applications of snowcovered area observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An effort was made to evaluate the utility of satellite snowcover observations for seasonal streamflow prediction. On a representative, large watershed(10 to the 5th power to 10 to the sixth power sq km) it was found, based on six years of data, that meteorological satellite observations of snow cover early in the snowmelt season exhibit a relationship to seasonal runoff having a statistically significant coefficient of determination of 0.92. Analyses of LANDSAT-1 snow-cover observations over the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming reveals that for areas with infrequent cloud cover the extent of snowcover and its change with time can be monitored on watersheds as small as 10 sq km in areal extent. The change in the snow cover with time as observed from LANDSAT-1 is found to reflect major differences in seasonal runoff from high altitude (mean altitude 3 km) and low altitude ( 3 km) watersheds. There are quantitative indications that LANDSAT observations over small watersheds could be used in a manner similar to that employed for meteorological satellite observations to relate the percent of a basin snowcovered on a given data to seasonal runoff.

  9. Study on Fishery Ecological Environment and Fish Species Diversity in Yantan Water Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoquan; HAN; Anyou; HE; Li; HUANG; Jun; SHI; Dapeng; WANG; Weijun; WU

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis on water quality,planktonic organism,fish resources,and fish species diversity in Yantan water area,this paper evaluated current situation of quality of fishery ecological environment in Yantan water area. The survey recorded all 52365 fishes and 1410. 2kg catches obtained by fishermen in half a year,and more than 98% catches are small fishes. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index of Yantan water area is 0. 162,Wilhm improvement index is 1. 814,DG- Findex is 0. 083,and the index of fish species diversity is far lower than other water areas. The average quantity per unit of phytoplankton is 1. 0134 million ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 1. 1151 mg / L. The average quantity per unit of zooplankton is 459. 6 ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 0. 6422 mg / L. Evaluation results indicate that water quality and planktonic organism in Yantan water area are basically normal,but fish resources are increasingly exhausted,fish resource composition is not reasonable,and fish species diversity is extremely low. From the perspective of biomanipulation,it is required to restore fishery ecological environment of reservoir area through restoring normal composition of aquatic organisms.

  10. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  11. Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

  12. Emission Control in River Network System of the Taihu Basin for Water Quality Assurance of Water Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As pollution incidents frequently occurred in the functional water areas of the Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta, effective emission control to guarantee water quality in the Taihu Basin became the priority for environmental management. In this study, a new total emission control (TEC method was proposed with an emphasis on the concept of water environmentally sensitive areas (WESAs. This method was verified in Wujiang District and the techniques can be concluded in three steps: (1 a 1-D mathematical model for the study area was established and the model was calibrated using field measurement data; (2 based on an analysis of administrative planning and regulations, WESAs were identified as the main controlling objectives for emission control calculations. The weighting coefficient of local pollution sources was investigated to discuss the effectiveness of TEC on water quality improvement at WESAs; and (3 applying the river network mathematical model, water quality along the river segments was simulated under different pollution control plans. The results proved the effectiveness of TEC in the study area and indicated that a 14.6% reduction in the total amount of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, as well as a 31.1% reduction in the total amount of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr, was essential in order to meet the water quality standard in the WESAs.

  13. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Appleton area, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven P.

    1976-01-01

    Supplemental irrigation of well-drained sandy soils has prompted an evaluation of ground water in the Appleton area. Glacial drift aquifers are the largest source of ground water. The surficial outwash sand and gravel is the most readily available and the most areally extensive drift aquifer, and it underlies much of the sandy soil area. Saturated thickness of the outwash is more than 80 feet (24 m) in places, and potential well yields may exceed 1,200 gal/min (76 1/s) in some areas. In about 17 percent of the area, yields of more than 300 gal/min (19 1/s) are obtainable.

  14. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 2001 through September 2012, water years (WYs) 2002-12, were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1982 through September 2012 (WYs 1983-2012). Water samples were collected and analyzed by the Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and orthophosphate were calculated for WYs 2003-12 for all 37 monitoring stations. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform bacteria and E. coli, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate were calculated for all sampling dates during WYs 2003-12 for 23 monitoring stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared with State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, varying classes of timber operations, and impervious surface areas.

  15. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Preliminary Classification of Water Areas Within the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway System by Using Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Yvonne C.; Constant, Glenn C.; Couvillion, Brady R.

    2008-01-01

    The southern portion of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway System (ABFS) is a large area (2,571 km2) in south central Louisiana bounded on the east and west sides by a levee system. The ABFS is a sparsely populated area that includes some of the Nation's most significant extents of bottomland hardwoods, swamps, bayous, and backwater lakes, holding a rich abundance and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species. The seasonal flow of water through the ABFS is critical to maintaining its ecological integrity. Because of strong interdependencies among species, habitat quality, and water flow in the ABFS, there is a need to better define the paths by which water moves at various stages of the hydrocycle. Although river level gages have collected a long historical record of water level variation, very little synoptic information has been available regarding the distribution and character of water at more remote locations in the basin. Most water management plans for the ABFS strive to improve water quality by increasing water flow and circulation from the main stem of the Atchafalaya River into isolated areas. To describe the distribution of land and water on a basin-wide scale, we chose to use Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 imagery to determine the extent of water distribution from 1985 to 2006 and at a variety of river stages. Because the visual signature of river water is high turbidity, we also used Landsat imagery to describe the distribution of turbid water in the ABFS. The ability to track water flow patterns by tracking turbid waters will enhance the characterization of water movement and aid in planning.

  17. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  18. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  19. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  20. Evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigation area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, X. C.; Zhu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Irrigation area is an important carrier, and also has a pivotal role in the construction of water ecological civilization in China, as well as worldwide. This work extracted the five basic characteristics of water ecological civilization of irrigated area, namely "resource saving, efficient production, ecological nature, beautiful environment, and civilized consciousness". Further, based on the frequency analysis of indicators related to the evaluation of irrigation area, we proposed the evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigated area. Taking an irrigation district of Huaian City, Jiangsu Province, China as an example, we carried out the case evaluation in use of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Thus, we provide the theoretical and technical reference for the construction and assessment of water ecological civilization of irrigation district to both China and abroad.

  1. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  2. The effect of Abattoir effluent waste water on soils of Gandu area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Abattoir effluent waste water on soils of Gandu area of Sokoto, Sokoto ... of abattoir wastewater on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of ... The physicochemical parameters examined were pH, electric conductivity, ...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  4. Modelling skin surface areas involved in water transfer in the Palmate Newt (Lissotriton helveticus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wardziak, Thomas; Oxarango, Laurent; Valette, Sebastien; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Joly, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based 3D reconstructions were used to derive accurate quantitative data on body volume and functional skin surface areas involved in water transfer in the Palmate Newt...

  5. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  7. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  8. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  9. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  10. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  11. Theory and Method for Identifying Well Water Level Anomalies in a Groundwater Overdraft Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Suxin; Zhang Ziguang; Ren Xiaoxia; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The overexploitation of underground water leads to the continuous drawdown of groundwater levels, change of water quality and dry-up in dynamic water level observation wells. Due to land subsidence, the well pipes uplift and the observation piping systems are damaged. These environmental geology problems can present serious difficulties for the identification of earthquake anomalies by groundwater level observation. Basied on hydrogeological theories and methods, the paper analyzes the relations of the water balance state of aquifers with stressstrain conditions and the water level regime, and then discusses preliminarily the theory and method for identifying well water level anomalies in a groundwater overdraft area. The result shows that we can accurately judge the nature of the anomaly according to the diffusion character of the drawdown funnel in the well area in combination with the aforementioned theory and method and multi-year variation patterns obtained from existing data. The results of the research are helpful for distinguishing the influence of single centralized water pumping from the long-term overdraft of water on the water level, correctly recognizing water level anomalies in the groundwater overdraft area and increasing the level of earthquake analysis and prediction.

  12. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-09-03

    Wetlands harbor diverse species assemblages but are among the world's most threatened ecosystems. Half of their global area was lost during the last century. No approach currently exists in life cycle impact assessment that acknowledges the vulnerability and importance of wetlands globally and provides fate factors for water consumption. We use data from 1184 inland wetlands, all designated as sites of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, to develop regionalized fate factors (FF) for consumptive water use. FFs quantify the change of wetland area caused per m(3)/yr water consumed. We distinguish between surface water-fed and groundwater-fed wetlands and develop FFs for surface water and groundwater consumption. FFs vary over 8 (surface water-fed) and 6 (groundwater-fed) orders of magnitude as a function of the site characteristics, showing the importance of local conditions. Largest FFs for surface water-fed wetlands generally occur in hyper-arid zones and smallest in humid zones, highlighting the dependency on available surface water flows. FFs for groundwater-fed wetlands depend on hydrogeological conditions and vary largely with the total amount of water consumed from the aquifer. Our FFs translate water consumption into wetland area loss and thus become compatible with life cycle assessment methodologies of land use.

  13. Predicted effects on 100-D Area water supply from 100-K Area outfall line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-10

    The 100-K Area reactor effluent discharge lines in the Columbia River were damaged, soon after startup, by surges of air, which entered during the basin cycling procedure. The buoyancy and pulsations of air caused several minor breaks in each line. During repair, vents were cut in the top of the pipes for escape of the air. Concrete and rip-rap were used to seal and anchor the lines. The original proposal to perform scope and detail design for replacement of the lines was modified into a program of study of their present condition and the consequences attendant to their possible failure. The program of study was divided into two parts, however the concern of this report is only with the radiological aspects of an outfall line failure. 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  15. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  16. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  17. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  18. Eco-environmental water requirement for wetlands in Huang-Huai-Hai Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the related literature and the analysis of the relationship between wetland ecosystem and hydroperiod, the estimating and classifying methods of eco-environmental water requirement for wetlands are established. The data collected from Huang-Huai-Hai Area are from the electronic map (1∶250000) of China National Topographical Database of 1997 and the historical statistics since the 1980s.The results indicate that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement for wetlands is 16.98×109 m3 and the optimal one is 38.38×109 m3 in the studied area. For the five wetland nature reserves covered in the area, the values are 1.47×109 m3 and 3.31×109 m3 respectively. The comparisons of the mentioned minimum water requirement with the status water use, which is 17.05×109 m3 for wetland ecosystem (1997 as the status year), suggest that the water use has not met the minimum eco-environmental water requirement in the Haihe and Huanghe Basins of the studied area. However, the status water use guarantees and exceeds the minimum eco-environmental water requirement in the Shandong Peninsula and the Huaihe Basin. Based on the eco-environmental programming and water resource planning of the studied area, the study establishes the water requirement of the year of 2010, 2030, 2050, when the eco-environmental water requirement for wetlands is 18.30×109 m3, 21.64×109 m3 and 26.76×109 m3, respectively.

  19. High Surface Area Nanoporous Ti02 Coating for Effective Water Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynar, Mehmet; McGarity, Mark; Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, S.

    2013-03-01

    A water collection device utilizing nanoparticles has been researched, towards the possible goal of providing water in much needed areas on Earth. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were spray coated on stainless steel substrates to measure their effect on atmospheric water condensation. A simple thermoelectric cooler, also called a Peltier device, was used to lower the temperature of the coated and uncoated stainless steel substrates to below the dew point temperature of the surrounding air. The thickness of the spray coating was varied to measure its effect on water condensation. This increase in surface area had a direct effect on the amount of water condensed. Compared with bare stainless steel, the TiO2 spray coated stainless steel had a considerably smaller contact angle of H20 droplets. In addition, the super-hydrophilic properties of TiO2 allowed water to flow more easily off the device. Supported by TUBITAK-BIDEB 2214-Abroad Research Scholarship program.

  20. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured carbonate aquifer in the Helwan area, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fathy A Abdalla; Traugott Scheytt

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater is an important water resource in the Helwan area, not only for drinking and agricultural purposes, but also because several famous mineral springs have their origin in the fractured carbonate aquifer of the region. The area is heavily populated with a high density of industrial activities which may pose a risk for groundwater and surface water resources. The groundwater and surface water quality was investigated as a basis for more future investigations. The results revealed highly variable water hydrochemistry. High values of chloride, sulphate, hardness and significant mineralization were detected under the industrial and high-density urban areas. High nitrate contents in the groundwater recorded in the southern part of the study area are probably due to irrigation and sewage infiltrations from the sewage treatment station. The presence of shale and marl intercalation within the fissured and cavernous limestone aquifer promotes the exchange reactions and dissolution processes. The groundwater type is sodium, sulphate, chloride reflecting more mineralized than surface water. The results also showed that water in the study area (except the Nile water) is unsuitable for drinking purposes, but it can be used for irrigation and industrial purposes with some restrictions.

  1. Impact of war, precipitation, and water management on quantity of water resources in the Tigris/Euphrates area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mejs; Moody, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    The fast-paced conflicts in the Middle East have the potential to disrupt management and supply of water resources in the region. In this research, we use the normalized difference water index (NDWI) in order to monitor changes in the extent of various water bodies over the time span of the Landsat 4, 5, 7, and 8 satellites (1984-present). We focused on Mosul and Haditha dam lakes, located on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, respectively, each of which has experienced changes in sovereignty over the last few years of conflict. We established two areas, one land and one water, on each image, plotted the distributions of all NDWI values for each area, and used the number of standard deviations between the two distributions in order to set a dynamic NDWI threshold for each image. Using this threshold, we determined water pixels and lake surface area, and computed daily percent change in lake extent between images. Furthermore, we took account of explanatory water resource variables, such as upstream dam management (via surface extent of upstream Turkish dams), precipitation (via globally-compiled databases), evaporation (based on surface area decreases during non-rainy months), and irrigation withdrawals (based on MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices). We used these explanatory variables in order to build a general model of expected dam lake surface extent, and we looked to see if anomalies from expected surface area corresponded with periods of conflict. We found that the recent years of conflict do not appear to have had as much impact on the Mosul and Haditha dam lakes as did the conflicts related to the earlier Gulf Wars. The dam lakes have recorded an overall decrease in surface area simultaneous to increases of upstream dams. A strong seasonal signal driven by springtime Turkish snowmelt and summer evaporation is also evident.

  2. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  3. BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

  4. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the

  5. Ground-water-quality data for Albany and surrounding areas, Southwest Georgia, 1951-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Easoz, Jamie A.; Priest, Sherlyn

    2002-01-01

    This report presents ground-water-quality data from the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Upper Cretaceous aquifers in the Albany and surrounding areas of southwest Georgia. Water-quality data from about 186 wells in Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty, Lee, Mitchell, Terrell, and Worth Counties are presented for the period from 1951 through 1999. The data include field water-quality parameters collected during 1951-99, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds collected during 1981-97, inorganic compounds collected during 1951-99, trace metals collected during 1964-99, radiochemicals collected during 1993-95, herbicides and insecticides collected during 1980-97, and recovery data for laboratory surrogate compounds (used for quality control and quality assurance for organic samples) collected during 1993-97. Ground-water quality data are presented in tables by data type and arranged by well number. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, well location, stratigraphy, and formation water-bearing properties. Ground-water-quality data are presented in text files and in a data base that includes geographic and tabular data. Data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the quality of ground water in Albany, Ga., and surrounding areas. Although some of these data may have been published in previous reports associated with water-resources investigations, water-quality data are compiled as a useful resource.

  6. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  7. Model studies on salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasulu, A.; Sujani Rao, C.; Lakshmi, G.V.; Satyanarayana, T.V.; Boonstra, J.

    2004-01-01

    The salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area in Nagarjunasagar project right canal command in Andhra Pradesh State of India were analysed using SALTMOD. The model was calibrated by using two-year data collected in the pilot area. From the calibration, the leaching efficiencies of the root and t

  8. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Wadena area, central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F.G.

    1970-01-01

    The Wadena area is part of a large sandy plain in central Minnesota whose soils have low water-holding capacity. Drought conditions which adversely affect plant growth frequently occur in the summer when moisture is most needed. To reduce the risk of crop failure in the area supplemental irrigation is on the increase.

  9. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  10. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  11. Ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas, southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Paul J.; Soja, Constance M.; Sidle, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Appraisals of the resources of selected management areas in eastern Oregon are being made by the U.S. Bureau of Land Mangement. To provide needed hydrologic information, the Bureau of Land Management requested the U.S. Geological Survey to inventory ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas. The inventory included field location of selected wells and springs; measurement of ground-water levels, temperatures, specific conductance, and pH; and the collection of ground-water samples from selected sources to determine dissolved chemical constituents.

  12. Water Use, Ground-Water Recharge and Availability, and Quality of Water in the Greenwich Area, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water budgets were developed for 32 small basin-based zones in the Greenwich area of southwestern Connecticut, where crystalline-bedrock aquifers supply private wells, to determine the status of residential ground-water consumption relative to rates of ground-water recharge and discharge. Estimated residential ground-water withdrawals for small basins (averaging 1.7 square miles (mi2) ranged from 0 to 0.16 million gallons per day per square mile (Mgal/d/mi2). To develop these budgets, residential ground-water withdrawals were estimated using multiple-linear regression models that relate water use from public water supply to data on residential property characteristics. Average daily water use of households with public water supply ranged from 219 to 1,082 gallons per day (gal/d). A steady-state finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to track water budgets, and to estimate optimal values for hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock (0.05 feet per day) and recharge to the overlying till deposits (6.9 inches) using nonlinear regression. Estimated recharge rates to the small basins ranged from 3.6 to 7.5 inches per year (in/yr) and relate to the percentage of the basin underlain by coarse-grained glacial stratified deposits. Recharge was not applied to impervious areas to account for the effects of urbanization. Net residential ground-water consumption was estimated as ground-water withdrawals increased during the growing season, and ranged from 0 to 0.9 in/yr. Long-term average stream base flows simulated by the ground-water-flow model were compared to calculated values of average base flow and low flow to determine if base flow was substantially reduced in any of the basins studied. Three of the 32 basins studied had simulated base flows less than 3 in/yr, as a result of either ground-water withdrawals or reduced recharge due to urbanization. A water-availability criteria of the difference between the 30-day 2-year low flow and the recharge rate

  13. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  14. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Lannon-Sussex area, Northeastern Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Silurian dolomite aquifer in the Lannon-Sussex area of southeastern Wisconsin is overlain by glacial deposits, but is within 8 ft of the land surface over 15% of the study area. The proximity of the dolomite aquifer to the land surface makes it susceptible to contamination from man 's activities. Water from the aquifer was analyzed and several characteristics were monitored in a 30-sq-mi area of Waukesha County, including: water temperature, calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, alkalinity, chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, nitrites, nitrates, nitrogen, iron, manganese, hardness, and pH.

  16. Eutrophic waters, algal bloom and fish kill in fish farming areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Azanza, Rhodora V; Villanoy, Cesar L; Jacinto, Gil S

    2008-01-01

    The coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines experienced environmental changes over a 10-year period (1995-2005), the most significant effect of which was the major fish kill event in 2002 that coincided with the first reported Philippine bloom of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Days before the bloom, dissolved oxygen was < 2.0 mg/l in the waters that were stratified. These conditions may be linked to the uncontrolled proliferation of fish pens and cages to more than double the allowable limit of 544 units for Bolinao waters. Mariculture activities release organic matter from unconsumed feed and fecal material that accumulate in the water and sediments. In over 10 years, water quality conditions have become eutrophic with ammonia increasing by 56%, nitrite by 35%, nitrate by 90%, and phosphate by 67%. The addition of more fish pens and cages placed additional stress to this poorly flushed, shallow area that affected water quality due to changes in the water residence time.

  17. Eutrophic waters, algal bloom and fish kill in fish farming areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes [Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)], E-mail: mcglonem@upmsi.ph; Azanza, Rhodora V.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Jacinto, Gil S. [Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2008-07-01

    The coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines experienced environmental changes over a 10-year period (1995-2005), the most significant effect of which was the major fish kill event in 2002 that coincided with the first reported Philippine bloom of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Days before the bloom, dissolved oxygen was <2.0 mg/l in the waters that were stratified. These conditions may be linked to the uncontrolled proliferation of fish pens and cages to more than double the allowable limit of 544 units for Bolinao waters. Mariculture activities release organic matter from unconsumed feed and fecal material that accumulate in the water and sediments. In over 10 years, water quality conditions have become eutrophic with ammonia increasing by 56%, nitrite by 35%, nitrate by 90%, and phosphate by 67%. The addition of more fish pens and cages placed additional stress to this poorly flushed, shallow area that affected water quality due to changes in the water residence time.

