WorldWideScience

Sample records for water analysis

  1. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  2. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  3. Benchmarking in water project analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2008-11-01

    The with/without principle of cost-benefit analysis is examined for the possible bias that it brings to water resource planning. Theory and examples for this question are established. Because benchmarking against the demonstrably low without-project hurdle can detract from economic welfare and can fail to promote efficient policy, improvement opportunities are investigated. In lieu of the traditional, without-project benchmark, a second-best-based "difference-making benchmark" is proposed. The project authorizations and modified review processes instituted by the U.S. Water Resources Development Act of 2007 may provide for renewed interest in these findings.

  4. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz TUTAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the global problems since we met the phenomenon of globalization, the water has also taken its place. Economic analysis of water have become a topic of examination by many economist in recent years. Water is one of the important needs of human life. Water has an important place in respect of its role in maintaining a healty way of life. However, our country’s water resources are getting polluted day by day and the amount of water need the per capita is inceasing fast year by year due to population growth. Water quality can not be observed in Turkey and the necessarydata bank is unable to be formed. Protection of water resources and the evaluation of if in accordance with beneficial use can be only done with an integrated management mechanism. The purpose of this study is to make economic analysis of water located in natural resources. In this context the analysis of water supply and demand, the place of water in the economy, water resources and use of them in Turkey, in the World and EU, finally SWOT analysis of Turkey in terms of water resources were performed.

  5. The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

    2003-04-01

    The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows.

  6. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  7. Chattahoochee River Water Quality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    supply and cold water fishery. Georgia Fish and Game has stocked this area with both fingerlings and trout of catchable size. Eighty thousand (80,000...fish per year of catchable size are planted from April to October. It is estimated that the standing crop of cold water fish is on the order of thirty

  8. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  9. Shallow Water Acoustic Experiment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    KNORR as it towed a J-15-1 source that emitted four tonals in the 50-250 Hz band, and the deployment locations of two Combustive Sound Source (CSS) events...collected on Array 2 in the 50-250 Hz band. The geoacoustic parameter that is best defined is the sound speed ratio at the water sediment interface... pulse length of the simulated and measured time series agree is an independent confirmation that the attenuation values deduced in Ref. 1 are

  10. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Lohrasbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water networks. This pressure maybe defects on pipes and connections. The likely effects of water hammer must be taken into account in the structural design of pipelines and in the design of operating procedures for pumps, valves, etc. Approach: The physical phenomena of water hammer and the mathematical model which provides the basis for design computations are described. Most water hammer analysis involves computer solution by the method of characteristics. In this study water hammer is modelled with this method and effect of valve opening and closure will be surveyed with a program that is used for this purpose and with a numerical example. Results: The more rapid the closure of the valve, the more rapid is the change in momentum and hence, greater is the additional pressure developed. Conclusions/Recommendations: For preventing of water hammer defects, is recommended that valves should be open or closed slowly. Also with using the method of characteristics, we can modelled all pipe networks, and see the affects of water hammer.

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  12. Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

  13. Water jet/spray measurement analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide analysis of data obtained under a previous contract entitled Characterization of Drop Spectra from High Volume Flow Water Jets. Measurements of drop spectra were obtained in the spray resulting from the breakup of high volume flow water jets from a variety of nozzle types. The drop spectra measurements were obtained from two drop spectrometers covering a range from 10 microns to 12 millimeters diameter. The task addressed was to select representative spectra from the individual tests and provide analyses in both numerical and graphical formats as outlined in the proposal. The intended application of these results is an evaluation of the feasibility of fog clearing by high volume water sprays. During the tests, a fog event occurred making it possible to test the concept of fog clearing. Visual range data and fog drop spectra were analyzed, with particular emphasis placed on the modification of these parameters due to the water spray.

  14. Analysis of Water Extraction From Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of water concentration on the Moon is currently an area of active research. Recent studies suggest the presence of ice particles, and perhaps even ice blocks and ice-cemented regolith on the Moon. Thermal extraction of the in-situ water is an attractive means of sa tisfying water requirements for a lunar mission. In this paper, a model is presented to analyze the processes occurring during the heat-up of icy regolith and extraction of the evolved water vapor. The wet regolith is assumed to be present in an initially evacuated and sealed cell which is subsequently heated. The first step of the analysis invol ves calculating the gradual increase of vapor pressure in the closed cell as the temperature is raised. Then, in the second step, the cell is evacuated to low pressure (e.g., vacuum), allowing the water vapor to leave the cell and be captured. The parameters affecting water vap or pressure build-up and evacuation for the purpose of extracting water from lunar regolith are discussed in the paper. Some comparisons wi th available experimental measurements are also made.

  15. Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković-Ognjanović Vladana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD, for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water distribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains

  16. Analysis of China's Water Security and Virtual Water Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongrui; Liu Xinghan; Dong Yanyan; Wang Junhong

    2006-01-01

    Producing goods and services all needs water consumption. The water used in the process of an agricultural or industrial product is called the "Virtual Water" contained in this product.Through international trade, water-scarce countries and regions could purchase water-intensive products--especially foods, from water-rich countries to balance their water deficits and achieve water safety. China is one of the 13 most water-deficit countries whose water safety have been severely challenged. This paper generalized the recent global research development and made a brief introduction about the methods calculating virtual water content in specific products. As a case study, we qualified China's annual virtual water flows from year 2000 to 2002 with trade in crops, and ended with some policy advice for application and practice of virtual water strategy.

  17. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Bikas [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  18. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  19. Global resilience analysis of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Sweetapple, Chris; Farmani, Raziyeh; Fu, Guangtao; Ward, Sarah; Butler, David

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i.e. potential failure modes. GRA aims to evaluate a system's resilience to a possible failure mode regardless of the causal threat(s) (known or unknown, external or internal). The method is applied to test the resilience of four water distribution systems (WDSs) with various features to three typical failure modes (pipe failure, excess demand, and substance intrusion). The study reveals GRA provides an overview of a water system's resilience to various failure modes. For each failure mode, it identifies the range of corresponding failure impacts and reveals extreme scenarios (e.g. the complete loss of water supply with only 5% pipe failure, or still meeting 80% of demand despite over 70% of pipes failing). GRA also reveals that increased resilience to one failure mode may decrease resilience to another and increasing system capacity may delay the system's recovery in some situations. It is also shown that selecting an appropriate level of detail for hydraulic models is of great importance in resilience analysis. The method can be used as a comprehensive diagnostic framework to evaluate a range of interventions for improving system resilience in future studies.

  20. Analysis of regulated suspected allergens in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Elias; Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Llompart, Maria; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2010-12-15

    Fragrance suspected allergens including those regulated by the EU Directive 76/768/EEC have been determined in different types of waters using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure was based on headspace sampling (HS-SPME) using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibers and has been optimized by an experimental design approach. The method performance has been studied showing good linearity (R ≥ 0.994) as well as good intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD ≤ 12%). Detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the quantitative recoveries of the compounds in real water samples, including baby bathwaters, swimming pool waters, and wastewaters. The absence of matrix effects allowed quantification of the compounds by external aqueous calibration. The analysis of 35 samples of different types of waters showed the presence of suspected allergens in all the analyzed samples. All targets were found in the samples, with the exception of methyl eugenol and amyl cinnamic alcohol. Highest concentrations of suspected allergens were present in baby bathwaters, containing from 5 to 15 of the compounds at concentrations ranging from few pg mL(-1) to several hundreds of ng mL(-1).

  1. Analysis on Systematic Water Scarcity Based on Establishment of Water Scarcity Classification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It would be very helpful for making countermeasures against complex water scarcity by analysis on systematic water scarcity.Based on the previous researches on water scarcity classification,a classification system of water scarcity was established according to contributing factors,which comprises three water scarcity categories caused by anthropic factors,natural factors and mixed factors respectively.Accordingly,the concept of systematic water scarcity was proposed,which can be defined as one type of water...

  2. Portland Water Fluoridation: A Newspaper Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Allison; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Lewis, Patricia Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Portland, Oregon is the largest city in the United States without community water fluoridation (CWF). A newspaper analysis was conducted of the failed 2013 CWF campaign to evaluate anti-fluoridation and pro-fluoridation messaging provided by newspapers during the campaign. News content was categorized by type and slant (pro-fluoridation, anti-fluoridation, or neutral) and 34 variables were tabulated (23 anti-fluoridation, 11 pro-fluoridation). Results showed overall messaging was slightly pro-fluoridation, as compared to anti-fluoridation or neutral content (35%, 32%, and 33% respectively). Editorial content was 85% pro-fluoridation and 15% anti-fluoridation. The most frequent anti-fluoridation variables were alternatives to water fluoridation, mass/forced medication and concerns about the political process. Conversely, tooth decay and social justice were the most commonly cited pro-fluoridation variables. Newspapers can be influential in shaping public policy opinions in the fight for community water fluoridation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dielectrophoretic analysis of microbes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, W B; Brown, A P

    1998-12-01

    Traditional microbiological methods are still used extensively for analysis of micro-organisms in water. However, they are inefficient due to a high labour input requirement, a low sample capacity, and often a long time lag before results are available. Analytical stages involving incubation and growth (enrichments and colony isolation) contribute the greatest delay in reporting, although subsequent identification can also be protracted. The use of electrometric growth analysers (measuring impedance, conductance or capacitance changes) is now more common in water microbiology. Although these instruments can provide more rapid results and provide increased handling capacity, the bacterial generation times required to provide detectable changes cause delays and suitable selective media are not fully developed for all microbes of interest. Most other recent methods have equally disappointing drawbacks and thus extensive research continues in order to realise the ambition of 'real-time' analytical microbiology. Several research groups have demonstrated the potential of dielectrophoresis in providing microbial concentration, separation and identification systems which are not limited by bacterial growth and are therefore extremely rapid. Dielectrophoresis occurs when cells are placed in non-uniform electric fields. The cells move towards the electrodes (regardless of the direction of the applied field) as determined by their dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) rather than by their charge as occurs in electrophoresis. Also, the polarisability of the cells, and therefore the polarity and magnitude of the dielectrophoretic force, varies as a function of the electric field frequency. Because the dielectric properties of a particular cell type have characteristic frequency-dependent components, if cell collection at electrodes is observed across a frequency range, the collection spectrum produced is distinctive for the cell type under investigation. This

  4. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  5. MHD Shallow Water Waves: Linear Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    We present a linear analysis of inviscid, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shallow water systems. In spherical geometry, a generic property of such systems is the existence of five wave modes. Three of them (two magneto-Poincare modes and one magneto-Rossby mode) are previously known. The other two wave modes are strongly influenced by the magnetic field and rotation, and have substantially lower angular frequencies; as such, we term them "magnetostrophic modes". We obtain analytical functions for the velocity, height and magnetic field perturbations in the limit that the magnitude of the MHD analogue of Lamb's parameter is large. On a sphere, the magnetostrophic modes reside near the poles, while the other modes are equatorially confined. Magnetostrophic modes may be an ingredient in explaining the frequency drifts observed in Type I X-ray bursts from neutron stars.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of viruses in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Nilsson, Christina; Lim, Yan Wei; Ruan, Yijun; Breitbart, Mya

    2009-11-01

    Reclaimed water use is an important component of sustainable water resource management. However, there are concerns regarding pathogen transport through this alternative water supply. This study characterized the viral community found in reclaimed water and compared it with viruses in potable water. Reclaimed water contained 1000-fold more virus-like particles than potable water, having approximately 10(8) VLPs per millilitre. Metagenomic analyses revealed that most of the viruses in both reclaimed and potable water were novel. Bacteriophages dominated the DNA viral community in both reclaimed and potable water, but reclaimed water had a distinct phage community based on phage family distributions and host representation within each family. Eukaryotic viruses similar to plant pathogens and invertebrate picornaviruses dominated RNA metagenomic libraries. Established human pathogens were not detected in reclaimed water viral metagenomes, which contained a wealth of novel single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses related to plant, animal and insect viruses. Therefore, reclaimed water may play a role in the dissemination of highly stable viruses. Information regarding viruses present in reclaimed water but not in potable water can be used to identify new bioindicators of water quality. Future studies will need to investigate the infectivity and host range of these viruses to evaluate the impacts of reclaimed water use on human and ecosystem health.