  18. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  19. Impact of Global Warming on Water Resource in Arid Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Aigang; DING Yongjian; PANG Hongxi; YUAN Lingling; HE Yuanqing

    2005-01-01

    As the unprecedented global warming is under way, the glacier retreat is getting more and more serious. In the inland arid area of Northwest China, due to very scarce precipitation, where there is water, there are oases. And the glacier melt water amounts to 22 % of the total direct supply of the inland river water and is of crucial importance to the survival and development of the oases. In this paper,using both the observed data and the previous research achievements of the glaciers in the inland valley of Northwest China where the oasis depending on the glacier is the only location suitable for human living, the authors describe the glacier retreat trend over the past half century, focusing on discussing the possible impact of the glacier retreat on the melt water runoff that is almost the only water resource efficient to nourish the oases. The authors find that even with increasing amount of water from the glacier with global warming, the water shortage is getting more and more serious and the environment is under a degrading way due to the accelerating economical development. The water shortage is bound to be more serious if the glacier retreat keeps on, especially after the glacier melt water is over its top for the degraded glacier scale. So suggestions are stressed in the end that a new water-saving pattern should be adopted in the area for a sustainable development due to the warming-up induced continuous glacier retreat.

  20. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  1. METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ORIFICE AREA OF VALVE HEAD LOCKING PAIRS OF WATER FITTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Svintsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important tasks when designing the water fittings is to calculate the orifice area of locking pair for passing the calculated water flow at a calculated pressure. The method of determining the orifice area with smoothly changing shape based on the piecewise-element method is proposed. This method is characterized by a comparative simplicity and sufficient accuracy for engineering calculations to determine the orifice area of the disk type locking pairs for the valve head. The proposed method allows us to determine the required size of the orifice area for passing the calculated water flow and also to determine the water flow rate depending on the opening level of orifice. The authors carried out the necessary calculations and manufactured ceramic disk type locking pairs by using the proposed method. Bench tests of water fittings with valve heads those are having orifices with smoothly changing shapes (in the form of bent blob showed that water flow is changing almost in proportional to the tap opening. This method can be used not only for the designing of the water fittings and also for the shut-off valves of various purposes.

  2. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  3. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  4. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  5. Highly efficient use of limited water in wheat production of semiarid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiping; SHAN Lun; INANAGA Shinobu; Mohanmed Elfatih K.ALI

    2003-01-01

    To obtain a greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in dryland wheat production. Highly efficient use of limited water may be one means of achieving this goal. This paper reviewed wheat physiological adaptation and benefits associated with water deficit and variable conditions. In addition, it reveals the compensatory effect of limited irrigation and fertilizer supplement on wheat water-use efficiency (WUE) and highlights the breeding of new varieties for high WUE that could improve wheat productivity under water-limited environments in the semiarid area. Considerable potential for further improvement in wheat productivity in semiarid area seems to depend on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of this limited water. Different crops, soil and water management strategies should be adjusted according to the conditions that prevail in the various semiarid areas. By combining soil and water conservation approaches with regulating the cropping system by cultivating drought-tolerant and water-saving cultivars, the increase in wheat productivity could be achieved.

  6. A study of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Yang, Pengtao; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    The features of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area of China were analyzed using the pore pressure diffusion method. The relationships between maximum magnitude, cumulative seismic moment, and cumulative water loss volume were investigated. Results show that increased seismic activities near the Changning salt mine in recent years are closely related to water injection during salt mining. High-pressure water injection over a long period of time caused water to diffuse into rock cracks, which increased pore pressure on faults and induced ruptures. Injection-induced earthquakes were located below the injection sites, mainly aligned NW-SE, with most occurring southeast of the mine area. Such a distribution indicates that seismic activities were affected by anticline structures in the Changning area. Based on pore pressure diffusion considerations, the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be ∼0.15 m2/s, with a slightly lower value west of the injection site than to the east. A semi-logarithmic linear relationship was found between cumulative seismic moment and cumulative water loss volume, while maximum magnitude increased with increasing volume of cumulative water loss. This study may provide reference material for analysis of injection-induced earthquakes and evaluation of the danger of earthquakes induced by water injection.

  7. Integrity of Local Ecosystems and Storm Water Management in Residential Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; WANG Weida; GONG Zhaoguo

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed an ecological storm water system in a residential area to replace the conventional underground channels for the collection of storm water so as to reduce the nutrients and sediments discharged. This system contains natural sub-creeks as drainage channels discharging overflow to nearby creeks, an open green trench, a storage pond,and natural sub-creeks. The sub-creeks were designed to be integrated into community landscape, which not only increases the efficiency of water usage, but also improves the aesthetic qualities of the community residence area as required by Agenda 21. This research proved the feasibility of an open storm water collection and utilization system for the design of a community water system.

  8. Analysis of Water Dynamics in Banda Sea and its Influences on Continental Shelf Fishing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Muripto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the rise of the Arafura Sea of the vertical configuration results shown curves which easy to understand about its water dynamics. The water character is oceanic’s as cool, salty and stable DO were maintaining by the variability of thermal structure in the continental shelf. The pattern of water masses is the current system surrounding the Banda Sea as an upwelling from undercurrent those enhances and nitrified the shelf.  Along the coast of western part of Papua was conducted the parcel of water masses traveling across the fishing area where’s kind of fishing boat catches the fish in the whole year, and almost confining in the continental shelf has low current from the southern part. The current flows from west to east at the southern part of Nusa Tenggara Islands bringing water and curve to the southwestern coast of Australia. These water masses characterized the temperature, salinity and oxygen gradients from some points where may have an important implication to the slopes area between the deepest and the shallow water near the coast. The lower temperature ranges from 10.0˚C to 8.0˚C at 300m depth and 34.50‰ to 34.85‰ conducted was circulated back to the deepest layer were higher salinity and stable dissolved oxygen. This continental shelf as a fishing area boundary water dynamic may cause by these water dynamic,  especially from data catches of the two fishing vessels catches 17,4 to 39,21kg/haul in the western area and 44.0 to 80kg/haul in eastern coast area.

  9. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  10. Living benthic foraminiferal species as indicators of cold-warm water masses interaction and upwelling areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Patrícia P. B.; Pimenta, Felipe M.; Eichler, Beatriz B.; Vital, Helenice

    2016-03-01

    The western South Atlantic continental margin, between 27° and 37°S, is dominated by four main water masses: cold-fresh Subantarctic Shelf Water (SASW), warm-salty Subtropical Shelf Water (STSW), cold upwelled South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), and fresh Plata Plume Water (PPW). Despite the large seasonal variability of PPW extension along the shelf, an intense and relatively stable temperature-salinity gradient separates the SASW and the STSW forming the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) around 32°S. The two dominant shelf water masses (SASW and STSW) arise from the process of mixing of oceanic waters. The SASW originates from the dilution of Subantarctic Water due to excess precipitation and continental runoff, and the STSW consists of modified warm tropical waters and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) diluted below PPW. A previous article demonstrates distribution of Bulimina marginata, a shelf environment and deep-sea species of benthic foraminifera, is influenced by the front location and it can be used as a proxy of the STSF in sediment core analysis. Here we show three other infaunal living species inhabiting at the Continental margin: Buccella peruviana, Globocassidulina subglobosa and Uvigerina peregrina and their distribution limits show the interaction of Subantartic Shelf Water, Subtropical Shelf Water, and upwelling of SACW, in the bottom sediment of coastal studied areas.

  11. The Stimulating Effects of Rewatering on Leaf Area of Winter Wheat Suffering Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-ying; LUO Yuan-pei; SHI Yuan-chun

    2002-01-01

    After water stress at various levels and durations at different growth stages, rewatering could greatly stimulate the leaf area development of winter wheat. The results showed that the stimulation effect changed with water stress time, degree and duration. Rewatering under earlier stress had greater stimulation effect on leaf area than that under later stress. Higher stimulation effect was observed under severe water stress than that under moderate stress. Longer duration of stress resulted in low stimulation effect. In spite of the greater stimulation effect under severe and longer stress, the final leaf area in these situations was lower than that under moderate stress and shorter duration. Whenever the stress occurred, the stimulating effect was due to the increase of the leaf area of the tillers. Once the leaf on the main stem emerged during stress period,rewatering had no effect on its size, and consequently its leaf area. The stimulation of rewateirng on leaf area contributed to the final grain yield by 45% under moderate stress, and 67% under severe stress. Although the stimulation partly compensated for the loss during stress, the final leaf area and the grain yield could not reach the level without water stress.

  12. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Healy Profitós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries, leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality.

  13. The role of the water tankers market in water stressed semi-arid urban areas:Implications on water quality and economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Kinda; Massoud, May; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-03-01

    Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision. Users are invariably unaware of the origin or the quality of purchased water. In an effort to better assess this sector, a field survey of water vending wells and tankers coupled with a water quality sampling and analysis program was implemented in a pilot semi-arid urban area (Beirut, Lebanon) to shed light on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the water tanker sector. Total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl(-)), and microbial loads exceeded drinking water quality standards. While TDS and Cl(-) levels were mostly due to saltwater intrusion in coastal wells, tankers were found to be a significant source of total coliforms. Delivered water costs varied depending on the tanker size, the quality of the distributed water, and pre-treatment used, with a markup of nearly 8-24 folds of the public water supply and an equivalent economic burden of 16% of the average household income excluding environmental externalities of water quality. The study concludes with a management framework towards consumer protection under integrated supply and demand side measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  15. Environmental geochemistry for surface and subsurface waters in the Pajarito Plateau and outlying areas, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, W.D.; Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Counce, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides background information on waters in the Los Alamos and Santa Fe regions of northern New Mexico. Specifically, the presented data include major element, trace element, and isotope analyses of 130 water samples from 94 different springs, wells, and water bodies in the area. The region considered in this study extends from the western edge of the Valles Caldera to as far east as Santa Fe Lake. For each sample, the presented analysis includes fourteen different major elements, twenty-six trace elements, up to five stable isotopes, and tritium. In addition, this data base contains certain characteristics of the water that are calculated from the aforementioned raw data, including the water`s maximum and minimum residence times, as found from tritium levels assuming no contamination, the water`s recharge elevation, as found from stable isotopes, and the charge balance of the water. The data in this report are meant to provide background information for investigations in groundwater hydrology and geochemistry, and for environmental projects. For the latter projects, the presented information would be useful for determining the presence of contamination it any one location by enabling one to compare potential contaminant levels to the background levels presented here. Likely locations of interest are those possibly effected by anthropogenic activities, including locations in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, White Rock Canyon, and developed areas in the Rio Grande Valley.

  16. Research on sustainable exploration of the geothermal water in Xiaoquan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-ju; LIU Xin-rong; LIU Dong-yan; WANG Gui-lin

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of discussion about hydro-geologic condition of geothermal water in Xiaoquan area, Chongqing, a three-dimensional mathematical model was established.The Modflow(a modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater model) software was adopted to simulate the geothermal water, and quantificational study on sustainable exploration of the geothermal water in Xiaoquan area was carried out. Firstly, a mathematical model was set up. Then, the geothermal water was simulated by Modflow software,and the mathematical model was identified. The simulative water level was compared with the actual water level and the mathematical model was calibrated. The feasibility of application of this mathematical model to studying underground geothermal water was proved that the simulative water level is approximated to actual one, and a right mathematical model was obtained. This mathematical model was used to simulate geothermal water under different exploitation conditions, at last the yields of sustainable exploitation including the maximum yield and the optimal yield were determined.

  17. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  18. Towards a New Policy for Climate Adaptive Water Management in Flanders: The Concept of Signal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter De Smedt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Flanders, the Government has recently established an innovative policy framework to preserve the water storage capacity in flood-prone areas. In this context, the concept of ‘Signal Areas’ (signaalgebieden has been created. These areas are still undeveloped areas with a hard planning destination (residential and industrial areas located in flood-prone areas. The framework outlines in what way one needs to deal with the flood risk in these areas. The intention is to work with tailor-made solutions for each separate area. For this purpose, a comprehensive tool-box is available, such as land reparcelling, spatial destination or zoning swapping (bestemmingsruil, regulations regarding appropriate construction methods and land use in urban planning regulations or in public utility servitudes, and the application of a sharpened Water Test. The final objective is to create an efficacious, area-oriented adaptation strategy for climate-proof spatial planning. In this contribution, the author will provide an insight into the legal design of the above-mentioned concepts and instruments, how they can contribute to a stronger linkage between water management and spatial planning and therefore to a solid climate change adaptation strategy, as well as the factors of success and failure of this new policy framework.

  19. Wide-area service water information management system; Koiki suido joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A wide-area service water system is required to be more resistant to emergency situations, e.g., drought and hazards, and meet consumers' diversifying needs in each area, while stably supplying water at ordinary times by utilizing purification plants located in places within its system and piping networks in the water area. Fuji Electric is providing information management systems for wide-area service water systems, developed based on the company's abundant system know-hows accumulated for a long time and latest techniques. They are characterized by (1) Web monitoring, aided by an intranet system, (2) high-speed data transmission by a digital transmission system, (3) open network environments, and (4) emergency calling of the staff, and management of stock materials. The system allows to monitor operating conditions within the area on real time, needless to say, and business administration with civil minimum taken into consideration, e.g., stabilizing water quality by coordinating the purification plants within the system. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Monitoring Of Water Logged Areas in Krishana Canal Command Using Gis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Santosh Bhailume

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of land due to waterlogging in sugarcane track of western Maharashtra is a serious problem. Here researchers had understood the problem of the waterlogged areas by preparing an inventory using GIS and GPS techniques. Krishna Canal Command area is lies in Satara and Sangli districts. Total length of canal is 86 km, out of which 21 km length is comes under study area. The command area is divided in 4 segments, out of which, the present study deals with Segment IV. Water table map was prepared using water depth data at 231 well locations. The entire analysis was carried out in ArcGIS software. GIS – Spatial Analysis tool, point data was rasterised, and surfaces for water table were generated. Risk zonation maps were prepared using the critical limits given by IRD, Pune. Water table surface was intersected with village boundary layers. Risk zonation map of water table suggests that the two villages namely Nagral and Burli situated close to canal are most vulnerable due to high water table. Almost 36 % of the total study area of land covering partially the villages Nagral, Burli, Shirasgaon, Amnapur, Palus, and Yelavi were found under critical water table condition. In segment IV total area of 792 ha in villages Nagral, Burli, Amnapur, Yelavi, and Bhilawadi fall under the P1 category affected most badly by the waterlogging condition. Prioritization of villages based on AWI suggests that out of the total eight villages, five villages namely Amnapur, Burli, Bhilawadi, Nagral and Yelavi are falling under P1 priority category, need immediate attention for remedial measures

  1. Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to geology and ground water of the Miami area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.; Ferguson, G.E.; Love, S.K.

    1955-01-01

    The circulation of water, in any form, from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere and back again is called the hydrologic cycle. A comprehensive study of the water resources of any area must, therefore, include data on the climate of the area. The humid subtropical climate of southeast Florida is characterized by relatively high temperatures, alternating semi-annual wet and dry season, and usually light put persistent winds. The recurrence of drought in an area having relatively large rainfall such as southeastern Florida indicates that the agencies that remove water are especially effective. Two of the most important of the agencies associated with climate are evaporation and transpiration, or 'evapotranspiraton'. Evaporation losses from permanent water areas are believed to average between 40 and 45 inches per year. Over land areas indirect methods much be used to determine losses by evapotranspiration; necessarily, there values are not precise. Because of their importance in the occurrence and movement of both surface and ground waters, detailed studies were made of the geology and geomorphology of southern Florida. As a result of widespread crustal movements, southern Florida emerged from the sea in later Pliocene time and probably was slightly tilted to the west. At the beginning of the Pleistocene the continent emerged still farther as a result of the lowering of sea level attending the first widespread glaciation. During this epoch, south Florida may have stood several hundred feet above sea level. During the interglacial ages the sea repeatedly flooded southern Florida. The marine members of the Fort Thompson formation in the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression and the Calossahatchee River Valley apparently are the deposits of the interglacial invasions by the sea. The fresh-water marls, sands, and organic deposits of the Fort Thompson formation appear to have accumulated during glacial ages when seas level was low and the area was a land surface

  2. Iron Excess in Drinking Water of Darrang District of Assam and Some Adjoining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Das

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the quality of drinking water in Darrang District (Assam and some adjoining areas carried out during 1975-79 has been reported. A total of I126 water samples (962 treated and 164 untreated collected from different      units/water distribution centres of army interest were analysed. It was observed that the underground waters of six deep tube wells were generally soft, acidic and highly ferruginous in character. All physicochemical constituents except the iron content were within the limits as prescribed for drinking purposes by ICMR. Raw waters drawn from deep tube wells and shallow wells were found to have iron content as high as 21.0 ppm and 24.36 ppm respectively. About half of the total treated water samples analysed (484 No out of 962 during the 5-year period contained iron beyond 1.0 ppm.

  3. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  4. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  5. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  6. Improvement of Wheat Water Use Efficiency in Semiarid Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xi-ping; SHAN Lun; KANG Shao-zhong; Inanaga Shinobu; Mohanmed Elfatih K Ali

    2003-01-01

    The greatest fear of global climate change is drought since in most areas where wheat is grownwater is the most important factor influencing wheat yield. Average wheat yield throughout the world is only30 -60% of the attainable yield potential because water shortage is the major factor preventing the realizationof maximum yield. Periods of drought alternating with short periods of available water are common conditionsto influence wheat productivity. Such conditions include variable frequency of dry and wet periods, intensityof drought, rate of drought onset and patterns of soil water deficit and/or atmospheric water deficit. It is thisdeficit and variable water conditions in semiarid environments that influence wheat productivity variously.This paper reviewed the physiological adaptation and benefits associated with deficit and variable water condi-tions. In addition, it also highlights the compensative effect of limited irrigation and breeding of new varietiesfor high water use efficiency (WUE) that could improve wheat productivity under water-limited environmentsin the semiarid regions. Considerable potential for further improvement in wheat WUE and productivity insemiarid environments seems to depend on effective conservation of moisture and effici ent use of this limitedwater such as soil fertility improvement, conservation tillage, residues and film mulch, rain water harvestingfor limited irrigation, and breeding for water saving varieties. Different crop, soil and water managementstrategies should be adjusted according to the conditions that prevail in various semiarid areas. By combiningsoil and water conservation approaches and adjusting the cropping system by growing drought-tolerant and wa-ter-saving cultivars, increase in wheat WUE and productivity could be achieved.

  7. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  8. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  9. Water-Body types identification in urban areas from radarsat-2 fully polarimetric SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Chen, Fulong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for supervised water-body extraction and water-body types identification from Radarsat-2 fully polarimetric (FP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in complex urban areas. First, supervised water-body extraction using the Wishart classifier is performed, and the false alarms that are formed in built-up areas are removed using morphological processing methods and spatial contextual information. Then, the support vector machine (SVM), the classification and regression tree (CART), TreeBagger (TB), and random forest (RF) classifiers are introduced for water-body types (rivers, lakes, ponds) identification. In SAR images, certain other objects that are misclassified as water are also considered in water-body types identification. Several shape and polarimetric features of each candidate water-body are used for identification. Radarsat-2 PolSAR data that were acquired over Suzhou city and Dongguan city in China are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the experimental results are evaluated at both the object and pixel levels. We compared the water-body types classification results using only shape features and the combination of shape and polarimetric features, the experimental results show that the polarimetric features can eliminate the misclassifications from certain other objects like roads to water areas, and the increasement of classification accuracy embodies at both the object and pixel levels. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can achieve satisfactory accuracies at the object level [89.4% (Suzhou), 95.53% (Dongguan)] and the pixel level [96.22% (Suzhou), 97.95% (Dongguan)] for water-body types classification, respectively.

  10. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  11. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-27

    upper part of the upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the lower Jurassic Wingate Sandstone, northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona, in...Director, Arizona Water Science Center U.S. Geological Survey, 520 N. Park Avenue, Suite 221 Tucson, Arizona 85719 http://az.water.usgs.gov OFR

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw, E-mail: miroslaw.zelazny@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Astel, Aleksander, E-mail: astel@apsl.edu.pl [Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, Biology and Environmental Protection Institute, Pomeranian Academy, 22a Arciszewskiego Str., Slupsk, 76-200 (Poland); Wolanin, Anna [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Malek, Stanislaw, E-mail: rlmalek@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Forest Ecology, Forest Faculty, Agricultural University of Cracow, 46 29 Listopada Ave., Cracow, 31-425 (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: > We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. > Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. > Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. > Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. > Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  13. Repetitive ERTS-1 observations of surface water variability along rivers and low-lying areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, provides an 18 day repetitive coverage capability and observations in the 0.8-1.1 micron spectral region where the contrast between water and adjacent surfaces is relatively large. Using these capabilities, observations in Virginia, Iowa, Missouri, and California have been acquired showing distinct patterns of flooding. Repetitive views of these areas before and after flooding have been examined, and flood mapping was performed. Sloughs in California can be seen to expand in terms of the area covered by standing water as time extends from summer to autumn. The results indicate that ERTS-1 imagery can be a valuable adjunct to conventional and aircraft survey methods for ascertaining the amount of area covered by water or affected by flooding.

  14. Experimental investigation of evaporation enhancement for water droplet containing solid particles in flaming combustion area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of integral characteristics of extinguishing liquid (water droplet evaporation in flaming combustion area has been held. Optical methods of two-phase and heterogeneous mixtures diagnostics (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging” have been used for heat and mass transfer process investigation. It was established that small-size solid particles (for example, carbon particles in droplet structure can enhance water evaporation in flame area. It was shown that the rate of evaporation process depends on concentration and sizes of solid particles in a water droplet. The correlations have been determined between the sizes of solid particles and water droplets for maximum efficiency of fire extinguishing. The physical aspects of the problem have been discussed.

  15. Isotopic investigations in the area of the Union brewery water body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Trček

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of groundwater flow and solute transport commenced in the area of the Union Brewery water body in 2003 with the intention of a assessing and predicting the movement of groundwater and urban contaminants through the Pleistocene alluvial gravel aquiferand of b analysing the risk of contaminat transport to drinking-water resources in the lower gravel aquifer. The first two research phases based on isotopic researches. The monitoring of groundwater composition of δ18O in δ2H stable isotopes and basic physicochemicalparameters was established in 16 observation wells. The results have produced general information on the hydrodynamic functioning of the study area and they provided,an insight into age structure of sampled water. The vertical flow component was identified,which is the main influence on contaminant transport towards the drinking-water resource.

  16. Evaluation of methods for delineating areas that contribute water to wells completed in valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Madden, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania are the source of drinking water for many wells in the glaciated parts of the State and along major river valleys. These aquifers area subject to contamination because of their shallow water-table depth and highly transmissive sediments. The possibility for contamination of water-supply wells in valley-fill aquifers can be minimized by excluding activities that could contaminate areas that contribute water to supply wells. An area that contributes water to a well is identified in this report as either an area of diversion, time-of-travel area, or contributing area. The area of diversion is a projection to land surface of the valley-fill aquifer volume through which water is diverted to a well and the time-of travel area is that fraction of the area of diversion through which water moves to the well in a specified time. The contributing area, the largest of three areas, includes the area of diversion but also incorporates bedrock uplands and other area that contribute water. Methods for delineating areas of diversion and contributing areas in valley-fill aquifers, described and compared in order of increasing complexity, include fixed radius, uniform flow, analytical, semianalytical, and numerical modeling. Delineated areas are considered approximations because the hydraulic properties and boundary conditions of the real ground-water system are simplified even in the most complex numerical methods. Successful application of any of these methods depends on the investigator's understanding of the hydrologic system in and near the well field, and the limitations of the method. The hydrologic system includes not only the valley-fill aquifer but also the regional surface-water and ground-water flow systems within which the valley is situated. As shown by numerical flow simulations of a well field in the valley-fill aquifer along Marsh Creek Valley near Asaph, Pa., water from upland bedrock sources can provide nearly all the water

  17. Use of modeling to protect, plan, and manage water resources in catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another

  18. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.

  19. A review of the bioretention system for sustainable storm water management in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Bioretention basins/rain garden is a very suitable low-impact development (LID) practice for storm water management around the globe. By using this practice in urban areas, flash flooding problems can be decreased and the environment of an area can be improved. The concept of bioretention was introduced a few decades ago and has been proven to be the best management practice (BMP) for storm water in urban areas. Due to urbanisation, natural surface areas are converted into hard surfaces such as roads, through which water cannot infiltrate into the ground. Due to this, infiltration decreases and surface run-off increases, which causes depletion of ground water continuously. In this study, we mainly explain the bioretention concept and its function as derived from different studies. This review includes different scientists' results for the performance of the bioretention system at different locations. A summary of the research findings by different scientists on the performance of bioretention systems is also provided, including the hydrologic and water quality performances. Finally, future work necessary to enhance the performance and widespread use of bioretention systems is also explained.

  20. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well

  1. Improvement works of water quality in the enclosed area. Heisasei kaiiki ni okeru suishitsu kaizen jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, Y. (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-10

    This paper introduces specific examples of measures to preserve and improve water quality as adopted in the harbor environment administration to prevent pollution and create comfortable environments. In the investigation of ocean bottom purification, a test construction has been carried out using a sand covering method at Mikawa Bay. The sand covering method uses good quality sand to cover sludge on the ocean bottom to suppress dissolution of nutrients that have been revolving from the ocean bottom sludge into sea water. The method also reduces dissolved oxygen consumption in sea water by the ocean bottom sludge and improves the water quality in the area and the ecosystems. In the change of ocean bottom sludge quality in vertical distribution in the sand covered area, the COD content decreased more largely than in the current ocean bottom, but it increased more largely with lapse of time during which floating mud has precipitated. The 'sea blue' technology development project intends to implement the following activities compositely: advancement of environment improving technologies that utilize natural purification ability; environmental improvement including sludge dredging, and improving water quality and ocean bottom quality; improvement of green areas that are highly friendly with water; and application of measures to form amenity spaces. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Water Balance Analysis at Karangmumus River Basin Area (RBA Samarinda City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Karangmumus RBA to getting degradation pressure being concrete drying and flooding so much to frighten. Climate data from BMG Temindung and SPAS Lempake has to water balance analysis based on Hewlett and Nutter methode. This region have the Area Class III (1500–2000 mm/year. With the bimodel or double wave rainfall models with C patern. The hight rainfall depth periode at December and April, therefore the low rainfall depth at September and November. Have level Q = ± 9.9%, or rainfall tipe A (very wet area with tropical wet vegetation and E1 agroclimte zone. Water balance monthly indicated that this area have to water surplus 8 month, i.e. January (27.0 mm, February (57.3 mm, March (119.7 mm, April (72.8 mm, May (48.4 mm, Juni (19.6 mm, November (58.7 mm and December (75.3 mm, or total amounts water surplus 478.8 mm/year. The water deficits at Juni (0.4 mm, July (0.3 mm, Augus (3.9 mm, September (13.6 mm and October (26.7 mm or total amount water deficits (44.5 mm/year.

  3. Monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation in the area of water dam Zarnowiec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzes, Marcel; Wozniak, Marek; Habel, Branislav; Macak, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Mathematical and physical research directly motivates geodetic community which can provide very accurate measurements for testing of the proposed models Earth's surface motion near the water dams should be monitored due to the security of the area. This is a process which includes testing of existing models and their physical parameters. Change of the models can improve the practical results for analyzing the trends of motion in the area of upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. Since 1998 Warsaw University of Technology realized a research focused on the horizontal displacements of the upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. The 15 selected control points located on the upper reservoir crown of the water dam were monitored by classical distance measurements. It was found out that changes in the object's geometry occur due to the variation of the water level. The control measurements of the changes in the object's geometry occurring during the process of emptying and filling of the upper reservoir of water dam were compared with the deformations computed using improved Boussinesqués method programmed in the software MATLAB and ANSYS for elastic and isotropic half space as derivation of suitable potentials extended to the loaded region. The details and numerical results of this process are presented This presentation was prepared within the project "National Centre for Diagnostic of the Earth's Surface Deformations in the Area of Slovakia", ITMS code: 26220220108.

  4. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  5. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  6. Providing Longitudinal Connection In Case Of Cross Sluicing On Water Bodies In Banat Hydrographic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoancă Diana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On Banat Hydrographic Area level, there are a series of works which put hydrological pressures on bodies of water: accumulations, damming, water diversions, regulations, shore protection, etc. These works were created in order to ensure water demand, defend against floods, regulate discharges, and combat humidity excess. Speaking justly, they have an important socioeconomic role. Among the negative effects of longitudinal connection interruption of water bodies we can mention, the risk of not achieving the positive ecological potential of water bodies in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, the reduction of the aquatic biodiversity, the reduction or even extinction of certain aquatic species and the alteration of the flow process. Because the negative effects of the hydromorphological alterations, especially those due to the interruption of the longitudinal connection, have a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity. At Banat Hydrographic Area level, a series of measures, have been identified for the rehabilitation of the affected water courses: the removal of the hydrotechnical constructions from the water body if they have lost their functional features, building of passages for the migration of the ichthyofauna, reconnecting of the affluents and the disconnected arms as well as other measures intended to bring things back to their natural state. The implementation of these measures is made according to the importance and the extent of their positive impact as opposed to the negative effect that might occur as a consequence of their application. Analyzing the measures aforementioned and taking into consideration the characteristics of the hydromorphological pressures on water bodies in Banat Hydrographic Area, a number of measures regarding control are supplied in this paper.

  7. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Unema, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year. The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2011 to September 2012. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry. In 2011, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,480 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,390 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 3,090 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2011 were about 39 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a slurry. From 2010 to 2011 total withdrawals increased by 11 percent; industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 19 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 8 percent. From 2011 to 2012, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 8 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 9 of 18 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.0 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2012, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both

  8. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona - 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Brown, Christopher R.; Anderson, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area is typically between 6 to 14 inches per year. The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2010 to September 2011. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry. In 2010, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,040 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,170 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 2,870 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2010 were about 42 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company's discontinued use of water to transport coal in a slurry. From 2009 to 2010 total withdrawals decreased by 5 percent; industrial withdrawals decreased by approximately 16 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 1 percent. From 2010 to 2011, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 7 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 11 of 18 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was -0.7 foot. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2011, the median water-level change for 33 wells in both the

  9. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-03-02

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2012 to September 2013. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In calendar year 2012, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,010 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,370 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 2,640 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2012 were about 45 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a coal slurry pipeline. From 2011 to 2012 total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent; industrial withdrawals decreased by approximately 1 percent, and total municipal withdrawals decreased by 15 percent.From 2012 to 2013, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 6 of 16 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.8 feet. Water levels declined in 5 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.3 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2013, the median water

  10. Grey associated analysis of the underground water quality effected by the leaching water of dumping area or hillock of coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin(卢国斌); ZHANG Lang(张浪); LIU Zi-bin(刘志斌)

    2003-01-01

    The underground water has been contaminated seriously by the leaching water of dumping area or hillock. To determine the pollution limits of underground water, author took samples in the study area, analyzed samples for water quality, assessed the water quality of each monitoring point by the grey associated analysis method, and gave out the classifications of the underground water quality of the study area. Comparing with fuzzy comprehensive appraisal method, it is demonstrated that grey associated analysis method is applied easily, because of its clear concept, simple and convenient calculation and excellently operation.

  11. Wood ash or dolomite treatment of catchment areas - effects of mercury in runoff water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Munthe, J. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    A future increased use of biomass as a source of energy, and the planned restoration of mineral nutrient balance in the forest soils by returning the wood ashes, has led to concern for new environmental disturbances. The objectives of the present study were to investigate if the outflow of total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) from catchment areas treated with granulated wood ash (1988, 2.2 tons/ha, `ashed area`) or dolomite (1985, 5 tons/ha, `limed area`) differed from the outflow from an untreated (reference) area, and if variations in Hg outflow were correlated with changes in the outflow of organic substances or pH. The study areas are situated in Vaermland, Sweden. Samples of run-off water were taken weekly or monthly (depending on water-flow) during on year (1993-94). The outflow of MeHg, TotHg as well as H+ and dissolved organic material (DOC) was lower from the limed area compared to the other two areas, which did not differ significantly. There was a strong covariation between concentrations of DOC and MeHg and a weaker relation between DOC and TotHg in the run-off waters. MeHg also covaried with temperature while TotHg covaried with pH and water-supply. No difference was found when comparing Hg-data from the limed area before, directly after and eight years after the liming event. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  12. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  13. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  14. Hazard development mechanism and deformation estimation of water solution mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yue-guang; LI Zhi-wei; YANG Xiao-li

    2006-01-01

    Based on the hazard development mechanism, a water solution area is closely related to the supporting effect of pressure-bearing water, the relaxing and collapsing effect of orebody interlayer, the collapsing effect of thawless material in orebody,filling effect caused by cubical expansibility of hydrate crystallization and uplifting effect of hard rock layer over cranny belt. The movement and deformation of ground surface caused by underground water solution mining is believed to be much weaker than that caused by well lane mining, which can be predicted by the stochastic medium theory method. On the basis of analysis on the engineering practice of water solution mining, its corresponding parameters can be obtained from the in-site data of the belt water and sand filling mining in engineering analog approach.

  15. [Water quality evaluation in rural areas of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Rodrigues, Luciano Dos Santos; Costa, Claudionor C; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Israel José; de Jesus, Eder Ferreira Moraes; Rolim, Renata G

    2006-09-01

    In addition to personal interviews, laboratory analyses were performed using 80 water samples from 45 rural areas that are crossed by the Agua Limpa and Santa Cruz streams close to the city of Lavras, southern Minas Gerais State. The results allowed comparing the quality of water used for agriculture and the identification of determinant factors. The Agua Limpa stream mostly crosses an area used primarily for housing and characterized by low schooling. Many houses are supplied by shallow water wells and have ordinary cesspits for human waste disposal. All springs are polluted. The Santa Cruz stream displays a different scenario. The land is used mostly for agricultural purposes. Most owners live in town, with widely varied levels of school, from none to university. The houses are supplied by surface water. Most of the springs are polluted. The perception by both home and land owners concerning quality of the drinking water is determined solely by the water's physical and organoleptic characteristics. Sanitary parameters are not taken into account. Moreover, there is no relationship between fecal contamination and the type of spring. Land use and anthropic activity are far more important than the type of spring for water quality.

  16. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  17. Geology and ground-water resources in the Zebulon area, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M.J.; Milby, B.J.; Peck, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current (1991) surface-water source of drinking-water supply for the city of Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia, no longer provides an adequate water supply and periodically does not meet water-quality standards. The hydrogeology of crystalline rocks in the Zebulon area was evaluated to assess the potential of ground-water resources as a supplemental or alternative source of water to present surface-water supplies. As part of the ground-water resource evaluation, well location and construction data were compiled, a geologic map was constructed, and ground water was sampled and analyzed. Three mappable geologic units delineated during this study provide a basic understanding of hydrogeologic settings in the Zebulon area. Rock types include a variety of aluminosilicate schists, granitic rocks, amphibolites/honblende gneisses, and gondites. Several geologic features that may enhance ground-water availability were identified in the study area. These features include contacts between contrasting rock types, where a high degree of differential weathering has occurred, and well-developed structural features, such as foliation and jointing are present. High-yielding wells (greater than 25 gallons per minute) and low-yielding wells (less than one gallon per minute) were located in all three geologic units in a variety of topographic settings. Well yields range from less than one gallon per minute to 250 gallons per minute. The variable total depths and wide ranges of casing depths of the high-yielding wells are indicative of variations in depths to water-bearing zones and regolith thicknesses, respectively. The depth of water-bearing zones is highly variable, even on a local scale. Analyses of ground-water samples indicate that the distribution of iron concentration is as variable as well yield in the study area and does not seem to be related to a particular rock type. Iron concentrations in ground-water samples ranged from 0.02 to 5.3 milligrams per liter. Both iron

  18. Electromagnetic Delineation and Confirmation of Areas of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in a Large River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, J.; Dawe, M. R.; Butler, K. E.; Macquarrie, K. T.

    2004-05-01

    Riverbank filtration systems are typically located in heterogeneous alluvial river valley deposits. Delineation of riverbed areas where there is downward river water infiltration is important for determining the fluxes, quality, and travel time of water supplied to production wells. Efficient methods of delineation are especially required in large rivers that may also have relatively large water depths. A portion of the City of Fredericton well field recharge zone lies beneath the adjacent Saint John River, where a discontinuity in the clay/silt aquitard may allow hydraulic connection between the esker-like aquifer and the river. In this project we have investigated the potential for using electromagnetic methods to delineate zones of low electrical conductivity. Such zones, in a fresh water environment, suggest the absence of clay/silt materials. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, a total of 120 km of electromagnetic data were acquired using the Geonics EM31 and EM34 ground conductivity meters. The survey was carried out using an outboard-motor-powered canoe and raft with onboard DGPS system. Both electromagnetic instruments were operated in the vertical dipole mode, thereby providing maximum depths of exploration of approximately 30 meters. The water depths in the survey area fall in the range where the EM31 and EM34 results are very sensitive to the conductivity structure. We applied a novel bathymetry correction approach to compensate for water depth effects. Contouring of the apparent conductivity data revealed a conductivity low with an approximate area of 6 hectares. The absence of the clay/silt aquitard was confirmed by high resolution seismic profiling and drilling and sampling of riverbed sediments. Further confirmation of river water infiltration has been provided by hydraulic data from mini-piezometers and temperature time series collected beneath the riverbed. Apparent conductivity mapping proved to be a sensitive and efficient method for delineating

  19. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 3. An evaluation of thermal water in the Weiser area, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Weiser area encompasses about 200 square miles in southwest Idaho and contains two thermal water areas: (1) the Crane Creek subarea, which is 12 miles east of Weiser, Idaho, and (2) the Weiser Hot Springs subarea, which is 5 miles northwest of Weiser. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Pleistocene age have been faulted and folded to form the northwest-trending anticlines present in much of the area. Basalt of the Columbia River Group or underlying rocks are believed to constitute the reservoir for the hot water. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are present in both subareas. A preliminary audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a shallow conductive zone is associated with each thermal site. Above-normal ground temperatures measured at a depth of 1 metre below the land surface in the Weiser Hot Springs subarea correlate with relatively high concentrations of boron in underlying ground waters, which, in turn, are usually associated with thermal waters in the study area. Sampled thermal waters are of a sodium chloride sulfate or sodium sulfate type, having dissolved-solids concentrations that range from 225 to 1,140 milligrams per litre. Temperatures of sampled waters ranged from 13/sup 0/ to 92.0/sup 0/C. Minimum aquifer temperatures calculated from chemical analysis of water, using geochemical thermometers, were 170/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C in the Crane Creek and Weiser Hot Springs subareas, respectively. Estimated maximum temperatures ranged from 212/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/ to 242/sup 0/C, respectively, in these subareas. The probable heat sources for both subareas are (1) young magmatic intrusive rocks underlying the basalt or (2) above-normal temperatures resulting from thinning of the earth's crust. Maps are included.

  20. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  1. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  2. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  3. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists

  5. Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M; Kimura, Amanda T; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D

    2012-01-01

    Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students' intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students' water intake at mealtimes.

  6. Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes. PMID:22765930

  7. 78 FR 40689 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the New Water Challenge Area Within the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the New Water Challenge Area Within the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), NIFA intends to initiate a new challenge...

  8. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  9. Improved or unimproved urban areas effect on soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without negative im...

  10. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and P

  11. Environmental and economic benefits of preserving forests within urban areas: air and water quality. Chapter 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jun Wang; Ted Endreny

    2007-01-01

    Forests and trees in urban areas provide many environmental and economic benefits that can lead to improved environmental quality and human health. These benefits include improvements in air and water quality, richer terrestrial and aquatic habitat, cooler air temperatures, and reductions in building energy use, ultraviolet radiation levels, and noise. As urbanization...

  12. Modeling the historical water cycle of the Copenhagen Area 1850-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen; Ladekarl, Ulla Lyngs

    2011-01-01

    , and the interactions between these subsystems. The utilities are used to simulate the water cycle in the Copenhagen area (976 km2) during the period 1850–2003. Long-term time series of hydraulic head, streamflow, and inflow to sewage works have been used to manually calibrate the model parameters. We used a step...

  13. Analysis of water-level data in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    From 1985 through 1995, a water-level network that consists of 28 wells for monitoring 36 depth intervals has been maintained in the Yucca Mountain area. The network includes wells that were measured manually, approximately monthly, and/or measured hourly with a transducer/data logger system. Manual water-level measurements were made with either calibrated steel tapes or single or multiconductor-cable units. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Annual mean water-level altitudes for all wells for the period 1985-95 ranged from 727.93 to 1,034.60 meters. The maximum range in water-level change between monthly measurements and/or monthly mean values was 12.22 meters in well USW H-3 lower interval, and the minimum range was 0.31 meter in wells UE-25 b-1 upper interval, and J-11. In 31 of the 36 depth intervals monitored, the range of water-level change was less than 1 meter. The range of standard deviation of all depth interval measurements for all wells that were monitored was 0.053 to 3.098 meters. No seasonal water-level trends were detected in any of the wells, and regional ground-water withdrawals did not appear to cause water-level changes. Most annual water-level fluctuations can be attributed to barometric and Earth-tide changes. Regional earthquakes, which occurred on June 28--29, 1992, might have simultaneously affected the water level in seven wells. Periods of rising and declining water levels were observed in most wells. However, 11 years of record were not sufficient to determine if these periods were cyclic. Because a goal of monitoring water levels at Yucca Mountain is to determine if there are water-level trends that could affect the potential repository, observed water-level changes over the period of this report may not be representative of the overall long-term trends in water levels.