  7. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by the...

  8. Water quality index using multivariate factorial analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Coletti; Roberto Testezlaf; Túlio A. P. Ribeiro; Renata T. G. de Souza; Daniela de A. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of environmental effects generated by agricultural production on water quality became essential in Brazil after the creation of policies for the use and conservation of water resources...

  9. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Lohrasbi; R. Attarnejad

    2008-01-01

    Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water n...

  10. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress......Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...

  11. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  12. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  13. Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water productivity (WP) expresses the value or benefit derived from the use of water, and includes essential aspects of water management such as production for arid and semi-arid regions. A profound WP analysis was carried out at five selected farmer fields (two for wheat¿rice and three for

  14. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...

  15. Analysis of ONKALO water leakage mapping results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J; Turku, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis has been compiled of water leakage mapping performed in ONKALO. Leakage mapping is part of the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) and the field work has been carried out by Posiva Oy. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between mapping campaigns carried out typically twice a year in 2005-2012. Differences were estimated to be caused by the differences in groundwater conditions caused by seasonal effects or by differences between the years. The effect of technical changes like shotcreting, postgrouting, ventilation etc. on the results was also studied. The development of the visualisation of mapping results was also an objective of this work. Leakage mapping results have been reported yearly in the monitoring reports of Hydrology with some brief comments on the detected differences. In this study, the development of the total area and the number of different leakages as well as the correlation of changes with shotcreting and grouting operations were studied. In addition, traces of fractures on tunnel surfaces, and the location of rock bolts and drain pipes were illustrated together with leakage mapping. In water leakage mapping, the tunnel surfaces are visually mapped to five categories: dry, damp, wet, dripping and flowing. Major changes were detected in the total area of damp leakages. It is likely that the increase has been caused by the condensation of warm ventilation air on the tunnel surfaces and the corresponding decrease by the evaporation of moisture into the dry ventilation air. Shotcreting deep in ONKALO may also have decreased the total area of damp leakages. Changes in the total area and number of wet leakages correlate at least near the surface with differences in yearly precipitation. It is possible that strong rains have also caused a temporary increase in wet leakages. Dripping and wet leakages have been observed on average more

  16. An analysis of water data systems to inform the Open Water Data Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Read, Emily Kara; Lucido, Jessica M.; Slawecki, Tad; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Improving access to data and fostering open exchange of water information is foundational to solving water resources issues. In this vein, the Department of the Interior's Assistant Secretary for Water and Science put forward the charge to undertake an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) that would prioritize and accelerate work toward better water data infrastructure. The goal of the OWDI is to build out the Open Water Web (OWW). We therefore considered the OWW in terms of four conceptual functions: water data cataloging, water data as a service, enriching water data, and community for water data. To describe the current state of the OWW and identify areas needing improvement, we conducted an analysis of existing systems using a standard model for describing distributed systems and their business requirements. Our analysis considered three OWDI-focused use cases—flooding, drought, and contaminant transport—and then examined the landscape of other existing applications that support the Open Water Web. The analysis, which includes a discussion of observed successful practices of cataloging, serving, enriching, and building community around water resources data, demonstrates that we have made significant progress toward the needed infrastructure, although challenges remain. The further development of the OWW can be greatly informed by the interpretation and findings of our analysis.

  17. Criminalistic analysis of water pollution in Dagestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Agarzaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinkable water in Republic of Dagestan is not correspond the demand of the norm of sanitary. Article 250 of Criminal code foresees the responsibility for pollution of water is necessary for correcting because of efficacious use.

  18. Water for bioenergy: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Meer, van der T.H.; Gasparatos, A.; Stromberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is by far the largest water user. This chapter reviews studies on the water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy (in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat and electricity produced from biomass) and compares their results with the WFs of fossil energy and other types of renewables (wind po

  19. Water Ingress Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    be addressed to reduce the risk of water ingress. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Failure Analysis, Water Ingress, Ingress Protection, Rain Test 16. SECURITY...conversion coated and should not have been subject to corrosion with exposure to ordinary rain water . The batteries were highly corroded, and some...steel/chromate conversion coated. Corrosion of the star washers was greater than would be expected by normal rain water at normal temperatures

  20. Water Grabbing analysis at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M.; Saviori, A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2012-12-01

    "Land grabbing" is the acquisition of agricultural land by foreign governments and corporations, a phenomenon that has greatly intensified over the last few years as a result of the increase in food prices and biofuel demand. Land grabbing is inherently associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been investigated before. Here we provide a global assessment of the total grabbed land and water resources. Using process-based agro-hydrological models we estimate the rates of freshwater grabbing worldwide. We find that this phenomenon is occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. High rates of water grabbing are often associated with deforestation and the increase in water withdrawals for irrigation.

  1. Chemical and Physical Indicators in Drinking Water and Water Sources of Boroujerd Using Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi , M. (MSC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality control of drinking water is important for maintaining health and safety of consumers, and the first step is to study the water quality variables. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical indicators, water quality variables and qualitative classification of drinking water stations and water sources in Boroujerd. Material and Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted on 70 samples of drinking water and 10 samples from sources in 2011-2012. Nine Water quality variables were measured and coded using STATISTICA10 Software. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed for qualitative classification of water samples and determination of water quality variables. Results: Based on PCA, chemical variables such as fluoride, nitrate, total hardness and iron, and physical variables such as pH and TDS were paramount importance to water quality. According to T-test, the average concentration of fluoride and iron, and the turbidity in all samples were significantly less than the standard. But other variables were up to standard. Conclusion: For the large water quality data, the use of PCA to identify the main qualitative variables and to classify physical and chemical variables can be used as an effective way in water quality management. Keywords: Physical and Chemical Indicators, Drinking Water and Sources, Boroujerd, Principal Component Analysis

  2. Analysis Approach to Improve Star Rating Of Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Dabhade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric Water Heaters are widely used all over the world that can be categorized in two types i.e. Instant Water Heaters & Storage type Water Heaters. The energy consumption for 6 liter water heaters is much higher in the storage type of water heater. As energy is an important factor for economic development of country, therefore there is need to save the energy which implies the focus to use Storage type Water Heaters. In 6 Liter water heater, Existing model converting from 4 star rating to 5 star rating by thermal analysis & insulation. After the theoretical calculation of thickness of glass wool is the practical testing of product with BEE norms & got results for 5 Star Calculation. Finally we are doing the thermal analysis for theoretical & practical verification of the product

  3. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically

  4. Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosemond, Simone; Duro, Dennis C; Dubé, Monique

    2009-09-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data against numeric water quality guidelines and/or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that represents overall water quality. The CCME WQI has been used to rate overall water quality in spatial and temporal comparisons of site(s). However, it has not been used in a comparative-analysis of exposure sites to reference sites downstream of point source discharges. This study evaluated the ability of the CCME WQI to differentiate water quality from metal mines across Canada at exposure sites from reference sites using two different types of numeric water quality objectives: (1) the water quality guidelines (WQG) for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and (2) water quality objectives determined using regional reference data termed Region-Specific Objectives (RSO). The application of WQG to the CCME WQI was found to be a good tool to assess absolute water quality as it relates to national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, but had more limited use when evaluating spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges. The application of the RSO to the CCME WQI resulted in assessment of spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges relative to upstream reference conditions.

  5. Micromechanical analysis of water retention phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, J.-P.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Soulié, F.; El Youssoufi, M. S.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the water distribution and the link between suction and water content in granular media. Firstly, we examine the effect of suction on the shape and the volume of the liquid bridge for different parameters (grain radius, inter-particle distance, contact angle, surface tension). This local behaviour is then used in a discrete element study of a sample composed of several thousands of grains. We focus our study on the pendular state. The existence of a liquid film around the grains which involves the continuity of the liquid phase is assumed. The water distribution and the water content associated with a given suction are calculated. Then retention curves of the granular media are built. Four different methods are used. The first is based on the local expression of the capillary force coupled with the "gorge method," the second is based on the Laplace equation, and the third and the fourth are based on the integration of the differential equation that defines the liquid bridge shape. A parametric study is made to bring to light the effect of macroscopic parameters (grain-size distribution, density) and physical parameters (liquid/air surface tension, contact angle) on the water retention curve. Finally, numerical data are compared to experimental results.

  6. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  7. Water analysis via portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Delaina; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Duda, Bogdan; Li, Bin; Weindorf, David C.; Deb, Shovik; Brevik, Eric; Ray, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid, in-situ elemental water analysis would be an invaluable tool in studying polluted and/or salt-impacted waters. Analysis of water salinity has commonly used electrical conductance (EC); however, the identity of the elements responsible for the salinity are not revealed using EC. Several studies have established the viability of using portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry for elemental data analysis of soil, sediment, and other matrices. However, the accuracy of PXRF is known to be affected while scanning moisture-laden soil samples. This study used PXRF elemental data in water samples to predict water EC. A total of 256 water samples, from 10 different countries were collected and analyzed via PXRF, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and a digital salinity bridge. The PXRF detected some elements more effectively than others, but overall results indicated that PXRF can successfully predict water EC via quantifying Cl in water samples (validation R2 and RMSE of 0.77 and 0.95 log μS cm-1, respectively). The findings of this study elucidated the potential of PXRF for future analysis of pollutant and/or metal contaminated waters.

  8. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and d

  9. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  10. Tidal Analysis of High and Low Water Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peiliang; LI Lei; ZUO Juncheng; ZHAO Wei; CHEN Zongyong

    2004-01-01

    The harmonic analysis method based on high and low water levels is discussed in this paper. In order to make full use of the information of high and low water observations (the time derivative of water level at the observation time is zero), the weight coefficient, w, is introduced to control the importance of the part related to this information in the error formula. The major diurnal constituents, O1 and K1, and semi-diurnal constituents, N2, M2 and S2 are selected directly from the monthly data analysis, and some other important constituents, P1, v2 and K2, are included as the inferred constituents.The obtained harmonic constants of the major constituents are very close to those obtained from the analysis of hourly data,and this shows that high and low water data can be used to extract tidal constants with high accuracy. The analysis result also shows that the inference and the weighting coefficient are important in the high and low water data analysis, and it is suggested that w≥1 should be taken in monthly high and low water data analysis. This analysis method can be used directly to analyze altimetric data with w=0.

  11. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  12. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  13. PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugali. N. M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analysis such as temperature, pH, Total hardness, Chloride, fluoride, iron, Total Alkalinity, Nitrate, Nitrite and sulfate of bore wells, drinking water has been carried out from twenty sampling stations of Bagalkot territory area, India during March 2013 and August 2013 in order to assess water quality index.