  14. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  15. FANN-Based Surface Water Quality Evaluation Model and Its Application in the Shaoguan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Meini; LI Dingfang; YANG Jinbo; XIONG Wei

    2007-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network model is proposed to evaluate water quality. The model contains two parts: first, fuzzy mathematics theory is used to standardize the samples; second, the RBF neural network and the BP neural network are used to train the standardized samples. The proposed model was applied to assess the water quality of 16 sections in 9 rivers in the Shaoguan area in 2005. The evaluation result was compared with that of the RBF neural network method and the reported results in the Shaoguan area in 2005. It indicated that the performance of the proposed fuzzy neural network model is practically feasible in the application of water quality assessment and its operation is simple.

  16. Recent measurements of 234U/238U isotope ratio in spring waters from the Hadzici area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Alfred; Ilić, Zorana; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-06-01

    The Hadzici area has become interesting for investigation since depleted uranium ammunition had been employed in 1995 during the NATO air strike campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this study is to determine uranium concentration and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the spring waters of this area and to investigate their relationship, as well as spatial variations. The spring water samples were taken at 18 sites in total. For the determination of uranium radioisotopes, radiochemical separation procedure followed by alpha-particle spectrometry was applied. Uranium concentration in analyzed waters range from 0.15 to 1.12 μg/L. Spring waters from carbonate based sediments have a lower uranium concentration of between 0.15 and 0.43 μg/L, in comparison to waters sampled within sandstone-based sediments ranging from 0.53 to 1.12 μg/L. Dissolved uranium shows significant spatial variability and correlation with bedrock type confirmed by Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The majority of the analyzed waters have a (234)U/(238)U activity ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.90, of which half of the results range between 1.02 and 1.16. No apparent depleted uranium (DU) contamination was observed, as (234)U/(238)U activity ratio is dependent on geochemical conditions in the environment. Even though the tested spring waters demonstrate significant variability in uranium concentration, (234)U/(238)U activity ratio and (234)U excess, waters with similar uranium isotopic signatures are observable within the region. The guidelines on the spatial redistribution of dissolved uranium (corresponding to (238)U mass concentration), along with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were provided by the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. Waters having similar isotopic signature have been delineated.

  17. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  18. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  19. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  20. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  1. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  2. Geology and ground-water conditions in the Wilmington-Reading area, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus; Healy, H.G.; Hackett, O.M.

    1964-01-01

    The Wilmington-Reading area, as defined for this report, contains the headwaters of the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts. Since World War II the growth of communities in this area and the change in character of some of them from rural to suburban have created new water problems and intensified old ones. The purpose of this report on ground-water conditions is to provide information that will aid in understanding and resolving some of these problems. The regional climate, which is humid and temperate, assures the area an ample natural supply of water. At the current stage of water-resources development a large surplus of water drains from the area by way of the Ipswich River during late autumn, winter, and spring each year and is unavailable for use during summer and early autumn, when during some years there is a general water deficiency. Ground water occurs both in bedrock and in the overlying deposits of glacial drift. The bedrock is a source of small but generally reliable supplies of water throughout the area. Glacial till also is a source of small supplies of water, but wells in till often fail to meet modern demands. Stratified glacial drift, including ice-contact deposits and outwash, yields small to large supplies of water. Stratified glacial drift forms the principal ground-water reservoir. It partly fills a system of preglacial valleys corresponding roughly to the valleys of the present Ipswich River system and is more than 100 feet thick at places. The ice-contact deposits generally are more permeable than the outwash deposits. Ground water occurs basically under water-table conditions. Recharge in the Wilmington-Reading area is derived principally from precipitation on outcrop areas of ice-contact deposits and outwash during late autumn, winter. and spring. It is estimated that the net annual recharge averages about 10 inches and generally ranges from 5 inches during unusually dry years to 15 inches during unusually wet years. Ground water

  3. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. 334.412 Section 334.412 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  4. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  5. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION OF SUBURBAN AREA ON WATER RELATION IN THE SMALL CATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kanclerz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of analysis focused on impact of urbanization of Poznań suburban area on water relation for Doływ spod Lusówka and Przeźmierki catchments during 1936–2011. Both catchments are located in municipalities which recently showing sharp growth in urban area. Analysis of changes in land use for studied catchments showed almost 5-fold increase in urban area for Dopływ spod Lusówka and 10-fold for Przeźmierka. As a consequence of land sealing increase in amounts of effective precipitation was observed that led to fast runoff of rain waters and almost double flow in watercourses.

  6. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  7. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a month in 5 measurement points. 21 physicochemical indices were assessed in the samples. The assessment of the Łososina river water quality was made on the basis of the results of both: on site and laboratory testing, which were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 23 October 2014. The utility values were assessed on the basis of the Regulations of the Minister of Environment of 27 November and 04 October 2014. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the Łososina river water met the requirements of quality class I water in points 1, 2 and 3. Below Tymbark the Łososina river water was polluted, so due to high BOD5 in points 4 and 5, and phosphate concentrations in point 4, it was classified as class II, i.e. good state. Pollution coefficients computed according to Burchard and Dubaniewicz classify the Łososina river water as clean along the whole investigated stretch. Below Tymbark city (points 4 and 5 the Łososina river water cannot be used for drinking water supply because of high BOD5 and iron concentrations. In the other points it could be used for water supply following appropriate physical and chemical treatment. The water does not meet the requirements for salmonid or cyprinid fish along the whole stretch because of high nitrite concentrations, except point 3, where the Łososina river water provided a proper natural habitat for carp.

  8. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  10. Simulative models for the analysis of ground-water flow in Vekol Valley, the Waterman Wash area, and the Bosque area, Maricopa and Pina counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simulative ground-water flow models for Vekol Valley, the Waterman Wash area, and the Bosque area were developed for use in evaluating alternatives for developing a ground-water supply for the Ak-Chin Indian Community. The hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits used in the models were estimated primarily from aquifer tests made by the U.S. Geological Survey. Annual recharge to Vekol Valley and the Waterman Wash area is negligible in comparison to the quantity of water in storage and the quantity proposed to be pumped. The models are based on a three-dimensional, block-centered, finite-difference scheme. The Vekol Valley model was calibrated for steady-state onditions, and the Waterman Wash area model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. The sensitivity of calibrated heads to changes in transmissivity was also investigated. An uncalibrated storage-depletion model was developed for the Bosque area. Simulated water levels for steady-state conditions average within 5 feet of measured values for Vekoi Valley and within 6 feet for the Waterman Wash area. Simulated water levels for transient conditions in the Waterman Wash area average within 8 feet of measured values for 15 years of analysis and within 15 feet for 24 years. Water-level declines simulated by the Waterman Wash area model average within 17 feet of those measured during the 24-year period, 1951-75.

  11. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  12. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  13. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  14. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  15. LEVEL OF TOXICITY WATER AREA «TULENIY» AS A RESULT OF BIOASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sokolsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the toxicity of marine waters area " tuleniy ".Location. Area " tuleniy ".Methods. Determining the level of toxicity of marine waters area "seal" method for biological testing was conducted according tothe guidelines approved by the Ministry of natural resources (guidance on the definition of ..., 2002; Dolzhenko, 1978. Guide prepared by the Center for Russian register of hydraulic structures and the state water cadastre of the MNR of Russia jointly with specialists of the Institute Committee of Russia and the UNION of ecological problems of the Ministry of Ukraine. The basis of the proposed system of marine toxicity biotests based on the results of generalization of experimental research based on the problem of pollution of water bodies and numerous literature data, making it possible to identify features of the response of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups to toxic impurities of different nature and origin. Experimental studies were conducted on the culture of marine unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum on planktonic crustacea Acartia tonsa, the larvae of the chironomid Chironomus gr.salinarius and juvenile guppies Poecillia reticulata Peters.Results. Comparative analysis of the results of research from 2001 to 2006 showed no acute toxic effect on the test object zooplankton and phytoplanton.Main conclusions. Throughout the study period (2001-2003, 2005-2006, you must allocate the spring of 2002, when it was recorded,the average of the lowest five years of research, the level of toxicity of water for the analyzed area.Considering the results of biological testing of the surveyed area by periods, it should be noted that the average level of toxicity of the waters did not undergo significant changes and were on the same level, not exceeding 17,6% (table. 1. According to the classification shown in table 2, the water in the surveyed area is assessed as "non-toxic".

  16. Ground water in the Sirte area, Tripolitania, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilbee, William

    1964-01-01

    The present study of the ground-water conditions in the Sirte area was made during December 1961 and March-April 1962 at the request of officials of the Government of Libya. Particular attention was given to the potential of the fresh-water aquifer near Qasr Bu Itadi as a source of water for Sirte. The Sirte area lies on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea about 450 kilometers east-southeast of Tripoli, cocapital of Libya. Although the area receives some winter precipitation, the climate is arid. The surface rocks of the area are chiefly Miocene limestone containing marl, clay, and some sandstone, though Quaternary deposits occur along the wadis and mantle the Miocene rocks in the coastal plain. Fresh ground water occurs locally in Recent sand dunes near Zaafran and in Miocene limestone near Qasr Bu Hadi, south of a probable fault. Elsewhere in the Sirte area, ground water occurs generally in Tertiary rocks but contains 3,000 or more parts per million of dissolved solids. To establish the hydraulic characteristics of the fresh-water aquifer in the Qasr Bu Itadi area, two test wells were drilled and a controlled pumping test was made. The coefficient of transmissibility was found to be about 25,000 gallons per day per foot (13.68 cubic meters per hour per meter), and the coefficient of storage, about 0.00055. The pumping test also established the presence of two barrier-type hydraulic boundaries for the aquifer, one about 250 meters westward and another about 535 meters northward from well 9a. The first boundary is probably the small anticline on which stands the fort of Qasr Bu Itadi; the second boundary is probably a northwest trending fault. Using the transmissibility and storage coefficients derived from the pumping test, the writer concludes that (1) the total draft from the fresh-water aquifer should not exceed 13.5 cubic meters per hour and (2) production wells should be at least 3 kilometers south of well 9a.

  17. Presence and viability of V. Cholerae in the waters of rural Bangladesh (Matlab area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetto, L.; Islam, S.; Mahmud, Z. H.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Blokesch, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-04-01

    We utilize a portable flow cytometer, which allows for absolute counts of particle concentration, along with specific staining to analyze the waters of the rural area of Matlab, Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, in the month of January 2012. Such period is interepidemic, as conditions for V. cholerae survival are less apt, because of low temperature; the presence of the bacterium in surface waters of inland reservoirs is debated and has been acknowledged rarely in literature. The hydrologic system is composed by a river and a succession of ponds; the latter constitute the basic water reservoir of each human community. We run a survey of each possible habitat to understand whether local reservoirs can host V. cholerae populations in interepidemic periods, which contrasts the common hypothesis which assumes that bacteria are brought inland by coastal water intrusion. We also analyze the relation of bacteria survival with environmental quantities and the variations in bacterial community structure in different samples.

  18. The inner Danish waters as suitable seaweed cultivation area- evaluation of abiotic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandorf Bak, Urd; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    Increased production of macroalgae may contribute to solving e.g. the demand for food globally. Palmaria palmata and Saccharina latissima are at present demanded and cultivated in European waters, and can potentially be cultivated at even larger scale. The present study investigated suitable...... cultivation areas in Danish waters for these two algal species in regard to a variation in the abiotic conditions: light, temperature, and the unusual salinity gradient through the inner Danish waters towards the Baltic Sea. Published tolerance levels of the abiotic conditions of the species were reviewed...... conditions showed, that light conditions are sufficient to meet the light saturation level of both algae, but large seasonal and a site specific variations in light attenuation determine optimal cultivation depth. Water temperatures were found to exceed the tolerance level for P. palmata in July, August...

  19. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  20. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  1. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  2. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  3. Analysis of long-term climate change on per capita water demand in urban versus suburban areas in the Portland metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandvash, G. Hossein; Chang, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the impacts of long-term climate variability and change on per capita water demand in urban and suburban service areas that have different degrees of development density in the Portland metropolitan area, USA. Together with historical daily weather and water production data, socioeconomic data such as population and unemployment rate were used to estimate daily per capita water demand in the two service areas. The structural time series regression model results show that the sensitivity of per capita water demand to both weather and unemployment rate variables is higher in suburban areas than in urban areas. This is associated with relatively higher proportional demand by the residential sector in the suburban area. The estimated coefficients of the historical demand model were used to project the mid-21st century (2035-2064) per capita water demand under three climate change scenarios that represent high (HadGEM2-ES), medium (MIROC5), and low (GFDL) climate changes. Without climate adaptation, compared to the historical period between 1983 and 2012, per capita water demand is projected to increase by 10.6% in the 2035-2064 period under the HadGEM2-ES in suburban areas, while per capita demand is projected to increase by 4.8% under the same scenario in urban areas. Our findings have implications for future urban water resource management and land use planning in the context of climate variability and change. A tight integration between water resource management and urban planning is needed for preparing for climate adaptation in municipal water planning and management.

  4. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  5. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  6. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  7. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, D.; Liang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empirical relationship is expected between EF and vegetation coverage, which provides the opportunity to quantify regional water flux. Here we deployed three eddy covariance (EC) systems to quantify the relationship between EF and vegetation coverage. First, two continuous systems were deployed at an industrial area with very low vegetation cover and another located in the orange orchid in Riverside, CA, to quantify the temporal dynamic of EF for the endpoints. Second, a mobile EC system was deployed to quantify the spatial distribution of EF across a gradient of vegetation coverage, during the summer time in Riverside, CA. These data showed the EF in high vegetation cover is 31.16±3.99%, but at the lower vegetation cover site EF is only 16.48±5.40%, which about 2 times lower in EF than the area with high vegetation cover. These results derived from the EC measurements provide essential data to quantify the temporal and spatial water fluxes in urban area and are needed to better understand and manage urban water use in response to drought.

  8. Estimation of water dam area variations by means of multitemporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Vassilev, Vasil; Borisova, Denitsa; Tsvetkova, Nadya

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade one of the resources, which is considered to be scarce, having in mind the growing population in global scale is the fresh water. Thus the need for careful planning and use of this resource is more then evident. In order to mitigate the effects of drought and potable water needs water dams are constructed. But together with benefits they provide there is serious flooding risk they pose for the area where they reside. In this research we proposed and tested an approach for water dam area delineation based solely on remotely sensed data. We proved that processing diachronic multispectral optical data from freely available sources and additional ones, such as topographic maps, in-situ data, data from national agencies, etc. we managed to obtain relevant information concerning current and past status of water dam Topolnitsa. The proposed method includes following steps - mulspectral data processing up to reflectance; calculation of widely used water related indices, namely NDWI and MNDWI; creation of mask layer implementing linear spectral unmixing for water area; and finally estimation of the area of the water table and calculation of the volume of the water body. In our previous work testing the pertinence of each spectral band (as well as of a few band ratios) to calculate the turbidity index (results not shown here), the red band was chosen. The best fit of the red band to characterize the turbidity of Danube Delta waters is not truly surprising. Using similar technology as for processing of HR EO data combined with visual interpretation for VHR data and airborne images Remote Sensing Application Center - ReSAC has developed a database for the standing water bodies in Bulgaria. The work continues over 10 years already and as a result more than 11 000 objects are mapped. For each water body a historical record is established on its variation in size during the years based on images available. Those records are organized in GIS database and can be

  9. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  10. Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005. The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil from a depth of 1 m deep at 12 points of the dump, and the collection of water samples from a depth of 3 m at 3 points in the deposited waste. Extraction of heavy metals in the water samples was performed according to the USEPA (1999 method and analysis followed ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Analysis of the solid waste samples showed the following concentrations: (mg kg -1: As < 10; Cd < 1; Cr = 26; Pb = 52; e Hg = 0.2. The water samples showed the following concentrations: (mg L- 1: As < 5; Cd < 5; Cr =29 e Pb = 10. The amounts of heavy metals in samples of tailings and water from the landfill area fall below the values considered to create a risk of contamination.

  11. Visual Analytics for the Food-Water-Energy Nexus in the Phoenix Active Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.; Ruddell, B. L.; Aggarwal, R.; Sarjoughian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) is an administrative region of 14,500 km2 identified by the Arizona Department of Water Resources with the aim of reaching and maintaining the safe yield (i.e. balance between annual amount of groundwater withdrawn and recharged) by 2025. The AMA includes the Phoenix metropolitan area, which has experienced a dramatic population growth over the last decades with a progressive conversion of agricultural land into residential land. As a result of these changes, the water and energy demand as well as the food production in the region have significantly evolved over the last 30 years. Given the arid climate, a crucial role to support this growth has been the creation of a complex water supply system based on renewable and non-renewable resources, including the energy-intensive Central Arizona Project. In this talk, we present a preliminary characterization of the evolution in time of the feedbacks between food, water, and energy in the Phoenix AMA by analyzing secondary data (available from water and energy providers, irrigation districts, and municipalities), as well as satellite imagery and primary data collected by the authors. A preliminary visual analytics framework is also discussed describing current design practices and ideas for exploring networked components and cascading impacts within the FEW Nexus. This analysis and framework represent the first steps towards the development of an integrated modeling, visualization, and decision support infrastructure for comprehensive FEW systems decision making at decision-relevant temporal and spatial scales.

  12. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Water Environment Pollution in Three—Gorge Reservoir Area and Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOGuyuan; XUXiaoyi; 等

    2002-01-01

    After the erecgtion of Three-Gorge Reservoir,The Water Environment in the reservoir area will be turned into water dobies like laker,and the self-clarification ability of water will also be moch slower than ever,Now,the quality of water in most segments in upper reaches of Yangtze River cannot meet the requiremets of I-II class Environment Quality Standard (GHZB1-1999),In Yangtze River,Jialing River and Wujiang River,the mian indexes such as colon bacillus,nonionic ammonia,chemical oxygen demand(COD),petroleum,phenol,total phosphorus(TP),heavy metal,etc.,have exceeded the standard limits.The water bodies of the reservoir area are facing serious risk of eutrophicatioinm.To solve that problem.A countermeasure of multi-spot diverted treatment and separate discharge is recommended,for doing this,lots of smallscale wastemwate treatment facilities employing updated activated sludge treatment technologies are to be set up.Up to now,a number of sewage treatment technologies to control eutrophication of water have been developed,which include processes of sequencing batch activated sludge(SBR),absorbing bio-degradation (AB),oxidation channel,package intermittent aeration system(PIAS),intermittent cylce extended aeration system(ICEAS),UNITANK and so on ,The Efective one to be applied in the reservoir area should convey the requirements of ecological agriculture,forestry and urban planning ,and be accompanied by legal support for appropriate exploitation of natural resources.

  14. Water Environmental Degradation of the Source Area of the Yellow River on Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shanzhong; Luo Fang; Xiao Honglang

    2005-01-01

    The issue on water environmental degradation in the source area of the Yellow River has been one of very serious ecological and socially economic problems. The temporal-spatial changes of water environment led to the decreasing of land capacity and river disconnecting. The status of water environmental degradation in this paper was analyzed based on the data and field investigation. The results indicated that the surface water area in the region has obviously decreased owing to the climate changes and human irrational use of water resources and the continuous lowering of the regional groundwater table and the steadily decreasing tendency of the flow rate in the source areas of the Yellow River.

  15. GIS Spatial-Temporal Modeling of Water Systems in Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Qiuming; Zhang George; Lu Cindy; Ko Connie

    2004-01-01

    Modeling landscape with high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) in a geographic information system can provide essential morphological and structural information for modeling surface processes such as geomorphologic process and water systems. This paper introduces several DEM-based spatial analysis processes applied to characterize spatial distribution and their interactions of ground and surface water systems in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. The stream networks and drainage basin systems were derived from the DEM with 30 m resolution and the regularities of the surface stream and drainage patterns were modeled from a statistical/multifractal point of view. Together with the elevation and slope of topography, other attributes defined from modeling the stream system, and drainage networks were used to associate geological, hydrological and topographical features to water flow in river systems and the spatial locations of artesian aquifers in the study area. Stream flow data derived from daily flow measurements recorded at river gauging stations for multi-year period were decomposed into "drainage-area dependent" and "drainage-area independent" flow components by two-step "frequency" and "spatial" analysis processes. The latter component was further demonstrated to relate most likely to the ground water discharge. An independent analysis was conducted to model the distribution of aquifers with information derived from the records of water wells. The focus was given on quantification of the likelihood of ground water discharge to river and ponds through flowing wells, springs and seepages. It has been shown that the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) is a unique glacial deposit that serves as a recharge layer and that the aquifers in the ORM underlain by Hilton Tills and later deposits exposed near the steep slope zone of the ridges of ORM provide significant discharge to the surface water systems (river flow and ponds) through flowing wells, springs and

  16. octanol/water partition coefficient using solvation free energy and solvent-accessible surface area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The regression model for octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow ), is founded with only two molecular descriptors available through quantum chemical calculations: solvation free energy (△ Gs ), and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA). For the properties of 47 organic compounds from 17 types, the model gives a oonection coefficient (adjusted for degrees of freedom) of 0.959 and a standard error of 0.277 log unit. It is a suitable way to predict the partition properties that are related to solute-solvent interactions in the water phase.