  14. Water Pipeline Network Analysis Using Simultaneous Loop Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... A water pipeline network analysis with a case study of Owerri in Imo ... relatively complex problem, particularly if the ...... [11] Mason, P.R., Patterson, B.A. & Loewenson, R. (1986) “Piped water supply and Intestinal parasitism.

  15. Burning water: a comparative analysis of the energy return on water invested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kenneth; Hagens, Nathan; Fisher, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    While various energy-producing technologies have been analyzed to assess the amount of energy returned per unit of energy invested, this type of comprehensive and comparative approach has rarely been applied to other potentially limiting inputs such as water, land, and time. We assess the connection between water and energy production and conduct a comparative analysis for estimating the energy return on water invested (EROWI) for several renewable and non-renewable energy technologies using various Life Cycle Analyses. Our results suggest that the most water-efficient, fossil-based technologies have an EROWI one to two orders of magnitude greater than the most water-efficient biomass technologies, implying that the development of biomass energy technologies in scale sufficient to be a significant source of energy may produce or exacerbate water shortages around the globe and be limited by the availability of fresh water.

  16. Root Cause Analysis of Water Wastage in Hot - Cold Water Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kokane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hot - Cold Water Dispenser is a high end kitchen product mounted on sink of kitchen to meet the requirement of instant hot and cold water as desired. It provides cold water at ambient temperature and hot water at near boiling temperature of about 97ºC to meet the instant water need. It was reported from few users, small amount of unnecessary water get dispensed from the Hot - Cold Water Dispenser during the idle conditions. This is undesirable and affecting on the overall performance of product. This paper briefs the available Root Cause Analysis and process to select the suitable method to find out the root cause of problem. From the available methods, Fault Tree Analysis was found to be most suitable method. The paper describes this method in length. Fault Tree Analysis is used as the scientific approach to find the root cause of problem of water dripping in Hot - Cold Water Dispenser at idle condition. It makes use of a graphical representation of the major faults associated with the product, the causes for the faults, and potential countermeasures. It is found that the FTA tool helps to identify areas of concern for new product design as well as for improvement of existing products.

  17. Physiological response, molecular analysis and water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Molecular analysis of three hybrids revealed the possibility of introgressing the ...... complex and depends on both biophysical and economic ... Grant RF, Jackson BS, Kiniry KR, Arkin GF (1989) Water deficit timing effects on ...

  18. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  19. Water imaging in living plant by nondestructive neutron beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, M. Tomoko [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Analysis of biological activity in intact cells or tissues is essential to understand many life processes. Techniques for these in vivo measurements have not been well developed. We present here a nondestructive method to image water in living plants using a neutron beam. This technique provides the highest resolution for water in tissue yet obtainable. With high specificity to water, this neutron beam technique images water movement in seeds or in roots imbedded in soil, as well as in wood and meristems during development. The resolution of the image attainable now is about 15um. We also describe how this new technique will allow new investigations in the field of plant research. (author)

  20. Simulation analysis of domestic water demand and its future uncertainty in water scarce areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouke WEI; Albrecht GNAUCK; Alin LEI

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a practical simulation approach to analyze domestic water demand and its future uncertainty in water scarce areas through a case study of Beijing, China. Analytic models and a forecasting model were constructed using statistic and econometric regres-sion approaches. The analytic models were used to analyze the interrelationships between domestic water demand and some socio-economic factors of Beijing. The forecasting model was applied to predict domestic water demand from 2009 to 2015, and this model was validated by comparing the prediction values with the observations. Scenario analysis was applied to simulate uncertainty and risks in domestic water demand in the future. The simulation results proved that domestic water demand will increase from 13.9×108 m3 to 16.7×108 m3 from 2009 to 2015. Three more sustainable strategies were also found through scenario analysis. The simulation and modeling approaches and results would be very supportive for water decision makers in allocating water efficiently and making sustainable water strategies.

  1. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically

  2. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  3. Hydraulic analysis of water supply networks and controlling the leak using WATER GEMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motevalizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that the discussion on water is strategic in terms of economic and social aspects as well as environmental impact, water leak in urban water-supply systems is very important, so, dealing with it is necessary and inevitable. Controlling and reducing water leak are of the main goals of water supplier organization due to limitations in terms of water resources, especially in dry lands which have few water resources. Pressure management is an efficient tool to reduce costs, enhance the operation of the network and therefore, it reduces the leak and increases the life of facilities and equipment and reduces the number of accidents. Smart pressure containment is a good way to prevent excess pressure in network to control undesirable phenomenon of leak which is directly related to pressure. In this study, Badamuiyeh water supply complex in Kerman City was selected to study on adjusting the pressure to control the leak of water and the hydraulic analysis was performed with demand-based method (DDSM, which is common technique and demand is constant, by Water GEMS software. For this end, the pressure reducing valves (prv were installed in critical point and they were timed to provide standard pressure in all nodes of the network and then, the impact of smart pressure management on water supply system has been investigated. Then its impact on the leak was examined and the results show that smart pressure control through pressure-reducing valve is a proper method for optimal management of water and reducing the leak significantly that with 45.15% reduction in average pressure, one can reduce the leak as much as 25.67% that as its result, 15380 m3 of water is annually saved in this region which is equal to 27.18% of consuming water.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Water Confined in Ion-Exchanged Zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Neuhoff, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Zeolites, which host large quantities of water, are among the most important rock-forming and environmental minerals in the surface and near-surface regions of the Earth. The physical properties and geochemical behavior of water confined in zeolites differs substantially from that of bulk liquid water, and the energectics of confined water exerts a profound influence on the stability and behavior of zeolites in natural and engineered systems. Because the cations and water molecules are both located in the zeolitic channels, changes in cation content can influence the amount and site occupancies of water molecules in zeolites. In order to find out the relationship between the behavior of confined water and cation composition in zeolites, thermogravimetric and calorimetric experiments were conducted on the mordenite (one of the most common zeolites) samples of mixing Na+ and K+. These mordenite solid solutions were generated by binary ion exchange between pure synthetic Na-mordenite (CBV 10A, obtained from Zeolyst International) and chloride solutions containing Na+ and K+ of different equivalent concentration ratios. The results from dehydration and hydration of the mordenite solid solutions show that when the mole fraction of K+ in mordenite increases, the maximum water content of mordenite decreases and the enthalpy of hydration becomes less exothermic. More importantly, both maximum water content and enthalpy of hydration of mordenite are demonstrated to change linearly with mole fraction of K+. Two energetically distinct sets of water molecules have been observed in mordenite: W1 (relatively less energetic) and W2 (relatively high energetic). Thermodynamic analysis on the hydration of W1 and W2 reveals that these two sets of water molecules behave differently when cation composition of mordenite changes. The water content of W2 is independent of cation composition, whereas W1 loses water with when mole fraction of K+ increases; the enthalpy of hydration of W1

  5. Water use and time analysis in ablution from taps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaied, Roubi A.

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of water resources and an extreme use of potable water in our Arab region. Ablution from taps was studied since it is a repeated daily activity that consumes more water. Five different tap types are investigated for water consumption fashions including traditional mixing tap and automatic tap. Analyzing 100 experimental observations revealed that 22.7-28.8 % of ablution water is used for washing of feet and the largest water waste occurs during washing of face portions. Moreover, 30-47 % amount of water consumed in ablution from taps is wasted which can be saved if tap releases water only at moments of need. The push-type tap is being spread recently especially in airports. If it is intended for use in ablution facilities, batch duration and volume must be tuned. When each batch is 0.25 L of water and lasts for 3 s, 3 L are sufficient for one complete ablution in average which means considerable saving. A cost-benefit model is proposed for using different tap types and an economic feasibility study is performed on a case study. This analysis can help us to design better ablution systems.

  6. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  7. Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohul-Amin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005. According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91, turbidity (3-9NTU and TSS (2-6 mg/L. The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive

  8. Forecasting urban water demand: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebri, Maamar

    2016-12-01

    Water managers and planners require accurate water demand forecasts over the short-, medium- and long-term for many purposes. These range from assessing water supply needs over spatial and temporal patterns to optimizing future investments and planning future allocations across competing sectors. This study surveys the empirical literature on the urban water demand forecasting using the meta-analytical approach. Specifically, using more than 600 estimates, a meta-regression analysis is conducted to identify explanations of cross-studies variation in accuracy of urban water demand forecasting. Our study finds that accuracy depends significantly on study characteristics, including demand periodicity, modeling method, forecasting horizon, model specification and sample size. The meta-regression results remain robust to different estimators employed as well as to a series of sensitivity checks performed. The importance of these findings lies in the conclusions and implications drawn out for regulators and policymakers and for academics alike. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Laura C; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-03-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m(3) per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m(3) per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m(3)), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest.

  10. Burning Water: A Comparative Analysis of the Energy Return on Water Invested

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, Kenneth (Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT (United States)), e-mail: mulderk@greenmtn.edu; Hagens, Nathan (Gund Inst. for Ecological Economics, Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)); Fisher, Brendan (Program in Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States))

    2010-02-15

    While various energy-producing technologies have been analyzed to assess the amount of energy returned per unit of energy invested, this type of comprehensive and comparative approach has rarely been applied to other potentially limiting inputs such as water, land, and time. We assess the connection between water and energy production and conduct a comparative analysis for estimating the energy return on water invested (EROWI) for several renewable and non-renewable energy technologies using various Life Cycle Analyses. Our results suggest that the most water-efficient, fossil-based technologies have an EROWI one to two orders of magnitude greater than the most water-efficient biomass technologies, implying that the development of biomass energy technologies in scale sufficient to be a significant source of energy may produce or exacerbate water shortages around the globe and be limited by the availability of fresh water. We believe our analysis demonstrates that energy technologies must be assessed in a multi-criteria framework and not just from the perspective of energy alone. Ultimately, we should strive to have a renewable resource portfolio aggregating the highest returns on our most limiting inputs

  11. Seismic reliability analysis of urban water distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie; Wei Shulin; Liu Wei

    2006-01-01

    An approach to analyze the seismic reliability of water distribution networks by combining a hydraulic analysis with a first-order reliability method (FORM), is proposed in this paper.The hydraulic analysis method for normal conditions is modified to accommodate the special conditions necessary to perform a seismic hydraulic analysis. In order to calculate the leakage area and leaking flow of the pipelines in the hydraulic analysis method, a new leakage model established from the seismic response analysis of buried pipelines is presented. To validate the proposed approach, a network with 17 nodes and 24 pipelines is investigated in detail. The approach is also applied to an actual project consisting of 463 nodes and 767pipelines. Thee results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory results in analyzing the seismic reliability of large-scale water distribution networks.

  12. Ecological network analysis on global virtual water trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Mao, Xufeng; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Bin

    2012-02-07

    Global water interdependencies are likely to increase with growing virtual water trade. To address the issues of the indirect effects of water trade through the global economic circulation, we use ecological network analysis (ENA) to shed insight into the complicated system interactions. A global model of virtual water flow among agriculture and livestock production trade in 1995-1999 is also built as the basis for network analysis. Control analysis is used to identify the quantitative control or dependency relations. The utility analysis provides more indicators for describing the mutual relationship between two regions/countries by imitating the interactions in the ecosystem and distinguishes the beneficiary and the contributor of virtual water trade system. Results show control and utility relations can well depict the mutual relation in trade system, and direct observable relations differ from integral ones with indirect interactions considered. This paper offers a new way to depict the interrelations between trade components and can serve as a meaningful start as we continue to use ENA in providing more valuable implications for freshwater study on a global scale.

  13. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; van der Zaag, P.; Fortemps, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  14. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  15. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  16. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-29

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0.

  17. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  18. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN MULTIVARIATE ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Radzka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of multivariate methods in drinking water analysis. During a five-year project, from 2008 to 2012, selected chemical parameters in 11 water supply networks of the Siedlce County were studied. Throughout that period drinking water was of satisfactory quality, with only iron and manganese ions exceeding the limits (21 times and 12 times, respectively. In accordance with the results of cluster analysis, all water networks were put into three groups of different water quality. A high concentration of chlorides, sulphates, and manganese and a low concentration of copper and sodium was found in the water of Group 1 supply networks. The water in Group 2 had a high concentration of copper and sodium, and a low concentration of iron and sulphates. The water from Group 3 had a low concentration of chlorides and manganese, but a high concentration of fluorides. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, multivariate correlation between the studied parameters was determined, helping to put water supply networks into groups according to similar water quality.

  19. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  20. Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.

  1. Analytical reliability analysis of soil-water characteristic curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC, also known as the soil water-retention curve, is an important part of any constitutive relationship for unsaturated soils. Deterministic assessment of SWCC has received considerable attention in the past few years. However the uncertainties of the parameters which affect SWCC dictate that the problem is of a probabilistic nature rather than being deterministic. In this research, a Gene Expression Programming (GEP-based SWCC model is employed to assess the reliability of SWCC. For this purpose, the Jointly Distributed Random Variables (JDRV method is used as an analytical method for reliability analysis. All input parameters of the model which are initial void ratio, initial water content, silt and clay contents are set to be stochastic and modelled using truncated normal probability density functions. The results are compared with those of the Monte Carlo (MC simulation. It is shown that the initial water content is the most effective parameter in SWCC.

  2. Evaluating water quality investments using cost utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Spencer, Rachel; Higgins, Andrew; Marinoni, Oswald

    2008-09-01

    This study borrows concepts from healthcare economics and uses cost utility analysis (CUA) to select an optimum portfolio of water quality enhancement projects in Perth, Western Australia. In CUA, costs are handled via standard discounted cash flow analysis, but the benefits, being intangible, are measured with a utility score. Our novel methodology combines CUA with a binary combinatorial optimisation solver, known as a 'knapsack algorithm', to identify the optimum portfolio of projects. We show how water quality projects can be selected to maximise an aggregate utility score while not exceeding a budget constraint. Our CUA model applies compromise programming (CP) to measure utility over multiple attributes in different units. CUA is shown to provide a transparent and analytically robust method to maximise benefits from water quality remediation investments under a constrained budget.

  3. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  4. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  5. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  6. Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, R; Mair, M; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

    2011-01-01

    One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios.

  7. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  8. Local structure analysis in ab initio liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Biswajit; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyse the local structure in such highly accurate ab initio liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P(I ), was unimodal with most water molecules characterised by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P(I ) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high-density- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies among water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of the experimentally observed low- and high-density amorphous phases of ice are present in the IPES of ambient liquid water. Analysis of the LSI autocorrelation function uncovered a persistence time of ∼ 4 ps - a finding consistent with the fact that natural thermal fluctuations are responsible for transitions between these distinct yet transient local aqueous environments in ambient liquid water.

  9. Seismic Response Analysis of Portal Water Injection Sheet Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanbin; GUO Haiyan; ZHANG Chunhui

    2007-01-01

    To further the study on the newly developed portal water injection sheet pile under static loads, in this paper, by adopting the nonlinear calculation module of FEM software ANSYS, a model for the interaction between the soil and the sheet piles is set up,and the seismic response analysis for this type of space-retaining structure is performed. The effects of the embedded depth and the distance between the front pile and the back pile on the dynamic characteristics of the portal water injection sheet pile are studied.

  10. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  11. Systems analysis approach to the design of efficient water pricing policies under the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Doulgeris, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    to efficient management of groundwater and surface water given EU WFD ecological flow requirements. Under the first approach, all wholesale water users in a river basin face the same volumetric price for water. This water price does not vary in space or in time, and surface water and groundwater are priced......Economic theory suggests that water pricing can contribute to efficient management of water scarcity. The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a major legislative effort to introduce the use of economic instruments to encourage efficient water use and achieve environmental...... management objectives. However, the design and implementation of economic instruments for water management, including water pricing, has emerged as a challenging aspect of WFD implementation. This study demonstrates the use of a systems analysis approach to designing and comparing two economic approaches...

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ADSORPTION BEDS USED FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Skoczko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an economic analysis of the sorption deposits used for water purification was performed. Such masses of carbon as Organosorb 10 deposit, Norit ROW 0.8 Supra deposit, Hydroantracyt N deposit and K110 deposit were selected. The economic substantiation for the selection of specific deposits was based on the purchase cost of filter deposits, the environmental fee for water intake, the cost of equipment to aerate water, the cost of chemicals for deposits regeneration, the cost of the dosing pump reagents for regeneration generated during the process of adsorption using each of the deposits selected to the analysis. K110 deposit turned out to be the cheapest in the exploitation and Norit ROW 0.8 Supra was most expensive. The operating costs of the adsorption deposits depend mainly on the purchase of the adsorbent and the speed of adsorption. Moreover, environmental fee for water intake constitutes a significant share in the costs of exploitation of carbon deposits , which is greater than the deposit costs.

  13. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  14. Calcium Hardness Analysis of Water Samples Using EDXRF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanan Deep

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hardness of water samples has been determined using a method based upon the Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique for elemental analysis. The minimum detection limit for Ca has been found in the range 0.1-100ppm. The experimental approach and analytical method for calcium studies seem satisfactory for the purpose and can be utilized for similar investigations.

  15. Fault tree analysis for integrated and probabilistic risk analysis of drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof

    2009-04-01

    Drinking water systems are vulnerable and subject to a wide range of risks. To avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction options, risk analyses need to include the entire drinking water system, from source to tap. Such an integrated approach demands tools that are able to model interactions between different events. Fault tree analysis is a risk estimation tool with the ability to model interactions between events. Using fault tree analysis on an integrated level, a probabilistic risk analysis of a large drinking water system in Sweden was carried out. The primary aims of the study were: (1) to develop a method for integrated and probabilistic risk analysis of entire drinking water systems; and (2) to evaluate the applicability of Customer Minutes Lost (CML) as a measure of risk. The analysis included situations where no water is delivered to the consumer (quantity failure) and situations where water is delivered but does not comply with water quality standards (quality failure). Hard data as well as expert judgements were used to estimate probabilities of events and uncertainties in the estimates. The calculations were performed using Monte Carlo simulations. CML is shown to be a useful measure of risks associated with drinking water systems. The method presented provides information on risk levels, probabilities of failure, failure rates and downtimes of the system. This information is available for the entire system as well as its different sub-systems. Furthermore, the method enables comparison of the results with performance targets and acceptable levels of risk. The method thus facilitates integrated risk analysis and consequently helps decision-makers to minimise sub-optimisation of risk-reduction options.

  16. Nanostructural analysis of water distribution in hydrated multicomponent gels using thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoni, Doroty; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Highly complex, multicomponent gels and water-containing soft materials have varied applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food sciences, but the characterization of these nanostructured materials is extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to use stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire 50/13) gels containing seven different species of glycerides, PEG, and PEG-esters, as model, complex, multicomponent gels, to investigate the effect of water content on the micro- and nanoarchitecture of the gel interior. Thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry were used to probe the thermal and diffusional behavior of water molecules within the gel network. For the highly concentrated gels (low water content), the water activity was significantly lowered due to entrapment in the dense gel network. For the gels with intermediate water content, multiple populations of water molecules with different thermal responses and diffusion behavior were detected, indicating the presence of water in different microenvironments. This correlated with the network architecture of the freeze-dried gels observed using SEM. For the gels with high water content, increased quantities of water with similar diffusion characteristics as free water could be detected, indicating the presence of large water pockets in these gels. The results of this study provide new insights into structure of Gelucire gels, which have not been reported before because of the complexity of the material. They also demonstrate that the combination of thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry offers insights into the structure of soft materials not available by the use of each technique alone. However, we also note that in some instances the results of these measurements are overinterpreted and we suggest limitations of the methods that must be considered when using them.

  17. Online analysis: Deeper insights into water quality dynamics in spring water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rebecca M; Besmer, Michael D; Epting, Jannis; Sigrist, Jürg A; Hammes, Frederik; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of water quality in three karst springs taking advantage of new technological developments that enable high-resolution measurements of bacterial load (total cell concentration: TCC) as well as online measurements of abiotic parameters. We developed a novel data analysis approach, using self-organizing maps and non-linear projection methods, to approximate the TCC dynamics using the multivariate data sets of abiotic parameter time-series, thus providing a method that could be implemented in an online water quality management system for water suppliers. The (TCC) data, obtained over several months, provided a good basis to study the microbiological dynamics in detail. Alongside the TCC measurements, online abiotic parameter time-series, including spring discharge, turbidity, spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) and electrical conductivity, were obtained. High-density sampling over an extended period of time, i.e. every 45min for 3months, allowed a detailed analysis of the dynamics in karst spring water quality. Substantial increases in both the TCC and the abiotic parameters followed precipitation events in the catchment area. Differences between the parameter fluctuations were only apparent when analyzed at a high temporal scale. Spring discharge was always the first to react to precipitation events in the catchment area. Lag times between the onset of precipitation and a change in discharge varied between 0.2 and 6.7h, depending on the spring and event. TCC mostly reacted second or approximately concurrent with turbidity and SAC254, whereby the fastest observed reaction in the TCC time series occurred after 2.3h. The methodological approach described here enables a better understanding of bacterial dynamics in karst springs, which can be used to estimate risks and management options to avoid contamination of the drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  19. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  20. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  1. Elemental analysis of rain- and fresh water by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of rain-and fresh water for trace constituents is a manda tory part of environmental monitoring. This text gives a survey of neutron activation analysis (NAA) within the framework of current environmental water research pro grammes, based on the practice developed in co-operation with the Dutch Energy Research Centre at Petten (ECN). While the procedures reported in literature cover about thirty five elements, our routine procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is limited to ten to fifteen elements. The use of some dedicated ra diochemical separations (RNAA) adds another six, some of which are speciated as well. Current contributions of NAA to water analysis center on determination and speciation of anionic trace elements, notably Br, I, As. and Se, on the assay of some ultra traces like Ag, Au and Hg and on validation.

  2. Performance of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator: An Independent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Beznosko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-based liquid scintillator (WbLS is a new material currently under development. It is based on the idea of dissolving the organic scintillator in water using special surfactants. This material strives to achieve the novel detection techniques by combining the Cerenkov rings and scintillation light, as well as the total cost reduction compared to pure liquid scintillator (LS. The independent light yield measurement analysis for the light yield measurements using three different proton beam energies (210 MeV, 475 MeV, and 2000 MeV for water, two different WbLS formulations (0.4% and 0.99%, and pure LS conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, is presented. The results show that a goal of ~100 optical photons/MeV, indicated by the simulation to be an optimal light yield for observing both the Cerenkov ring and the scintillation light from the proton decay in a large water detector, has been achieved.