  17. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  18. Records of wells and springs, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the East Portland area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Hogenson, G.M.; Hampton, E.R.

    1964-01-01

    Data are presented on more than 300 wells, including many new ones whose records will not be a part of a forthcoming interpretative report on the occurrence of ground water in this area. A brief description of the geomorphic features is given, and the characteristics of the rock units are summarized in a table. Principal aquifers are beds of loose sand and gravel in the early Pliocene Troutdale Formation, late Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits, and Recent alluvium. Locally, Columbia River Basalt (Miocene) and the Boring Lava (late Pliocene to Pleistocene) yield substantial amounts of wate.. In addition to well records there are 124 driller's logs and a table of chemical analyses of the ground water.

  19. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  20. Quality of water from freshwater aquifers and principal well fields in the Memphis Area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Parks, W.S.; Gaydos, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water from the freshwater aquifers in the Memphis area is suitable for most uses. Freshwater aquifers are the alluvium and fluvial (terrace) deposits of Quaternary age, the Memphis Sand and Fort Pillow Sand of Tertiary age, and the Ripley Formation and McNairy Sand of Cretaceous age. About 180 million gallons/day (mgd) of freshwater are withdrawn from the Memphis Sand, primarily for municipal and industrial use; the Memphis Sand is the principal aquifer supplying the City of Memphis. The alluvium provides water for irrigation and some industrial uses, and the fluvial deposits provide water for domestic use in rural areas. The Fort Pillow Sand supplies water for some municipal and industrial uses. The Ripley-McNairy aquifer is not used as a source of water. Water from the alluvium, fluvial deposits, and Memphis Sand is a calcium bicarbonate type, and water from the Fort Pillow Sand and Ripley-McNairy aquifer is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved solids concentrations are low in the Memphis Sand, with a median value of 83 mg/L, and are high in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer with a value of about 1,000 mg/L. Water is very soft in the Fort Pillow Sand with a median hardness value of 9 mg/L as CaCO3 and is very hard in the alluvium with a median value of 285 mg/L. Iron concentrations are low in the fluvial deposits with a median value of 50 micrograms/L and are high in the alluvium with a median value of 5,200 micrograms/L. Temperature of the water generally increases with depth, ranging from 16.0 C in the alluvium and fluvial deposits to about 32.0 C in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer. Water from the Memphis Sand at Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields has very low mineralization. Median values are 79 mg/L dissolved solids concentrations, 56 mg/L alkalinity as CaCO3, 46 mg/L hardness as CaCO3, 4 mg/L chloride, 3.5 mg/L sulfate, and 600 micrograms/L iron. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  2. Estimating time and spatial distribution of snow water equivalent in the Hakusan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Matsui, Y.; Touge, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sousei program, on-going Japanese research program for risk information on climate change, assessing the impact of climate change on water resources is attempted using the integrated water resources model which consists of land surface model, irrigation model, river routing model, reservoir operation model, and crop growth model. Due to climate change, reduction of snowfall amount, reduction of snow cover and change in snowmelt timing, change in river discharge are of increasing concern. So, the evaluation of snow water amount is crucial for assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Japan. To validate the snow simulation of the land surface model, time and spatial distribution of the snow water equivalent was estimated using the observed surface meteorological data and RAP (Radar Analysis Precipitation) data. Target area is Hakusan. Hakusan means 'white mountain' in Japanese. Water balance of the Tedori River Dam catchment was checked with daily inflow data. Analyzed runoff was generally well for the period from 2010 to 2012. From the result for 2010-2011 winter, maximum snow water equivalent in the headwater area of the Tedori River dam reached more than 2000mm in early April. On the other hand, due to the underestimation of RAP data, analyzed runoff was under estimated from 2006 to 2009. This underestimation is probably not from the lack of land surface model, but from the quality of input precipitation data. In the original RAP, only the rain gauge data of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) were used in the analysis. Recently, other rain gauge data of MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) and local government have been added in the analysis. So, the quality of the RAP data especially in the mountain region has been greatly improved. "Reanalysis" of the RAP precipitation is strongly recommended using all the available off-line rain gauges information. High quality precipitation data will contribute to validate

  3. Effects of Land Management Practices on Soil Water in Southwestern Mountainous Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing-an; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selected land management practices (cross-sloping tillage, ridge culture, organic manure, and straw mulch) on soil water conservation in a southwestern mountainous area, China, were studied during November 2002 to November 2004. The experimental field is divided into three parts based on soil layer depths, 0-60 cm (part Ⅰ), 0-40 cm (part Ⅱ), and 0- 20 cm (part Ⅲ), and they all had the same slope azimuth (SE), slope (10°), and slope type (linear). The experimental plots were subjected to the following treatments: cross-sloping tillage (CST); cross-sloping tillage with organic manure (CST/ OM); cross-sloping tillage with straw mulch (CST/SM); contour ridge culture (CRC); contour ridge culture with organic manure (CRC/OM); and contour ridge culture with straw mulch (CRC/SM), to identify the effects of management practices on soil water. Water contents were determined for soil samples collected, using a 2.2 cm diameter manual probe. Soil water was monitored once every five days from Nov. 20, 2002 to Nov. 20, 2004. The results indicated that, in the study stages, an integration of rainfall, evaporative losses, and crop transcription controlled the basic tendencies of profile (mean) soil water, while land management practices, to a certain extent, only modified its amount, distribution, and routing. Moreover, these modifications also mainly focused on the first 20 cm depth of topsoil layer. When each management practice was compared with control treatment, season changes of profile (mean) soil water were pronounced, while interannual changes among them were not significant. More comparisons indicated that, in the study stages, contour ridge culture had better effects than cross-sloping tillage. And under the same tillage, the combination of organic manure could achieve more than straw mulch. These management practices should be recommended considering the effectiveness of soil and water management techniques in the southwestern mountainous area

  4. Digitized generalized areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater withdrawals in adjacent valleys, Great Basin National Park area, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons delineate generalized areas in and around Great Basin National Park where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater...

  5. Effects of Water Pollution in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria Fish Species Composition, Histology, Shrimp Fishery and Fishing Gear Type

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.F.N. Abowei; E.N. Ogamba

    2013-01-01

    The effect of water pollution in Koluama Area in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to determine its effects on fish species composition, histology, shrimp fishery and fishing gear type. A total of twenty (20...

  6. Dissecting the variable source area concept - Subsurface flow pathways and water mixing processes in a hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Helen E.; Easton, Zachary M.; Lyon, Steve W.; Todd Walter, M.; Destouni, Georgia; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryThis study uses an instrumented (trenched) 0.5 ha hillslope in the southern tier of New York State, USA, to provide new data and insights on how variable source areas and associated flow pathways form and combine to connect rainfall with downstream water flows across a hillslope. Measurements of water fluxes in the trench, upslope water table dynamics, surface and bedrock topography, and isotopic and geochemical tracers have been combined for a four-dimensional (space-time) characterization of subsurface storm flow responses. During events with dry antecedent conditions infiltrating rainwater was found to percolate through a prevailing fragipan layer to deeper soil layers, with much (33-71%) of the total discharge of the hillslope originating from deeper water flow below the fragipan. During storm events with wet antecedent conditions and large rainfall amounts, shallow lateral flow of event and pre-event water above the fragipan occurred and was one magnitude greater than the deeper water flow contribution. Spatial surface and subsurface water quality observations indicate that water from a distance of up to 56 m contributed runoff from the hillslope during storm events. In addition, mobilization of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) with subsurface flow played a greater role than with overland or near-surface flow. During all events TDP loads were highest in the total discharge during peak flows (8-11.5 kg ha -1 d -1), except during the largest storm event, when TDP concentrations were highly diluted. These results have implications for strategies to protect streams and other downstream water recipients from waterborne nutrient and pollutant loading.

  7. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  8. THE VULNERABILITY TO WATER HAZARDS OF URBAN AREA TURDA– CÂMPIA TURZII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA URCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability to water hazards of urban area Turda – Câmpia Turzii. The risk was defined as a social object whose primary component is vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which vulnerability was defined by highlighting its three aspects: physical, technical and social. The vulnerability involves a complex systematic approach especially when cities are analyzed. The economic, social heritage, the environmental elements can all become factors of vulnerability. In this paper the urban areas vulnerable towaterborne hazards, especially floods were mentioned. The means to reduce urban vulnerability were analyzed, highlighting the measures taken by the local communities to mitigate the crisis.

  9. Ecological Water Requirement Estimates for Typical Areas in the Huaihe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xin; DU Pengfei; TONG Oingyuan; CHEN Jining

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems require ecological water allocation to prevent from being damaged by natural disasters and undue exploitation. This paper discusses and estimates the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of typical areas in the Huaihe Basin to determine rational allocations of water resources and pro-mote regional improvements of the ecological environment. The main river course, including Hongze Lake and Nansi Lake, was selected as the study subject. Calculational methods for the river and lake EWRs were based on the reasonableness of the results and data availability. The monthly guarantee rate method was used to calculate monthly, flood period, non-flood period, and annual EWRs for the main river course and the main tributaries at two different guarantee rates. The minimum water level method was used to calculate annual EWRs for Hongze Lake and the upper and lower Nansi Lake of 1.521×109 m3, 0.637×109 m3, and 0.306×109 m3. The results were used to evaluate the rationality of the quantity of water resources allocated to ecological uses in the Huaihe Basin during 1998-2003. The result shows that the present water resource allocations in the Huaihe Basin cannot satisfy the basic ecological requirements for some years, especially years with less precipitation.

  10. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  11. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Sailor Creek area, Owyhee, Elmore, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1962-01-01

    This reports evaluates the ground-water resources of about 1,000 square miles in the semiarid uplands south of the Snake River between Bruneau River and Salmon Falls Creek. The outcropping rocks are the Idavada Volcanics of Pliocene age, and the Idaho Group of Pliocene and Plieistocene age, consisting of the Banbury Basalt of middle Pliocene age and overlying predominantly sedimentary deposits of middle Pliocene through middle Pleistocene age. These rocks dip gently northward. The volcanic rocks are the best aquifers, but the yield of water from the sedimentary deposits is adequate for domestic and stock use. About 6,000 acre-feet of water is withdrawn annually from the Idavada Volcanics by 9 irrigation wells to irrigate about 3,000 acres. Only a few tends of acre-feet of water withdrawn from the other formations. The regional dip of the rocks induces weak artesian conditions in the volcanic rocks and somewhat higher artesian head in the sedimentary rocks. Estimated depth to water ranges from less than 250 feet to more than 750 feet, as shown in an accompanying map. The eastern part of the area appears to be more favorable for the development of ground water for irrigation than the western part because of better aquifers at shallower depth.

  12. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  13. Measurement of wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water using infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae, E-mail: hdkims@khu.ac.kr [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kyung Hee University, Youngin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youngjae [Kyung Hee University, Youngin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Buongiorno, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure is measured using the DEPIcT (DEtection of Phase by Infrared Thermography) technique. DEPIcT exploits the contrast in infrared (IR) light emissions between wet and dry areas on the surface of an IR-transparent heater to visualize the instantaneous distribution of the liquid and gas phases in contact with the heater surface. In this paper time-averaged wetted area fraction data in nucleate boiling are reported as functions of heat flux (from 30% up to 100% of the Critical Heat Flux) and subcooling (ΔT{sub sub} = 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 °C). The results show that the wetted area fraction monotonically decreases with increasing heat flux and increases with increasing subcooling: both trends are expected. The range of time-averaged wetted area fractions is from 90%, at low heat flux and high subcooling, to 50% at high heat flux (right before CHF) and low subcooling. It is also shown that the dry areas are periodically rewetted by liquid sloshing on the surface at any subcooling and heat flux; however, the dry areas expand irreversibly at CHF.

  14. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  15. ESTIMATION OF POLLUTANT LOAD IN DRINKING WATER PROTECTION AREAS OF SPRINGS SV. IVAN, BULAŽ, AND GRADOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Nemarnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the estimation of pollutant load within the drinking water protection areas (DWPA of springs Sv. Ivan, Bulaž, and Gradole in Northern Istria (Croatia is presented. To estimate the pollution load, the spreadsheet tool for estimating pollutant load (STEPL model was used. STEPL calculates loads of organic pollutants, nutrients, and suspended solids. For each analyzed spring total, specific and pollutant loads by each analyzed category are calculated. The results show that the greatest loads are caused by human activities. In addition, for the purpose of the analysis, two additional future scenarios are introduced; one describes the situation after the implementation of the first phase of the Istrian water protection system project, and the other that describes a possible future state where each agglomeration of over 100 inhabitants within the protected areas has an adequate wastewater treatment plant (WWTP.

  16. Camera Calibration for Water-Biota Research: The Projected Area of Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Wackrow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Imaging systems have an indisputable role in revealing vegetation posture under diverse flow conditions, image sequences being generated with off the shelf digital cameras. Such sensors are cheap but introduce a range of distortion effects, a trait only marginally tackled in hydraulic studies focusing on water-vegetation dependencies. This paper aims to bridge this gap by presenting a simple calibration method to remove both camera lens distortion and refractive effects of water. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using the variable projected area, computed for both simple and complex shaped objects. Results demonstrate the significance of correcting images using a combined lens distortion and refraction model, prior to determining projected areas and further data analysis. Use of this technique is expected to increase data reliability for future work on vegetated channels.

  17. Stream Flooding Response and Water Quality as a Function of Increasing Impervious Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenmueller, E. A.; Criss, R. E.; Winston, W. E.; Shaughnessy, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and suburban streams often exhibit frequent flash floods and low water quality, but surprisingly few studies of these systems attempt to resolve the relative contributions of different runoff fractions and their associated geochemistry. This study deliberately examined concurrent responses in three watersheds and two subbasins along a gradient of increasing impervious surface area in and around highly urbanized Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, to quantify changes in the relative contributions of pre-event (baseflow) and event (runoff) water to streamflow during flooding using hydrograph separations. Our high frequency monitoring of stable isotopes ratios (δ2H and δ18O) and water quality (temperature, dissolved O2, pH, turbidity, specific conductivity, concentrations of Cl- and nutrients, and bacterial loads) quantify large hydrologic and geochemical differences across the land use gradient. Following precipitation events, floods on a rural stream feature slow flow responses, hydrographs with low peak discharges and long lag times, high baseflow contributions, and small geochemical variations. In contrast, the flows of an urban stream and its tributary respond in a flashier manner, with peak flows that are nearly 10 times higher, average lag times that decrease by 85%, and event water contributions that are 2 times higher compared to the rural stream. The urban streams also exhibit large fluctuations in geochemistry, often with 5 times the variability of the rural end-member. These large geochemical changes in urban streams following storms are paralleled by more chaotic diurnal and seasonal variations. Importantly, we find that reduced baseflow as a function of increasing impervious surface area is not linear; thus, the hydrology of suburban streams is less impacted than would be predicted by impervious surface alone. This non-linear relationship with impervious surface area is also observed in some of the geochemical responses to flooding, and therefore

  18. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  19. A review of taste and odour events in Barcelona's drinking water area (1990-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleda, M R; Díaz, A; Martí, I; Martín-Alonso, J; Matia, L; Romero, J; Ventura, F

    2007-01-01

    The main, relevant, solved problems associated with taste and odour incidents in Barcelona's drinking water area in the last 14 years are reviewed. Events produced by creosote, dioxanes and dioxolanes, dicylopentadiene, and diacetyl, among the anthropogenic compounds; geosmin, MIB and iodinated trihalomethanes and chlorobromoanisoles as examples of compounds of natural origin are exemplified. The determination of the odour threshold concentrations of selected odorous compounds is also shown as a tool to gain a better knowledge of future taste and odour events.

  20. Evaluation of ERTS MSS digital data for monitoring water in the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples collected during the ERTS overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area have been analyzed for chlorophyll, particles, and sediment. Five ERTS images were sufficiently cloud free that a correlation analysis of radiance values from the MSS bands with the water parameters could be performed. A low correlation was established for chlorophyll, except during algal blooms, when band 6 was responsive. There was a fair to good correlation with particles for combinations of band 5, particularly bands (5 minus 6). Sediment correlations were excellent for band 5 or combinations of band 5 with bands 4 and 6. It was evident that such factors as the atmosphere, tide, and different water masses were tending to confuse the data.

  1. Soil Specific Surface Area and Non-Singularity of Soil-Water Retention at Low Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    and Or (TO) and new single-parameter non-singularity (SPN) models; and evaluate estimates of SSA from water sorption, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and N2–BET methods. The AquaSorp successfully measured water sorption isotherms (∼140 data points) within a reasonably short time (1–3 d). The SPN......The dry end of the soil water characteristic (SWC) is important for modeling vapor flow dynamics and predicting soil properties such as specific surface area (SSA) and clay content (CL). Verification of new instrumentation for rapid measurement of the dry end of the SWC is relevant to avoid long...... model well described the distinct non-singularity between the adsorption and desorption branches, while the TO model captured the adsorption data reasonably well (model were...

  2. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  3. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  4. Vplivi turizma v slovenskem alpskem svetu na vode = Impacts of tourism in Slovenian Alpine areas on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is not only an important economic activity but also a source of pressures on environment,including water. On the other hand appropriate water quality is of great importancefor tourism development. The contribution of tourism to pressures on water is important,but not dominant. Exceptions are impacts of tourism on the uninhabited areas, where tourismand recreation are the main sources of pressures on water resources. Nonetheless, quantitiesof used and sewage water are relatively modest.

  5. Ground-water hydrology of the Lower Milliken-Sarco-Tulucay Creeks area, Napa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.

    1977-01-01

    The Sonoma Volcanics are the principal water-bearing materials in the lower Milliken-Sarco-Tulucay Creeks area, which occupies about 15 square miles (39 square kilometers) in and east of Napa, Calif. The distribution and composition of these volcanic units are highly variable and complex. Within the Sonoma Volcanics the tuffs constitute the best ground-water reservoir. They are principally pumicitic ash-flow tuffs, partly welded and moderately permeable. These tuffs extend to a depth exceeding 500 feet (150 meters), and are irregularly interbedded with clay, igneous flows, and other volcanically derived material of very low permeability which locally confine the tuffs. Recharge and movement of ground water within these tuffs are affected by the highly variable character of this rock sequence, by adjacent formations, and by tectonic features such as the Cup and Saucer ridge and the Soda Creek fault. The lithology of the area limits specific yields to about 4 percent (unconfined conditions). Specific capacities of wells average less than 3 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown (0.6 liter per second per meter) except in the most permeable areas.

  6. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p survey. Active participation by communities at the planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  7. Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2014-01-01

    Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. Forecasted climate and landscape changes may lead to significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperatures in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three national parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, DC. We investigated relationships among water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). With the use of a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream-water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.

  8. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802.

  9. Forecasting the underground waters regime in the pitching aquifers in Huainan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI He-rong; SONG Xiao-mei

    2001-01-01

    Huainan area is an important coal base of the east of China. In the early part of the 1980s, the study of the underground waters dynamic state in the area was gradually paid dose attention to. This paper introduces the observation system of the groundwater dynamic state in the multilayered pitching aquifer, and expounds the hydrogaologic feature and the waterpower reletions among aquifers. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the relations of the groundwater dynamic state to surface water, meteoric water and mining shaft outflow rate, this paper establishes main water filled aquifers of mining shaft (C3-1, C3-2, C3-3 and O2). In the light of the actual situation of the greatly changing aquifer occurrence and steep dip angle, the “two-layer space curved surface seepage model” and the calculating step are all suggested. Since 1991, the groundwater dynamic state of the next year has been predicted (numerical simulation) every year. Contracting with the measured data, wa gain a relatively ideal effect.

  10. Evaluation of electrical tomography to estimate soil water storage capacity in forested Karstic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingge; Chanzy, André

    2010-05-01

    Given that the large physical heterogeneous in forested karstic areas, water storage capacity estimation is always a difficulty. This study aims to evaluate the electrical resistivity tomography for the water storage capacity estimation in forested karstic areas. The electric tomography was implemented to estimate the stone volumic content and the bedrock depth determination. These caracteristics are combined to the water storage capacity of the fine earth made by the pressure chamber method. To estimate stone content we assumed that soil is a biphasic media with stones embedded in the fine earth media. We computed the effective resistivity with the Bussian (1983) law, which was evaluated against numerical results. It has been shown that the major factors were the electric resistivity of each phase, whereas the size of the stone had a lower impact. Based on independent measurements, we found an accuracy of about 20%. The bedrock apparition can be detected by establishing a threshold. This threshold is much lower than the resitivity made on rock sample due to cracks filled by conductive media. An estimation of the water storage capacity was then made by combining fine earth hydraulic characteristics, estimation of stone content and bedrock depth. An error assessment has shown that the spatial variability is larger than the estimation error. Bussian, A.E., 1983. Electrical conductance in a Porous-medium, Geophysics, 48(9): 1258-1268.

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena.

  12. Phytoextraction of trace elements by water hyacinth in contaminated area of gold mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Tamara E; Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to uptake Ag, Ba, Cd, Mo, and Pb from waters in gold mine tailing area was studied. All experiments were carried out in the field conditions without using of model system. Bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) as well as elements accumulation by plant in different points of tailings-impacted area were evaluated. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate Mo, Pb, and Ba with BCF values 24,360 ± 3600, 18,800 ± 2800 and 10,040 ± 1400, respectively and is efficient in translocation of Mo and Cd. The general trend of the plant accumulation ability in relation to the studied elements corresponds to their concentration in the medium. As the distance from tailings increases, concentration of Ag, Ba and Pb in plant decreases more clearly than that of Cd, while the amount of Mo accumulated by plant doesn't drop significantly in accordance with its concentration in water. Under the conditions of the confluence of river Ur and drainage stream Ba and Ag can be considered as potential candidates for phytomining.

  13. Water-bathing synthesis of high-surface-area zeolite P from diatomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng Du; Shuli Shi; Hongxing Dai

    2011-01-01

    Zeolite P was synthesized for the first time via a novel water-bathing route at 90℃ using scrubbed diatomite, sodium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide as precursor, with SiO2/Al2O3, SiO2/Na2O, and H2O/Na2O molar ratios of 7.43, 3.81, and 80.00, respectively. The as-fabricated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. This study showed that (i) treating the diatomite raw material with sodium hexametaphosphate could open the pores in the diatomite via removal of the clay clogged in its pores; (ii) tetragonal mesoporous zeolite P samples with a surface area of 56-60 m2/g could be generated after 6-24 h of water-bathing reaction at 90 C; (iii) extension of water-bathing reaction time could improve the mesoporous structure of zeolite P;and (iv) Ca2+ adsorption capacity of the zeolite P sample was about 300 cmol/kg. Such high-surface-area porous zeolite P could be used as an effective adsorbent for the treatment of water containing calcium and magnesium ions.

  14. Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu TAKEUCHI

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity, semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2- and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-. The dominant processes determining the chemical composition of glacier pond water were sulfide oxidation coupled with carbonate dissolution and chemical weathering of aluminosilicate as indicated by the conservative and semi-conservative species. Calcium and alkalinity appeared as the dominant cation and anion, respectively, among all samples within the basin. Compared to the discharge waters at the outlet of the glacier, most of these pond waters have lower major solutes as well as alkalinity. The availability of fresh reactive minerals at the base of the glacier, coupled with higher temperature in discharge waters than in the ponds, may be the prime factors resulting in higher concentrations of most solutes in the discharge waters than in the ponds. In the ponds, higher concentrations of major solutes as well as alkalinity were observed in the monsoon than the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, suggesting the role of hydrolysis condition in chemical weathering rates. Ponds within the debris area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalaya are likely to increase in importance if global warming accelerates the rate of glacial melting.

  15. Research and control of well water pollution in high esophageal cancer areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Lan Zhang; Xiu-Lan Bai; Bing Zhang; Xing Zhang; Zhi-Feng Chen; Jun-Zhen Zhang; Shuo-Yuang Liang; Fan-Shu Men; Shu-Liang Zheng; Xiang-Ping Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: In order to detect risk factors for esophageal cancer,a national research program was carried out during the Eighth Five-Year Plan (from 1991 to 1995). METHODS: Cixian County and Chichen County in Hebei Province were selected as the index and the control for the study fields with higher or lower incidence of esophagus cancer in China, respectively. In these areas, we investigated the pollution of three nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking and the use of nitrogen fertilizer in farming. RESULTS: In well water, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were 8.77 mg/L, 0.014 mg/L and 0.009 mg/L in Cixian County in 1993, respectively. They were significantly higher than their levels (3.84 mg/L, 0.004 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L) in Chichen County (P<0.01, t=6.281,t=3.784,t=3.775). There was a trend that the nitrogenous compounds in well water increased from 1993 to 1996.The amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in farming was 787.6 kg per hectare land in Cixian County in 1991, significantly higher than 186 kg per hectare in Chichen County (t=9.603,P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These investigations indicate that the poilution of nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking is closely related to the use of nitrogen fertlizer in farming, and there is a significantly positive correlation between the level of three nitrogenous compounds in well water and the mortality ofesophageal cancer (correlation coefficient =0.5992). We suggest that improvement of well system for drinking water quality should be an effective measure for esophageal cancer prevention and control in rural areas.

  16. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  17. Ground-water in the Teresina-Campo Maior area, Piaui, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Suszczynski, Edison F.

    1972-01-01

    The Teresina-Campo Maior area lies in a presently developing farming and grazing region near the margin of drought-prone northeast Brazil where irrigated farming offers the best potential for economic development. The area comprises 9,700 square kilometers largely of catinga-covered tabular uplands which are drained by the perennial Rio Parnatba. The climate is hot and humid most of the year but with distinct wet and dry seasons. Temperature extremes range from 20?C to 39?C and the annum rainfall averages 1,200 millimeters. The area's ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in sandstone aquifers of six westward-dipping sedimentary rock formations, all part of the Maranhao sedimentary basin. The youngest of these formations, namely the Piaut (Pennsylvarian), Poti (Mississippian), Longa (Upper Devonian), and Cabecas (Middle Devoniar), contain the principal aquifers. Precipitation is the primary source of recharge to these aquifers and is more than sufficient to replenish current withdrawals from wells. Underlying the principal aquifers are the untapped Pimenteiras and Serra Grande Formations (both Lower Devonian) which in areas adjacent to the report area are moderately good to excellent water producers. These aquifers are recharged principally by lateral inflow from the east. Water also occurs in the alluvial deposits (Quaternary) underlying the flood plain of the Rio Parnatba but recurrent and uncontrolled flooding at present (1966) precludes their development. Of little economic importance, because they lie above the zone of saturation, are the thin erosional remnants of the Pastos Bons (Upper Triassic), Matuca, and Pedra de Fogo (both Permian) Formations. There are in the report area about 200 drilled wells most of which are pumped with power-driven engines. The wells range from 40 to 500 meters deep but most do not exceed 150 meters, and practically all are completed open hole. Yields range from 500 liters per day for 6-inch-diameter domestic wells to 240

  18. Multivariate analysis of surface water quality in the Three Gorges area of China and implications for water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhao; Guo Fu; Kun Lei; Yanwu Li

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques,cluster analysis,non-parametric tests,and factor analysis were applied to analyze a water quality dataset including 13 parameters at 37 sites of the Three Gorges area,China,from 2003-2008 to investigate spatio-temporal variations and identify potential pollution sources.Using cluster analysis,the twelve months of the year were classified into three periods of lowflow (LF),normal-flow (NF),and high-flow (HF); and the 37 monitoring sites were divided into low pollution (LP),moderate pollution (MP),and high pollution (HP).Dissolved oxygen (DO),potassium permanganate index (CODMn),and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+-N)were identified as significant variables affecting temporal and spatial variations by non-parametric tests.Factor analysis identified that the major pollutants in the HP region were organic matters and nutrients during NF,heavy metals during LF,and petroleum during HF.In the MP region,the identified pollutants primarily included organic matter and heavy metals year-around,while in the LP region,organic pollution was significant during both NF and HF,and nutrient and heavy metal levels were high during both LF and HF.The main sources of pollution came from domestic wastewater and agricultural activities and runoff; however,they contributed differently to each region in regards to pollution levels.For the HP region,inputs from wastewater treatment plants were significant; but for MP and LP regions,water pollution was more likely from the combined effects of agriculture,domestic wastewater,and chemical industry.These results provide fundamental information for developing better water pollution control strategies for the Three Gorges area.

  19. Regulation of formal and informal water service providers in peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsinhe, Nelson P.; Juízo, Dinis; Macheve, Berta; Santos, Clara dos

    Service delivery to large areas of peri-urban Maputo depends largely on alternative informal service providers. These providers are located within the limits of Maputo, in a water supply area that is formally leased to a private operator. Informal service providers therefore operate within the main regulatory body, but their activity is presently unregulated. This paper discusses activities of informal alternative providers in peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique, and opportunities to expand the reach and influence of the main regulatory body to this segment of service providers. The study was commissioned to assist the main regulatory body to setup a strategy to improve the pro-poor focus of the existing regulatory environment and so improve access to potable water for the majority of the under-serviced urban poor. Results of field surveys conducted in selected areas of peri-urban Maputo are presented. The surveys focused on the quality of services, the legal status of independent providers and the organization of water supply services at neighbourhood level. The results indicate that household water resellers and small-scale independent provides are presently an important and indispensable source of access to water for the majority of unconnected residents in peri-urban Maputo and that they are reported to cater for as many as 21% of unconnected households of such neighbourhoods. In the near future, alternative providers will continue to have a dominant role in service delivery in peri-urban Maputo, therefore their legalization and decentralization of certain regulatory functions to the neighbourhood level is required. A neighbourhood based management model is proposed for that purpose. The model is based on a standpipe management model that is broadened to include alternative service providers. The model addresses issues such as water pricing, bidding and compliance strategies, channels for consumer’s representation and possibilities of creating

  20. Analysis of selection procedures to determine priority areas for payment for water ecosystem services programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Feital Gjorup

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach of ecosystem services has shown promise for the evaluation of interactions between ecosystems and society, integrating environmental and socioeconomic concepts which require interdisciplinary knowledge. However, its usefulness in decision making is limited due to information gaps. This study was therefore developed in order to contribute to the application of principles of ecosystem services in the decision-making for water resources management. It aims to identify procedures and methodologies used for decision-making in order to select priority areas to be included in projects or compensation programs for environmental services. To do so, we searched technical and scientific literature describing methods and experiences used to select priority areas. Key steps in the process of selecting priority areas were identified; then a survey was conducted of the procedures adopted for each key step considering the literature selected; and, finally, the information collected was analyzed and classified. Considering the study’s sample, we noted that the selection of priority areas was based on the direct use of predetermined criteria. The use of indicators and spatial analyses are practices still scarcely employed. We must highlight, however, that most of the analyzed documents did not aim to describe the process of selecting priority areas in detail, which may have resulted in some omissions. Although these conditions may limit the analysis in this study, the results presented here allow us to identify the main objectives, actions and criteria used to select priority areas for programs or compensation projects for environmental services.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY IMPROVEMENT OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE AIRPORT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  2. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintain the system under a lease-purchase arrangement which provides that: (1) The urban community will... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal...

  3. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  4. Isotopic compositions of strontium in river water of Guizhou karst areas, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵琳; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out a study on the variation of strontium isotope composition of river waters, Wujiang and Yuangjiang River, in karst areas of Guizhou Province, China. The results obtained permit us to characterize the geochemistry of the river draining karst terrain and obtain a better understanding of main controls of catchment geology, chemical weathering of different rocks, and evaluate impact of human activities on the environment. The isotopic ratios of dissolved Sr in all rivers are between 87Sr/86Sr =0.7077 and 0.7110, totally lower than the weighted average of 87Sr/86Sr =0.7119 for the world large rivers. The Wujiang River waters have Sr concentrations from 1.0 to 6.1 μmol/L, while the Yuanjiang River waters have much lower Sr concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 1.3 μmol/L. Most of the river waters from the Wujiang river are characterized by low Ca/Sr and Mg/Sr, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, in which a majority of river waters are of 87Sr/86Sr ratios lower than the average Sr isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr

  5. Individual treatment of hotel and restaurant waste water in rural areas.

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    Van Hulle, S W H; Ghyselbrecht, N; Vermeiren, T J L; Depuydt, V; Boeckaert, C

    2012-01-01

    About 25 hotels, restaurants and pubs in the rural community Heuvelland are situated in the area designated for individual water treatment. In order to meet the legislation by the end of 2015, each business needs to install an individual waste water treatment system (IWTS). To study this situation, three catering businesses were selected for further research. The aim of the study was to quantify the effluent quality and to assess IWTS performance for these catering businesses. First of all, the influence of discharging untreated waste water on the receiving surface water was examined. The results showed a decrease in water quality after the discharge point at every business. With the collected data, simulations with the software WEST were performed. With this software two types of IWTSs with different (buffer) volumes were modelled and tested for each catering business. The first type is a completely mixed activated sludge reactor and the second type is a submerged aerobic fixed-bed reactor. The results of these simulations demonstrate that purification with an IWTS is possible if the capacity is large enough and if an adequate buffer volume is installed and if regular maintenance is performed.

  6. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

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    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  7. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

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    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  8. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  9. Water-based, nonfluorinated dispersions for environmentally benign, large-area, superhydrophobic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Bayer, Ilker S; Qin, Jian; Waldroup, Don; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2013-12-26

    Low-cost, large-area, superhydrophobic coating treatments are of high value to technological applications requiring efficient liquid repellency. While many applications are envisioned, only few are realizable in practice due to either the high cost or low durability of such treatments. Recently, spray deposition of polymer-particle dispersions has been demonstrated as an excellent means for producing low-cost, large-area, durable, superhydrophobic composite coatings/films; however, such dispersions generally contain harsh or volatile solvents, which are required for solution processing of polymers as well as for dispersing hydrophobic nanoparticles, thus inhibiting scalability due to the increased cost in chemical handling and environmental safety concerns. Moreover, such coatings usually contain fluoropolymers due to their inherent low surface energy, a requirement for superhydrophobicity, but concerns over their biopersistence has provided an impetus for eliminating these chemicals. For spray coating, the former problem can be overcome by replacing organic solvents with water, but this situation seems paradoxical: Producing a highly water-repellent coating from an aqueous dispersion. We report a water-based, nonfluorinated dispersion for the formation of superhydrophobic composite coatings applied by spray on a variety of substrates. We stabilize hydrophobic components (i.e., polymer, nanoparticles) in water, by utilizing chemicals containing acid functional groups (i.e., acrylic acid) that can become ionized in aqueous environments under proper pH control (pH > 7). The functional polymer utilized in this study is a copolymer of ethylene and acrylic acid, while the particle filler is exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP), which contains functional groups at its periphery. Once spray deposited and dried, the components become insoluble in water, thus promoting liquid repellency. Such coatings can find a wide range of applications due to their benign processing

  10. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area

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    Stefania Marcheggiani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge about the spread of pathogens in aquatic environments is scarce probably because bacteria, viruses, algae and their toxins tend to occur at low concentrations in water, making them very difficult to measure directly. The purpose of this study was the development and validation of tools to detect pathogens in freshwater systems close to an urban area. In order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on water microbiological quality, a phylogenetic microarray was developed in the context of the EU project µAQUA to detect simultaneously numerous pathogens and applied to samples from two different locations close to an urban area located upstream and downstream of Rome in the Tiber River. Furthermore, human enteric viruses were also detected. Fifty liters of water were collected and concentrated using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration approach. The resultant concentrate was further size-fractionated through a series of decreasing pore size filters. RNA was extracted from pooled filters and hybridized to the newly designed microarray to detect pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and toxic cyanobacteria. Diatoms as indicators of the water quality status, were also included in the microarray to evaluate water quality. The microarray results gave positive signals for bacteria, diatoms, cyanobacteria and protozoa. Cross validation of the microarray was performed using standard microbiological methods for the bacteria. The presence of oral-fecal transmitted human enteric-viruses were detected using q-PCR. Significant concentrations of Salmonella, Clostridium, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus as well as Hepatitis E Virus (HEV, noroviruses GI (NoGGI and GII (NoGII and human adenovirus 41 (ADV 41 were found in the Mezzocammino site, whereas lower concentrations of other bacteria and only the ADV41 virus was recovered at the Castel Giubileo site. This study revealed that the pollution level in the Tiber River was considerably higher downstream rather than

  11. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  12. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  13. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    The '500-foot' sand is the major source of water supply for the Memphis area. Thick layers of impervious clay above and below the sand confine the water in the aquifer under artesian pressure and also protect the aquifer from contamination. Recharge from rainfall enters the '500-foot' sand in the outcrop, or intake area south and east of Memphis. Recharge from other aquifers enters the sand wherever the confining beds are breached or absent. Some of the recharge that enters the '500-foot' sand in eastern Arkansas moves down the gradients created by pumping in the Memphis area. All discharge from the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area results from well pumping. Since 1886 continuous withdrawals at gradually increasing rates of pumping have lowered water levels and altered hydraulic gradients in the area. These withdrawals have resulted in changes in direction and velocity of movement of water through the '500-foot' sand. Water in the sand in the southeaster n part of the Memphis area normally moves from the (outcrop area east and south of Memphis northwestward toward points of withdrawal. In the northwestern part of the area, water moves southeastward toward points of withdrawal. A flow-net analysis of the aquifer shows that the rate of water movement through the '500-foot' sand in 1964, toward the major cones of depression in the Memphis area, was about 350 feet per year, or 1 mile in 15 years. A flow-net analysis projected for the year 1975 indicates the rate will increase by about 20 percent in the 12-year period 1964-75. Water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area is generally a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate type. It is soft, low in dissolved solids, high in concentrations of iron and carbon dioxide, and slightly to moderately corrosive. The softest and least mineralized water occurs in the southeastern part of the area, and the water becomes slightly harder and more mineralized as it moves downdip toward Memphis. The hardest and most mineralized

  14. Water and Carbon Dioxide Ices-Rich Areas on Comet 67P/CG Nucleus Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Raponi, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ciarniello, M.; Barucci, M. A.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Capria, M. T.; Erard, S.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; McCord, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    So far, only two ice species have been identified by Rosetta/VIRTIS-M [1] on the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the pre-perihelion time: crystalline water and carbon dioxide ice. Water ice has been spectroscopically identified in three distinct modalities: 1) On the active areas of Hapi region where water ice changes its abundance with local time and illumination conditions, condensing during the night hours and sublimating during daytime [2]; 2) On recent debris fields collapsed from two elevated structures in the Imhotep region where more fresh and pristine material is exposed [3]; 3) On eight bright areas located in Khonsu, Imhotep, Anhur, Atum and Khepry regions [4] where single or multiple grouped icy patches with sizes ranging between few meters to about 60 m are observed. Carbon dioxide ice has been detected only in a 60-80 m area in Anhur region while it was exiting from a four year-long winter-night season [5]. This ice deposit underwent a rapid sublimation, disappearing in about one month after its initial detection. While water and carbon dioxide ice appear always mixed with the ubiquitous dark material [6,7], there are no evidences of the presence of water and carbon dioxide ices mixed together in the same area. If observed, ices always account for very small fraction (few percent) with respect to the dark material. Moreover, the surface ice deposits are preferentially located on the large lobe and the neck while they are absent on the small lobe. Apart from these differences in the spatial distribution of ices on the surface, a large variability is observed the mixing modalities and in the grain size distributions, as retrieved from spectral modeling [8]: 1) very small μm-sized water ice grains in intimate mixing with the dark terrain are detected on Hapi active regions [2]; 2) two monodispersed distributions with maxima at 56 μm and at 2 mm, corresponding to the intimate and areal mixing classes, are observedon the Imhotep debris

  15. Water Quality Characteristics of Three Rain Gardens Located Within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

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    Sarah Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS at three locations in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota to assess the effect that bioretention areas, or rain gardens, have on water quality. The rain gardens are located at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA, City of Hugo, and City of Woodbury. These sites were chosen because of their similar ages, differences in design, surrounding land use, precipitation patterns, and geology. This article reports the statistical analysis of six years of data obtained from these three sites. The data characterizes the water quality of the inflow, overflow, vadose zone, and groundwater of each rain garden. Nutrients analyzed included chloride, total suspended solids, ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrate, and phosphorus. Lysimeters and wells had significantly lower nutrient concentrations compared to inflow for most nutrients. Increased nitrate occurred in the vadose zone at Woodbury and Hugo, suggesting some production of nitrate within the soil profile; however, groundwater beneath the rain gardens contained significantly lower concentrations of nitrate compared to the inflow, providing evidence of nitrate removal at deeper depths. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced in overflow and groundwater, with the exception of dissolved phosphorus at MLA. Rain garden and background wells often contained similar nutrient concentrations, suggesting that the rain gardens had little impact on the local ground water supplies. This unique six year study provides consistent evidence of the ability of these three rain gardens to reduce nutrient concentrations from urban stormwater.