  3. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  4. Preliminary analysis of aerial hyperspectral data on shallow lacustrine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Remo; Castagnoli, A.; Cavalli, Rosa M.; Marino, Carlo M.; Pignatti, Stefano; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1995-11-01

    The availability of MIVIS hyperspectral data, deriving from an aerial survey recently performed over a test-site in Lake Garda, Italy, gave the possibility of a preliminary new insight in the field of specific applications of remote sensing to shallow water analysis. The spectroradiometers in the visible and in the thermal infrared were explored in particular, accessing to helpful information for the detection of bio-physical indicators of water quality, either related to the surface/sub-surface of waters or to the bottom of the lake, since the study area presents very shallow waters, never exceeding a 6-meter depth in any case. Primary interest was the detection of man-induced activities along the margins, like sewage effect and sedimentary structure in the bottom or algal bloom. Secondly, a correlation between absorbivity coefficients in the visible bands and bathimetric contour lines in the proximity of the marginal zone of the lake was accomplished, by means of two indicative spectroradiometric transects.

  5. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianchi A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  6. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Fasson, A.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  7. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  8. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W SOBIESKI; D GRYGO; S LIPINSKI

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure waveforms recorded in two characteristic zones of the device and its detailed analysis, the single cycle of waterram is divided into three main stages: acceleration, pumping, and backflow. The waveforms of phenomena in each of these steps were considered separately. In discussion, some of the issues were supported with additional measurements, including Fourier analysis of signals from the electronic pressure transducers. The main topic ofdiscussion based on the results recorded for the impulse valve, is supplemented by the comments that take into account the results obtained for the impulse valve (flap check valve) and for the others two (self-made) impulse valves. In the final part, in a graphic form presented is the interpretation of the phenomena occurring during one work cycle of water ram. The motivation of this work was to supplement the knowledge concerning the water hammer waveform in ram pump.

  9. Bottled water: analysis of mycotoxins by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, A T; Ferreira, J P; Oliveira, B R; Batoréu, M C; Barreto Crespo, M T; Pereira, V J; Bronze, M R

    2015-06-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in food samples has been widely studied as well as its impact in human health, however, information about its distribution in the environment is scarce. An analytical method comprising a solid phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis was implemented and validated for the trace analysis of mycotoxins in drinking bottled waters. Limits of quantification achieved for the method were between 0.2ngL(-1) for aflatoxins and ochratoxin, and 2.0ngL(-1) for fumonisins and neosolaniol. The method was applied to real samples. Aflatoxin B2 was the most frequently detected mycotoxin in water samples, with a maximum concentration of 0.48±0.05ngL(-1) followed by aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1 and ochratoxin A. The genera Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium were the fungi more frequently detected. These results show that the consumption of these waters does not represent a toxicological risk for an adult.

  10. Non-linear analysis in Light Water Reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Y.R.; Sharabi, M.N.; Nickell, R.E.; Esztergar, E.P.; Jones, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    The results obtained from a scoping study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Safety Technology Program at Sandia National Laboratories are presented. Basically, this project calls for the examination of the hypothesis that the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR systems and components of interest include such items as: the reactor vessel, vessel internals, nozzles and penetrations, component support structures, and containment structures. Piping systems are excluded because they are being addressed by a separate study. Essentially, the findings were that nonlinear analysis methods are beneficial to LWR design from a technical point of view. However, the costs needed to implement these methods are the roadblock to readily adopting them. In this sense, a cost-benefit type of analysis must be made on the various topics identified by these studies and priorities must be established. This document is the complete report by ANATECH International Corporation.

  11. Water Resources and Environmental Information - A Neural Network Analysis of the Residual Chlorine in the Water Distribution System -

    OpenAIRE

    岡, 隆光; 菅原,通雅; 塚田,司郎; 井上, 正人; 萩岡,光治; 前原, 俊信

    1998-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the residual chlorine in the water distribution system. A neural network model is used to forecast day to day variation of chlorine density in the water at various places. The network is trained with one-year data of water temperature, precipitation, original chlorine density at the water supply center, and residual chlorine density at nine measuring places. It well reproduces the residual chlorine density of the given data and can predict day to day variation in ...

  12. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  13. Modeling and analysis of water-hammer in coaxial pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Cesana, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction is studied for a system composed of two coaxial pipes in an annular geometry, for both homogeneous isotropic metal pipes and fiber-reinforced (anisotropic) pipes. Multiple waves, traveling at different speeds and amplitudes, result when a projectile impacts on the water filling the annular space between the pipes. In the case of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic thin pipes we compute the wavespeeds, the fluid pressure and mechanical strains as functions of the fiber winding angle. This generalizes the single-pipe analysis of J. H. You, and K. Inaba, Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled pipes of anisotropic composite materials, J. Fl. Str. 36 (2013). Comparison with a set of experimental measurements seems to validate our models and predictions.

  14. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    characterized by a slight-green color, with varying water clarity, low dissolved oxygen (indicative of deep groundwater), and a hydrogen sulfide odor. Water-quality samples detected ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, but at low concentrations. The drinking water standard for nitrate adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 10 milligrams per liter, measured as nitrogen. Water samples collected at spring vents by divers on April 29, 2015, had concentrations of 0.9 milligram per liter nitrate-nitrogen at vent A and 0.04–0.05 milligram per liter at vents B, C, and D. Typically, the water clarity is highest in the morning (about 30 feet Secchi depth) and often decreases throughout the day.Analysis of existing data provided some insight into the hydrologic processes affecting Warm Mineral Springs; however, data have been sparsely and discontinuously collected since the 1940s. Continuous monitoring of hydrologic characteristics such as discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and water-quality indicators, such as nitrate and turbidity (water clarity), would be valuable for monitoring and development of models of spring discharge and water quality. In addition, water samples could be analyzed for isotopic tracers, such as strontium, and the results used to identify and quantify the sources of groundwater that discharge at Warm Mineral Springs. Groundwater flow/transport models could be used to evaluate the sensitivity of the quality and quantity of water flowing from Warm Mineral Springs to changes in climate, aquifer levels, and water use.

  15. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis transcriptome during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R; McElroy, J Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress.

  16. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, Ivo; Karney, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of water losses are transient phenomena, caused by normal and accidental pump and valve operations. ...

  17. Water vapor analysis with use of sunphotometry and radiosoundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakszys, Paulina; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomek; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Strzalkowska, Agata; Markuszewski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    Information about vertically integrated content of water vapor in the atmosphere and type, composition and concentration of aerosols is relevant in many types of atmospheric studies. Such information is required to understand mechanisms of global climate and its further modeling (Smirnov et al., 2000). This work is devoted to the description of a basic technique of analysis and comparing the derivation of Columnar Water Vapor (CWV) from different instruments, such as a radiosonde and a sunphotometer. The measurements were carried out using Microtops II Ozone Monitor & Sunphotometer during the cruises onboard the R/V Oceania (13 cruises) and from one cruise onboard of the SY TASK in the southern Baltic Sea. Measurements were collected for the NASA program Maritime Aerosol Network. Data collected with the DiGICORA III Radiosonde (RS92) come from the webpage of the University of Wyoming, Department of Atmospheric Science. The first instrument, sunphotometer, allows us to collect data on days that are cloud-free. The Microtops II is capable of measuring the total ozone column, total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical depth at 1020 nm (Morys et al. 2001; Ichoku et al., 2002). Each of these parameters is automatically derived. Data collected by Microtops have been processed with the pre- and post-field calibration and automatic cloud clearing. Precipitable water vapor in the column was derived from the 936nm channel. Detailed data description is available on the AERONET webpage. In radiousoundings the total precipitable water is the water that occurs in a vertical column of a unit cross-sectional area between any two specified levels, commonly expressed as from the earth's surface to the 'top' of the atmosphere. The Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPWV) is the height of liquid water that would result from the condensation of all water vapor in a column. The study of one cruise (29 March - 20 April) shows that 241 Microtops measurements were made, each of

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    changes in drinking and wastewater infrastructure need to incorporate a holistic view of the water service sustainability tradeoffs and potential benefits when considering shifts towards new treatment technology, decentralized systems, energy recovery and reuse of treated wastewater. The main goal of this study is to determine the influence of scale on the energy and cost performance of different transitional membrane bioreactors (MBR) in decentralized wastewater treatment (WWT) systems by performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis. LCA is a tool used to quantify sustainability-related metrics from a systems perspective. The study calculates the environmental and cost profiles of both aerobic MBRs (AeMBR) and anaerobic MBRs (AnMBR), which not only recover energy from waste, but also produce recycled water that can displace potable water for uses such as irrigation and toilet flushing. MBRs represent an intriguing technology to provide decentralized WWT services while maximizing resource recovery. A number of scenarios for these WWT technologies are investigated for different scale systems serving various population density and land area combinations to explore the ideal application potentials. MBR systems are examined from 0.05 million gallons per day (MGD) to 10 MGD and serve land use types from high density urban (100,000 people per square mile) to semi-rural single family (2,000 people per square mile). The LCA and cost model was built with ex

  20. Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To

    2008-06-01

    Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C).

  1. Subcritical Water Extractor for Mars Analog Soil Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Patrick, Steven B.; Yung, Pun To

    2008-06-01

    Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2 55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25 250°C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between ˜80 (at 25°C) and ˜30 (at 250°C).

  2. Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C.; Scheidt, D.J.; Federico, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Analysis of Water Properties and Geostrophic Currents in Fiji Waters Before and After Tropical Cyclone Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneel Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water properties influence ocean primary production and drive the ocean food chain. This study depicts changes in temperature and salinity and its effects on geostrophic currents near Fiji before and after Tropical Cyclone (TC Gene. Approach: Available Argo float data from 6 January-4 February 2008 were used for analysis since TC Gene passed the area on 28 January 2008. The dynamic height and geostrophic current data were obtained from the Aviso website. Results: The thermocline depth increased by 20 m after the cyclone. A temperature drop of approximately 3°C was also noticed in the study area. Using this drop in temperature, the heat energy removed by the cyclone was calculated to be 0.095 MWh m-2. Salinity profiles showed an increase of 0.42 psu to a depth of 35 m after the cyclone. Changes in salinity and temperature of water may also cause changes in the dynamic height and in turn the geostrophic current patterns. After plotting the geostrophic current vectors, it was observed that the current patterns changed significantly after TC gene. Seasonal changes were also evident before the cyclone. Conclusion/Recommendations: Although the lifespan of TC gene was short, its effect on the water properties near Fiji was significant as it completely changed the geostrophic current patterns and this can have a huge implication on marine life.

  4. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fantozzi

    Full Text Available Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23° and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9° at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13° in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7° and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°. The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered

  5. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  6. Integrated water assessment and modelling: A bibliometric analysis of trends in the water resource sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Fateme; Elsawah, Sondoss; Iwanaga, Takuya; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Pierce, Suzanne A.

    2017-09-01

    There are substantial challenges facing humanity in the water and related sectors and purposeful integration of the disciplines, connected sectors and interest groups is now perceived as essential to address them. This article describes and uses bibliometric analysis techniques to provide quantitative insights into the general landscape of Integrated Water Resource Assessment and Modelling (IWAM) research over the last 45 years. Keywords, terms in titles, abstracts and the full texts are used to distinguish the 13,239 IWAM articles in journals and other non-grey literature. We identify the major journals publishing IWAM research, influential authors through citation counts, as well as the distribution and strength of source countries. Fruitfully, we find that the growth in numbers of such publications has continued to accelerate, and attention to both the biophysical and socioeconomic aspects has also been growing. On the other hand, our analysis strongly indicates that the former continue to dominate, partly by embracing integration with other biophysical sectors related to water - environment, groundwater, ecology, climate change and agriculture. In the social sciences the integration is occurring predominantly through economics, with the others, including law, policy and stakeholder participation, much diminished in comparison. We find there has been increasing attention to management and decision support systems, but a much weaker focus on uncertainty, a pervasive concern whose criticalities must be identified and managed for improving decision making. It would seem that interdisciplinary science still has a long way to go before crucial integration with the non-economic social sciences and uncertainty considerations are achieved more routinely.