  16. Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2006-09-01

    A direct current (dc) resistivity geoelectric technique is applied in the Abu Zenima area, West Sinai, Egypt to delineate salt water intrusion from the Gulf of Suez and evaluate the quality and some of the petrophysical parameters of the aquifer. Sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) with maximum AB/2 = 3000 m are conducted. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data could map the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer (true resistivity = 52-71 Ω m, thickness = 17-66 m), which floats on denser, more saline, deeper water (<5 Ω m). A number of water samples of the fresh aquifer are analysed to determine the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (ppm). A good agreement is observed between the resistivity boundaries and the borehole data. The mutual relations between the aquifer layering, the direction of the groundwater flow and the hydrogeophysical conditions of the aquifer are investigated. The geoelectric (Dar-Zarrouk) parameters are determined and interpreted in terms of the hydraulic conductivity, transimissivity, clay content, grain size distribution and potentiality of the aquifer. The integration of the results indicates a high potentiality and a relatively good quality of the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer in the north-eastern part of the study area.

  17. Hydrological modelling in a drinking water catchment area as a means of evaluating pathogen risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergion, Viktor; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Åström, Johan; Lindhe, Andreas; Sörén, Kaisa; Rosén, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases are of great concern to drinking water producers and can give rise to substantial costs to the society. The World Health Organisation promotes an approach where the emphasis is on mitigating risks close to the contamination source. In order to handle microbial risks efficiently, there is a need for systematic risk management. In this paper we present a framework for microbial risk management of drinking water systems. The framework incorporates cost-benefit analysis as a decision support method. The hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, which was set up for the Stäket catchment area in Sweden, was used to simulate the effects of four different mitigation measures on microbial concentrations. The modelling results showed that the two mitigation measures that resulted in a significant (p treatment (by one Log10 unit) at the wastewater treatment plants. The mitigation measure with a vegetative filter strip linked to grazing areas resulted in a significant reduction of Cryptosporidium spp., but not of E. coli concentrations. The mitigation measure with enhancing the removal efficiency of all on-site wastewater treatment systems (total removal of 2 Log10 units) did not achieve any significant reduction of E. coli or Cryptosporidium spp. concentrations. The SWAT model was useful when characterising the effect of different mitigation measures on microbial concentrations. Hydrological modelling implemented within an appropriate risk management framework is a key decision support element as it identifies the most efficient alternative for microbial risk reduction.

  18. Water surface area and depth determine oviposition choice in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, Michael H; Zarrabi, Ali A

    2012-01-01

    Oviposition choice is a well-studied aspect of the mosquito life cycle, and offers a potential avenue for species-specific surveillance and control. In container inhabiting mosquitoes, there has been a focus on how the components of the aquatic media determine choice, with little work on the physical characteristics of the containers themselves. We performed five experiments examining the effect of physical container parameters on oviposition choice by Aedes albopictus. We examined containers of three different surface areas (small, 496 cm2; medium, 863 cm2; and large, 1,938 cm2) at the same water depth and the same or different heights in a series of binary choice assays. We also examined different depths with the same surface area in clear containers (where the depth may be perceived by the darkness of the water) and in opaque containers, which appear uniformly dark at different depths. We found a significant preference for medium containers over large containers, whether the containers were different or the same heights, and a trend toward a preference for small containers over medium containers. There was a preference for deeper water regardless of whether containers were clear or opaque. These behaviors suggest mosquitoes take into account physical aspects of their habitats and their oviposition choices are consistent with minimizing the risk of habitat drying.

  19. Water quality analysis of the Rapur area, Andhra Pradesh, South India using multivariate techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-11-01

    The groundwater samples from Rapur area were collected from different sites to evaluate the major ion chemistry. The large number of data can lead to difficulties in the integration, interpretation, and representation of the results. Two multivariate statistical methods, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate their usefulness to classify and identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Four statistically significant clusters were obtained from 30 sampling stations. This has resulted two important clusters viz., cluster 1 (pH, Si, CO3, Mg, SO4, Ca, K, HCO3, alkalinity, Na, Na + K, Cl, and hardness) and cluster 2 (EC and TDS) which are released to the study area from different sources. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), assists in the interpretation of complex data matrices for a better understanding of water quality of a study area. From PCA, it is clear that the first factor (factor 1), accounted for 36.2% of the total variance, was high positive loading in EC, Mg, Cl, TDS, and hardness. Based on the PCA scores, four significant cluster groups of sampling locations were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality.

  20. Rural drinking water issues in India’s drought-prone area: a case of Maharashtra state

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    Udmale, Parmeshwar; Ichikawa, Yutaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Shaowei, Ning; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Kazama, Futaba

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining sufficient drinking water with acceptable quality under circumstances of lack, such as droughts, is a challenge in drought-prone areas of India. This study examined rural drinking water availability issues during a recent drought (2012) through 22 focus group discussions (FGDs) in a drought-prone catchment of India. Also, a small chemical water quality study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of water for drinking purpose based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The drought that began in 2011 and further deteriorated water supplies in 2012 caused a rapid decline in reservoir storages and groundwater levels that led, in turn, to the failure of the public water supply systems in the Upper Bhima Catchment. Dried up and low-yield dug wells and borewells, tanker water deliveries from remote sources, untimely water deliveries, and degraded water quality were the major problems identified in the FGDs. In addition to severe drinking water scarcity during drought, the quality of the drinking water was found to be a major problem, and it apparently was neglected by local governments and users. Severe contamination of the drinking water with nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and chlorides was found in the analyzed drinking water samples. Hence, in addition to the water scarcity, the results of this study point to an immediate need to investigate the problem of contaminated drinking water sources while designing relief measures for drought-prone areas of India.

  1. Estimating Major Crop Water Productivity at Neyshabour Basin and Optimize Crop Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Pourmohamad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introductionin current situation when world is facing massive population, producing enough food and adequate income for people is a big challenge specifically for governors. This challenge gets even harder in recent decades, due to global population growth which was projected to increase to 7.8 billion in 2025. Agriculture as the only industry that has ability to produce food is consuming 90 percent of fresh water globally. Despite of increasing for food demand, appropriate agricultural land and fresh water resources are restricted. To solve this problem, one is to increase water productivity which can be obtain by irrigation. Iran is not only exempted from this situation but also has more critical situation due to its dry climate and inappropriate precipitation distribution spatially and temporally, also uneven distribution of population which is concentrate in small area. The only reasonable solution by considering water resources limitation and also restricted crop area is changing crop pattern to reach maximum or at least same amount of income by using same or less amount of water. The purpose of this study is to assess financial water productivity and optimize farmer’s income by changing in each crop acreage at basin and sub-basin level with no extra groundwater withdrawals, also in order to repair the damages which has enforce to groundwater resources during last decades a scenario of using only 80percent of renewable water were applied and crop area were optimize to provide maximum or same income for farmers. Materials and methodsThe Neyshabour basin is located in northeast of Iran, the total geographical area of basin is 73,000 km2 consisting of 41,000 km2 plain and the rest of basin is mountains. This Basin is a part of Kalshoor catchment that is located in southern part of Binaloud heights and northeast of KavirMarkazi. In this study whole Neyshabour basin were divided into 199 sub-basins based on pervious study.Based on official

  2. Innovative technologies for decentralised water-, wastewater and biowaste management in urban and peri-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, R; Braun, U; Oldenburg, M

    2003-01-01

    Avoiding the comingling of water flows coming from different sources and thus obtaining flows with a very low dilution factor is the first and major step key to technical solutions for adequate treatment of household wastewaters. Through their decentral structure and effective recovery of water, energy and fertiliser these systems can be highly cost efficient. Fresh water consumption can be reduced by up to 80% while nutrients can be recovered to a large extent. Source control is also advantageous for hygienic reasons: low volumes are far easier to sanitise. Source separation technology in municipal waste water treatment does often lead decentralised or semicentral systems. The first essential step is the separate collection and treatment of toilet waste in households, which contains almost all pathogens and nutrients. New toilet systems with very low dilution factors, ranging from vacuum- through urine sorting to dry toilets, have been introduced in several projects and proven feasible. New ideas such as the black- and greywater cycle systems are presently under research at the Technical University Hamburg Harburg. Such modular, integrated and small scale systems are only possible through recent advances in membrane technology and, due to their small scale, do have the potential to be installed in densely populated regions. These technologies are options for following the principles of ecological sanitation, to contain, to sanitise and to reuse also in urban areas (EcoSanRes, 2003).

  3. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  4. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  5. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  6. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  7. Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, R. C. G.; Sajidu, S. M. I.; Mwatseteza, J. F.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    Likangala is one of the perennial rivers in Malawi that flow into a closed Lake Chilwa, a designated wetland ratified by Ramsar Convention in 1997. Earlier work conducted on this river revealed considerable social-economic activities at riverbanks resulting in indiscriminate disposal of wastes. This study intended to evaluate water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area. Water samples were collected thrice (dry, early rainy and mid rainy seasons) and tested for major physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The EC, pH, and selected ions ( NO3-, PO43-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+) were analysed in soil samples obtained in crop fields along the river banks. Elevated EC levels (>1035.00 μS/cm) were measured during mid rainy season at site S15 (Zomba Sewage Works), near and in the lake. Most of the water samples (86%, n = 28) registered phosphate levels above 1.50 mg/L during mid rainy season with a maximum value (10.70 ± 0.01 mg/L) at site S15. Lower amounts (control of water, land use and waste management in order to prevent escalation of the effects.

  8. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Searle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919.

  9. A new spectral method using legendre wavelets for shallow water model in limited-area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fukang; Song, Junqiang; Wu, Jianping; Cao, Xiaoqun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a new spectral method using Legendre wavelets (named LWSTCM), which complete the stepping in spectral space while deal with boundary conditions in grid-point space by collocation method, for the numerical solution of shallow water model in limited-area. In order to deal with the overlapping boundaries, some proper schemes are considered for exchanging the information on the boundaries between sub-domains. 1-D advection equation is used to analysis the exponential convergence property and error characteristics of LWSTCM. Finally, we study LWSTCM on 2-D shallow water equations for a more realistic application. The numerical results are compared with existing numerical solutions found in the literature and demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented method.

  10. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  11. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  12. Assessing MODIS GPP in Non-Forested Biomes in Water Limited Areas Using EC Tower Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Álvarez-Taboada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although shrublands, savannas and grasslands account for 37% of the world’s terrestrial area, not many studies have analysed the role of these ecosystems in the global carbon cycle at a regional scale. The MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP product is used here to help bridge this gap. In this study, the agreement between the MODIS GPP product (GPPm and the GPP Eddy Covariance tower data (GPPec was tested for six different sites in temperate and dry climatic regions (three grasslands, two shrublands and one evergreen forest. Results of this study show that for the non-forest sites in water-limited areas, GPPm is well correlated with GPPec at annual scales (r2 = 0.77, n = 12; SEE = 149.26 g C∙m−2∙year−1, although it tends to overestimate GPP and it is less accurate in the sites with permanent water restrictions. The use of biome-specific models based on precipitation measurements at a finer spatial resolution than the Data Assimilation Office (DAO values can increase the accuracy of these estimations. The seasonal dynamics and the beginning and end of the growing season were well captured by GPPm for the sites where (i the productivity was low throughout the year or (ii the changes in the flux trend were abrupt, usually due to the restrictions in water availability. The agreement between GPPec and GPPm in non-forested sites was lower on a weekly basis than at an annual scale (0.44 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.49, but these results were improved by including meteorological data at a finer spatial scale, and soil water content and temperature measurements in the model developed to predict GPPec (0.52 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.65.

  13. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  14. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  15. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  16. Ground-water conditions in the Milwaukee-Waukesha area, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Frank Clingan; Walton, W.C.; Drescher, W.J.

    1953-01-01

    Three major aquifers underlie the Milwaukee-Waukesha area: sandstones of Cambrian and Ordovician age, Niagara dolomite of Silurian age, and sand and gravel deposits of Pleistocene age. The Maquoketa shale of Ordovician age acts as a more or less effective seal between the Pleistocene deposits and Niagara dolomite above and the sandstone aquifer below. Crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age form an impermeable basement complex below the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The Paleozoic strata dip east at 25 to 30 feet to the mile. There is no evidence that any of the faults and folds known or surmised to be present acts as a barrier to the movement of ground water.

  17. "Water bombs" and seismic areas: two sides to the same problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino; Casati, Michele; Cataldi, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of catastrophic events over the last few years in Northern Tuscany (Italy), caused by real "water bombs", with the ensuing risk of flooding and an increase in seismicity, may point to a cause-effect relationship between the two phenomena. A relationship between baric variations and seismic activity resulting in earthquakes with a magnitude greater than M3, has already been described by Sytinsky (1997). Studies carried out on atmospheric processes during strong earthquakes have shown that there are also strong perturbations in atmospheric circulation, which manifest as a major restructuring of the pressure fields, as with changes in meteorological parameters. Recent studies by Straser (2015) have emphasized that variations in atmospheric pressure can affect the equilibrium of the rocks in fault zones, above all if part of a distensive tectonic context like the Lunigiana and Garfagnana area, which became an open-air laboratory to carry out this current study. Interaction between tectonic thrusts, the gases emitted in areas under crust stress, the production of ions in the atmosphere, detectable instrumentally and associated with pre-seismic signals have been described by Pulinets, (2007) and Pulinets with Boyarchuk (2004), as has the formation of nano particles and filamentous structures, of varying origin, caused by a combination of meteoric phenomena associated with electrical discharges and airborne ions as highlighted by Courty and Martinez (2015). One element to bear in mind when hypothesizing variations in equilibrium in distensive faults, is water. Indeed, it has been proposed that the quantity of water that reaches the ground during the kinds of strong precipitation analysed in this study might well create pressure variations in close proximity to the faults at the same time as lowering the friction coefficient in tectonically vulnerable areas. In contrast, it has also been suggested that frequent and prolonged seismic activity in the same

  18. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  19. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  20. Water droplet deformation under the motion in gas area with subsonic velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuibin Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of water droplet deformation (characteristic dimensions 3 ÷ 6 mm when moving through the gas area (air with 1÷ 5 m/s velocities was carried out. The high-speed (delay time between the frames is less than 100 ns tools of cross-correlation videorecording were used. A cyclic change nature of the droplet shapes (from close to spherical to conditionally ellipsoidal was found. The characteristic times of “deformation cycles” and the maximal deviations of droplet dimensions relative to initial dimensions were determined. The influence of droplet velocities and its dimensions on the deformation characteristics was determined.

  1. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    non-crisis conditions, to engage stakeholders and to develop local and regional plans. The handbooks can also be applied as part of the decision-aiding process to develop a recovery strategy following an incident. In addition, the handbooks are useful for training purposes and during emergency......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... exercises. To realise their full potential, the handbooks should be customised at national, regional and local levels. © EDP Sciences, 2010...

  2. Overall-effective Measures for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Coastal Areas of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoxiang; W. F. Geiger; S. Kaden; R. Kutzner; WANG Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In the coastal catchments of Shandong Province the water scarcity is aggravated due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. Such a situation calls for sustainable integrated water resources management (Ⅰ-WRM). The idea for the objectives and implementation of the IWRM are explained in this paper. The general objective of the planned project disscussed in the present study is to bring together German traditional expertise in water resources management and newer developments in the context of the European Water Framework Directive; the research efforts aim to relieve the desperate water scarcity situation in the costal area of Shandong Province.

  3. Sharing Water Data to Encourage Sustainable Choices in Areas of the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Abad, J. D.; Vastine, J.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Wilderman, C.; Vidic, R.; Hooper, R. P.; Brasier, K.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas sourced from shales but stored in more permeable formations has long been exploited as an energy resource. Now, however, gas is exploited directly from the low-porosity and low-permeability shale reservoirs through the use of hydrofracturing. Hydrofracturing is not a new technique: it has long been utilized in the energy industry to promote flow of oil and gas from traditional reservoirs. To exploit gas in reservoirs such as the Marcellus shale in PA, hydrofracturing is paired with directional drilling. Such hydrofracturing utilizes large volumes of water to increase porosity in the shale formations at depth. Small concentrations of chemicals are added to the water to improve the formation and maintenance of the fractures. Significant public controversy has developed in response to the use of hydrofracturing especially in the northeastern states underlain by the Marcellus shale where some citizens and scientists question whether shale gas recovery will contaminate local surface and ground waters. Researchers, government agencies, and citizen scientists in Pennsylvania are teaming up to run the ShaleNetwork (www.shalenetwork.org), an NSF-funded research collaboration network that is currently finding, collating, sharing, publishing, and exploring data related to water quality and quantity in areas that are exploiting shale gas. The effort, focussed initially on Pennsylvania, is now developing the ShaleNetwork database that can be accessed through HydroDesktop in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. In the first year since inception, the ShaleNetwork ran a workshop and reached eight conclusions, largely focussed on issues related to the sources, entry, and use of data. First, the group discovered that extensive water data is available in areas of shale gas. Second, participants agreed that the Shale Network team should partner with state agencies and industry to move datasets online. Third, participants discovered that the database allows

  4. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    The lake of Massaciuccoli (7 km2 wide and about 2 m deep) and its palustrine nearby areas (about 13 km2 wide) constitute a residual coastal lacustrine and marshy area largerly drained by 1930. In terms of hydrological boundaries, the lake watershed is bordered by carbonate to arenaceous reliefs on the east, by a sandy coastal shallow aquifer on the west (preventing groundwater salinisation), while south and north by the Serchio River and the Burlamacca-Gora di Stiava channels alignment respectively. Since reclamation of the peaty soils started, subsidence began (2 to 3 m in 70 years), leaving the lake perched and central respect the low drained area, now 0 to -3 m below m.s.l., and requiring 16 km embankment construction. During the dry summer season, the lake undergoes a severe water stress, that, along with nutrients input, causes the continuous ecosystem degradation resulting in water salinisation and eutrophication. Water stress results in a head decrease below m.s.l., causing seawater intrusion along the main outlet, and reaching its highest point at the end of the summer season (common head values between -0.40 and -0.5 a.m.s.l.). The water budget for an average dry season lasting about 100 days was computed, considering a 10% error, in order to understand and evaluate all the components leading to the above mentioned water stress by means of several multidisciplinary activities during the years 2008-2009. They started with a thoroughly literature review, continued with hydrological, hydrogeochemical monitoring and testing (both for surface water and the shallow aquifer) and agronomical investigations (to characterize cropping systems, evapotranspiration rates and irrigation schemes). All the collected data were then processed by means of statistical methods, time series analysis, numerical modelling of the shallow aquifer and hydrological modelling. The results demonstrate the presence of two interrelated hydrological sub-systems: the lake and the reclaimed

  5. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  6. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Aparajita; Bairagya, M D; Basu, B; Gupta, P C; Sarkar, S

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity of ground water in Bengal delta is a major environmental catastrophe. Cultivation of jute, a non edible crop after summer rice usually reduces arsenic load of the soil. However, during retting of jute As is present in the crop and thus increase its amount in surface water bodies. To test this hypothesis, a study was carried out in ten farmers' field located in As affected areas of West Bengal, India. As content of soil and variou the jute plant were recorded on 35 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) as well as on harvest date (110 DAS). During the study period, due to the influence of rainfall, As content of surface (0-150 mm) soil fluctuates in a narrow range. As content of jute root was in the range of 1.13 to 9.36 mg kg(-1). As content of both root and leaf attained highest concentration on 35 DAS and continuously decreased with the increase in crop age. However, in case of shoot, the As content initially decreased by 16 to 50% during 35 to 70 DAS and on 110 DAS the value slightly increased over 70 DAS. Retting of jute in pond water increased the water As content by 0.2 to 2.0 mg L(-1). The increment was 1.1 to 4 times higher over the WHO safe limit (0.05 mg L(-1)) for India and Bangladesh. Microbiological assessment in this study reveals the total bacterial population of pre and post retting pond water. Bacterial strains capable in transforming more toxic As-III to less toxic AS-V were screened and six of them were selected based on their As tolerance capacity. Importantly, identified bacterial strain Bacterium C-TJ19 (HQ834294) has As transforming ability as well as pectinolytic activity, which improves fibre quality of jute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The configuration of water on rough natural surfaces: Implications for understanding air-water interfacial area, film thickness, and imaging resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Tohren C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies of air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media have often distinguished between interfacial area corresponding to water held by capillary forces between grains and area corresponding to water associated with solid surfaces. The focus of this work was on developing a better understanding of the nature of interfacial area associated with solid surfaces following drainage of porous media. Stereoscopic scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface elevation maps for eight different surfaces of varying roughness. An algorithm was developed to calculate the true configuration of an air-water interface in contact with the solid surface as a function of capillary pressure. The algorithm was used to calculate surface-associated water configurations for capillary pressures ranging from 10 to 100 cm water. The results of the work show that, following drainage, the configuration of surface-associated water is dominated by bridging of macroscopic surface roughness features over the range of capillary pressures studied, and nearly all of the surface-associated water is capillary held. As such, the thicknesses of surface-associated water were found to be orders-of-magnitude greater than might be expected at the same capillary pressures based on calculations of adsorbed film thickness. The fact that capillary forces in air-water interfaces dominate surface-associated water configuration means that interface shapes are largely unaffected by microscopic surface roughness, and interfaces are considerably smoother than the underlying solid. As such, calculations suggest that microscopic surface roughness likely has minimal impact on the accuracy of surface-associated air-water interfacial areas determined by limited-resolution imaging methods such as computed microtomography.