  7. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, mon

  8. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  9. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  10. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies, served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05. Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Egyptian and Israeli National Water Policies toward Water in Agricultural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Farnum, Becca

    2014-01-01

    Key Findings:-"Water for food" is not necessarily synonymous with "water for food security"-Countries with similar geological conditions face very different geopolitical realities; national water policies and agricultural motivations reflect this-Water policies and research should seek to understand "water for food" and its connections witheconomics, the environment, and securities more broadly

  12. The role of seasonal water scarcity on water quality: a global analysis with case study in the Magdalena, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sophia; Mulligan, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is not just a problem of its own right (hydrological drought) but cascades the hydro-economic system to create problems for crop growth and livestock (agricultural drought) and thus for wellbeing and economic productivity (economic drought). One of these cascades is the impact of reduced water quantity on water quality as a result of non-point source pollutant concentration in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and wetlands. This paper investigates the impact of seasonal water shortages on the quality of supplied water to urban centres with a view to better understanding how land use management can reduce dry-season pollutant spikes. We apply a widely used spatial hydrological model (WaterWorld) and its water quality index (the human footprint on water quality, HFWQ) to examine to what extent HFWQ of water flowing into urban water intakes is affected by flow seasonality and by typical "dry year" events. A global analysis shows trends across climatic and land use gradients and is followed by a regional analysis of the Magdalena basin in Colombia: a large basin with 79% of the countries population and a mixture of intensively farmed and protected lands along a seasonality gradient from South to North. The Magdalena is a case study basin of the EartH2Observe project.

  13. Predictive error analysis for a water resource management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark; Doherty, John

    2007-02-01

    SummaryIn calibrating a model, a set of parameters is assigned to the model which will be employed for the making of all future predictions. If these parameters are estimated through solution of an inverse problem, formulated to be properly posed through either pre-calibration or mathematical regularisation, then solution of this inverse problem will, of necessity, lead to a simplified parameter set that omits the details of reality, while still fitting historical data acceptably well. Furthermore, estimates of parameters so obtained will be contaminated by measurement noise. Both of these phenomena will lead to errors in predictions made by the model, with the potential for error increasing with the hydraulic property detail on which the prediction depends. Integrity of model usage demands that model predictions be accompanied by some estimate of the possible errors associated with them. The present paper applies theory developed in a previous work to the analysis of predictive error associated with a real world, water resource management model. The analysis offers many challenges, including the fact that the model is a complex one that was partly calibrated by hand. Nevertheless, it is typical of models which are commonly employed as the basis for the making of important decisions, and for which such an analysis must be made. The potential errors associated with point-based and averaged water level and creek inflow predictions are examined, together with the dependence of these errors on the amount of averaging involved. Error variances associated with predictions made by the existing model are compared with "optimized error variances" that could have been obtained had calibration been undertaken in such a way as to minimize predictive error variance. The contributions by different parameter types to the overall error variance of selected predictions are also examined.

  14. [A virtual water analysis for agricultural production and food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Bing; Liu, Wen-hua; Duan, Guang-ming; Yan, Yan; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-03-01

    Water resource demand is increasing with the population growth and economic development. Water resource problem for agriculture and food security have become one of the global focal points because of water resource scarcity. The concept of virtual water is useful to analyze and impair this problem. In this paper, virtual water implication was described, and international study progress about it was briefly reviewed. Furthermore, China's agricultural water scarcity and food security were analyzed. According to the grain import prediction and agricultural production conditions of China, the virtual water equivalents of China in 2010 and 2020 were evaluated, which were 88 x 10(9) m3 in 2010 and 95 x 10(9) m3 in 2020. With the function of virtual water to agricultural water stress, virtual water strategy was suggested to relieve agricultural production pressure from water resource and meet growing food demand as well as to promote water resource sustainability in China.

  15. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  16. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  17. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  18. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  19. A dynamic analysis of water footprint of Jinghe River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water footprint in a region is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of goods and services consumed by the local people. Ecosystem services are a kind of important services, so ecological water use is one necessary component in water footprint. Water footprint is divided into green water footprint and blue water footprint but the former one is often ignored. In this paper water footprint includes blue water needed by agricultural irrigation, industrial and domestic water demand, and green water needed by crops, economic forests, livestock products, forestlands and grasslands. The study calculates the footprint of the Jinghe River basin in 1990,1995, 2000 and 2005 with quarto methods. Results of research show that water footprints reached 164.1 × 108m3, 175.69×108m3 and 178.45×108m3 respectively in 1990, 1995 and 2000 including that of ecological water use, but reached 77.68×108m3, 94.24×108m3, 92.92×108m3 and 111.36×108m3 respectively excluding that of ecological water use. Green water footprint is much more than blue water footprint: thereby, green water plays an important role in economic development and ecological construction. The dynamic change of water footprints stows that blue water use increases rapidly and that the ecological water use is occupied by economic and domestic water use. The change also shows that water use is transferred from primary industry to secondary industry. In primary industry, it is transferred from crops farming to forestry and animal agriculture. The factors impelling the change include development anticipation on economy, government policies, readjustment of the industrial structure, population growth, the raise of urbanization level, and structural change of consumption, low level of water-saving and poor ability of waste water treatment. With blue water use per unit, green water use per unit, blue water use structure and green water use structure, we analyzed the difference of the six ecological

  20. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  1. A fast method to prepare water samples for 15N analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化云; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    Automatic element analyser is often used to prepare organic matters tor 15N analysis. It is seldom used to prepare water samples. Water samples are conventionally dealt with by Kjeldahl-Rittenberg technique. But it requires tedious and labor-intensive sample preparation. A fast and reliable method is proposed in this paper to prepare water samples for 15N analysis.

  2. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Kalli, Chris; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; May, Eric F.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Graham, Brendan F.; Carroll, Matthew R. J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1-30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography.

  3. Analysis of mining-medicinal waters regulation. Possible treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Corral Lledó

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The mineral waters have been a part of our lives for many centuries, since they are believe to be beneficial and to have therapeutic properties for the human health. This fact makes a key issue to provide an analyses od the current legislation on this issue ( Royal Decree-Law 743/1928, April 25th, that aproves the statute on exploitation of spring of mineral and medicinal water; Mining Law of 1973 and its regulations, in order to determine the treatments that may be applied to these watersm meanly in the case of Legionella appearance, or as preventive maesure of it. The results of this analysis shows that there is no limitation or prohibition in the treatments to what they may be subjected, as long as their physico-chemical characteristic remains altered. Contamination by Legionella bacterium, is nowadays an issue of concern, and that is reason why Public Health Authority has established the quidelines to apply for spas in order to avoid or fight a possible outbreak.

  4. Stochastic approach to observability analysis in water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an alternative technique to the existing methods for observability analysis (OA in water networks, which is a prior essential step for the implementation of state estimation (SE techniques within such systems. The methodology presented here starts from a known hydraulic state and assumes random gaussian distributions for the uncertainty of some hydraulic variables, which is then propagated to the rest of the system. This process is repeated again to analyze the change in the network uncertainty when metering devices considered as error-free are included, based on which the network observability can be evaluated. The method’s potential is presented in an illustrative example, which shows the additional information that this methodology provides with respect to traditional OA approaches. This proposal allows a better understanding of the network and constitutes a practical tool to prioritize the location of additional meters, thus enhancing the transformation of large urban areas into actual smart cities.

  5. Nonlinear analysis of gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of multi-phase flows has been a challenge in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. This chapter reviews our work on two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. We systematically carried out gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals which is studied in terms of the mapping from time series to complex networks. Three network mapping methods were proposed for the analysis and identification of flow patterns, i.e. Flow Pattern Complex Network (FPCN), Fluid Dynamic Complex Network (FDCN) and Fluid Structure Complex Network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN based on K-means clustering, distinct flow patterns can be successfully distinguished and identified. A number of FDCN’s under different flow conditions were constructed in order to reveal the dynamical characteristics of two-phase flows. The FDCNs exhibit universal power-law degree distributions. The power-law exponent ...

  6. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated…

  7. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated…

  8. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated agriculture. To…

  9. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  10. Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science ... out revealed the variability and the percentage changes in rainfall and water supply over time in Ilorin.

  11. Maggie Creek Water Quality Data for Ecological Proper Functioning Condition Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are "standard" water quality parameters collected for surface water condition analysis (for example pH, conductivity, DO, TSS). This dataset is associated...

  12. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: application to varied French bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Bonthonneau, J P; Dadache, E; Rebière, F

    2014-01-01

    The general population is chronically exposed to uranium ((234)U, (235)U, and (238)U) and polonium ((210)Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting.

  13. Stability analysis on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Peter

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the study is a stability analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor concept. A fluid dynamics code, DYNOS, was developed and successfully validated against FRIGG and DESIRE data and a stability benchmark on the Ringhals 1 forced circulation BWR. Three simplified desings were considered in the analysis: The SWRIOOO by Siemens and the SBWR and ESBWR from the General Electric Co. For all three design operational characteristics, i.e. power versus flow rate maps, were calculated. The effects which different geometric and operational parameters, such as the riser height, inlet subcooling etc., have on the characteristics have been investigated. Dynamic simulations on the three simplified design revealed the geysering and the natural circulation oscillations modes only. They were, however, only encountered at pressure below 0.6 MPa. Stability maps for all tree simplified BWRs were calculated and plotted. The study concluded that a fast pressurisation of the reactor vessel is necessary to eliminate the possibility of geysering or natural circulation oscillations mode instability. (au) 26 tabs., 88 ills.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FLUORIDE WATER SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some rural areas of Jaipur city (Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. In present analysis a review of fluoride toxicity in drinking water along with the various deflouridation processes has been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 11 different places of Jaipur District was analyzed to identify the fluoride content in water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory.

  15. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  16. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, D., E-mail: ducvo@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Favalli, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-09-11

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 134}Cs, and to a lesser extent, {sup 106}Ru and {sup 144}Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  17. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L

    2003-10-01

    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  18. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  19. Spectral characteristics analysis of red tide water in mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hongliang; Ma, Yi; Gao, Xuemin

    2003-05-01

    Mesocosm ecosystem experiment with seawater enclosed of the red tide was carried out from July to September 2001. We got four species of biology whose quantities of bion are dominant in the red tide. During the whole process from the beginning to their dying out for every specie, in situ spectral measurements were carried out. After data processing, characteristic spectra of red tide of different dominant species are got. Via comparison and analysis of characteristics of different spectra, we find that in the band region between 685 and 735 nanometers, spectral characteristics of red tide is apparently different from that of normal water. Compared to spectra of normal water, spectra of red tide have a strong reflectance peak in the above band region. As to spectra of red tide dominated by different species, the situations of reflectance peaks are also different: the second peak of Mesodinium rubrum spectrum lies between 726~732 nm, which is more than 21nm away from the other dominant species spectra"s Leptocylindrus danicus"s second spectral peak covers 686~694nm; that of Skeletonema costatum lies between 691~693 nm. Chattonella marina"s second spectral peak lies about 703~705 nm. Thus we can try to determine whether red tide has occurred according to its spectral data. In order to monitor the event of red tide and identify the dominant species by the application of the technology of hyperspectral remote sensing, acquiring spectral data of different dominant species of red tide as much as possible becomes a basic work to be achieved for spectral matching, information extraction and so on based on hyperspectral data.