  8. Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open burning area and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open burning area, which is used for burning of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this area is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open burning area. Contaminants from the open burning area appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open burning area and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open burning area. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection

  9. Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its

  10. Water-Surface Elevations, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data for Selected Sites in the Warm Springs Area near Moapa, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David A.; Ryan, Roslyn; Veley, Ronald J.; Harper, Donald P.; Tanko, Daron J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Southern Nevada Water Authority and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, operates and maintains a surface-water monitoring network of 6 continuous-record stream-flow gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations in the Warm Springs area near Moapa, Nevada. Permanent land-surface bench marks were installed within the Warm Springs area by the Las Vegas Valley Water District, the Southern Nevada Water Authority, and the U.S. Geological Survey to determine water-surface elevations at all network monitoring sites. Vertical datum elevation and horizontal coordinates were established for all bench marks through a series of Differential Global Positioning System surveys. Optical theodolite surveys were made to transfer Differential Global Positioning System vertical datums to reference marks installed at each monitoring site. The surveys were completed in June 2004 and water-surface elevations were measured on August 17, 2004. Water-surface elevations ranged from 1,810.33 feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 at a stream-gaging station in the Pederson Springs area to 1,706.31 feet at a station on the Muddy River near Moapa. Discharge and water-quality data were compiled for the Warm Springs area and include data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, Nevada Division of Water Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Moapa Valley Water District, Desert Research Institute, and Converse Consultants. Historical and current hydrologic data-collection networks primarily are related to changes in land- and water-use activities in the Warm Springs area. These changes include declines in ranching and agricultural use, the exportation of water to other areas of Moapa Valley, and the creation of a national wildlife refuge. Water-surface elevations, discharge, and water-quality data compiled for the Warm Springs area will help identify (1) effects of changing vegetation within the former agricultural lands, (2) effects

  11. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    *I. I. Mile; 1J. I. Amonum; 2N. L. Sambe

    2013-01-01

    This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15) wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15) wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr), Cadmium (cd), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu). Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of Septemb...

  12. Water Service Areas, Buffer around water system pipes, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Citizen Energy Group.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Buffer...

  13. Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

  14. Thermal ground-water discharge and associated convective heat flux, Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Backsen, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho. The area has a rural population dependent on ground-water irrigation. Temperature of the ground water ranges from 15 C to more than 80 C. Ground water for irrigation is obtained from flowing and pumped wells. Discharge of thermal ground water from 104 irrigation wells and from 5 hot springs in 1978 was about 50,500 acre-feet. Convective heat flux from the geothermal system associated with this discharge was 4.97 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Key area identification of pollution sources of drinking water sources in rural areas%村镇饮用水源地污染关键区识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程公德; 殷国玺; 谢崇宝; 张国华; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    In the upstream of water sources, many pollutants are output from key pollution areas of water sources, and thus identifying key pollution areas of water sources is a key to protection and pollution control of rural drinking water source. In this paper, a method to directly identify key pollution areas was proposed and applied to investigate the pollution situation of rural drinking water sources in Anjishan reservoir area in 2011. Residential areas, farmlands, mines, and other land use types were identified as the pollution sources based on image classification techniques of remote sensing. Hydrology analysis tools for ArcGIS software were used to determine catchment of Anjishan basin. Batch Sub watershed Delineation tool combined with the distribution of the main pollution sources was used to divide Anjishan basin into 19 sub watershed, and land use areas for each sub watershed were summarized. In rural areas, Anjishan reservoir area was mainly affected by pollutants from non-point sources. So, farmland, aquaculture sewage, mines and rural life were considered as main pollution sources of this area. For these sources, COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen), TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) were the main pollution factors. Source strength coefficient of each factor for each source was obtained from national reports and amended with survey data. Exceeds bid index method was adopted to calculate the weights of pollution factors based on their contributions rates, and degree of pollution was also calculated based on the weights. The pollution degree of water source for each sub watershed was calculated through degree of pollution of each pollution source and its corresponding land use area. The pollution degree of each sub watershed was converted to pollution concentration based on annual rainfall. Environmental quality standards for surface water in China are often used to assess the condition of water sources. In the standard, Class III

  17. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of

  18. Ground-water exploration in Al Marj area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, T.G.; Haddor, Yousef

    1963-01-01

    The present report, based largely on fieldwork during 1959-61, describes the results of reconnaissance hydrogeologic studies and exploratory drilling to evaluate the general water-bearing properties of the rocks and the availability of groundwater supplies for irrigation, stock, and village uses in Al Marj area. These studies and the drilling were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Operations Mission of the International Cooperation Administration. Al Marj area, located in the Province of Cyrenaica on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, contains a land area of about 6,770 square kilometers. Along the Mediterranean shore is a narrow coastal plain that rises evenly to the base of an escarpment that forms the seaward front of an undulating plateau known as. Al Jabal al Akhgiar. The climate is semiarid; seasonal rainfall occurs during the winter months. Owing to orographic effects, the rainfall is somewhat higher in the Jabal than in the coastal plain. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 250 millimeters in the coastal plain to 450 millimeters on the Jabal. All the streams (wadis) of the area are ephemeral and flow only in response to heavy rains of the winter season. From a drainage divide on the Jabal some streams flow north and northwest toward the sea and the others, south and southeast to the interior desert. Solution features, such as limestone sink holes, are common in the coastal plain and a large solution depression occurs near Al Marj. The rocks of A1 Marj area consist predominantly of limestone and some sandstone and shale; they range from Cretaceous to Miocene age. On the coastal plain Miocene limestone is locally mantled by Quaternary alluvial, beach and lagoonal deposits. The Miocene and older beds have a regional southerly dip. These rocks are broken by northeast-trending normal faults in the coastal and inland escarpments. The ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in fractures, bedding planes, and solution openings in the

  19. Can we detect water stressed areas in forest thanks thermal infrared remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourtier, Marie; Chanzy, André; Bes, Bernard; Mariotte, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    In Mediterranean and mountainous areas, an increase of mortality in forest is observed after important drought events. In the context of climate changes, a study of the impact of drought stress on forest is necessary. In order to detect water stress over the whole forest at different periods of the year, we propose the use of a spatialisable indicator, easily measurable: crown surface temperature. As previous works were not conclusive concerning the potentiality of this indicator in forest (Duchemin, 1998a, 1998b, Pierce et al., 1990), we set up an experimentation to study the surface temperature evolution linked to the transpiration at tree scale, during the spring and summer periods on silver fir (Abies alba) forest of Mont Ventoux (south of France). At the same time, several thermal infrared images of the mountainside were acquired corresponding to different levels of transpiration. The signal of surface temperature is studying via the evolution of the difference between measured surface temperature and calculated surface temperature for a tree at maximum transpiration rate. At tree scale, there is a difference of 4 °C of amplitude in the signal of surface temperature between maximum and zero transpiration conditions. The difficulty resides in taking into account the influence of climatic conditions, source of variability in the signal uncorrelated with transpiration evolution. Indices of surface temperature, built to include this influence of climatic conditions, permit to reduce this variability. Another source of variability lies in the percentage of branches present in the area of measurement. Indeed branches have a thermal dynamic differing from the needles one and, considering comparison between trees, the percentage of branches varies. At the mountainside scale, contrasted areas in terms of surface temperature indices are observable. By comparing different dates, corresponding to different levels of drought, it is possible to locate areas with precocious

  20. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The Southeast region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, is one of the main region for the cultivation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in that country. The implementation of complementary irrigation for potato cultivation meant an increase in yield of up to 60%. Therefore, all potato production in the region is under irrigation. In this way, the area under central pivot irrigation has increased to 150% in the last two decades. The water used for irrigation in that region is underground with a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. A reduction in infiltration means greater partitioning of precipitation into runoff. The degree of slope of the terrain, added to its length, increases the erosive potential of runoff water. The content of dissolved salts, in combination with the water content, affect the apparent Electrical Conductivity of the soil (EC), which is directly related to the concentration of Na + 2 in the soil solution. In August 2016, severe rill erosion was detected in a productive plot of 300 ha. The predecessor crop was a potato under irrigation campaign. However the history of the lot consists of various winter and summer crops, always made in dry land and no till. Cumulative rainfall from harvest to erosion detection (four months) was 250 mm. A georeferenced EC measurement was performed using the Verys 3100® contact sensor. With the data obtained, a geostatistical analysis was performed using Kriging spatial interpolation. The maps obtained were processed, dividing them into 4 EC ranges. The values and amplitude of the CEa ranges for each lot were determined according to the distribution observed in the generated histograms. It was observed a distribution of elevated EC ranges and consequently of a higher concentration of Na+ 2 coincident with the irrigation areas of the pivots. These

  1. Influence of Glacier Retreat On The Water Yield From High Mountain Areas, Comparison Alps - Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagg, W.; Braun, L.

    The main objective of the study is the investigation of the link between glacier retreat and discharge in selected catchments in Central Asia and the comparison of these results with conditions in the Alps. For this purpose, the conceptual runoff model HBV-ETH has been applied in three glacierized basins in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan and China, which represent regions of different continentality. Operating only with air temperature and precipitation data, the model calculates discharge and other water balance components in a daily timestep. To evaluate the reaction of the simulated hydrograph to climate change, the meteorological model input has been modified, according to the results of regional climate modeling under the assumption of doubling of atmospheric CO2. These runoff scenarios were made for three different stages of deglacierization. The first results show a similar pattern as observed in the Alps in previous studies: under a present-day glacier extent the water yield rises drastically during the melting period, after a reduction of the glacierized area by 50 % the flood peaks are reduced to presently observed values, and after a complete disappearance of the glaciers the calculated runoff indicates a strong reduction of runoff during summer months, which would have a significant effect on the availability of water resources in these dry regions of Asia.

  2. Terrestrial water flux responses to global warming in tropical rainforest areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2016-05-01

    Precipitation extremes are expected to become more frequent in the changing global climate, which may considerably affect the terrestrial hydrological cycle. In this study, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives have been examined to explore the changes in normalized terrestrial water fluxes (precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus total runoff, divided by the precipitation climatology) in three tropical rainforest areas: Maritime Continent, Congo, and Amazon. Results show that a higher frequency of intense precipitation events is predicted for the Maritime Continent in the future climate than in the present climate, but not for the Amazon or Congo rainforests. Nonlinear responses to extreme precipitation lead to a reduced groundwater recharge and a proportionately greater amount of direct runoff, particularly for the Maritime Continent, where both the amount and intensity of precipitation increase under global warming. We suggest that the nonlinear response is related to the existence of a higher near-surface soil moisture over the Maritime Continent than that over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The wetter soil over the Maritime Continent also leads to an increased subsurface runoff. Thus, increased precipitation extremes and concomitantly reduced terrestrial water fluxes lead to an intensified hydrological cycle for the Maritime Continent. This has the potential to result in a strong temporal heterogeneity in soil water distribution affecting the ecosystem of the rainforest region and increasing the risk of flooding and/or landslides.

  3. Monitoring and modeling of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a continuous supraconducting gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Fores; Cédric, Champollion; Nicolas, Lemoigne; Jean, Chéry

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as time dependant gravity could be helpful to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, …) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, …) studies. Since more than 2 years, the iGrav #002 supraconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK observatory(Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. First, the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analysis of the global, topographic and building effects will be done to evaluate the local water storage only. The gravity data will be integrated with the water level data in nearby boreholes and petrophysical data from core samples. Finally, simple hydrological models will be presented to help the interpretation on the karst groundwater storage and transfer and to merge the whole dataset.

  4. Localized Profile of Arsenic in Soil and Water in the Area Around Gold Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanes Weerasiri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water samples from the area vicinity to gold mine at Wangsaphung District, Loei province, have been collected to investigate the arsenic concentration. Five boreholes were drilled into the ground until reaching to gravel layer or bedrock, and Soil samples were collected at every 0.50 - meter depth. Four boreholes are located inside the catchment in which the gold mine situated whereas the other one was bored at the outside. In addition, 13 sets of surface water and 8 sets of groundwater were also collected. The results of concentration test indicated that soil samples within at least 3 boreholes have arsenic content enormously exceeded the maximum concentration limits (MCL specified by the Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. Geologic condition underneath soil layer also play an important role on the concentration of arsenic. Soil column placed on the originally-deposited gravel bed can retain less concentration of arsenic, whereas soil column on bedrock can retain much more. For water samples, arsenic contents were generally less than 10 µg/l, the MCL specified by U.S.EPA, except that there is one interesting location found extremely high. That location give an useful information for further finding of arsenic pathway.

  5. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  6. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Nyenje

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport of excessive phosphorus (P discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2. Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P, particulate P (PP, total P (TP and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36–144 mg L-1, HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9. High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  7. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  8. Detecting changes in surface water area of Lake Kyoga sub-basin using remotely sensed imagery in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, F. W. N.; Botai, Joel O.; Olwoch, Jane M.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW; Kalumba, Ahmed M.; Tsela, Philemon; Adeola, Abiodun M.; Sentongo, Ausi A.; Mearns, Kevin F.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of changes in Earth surface features, for example lakes, is important for understanding the relationships between human and natural phenomena in order to manage better the increasingly scarce natural resources. This work presents a procedure of using modified normalised difference water index (MNDWI) to detect fluctuations of lake surface water area and relate it to a changing climate. The study used radiometrically and geometrically rectified Landsat images for 1986, 1995 and 2010 encompassing the Kyoga Basin lakes of Uganda, in order to investigate the changes in surface water area between the respective years. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and drought severity index (DSI) are applied to show the relationship between variability of surface water area and climate parameters. The present analysis reveals that surface water area fluctuation is linked to rainfall variability. In particular, Lake Kyoga sub-basin lakes experienced an increase in surface water area in 2010 compared to 1986. This work has important implications to water resources management for Lake Kyoga and could be vital to water resource managers across Ugandan lakes.

  9. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water from some longevity and non-longevity areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Hussain, Rahib

    2017-06-01

    There is an obvious regional longevity phenomenon in China and many longevity counties are located in South China. This study was carried out to find the characteristics of elemental contents of drinking water in longevity areas in South China and the differences to non-longevity areas in China. A total of 128 drinking water samples were collected from longevity areas in South China (n = 40), non-longevity areas in South China (n = 74) and non-longevity areas in North China (n = 14) and 46 parameters of water were determined or calculated. The results showed that drinking water in longevity areas of South China had a high ratio of sum concentration of essential micro-elements in sum concentration of micro-elements (SCME) and a low ratio of sum concentration of hazardous micro-elements in SCME. The concentration of total hardness (TH) and strontium in drinking water was 157.82 mg/L and 82.1 μg/L, respectively, and they were 14.61 mg/L, 7.45 μg/L and 291.69 mg/L, 748.65 μg/L in the non-longevity areas of South and North China, respectively. The study concluded that drinking water containing 157.82 mg/L TH and 82.1 μg/L strontium in South China may be optimum to human health.

  11. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  12. Cold-water coral distributions in the Drake Passage area from towed camera observations - Initial interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Catanach, Kathryn Scanlon; Robinson, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean), yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage), using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals) were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace) and alcyonacean (soft) corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature) between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these isolated

  13. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  14. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  15. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  16. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an agricultural area of Sherburne County, Minnesota, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, James F.; Fong, Alison L.; Hanson, Paul E.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The quality of shallow ground water in a 75-mi2 agricultural area of the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer in central Minnesota is described as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program - a national-scale assessment of the quality of water resources within large study units in various hydrologic settings. Data were collected during 1998 from 29 wells completed in the aquifer, which predominantly consists of surficial glacial sand and gravel sediments.

  17. Depth-to-water area polygons, isopleths showing mean annual runoff, 1912-1963, and water-level altitude contours for the Humboldt River Basin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, Toby L.; Medina, Rose L.

    2017-01-01

    This USGS data release represents the 1:500,000-scale geospatial data for the following publication:Eakin, T.E., and Lamke, R.D., 1966, Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Humboldt River basin, Nevada: Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Water Resources Bulletin 32, 107 p.The data set consists of 3 separate items:1. Depth-to-water area polygons2. Isopleths showing mean annual runoff, 1912-19633. Water-level altitude contours

  18. Hållbar vattenförsörjning i områden med vattenbrist : Sustainable water supply solutions for areas affected by water shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Västberg, Erika

    2014-01-01

    In some coastal areas in Sweden water shortage sometimes appears because the withdrawal of groundwater is greater than the groundwater recharge. It creates a situation where the available groundwater is insufficient to support residents and businesses with drinking water. The high withdrawal of groundwater also creates a risk for saltwater intrusion to drinking water wells. The problem most commonly occurs during the summer when the groundwater recharge is low, but the population is high, due...

  19. Environmental assessment and cost estimation of drinking water and wastewater systems for transition areas in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Erlandsson, A; Kärrman, E

    2008-01-01

    In the Stockholm region there are around 90,000 households with single systems. These households cause larger phosphorus flows to the Baltic Sea than the 1.8 million people connected to four advanced large-scale treatment plants in the same region. According to city plans, some of these areas with on-site systems in transition to permanent living shall be connected to central systems. The problem is however that this sewer system will take decades to complete. It is also not ensured whether or not all peripheral areas with on-site systems could be connected to the central systems. To help support environmental decisions for the selection of wastewater systems for these areas, an Excel-based model has been developed where the cost for the systems can be assessed and evaluated in relation to their environmental impact. The model deals with two types of environmental issues: substance flow analysis and energy analysis. The cost part considers investigations, investments, design, operation, maintenance and supervision, and calculates total annual cost for the water and wastewater system per person.

  20. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  1. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manjusha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia were tested from the sampling site with highest antibiotic resistance. Of the total 119 Vibrio isolates, 16. 8% were susceptible to all antibiotics. Of the resistant (83.19% Vibrio strains, 30.3% were resistant against three antibiotics, 55.5% were resistant against 4-10 antibiotics, 14.14% were resistant against more than 10 antibiotics and 54% have shown multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR. Antibiotic resistance index was higher in Coastal 3, 6, Aqua farm 2 in isolates from water samples and all the tissues tested. Interestingly, incidence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from water samples was comparatively lower in aquaculture farms than that observed in coastal areas. Highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was evident against Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Carbencillin and Cefuroxime followed by Rifampicin and Streptomycin and lowest against Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Furazolidone, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin Sulphafurazole, Trimethoprim, Neomycin and Amikacin irrespective of the sampling sites. Results from various tissue samples collected from the sites of highest antibiotic resistance indicated that antibiotic resistance Vibrio spp. collected from fish and tissue samples were higher than that of water samples. Overall results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against diseases in human beings and other life forms may pollute the aquatic system and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp. may be a serious threat in addition to the use of

  2. Arsenic Contamination of Water-Soil-Crop System in an Industrial Area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic (As concentrations of irrigation water, soils and vegetables were investigated in an agricultural section of Gazipur industrial area in Bangladesh, where industrial wastewater is mixed with irrigation water. The results showed that the mean As concentration of the irrigation water (0.16-0.62 mg L-1 exceeded the permissible limit for agricultural purposes recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (0.10 mg L-1. The mean As concentration of soils (6.48-9.75 mg kg-1 did not exceed the tolerable limit for agricultural soils recommended by the FAO (20.0 mg kg-1. While, the As concentration of the respective vegetables in average varied from 0.63 to 1.07 mg kg-1 dry weight, and the highest As concentration in average was observed in taro root (1.26-2.31 mg kg-1, followed by helencha leaf (1.85-2.02 mg kg-1. The average As concentration of root vegetables (1.84 mg kg-1 exceeded the permissible limit of 1.0 mg kg-1 suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization, while that of leafy (0.77 mg kg-1 and fruit vegetables (0.14 mg kg-1 did not exceed the limit. Soils irrigated with As containing water that holds much amount of As showed a positive correlation with the vegetable As concentration. A decrease in the As concentration from soil to vegetable was found in root, leafy and fruit vegetables. However, the vegetables were not safe for human consumption. Some countermeasures are, therefore, necessary to reduce the vegetable As concentration.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 76-86

  3. Longitudinal study of microbial diversity and seasonality in the Mexico City metropolitan area water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-09-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10%