  20. ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION OF REGULATED WATER RESOURCES OF GROUNDWATER RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; GAO Shu-qin

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater reservoir is a kind of important engineering, which can optimize water resources arran-gement by means of artificial regulation. Regulated water is the blood and value performance of groundwater reser-voir. To resolve the problem of real-time quantification of regulated water, the paper analyzed sources and composi-tions of regulated water in detail. Then, under the conditions of satisfying water demand inside research area, the pa-per analyzed quantity available and regulation coefficient of different regulated water and established a formula tocalculate regulated water. At last, based on a pore groundwater reservoir in the middle reaches of the Yinma River,Jilin Province, the paper calculated regulated water with the formula and the result shows that the method is feasible.With some constraint conditions, the formula can be adopted in other similar areas.

  1. Modified interstitial water squeezer for trace metal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Hydraulic squeezer of Manheim, used in the extraction of pore water of sediments, has been modified by providing teflon inner lining and increasing the volume of squeezer. The modified version facilitates collection of pore water sample, for trace...

  2. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, incre...

  3. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water use a

  4. Effect analysis of transient scenarios for successful water management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.; Deursen, van W.; Beek, van E.; Beersma, J.; Erdbrink, C.D.; Os, van A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent scenario studies on water management focus on one or two projection years and the effects on the water system and functions. The future is however more complex and dynamic. Therefore, we analyse transient scenarios in order to evaluate the performance of water management strategies. Current a

  5. System curves for 100-K water plant expansion pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudock, E.R.

    1958-06-05

    Modifications to the 100-K water plant will be made, under Project CG-775, to increase total process water flow rates to 175,000 gpm or greater. Included in the modifications will be the installation of new pump impellers for the primary and secondary process water pumps located in the 190-K Buildings.

  6. Testing and Analysis of the Speed of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 麻伟巍; 陈明

    2003-01-01

    In the water jet looms, the distribution of the speed of water jet at the axis of the shed and its regularity are obtained by the Laser Doppler Tester. Based on the above, the water jet system is analyzed and the main effective approaches to increase the filling insertion rate and to widen the reed space of the loom are pointed out.

  7. Bacterial community analysis of drinking water biofilms in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührig, Katharina; Canbäck, Björn; Paul, Catherine J; Johansson, Tomas; Persson, Kenneth M; Rådström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of the V1-V2 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene generated a total of 674,116 reads that described six distinct bacterial biofilm communities from both water meters and pipes. A high degree of reproducibility was demonstrated for the experimental and analytical work-flow by analyzing the communities present in parallel water meters, the rare occurrence of biological replicates within a working drinking water distribution system. The communities observed in water meters from households that did not complain about their drinking water were defined by sequences representing Proteobacteria (82-87%), with 22-40% of all sequences being classified as Sphingomonadaceae. However, a water meter biofilm community from a household with consumer reports of red water and flowing water containing elevated levels of iron and manganese had fewer sequences representing Proteobacteria (44%); only 0.6% of all sequences were classified as Sphingomonadaceae; and, in contrast to the other water meter communities, markedly more sequences represented Nitrospira and Pedomicrobium. The biofilm communities in pipes were distinct from those in water meters, and contained sequences that were identified as Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Desulfovibrio, and Sulfuricurvum. The approach employed in the present study resolved the bacterial diversity present in these biofilm communities as well as the differences that occurred in biofilms within a single distribution system, and suggests that next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons can show changes in bacterial biofilm communities associated with different water qualities.

  8. Water quality observations of ice-covered, stagnant, eutrophic water bodies and analysis of influence of ice-covered period on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    sugihara, K.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    The water quality characteristics of ice-covered, stagnant, eutrophic water bodies have not been clarified because of insufficient observations. It has been pointed out that climate change has been shortening the duration of ice-cover; however, the influence of climate change on water quality has not been clarified. This study clarifies the water quality characteristics of stagnant, eutrophic water bodies that freeze in winter, based on our surveys and simulations, and examines how climate change may influence those characteristics. We made fixed-point observation using self-registering equipment and vertical water sampling. Self-registering equipment measured water temperature and dissolved oxygen(DO).vertical water sampling analyzed biological oxygen demand(BOD), total nitrogen(T-N), nitrate nitrogen(NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen(NO2-N), ammonium nitrogen(NH4-N), total phosphorus(TP), orthophosphoric phosphorus(PO4-P) and chlorophyll-a(Chl-a). The survey found that climate-change-related increases in water temperature were suppressed by ice covering the water area, which also blocked oxygen supply. It was also clarified that the bottom sediment consumed oxygen and turned the water layers anaerobic beginning from the bottom layer, and that nutrient salts eluted from the bottom sediment. The eluted nutrient salts were stored in the water body until the ice melted. The ice-covered period of water bodies has been shortening, a finding based on the analysis of weather and water quality data from 1998 to 2008. Climate change was surveyed as having caused decreases in nutrient salts concentration because of the shortened ice-covered period. However, BOD in spring showed a tendency to increase because of the proliferation of phytoplankton that was promoted by the climate-change-related increase in water temperature. To forecast the water quality by using these findings, particularly the influence of climate change, we constructed a water quality simulation model that

  9. Intercomparison of Lab-Based Soil Water Extraction Methods for Stable Water Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D.; Orlowski, N.; McDonnell, J.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pore water extraction technique on resultant isotopic signature is poorly understood. Here we present results of an intercomparison of five common lab-based soil water extraction techniques: high pressure mechanical squeezing, centrifugation, direct vapor equilibration, microwave extraction, and cryogenic extraction. We applied five extraction methods to two physicochemically different standard soil types (silty sand and clayey loam) that were oven-dried and rewetted with water of known isotopic composition at three different gravimetric water contents (8, 20, and 30%). We tested the null hypothisis that all extraction techniques would provide the same isotopic result independent from soil type and water content. Our results showed that the extraction technique had a significant effect on the soil water isotopic composition. Each method exhibited deviations from spiked reference water, with soil type and water content showing a secondary effect. Cryogenic extraction showed the largest deviations from the reference water, whereas mechanical squeezing and centrifugation provided the closest match to the reference water for both soil types. We also compared results for each extraction technique that produced liquid water on both an OA-ICOS and IRMS; differences between them were negligible.

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization for Hydraulic Analysis of Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Moosavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of flow in water-distribution networks with several pumps by the Content Model may be turned into a non-convex optimization uncertain problem with multiple solutions. Newton-based methods such as GGA are not able to capture a global optimum in these situations. On the other hand, evolutionary methods designed to use the population of individuals may find a global solution even for such an uncertain problem. In the present paper, the Content Model is minimized using the particle-swarm optimization (PSO technique. This is a population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, applied for non-linear and non-convex optimization problems. The penalty-function method is used to convert the constrained problem into an unconstrained one. Both the PSO and GGA algorithms are applied to analyse two sample examples. It is revealed that while GGA demonstrates better performance in convex problems, PSO is more successful in non-convex networks. By increasing the penalty-function coefficient the accuracy of the solution may be improved considerably.

  11. Ion Chromatography-on-a-chip for Water Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, R. D.; Noell, A.; Kazarians, G.; Aubrey, A. D.; Scianmarello, N.; Tai, Y.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report progress towards developing a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)- based ion chromatograph (IC) for crewed spacecraft water analysis. This IC-chip is an offshoot of a NASA-funded effort to produce a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)-chip. This HPLC-chip system would require a desalting (i.e. ion chromatography) step. The complete HPLC instrument consists of the Jet Propulsion Labortory's (JPL's) quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer integrated with a state-of-the-art MEMS liquid chromatograph (LC) system developed by the California Institute of Technology's (Caltech's) Micromachining Laboratory. The IC version of the chip consist of an electrolysis-based injector, a separation column, two electrolysis pumps for gradient generation, mixer, and a built-in conductivity detector. The HPLC version of the chip also includes a nanospray tip. The low instrument mass, coupled with its high analytical capabilities, makes the LC chip ideally suitable for wide range of applications such as trace contaminant, inorganic analytical science and, when coupled to a mass spectrometer, a macromolecular detection system for either crewed space exploration vehicles or robotic planetary missions.

  12. An Exergy Analysis of LiBr-Water Absorption Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Fujii, Terushige; Wang, Xiao; Origane, Takafumi; Katayama, Masatoshi; Inoue, Umeo

    Absorption refrigerators are very efficient as a heat recovery unit in a co-generation system.In order to design an absorption refrigerator for an arbitrary heat source properly, it is important to consider not only quantity but also quality of heat flow. The evaluation of exergy loss in each component is also effective for the improvement of system. This paper deals with the exergy analysis on a LiBr-water absorption refrigerator consisted of a single-and a double-effect cycle driven by the exhaust gas of the micro gas turbine with the output power of about 30 kW. Moreover, exergy loss in absorption process was eva1uated. As a result, it was shown that 80% of the exergy loss in an absorber was caused in absorption process, and the exergy loss decreased with decreasing the change in solution concentration in absorber. In these calculated results,the maximum cooling load of 77.8 kW was obtained from the exhaust gas with the temperature of 2900°C by utilizing both a single-and a double-effect cycles in combination. The energy and exergy efficiency of the system was 88.0% and 25.6%, respectively.

  13. Impact of inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis is investigated, and it is verified that the inflow transport approximation significantly improves the accuracy of the transport and transport/diffusion solutions. A methodology for an inflow transport approximation is implemented in order to generate an accurate transport cross section. The inflow transport approximation is compared to the conventional methods, which are the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations. The three transport approximations are implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and verification is performed for various verification problems in order to investigate their effects and accuracy. From the verification, it is noted that the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations cause significant error in calculating the eigenvalue and the power distribution. The inflow transport approximation shows very accurate and precise results for the verification problems. The inflow transport approximation shows significant improvements not only for the high leakage problem but also for practical large core problem analyses.

  14. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  15. Analysis of black water aggregation in Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-hua LU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Black water aggregation (BWA in Taihu Lake is a disaster for the lake environment. It is a phenomenon resulting from water environmental deterioration and eutrophication caused by accumulation of pollutants in the lake, according to research on the water quality, pollutants of BWA, and occurrence mechanisms of BWA. Dead algae are the material base of BWA, the polluted sediment is an important factor for the formation of BWA, and hydrological and meteorological conditions such as sun light, air temperature, wind speed, and water flow are the other factors that may lead to the formation of BWA. Thioether substances such as dimethyl trisulfide are the representative pollutants of BWA. Parameters such as chlorophyll-a, DO, pH, and water temperature are sensitive indicators of BWA. Measures such as algae collection, ecological dredging, pollution control, and water diversion from the Yangtze River to the lake, are effective, and strengthening aeration is an emergency measure to control BWA.

  16. Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.; Meinardi, C.R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an

  17. Forest Inventory and Analysis: What it Tells Us About Water Quality in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin L. Miller; Hal O. Liechty

    2001-01-01

    Forests and forest activities have a significant impact on the amount and quality of surface water in Arkansas. Recognizing this important relationship between forests and water quality, we utilized the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from Arkansas to better understand how forest land use in Arkansas has likely influenced the water quality in the State during...

  18. Water-use analysis program for the Neshaminy Creek basin, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    A water-use analysis computer program was developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin to assist in managing and allocating water resources in the basin. The program was developed for IBM-compatible personal computers. Basin analysis and the methodologies developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin can be transferred to other watersheds. The development and structure of the water-use analysis program is documented in this report. The report also serves as a user's guide. The program uses common relational database-management software that allows for water use-data input, editing, updating and output and can be used to generate a watershed water-use analysis report. The watershed-analysis report lists summations of public-supply well withdrawals; a combination of industrial, commercial, institutional, and ground-water irrigation well withdrawals; spray irrigation systems; a combination of public, industrial, and private surface-water withdrawals; wastewater-tratement-facility dishcarges; estimates of aggregate domestic ground-water withdrawals on an areal basin or subbasin basis; imports and exports of wastewater across basin or subbasin divides; imports and exports of public water supplies across basin or subbasin divides; estimates of evaporative loss and consumptive loss from produce incorporation; industrial septic-system discharges to ground water; and ground-water well-permit allocations.

  19. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition

  20. Water balance analysis for efficient water allocation in agriculture. A case study: Balta Brailei, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Zenaida; Villani, Giulia; Tomei, Fausto; Minciuna, Marian; Aldea, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Trifu, Cristina; Neagu, Dumitru

    2017-04-01

    Balta Brailei is one of the largest agriculture area in the Danube floodplain, located in SE of Romania. An impressive irrigation system, that covered about 53.500 ha and transferred water from the Danube River, was carried out in the period 1960-1980. Even if the water resources for agriculture in this area cover in most of the cases the volumes required by irrigation water users, the irrigation infrastructure issues as the position of the pumping stations against the river levels hinder the use of the water during low flows periods. An efficient optimization of water allocation in agriculture could avoid periods with water deficit in the irrigation systems. Hydrological processes are essentials in describing the mass and energy exchanges in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. Furthermore, the hydrological regime in this area is very dynamic with many feedback mechanisms between the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes. Agricultural crops depend on capillary rise from the shallow groundwater table and irrigation. For an effective optimization of irrigation water in Balta Brailei, we propose to analyse the water balance taking into consideration the water movement into the root zone and the influence of the Danube river, irrigation channel system and the shallow aquifer by combining the soil water balance model CRITERIA and GMS hydrogeological model. CRITERIA model is used for simulating water movement into the soil, while GMS model is used for simulating the shallow groundwater level variation. The understanding of the complex feedbacks between atmosphere, crops and the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes in the Balta Brailei will bring more insights for predicting crop water need and water resources for irrigation and it will represent the basis for implementing Moses Platform in this specific area. Moses Platform is a GIS based system devoted to water procurement and management agencies to facilitate planning of

  1. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

  2. Volume analysis of supercooled water under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental findings on the volume of supercooled water at high pressure [O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010)] we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations study of bulk water in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Cooling and heating cycles at different isobars and isothermal compression at different temperatures are performed on the water sample with pressures that range from 0 to 1.0 GPa. The cooling simulations are done at temperatures that range from...

  3. Water analysis of glass ceramics by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nease, A B; Hale, M D; Kramer, D P

    1983-12-15

    A method for measuring water concentration in glasses has been described and the results of the study of ten batches of glasses have been tabulated. It has been shown that infrared spectroscopy is a satisfactory tool for measuring water concentration in glass ceramics. The water concentrations of ten batches of glass have been shown to differ significantly, and these variances are associated with environmental humidity and glass preparation method.

  4. Superior water repellency of water strider legs with hierarchical structures: experiments and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Xuefeng; Wu, Ziniu; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Quan-Shui

    2007-04-24

    Water striders are a type of insect with the remarkable ability to stand effortlessly and walk quickly on water. This article reports the water repellency mechanism of water strider legs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations reveal the uniquely hierarchical structure on the legs, consisting of numerous oriented needle-shaped microsetae with elaborate nanogrooves. The maximal supporting force of a single leg against water surprisingly reaches up to 152 dynes, about 15 times the total body weight of this insect. We theoretically demonstrate that the cooperation of nanogroove structures on the oriented microsetae, in conjunction with the wax on the leg, renders such water repellency. This finding might be helpful in the design of innovative miniature aquatic devices and nonwetting materials.

  5. Multicausal analysis on water deterioration processes present in a drinking water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Pang, Changlong; Firdoz, Shaik

    2013-03-01

    The fluctuation of water turbidity has been studied during summer in the settling tanks of a drinking water treatment plant. Results from the multiple cause-effect model indicated that five main pathways interactively influenced thequalityof tank water. During rain, turbidity levels increased mainly as a result of decreasing pH and anaerobic reactions (partial effect = 68%). Increasing water temperature combined with dissolved oxygen concentration (partial effect = 64%) was the key parameterforcontrolling decreases in water turbidity during nighttime periods after a rainy day. The dominant factor influencing increases in turbidity during sunny daytime periods was algal blooms (partial effect = 86%). However, short-circuiting waves (partial effect = 77%) was the main cause for increased nighttime water turbidity after a sunny day. The trade offbetween regulatory pathways was responsible for environmental changes, and the outcome was determined by the comparative strengths of each pathway.

  6. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  7. Analysis of risks and investments’ opportunities in water sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2016-01-01

    These opportunities result from the difference between water supply and water demand; an increasingly difference that requires capital investments in production and water treatment technologies. Investments need to be combined with the knowledge on the legislation, regulatory framework and technological developments. This article may serve to clarify type of investments in drinking water sector, known by literature, to identify opportunities of investment in this sector, indicating the theoretical framework of beta and alpha risk ratio coefficient calculation and to suggest how these types of investments can be allocated to the investment portfolios.

  8. Analysis of thermal water utilization in the northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented research aims at identification of thermal water users in NE Slovenia, at finding type and amountof the produced thermal water as well as its utilization practice. The energetic overview has been upgradedby a description of current observational monitoring practice and thermal waste water management, but technologicalproblems of thermal water use and their mitigation are discussed also. We have ascertained that 14 of 26active geothermalwells tap the Mura Formation aquifer in which the only reinjection well is perforated also. Totalthermal water abstraction summed to 3.29 million m3 in 2011. Cascade use of thermal water is abundant, whereindividual space and sanitary water heating is followed by heating of spa infrastructure and balneology. Greenhouseheating systems and district heating were also identified. Operational monitoring of these geothermal wellsis generally insufficient, and geothermal aquifers are overexploited due to decades of historical water abstraction.All these facts indicate the need for applying appropriate measures which will improve their natural conditions aswell as simultaneously enable further and even higher thermal water utilization in the future.

  9. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič

    2016-01-01

    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  10. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  11. Spatial Analysis of Water Infrastructure Development On Example of Eastern Europe Rural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha-Urbanik, Katarzyna; Stecko, Justyna; Pękala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the assessment of water supply in rural areas in Poland was performed in aspect of future problems and the necessity of investments. The analysis proposed in this work is a helpful tool in making the ranking of the level of infrastructure development in different regions of the country. The assessment of the water supply network functioning is a very important issue that requires the use of operational experience with the practice of water supply. The analysis was based on data associated with the exploitation of water supply systems. Among others, to illustrate this diversity, the multidimensional comparative analysis was used. The developed analysis will enable decision support in the process of evaluating the economic efficiency of the operation of water supply infrastructure, through established indicators including the water network length development.

  12. Analysis of Ion in Water Tree by Micro-FTIR, and Evaluation of Harmfulness of Water Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shu; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nagahara, Shigeki; Nakade, Masahiko; Watabe, Mitsuhiro

    In the case of XLPE cables, there is the influence of the ion in the water trees as deterioration factors by the ones. Therefore we have analyzed the element by EDX so far, but it was the analysis technique that had difficulty with the distinction of the multi atomic ion. Therefore we developed ion analysis technique in the water trees including the multi atomic ion by Micro-FTIR, and utilize it as to analyzing the actual cables. In addition, we have investigated the harmfulness of each electrolyte detected from the actual cables.

  13. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  14. Water analysis in Londrina, PR, using a portable EDXRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio L., E-mail: fmelquiades@unicentro.b [State University of Center West Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Physics Dept.; Silva, Wislley D.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R., E-mail: parreira@uel.b, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b [State University of Londrina, PR (Brazil). Physics Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The use of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) for analysis of environmental samples has gained expressive attention in the last years. With the objective of identification and quantification of heavy metals in water, EDXRF methodology with portable equipment was employed. The work consisted on the use of a portable EDXRF system constituted by a X-ray tube to excite the samples, a Si-Pin detector, a holder for the excitation-detection system and samples positioning, with the standard data acquisition electronics to register the spectra. The samples were filtered in ester cellulose membranes for suspended particulate matter retention. After this, Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) precipitation methodology was applied for sample preconcentration with posterior filtering in membranes. So, the dissolved and non dissolved metal fractions were determined separately. The detection limits were, in mg L{sup -1}: 0.006 (Fe), 0.015 (Co), 0.004 (Cu), 0.002 (Zn), 0.004 (Se) and 0.005 (Pb), with 5% deviations for 95% of confidence. Considering all the sampling locations, it was possible to quantify the following range of concentrations, in mg L{sup -1}: Ca (0.043 - 0.021), Ti (0.137 - 0.014), Mn (0.052 - 0.008), Fe (1.66 - 0.035), Ni (0.012 - 0.010), Cu (0.010 - 0.007), Zn (0.070 - 0.007) and Pb (0.85 - 1.01). The results presented relative deviation from 5% to 22%, within 95% of confidence level, which is considered very satisfactory when using portable equipment. In 4 h of field work it was possible to filter 14 membranes and measure around 16 samples. (author)

  15. EPOC WATER INC. MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...

  16. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  17. Economic Analysis of Water Conservation Policies in the Texas Panhandle

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H.; Almas, Lal K.; Colette, W. Arden

    2007-01-01

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, resource usage, and net present value of farm profits over a sixty-year planning horizon.

  18. Water satisfaction analysis for dryland maize production in Frankfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moeletsi, ME

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water deficiency during the growing period of summer crops is the main limiting factor for optimum crop production in most semi-arid areas of South Africa. Water requirements of the crop depend mainly on the nature and stage of the crop...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  20. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WATER SORPTION BY DIFFERENT ACRYLIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic materials are used daily for the production of mobile dental restorations and orthodontic appliances. The presence of residual monomer, as a product of incomplete polymerisation of material, results in more porous structure of the material, which greatly reduces the mechanical and physical quality of the acrylic restorations and increases the absorption of liquids. The aim of this study was to examine the water absorption of different types of resin material. In the study it was assumed that the cold polymerized acrylates show a greater potential for absorbing fluid from the environment in relation to the hot polymerized acrylic. The study included two hot and two cold polymerized acrylates, and cold polymerized acrylate impregnated with aesthetic pearls. In order to determine the degree of water absorption, the mass of the samples was measured before and after one day, seven days and thirty days of immersion in a water bath of body temperature. The tested hot and cold polymerized acrylates after immersion in water bath showed standard values of water absorption. The degree of water absorption was not significantly influenced by the type and manner of polymerisation. Water absorption values were significantly higher after seven days and thirty days of water storage relative to the observational period of one day.

  2. Economic Analysis of Water Conservation Policies in the Texas Panhandle

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H.; Almas, Lal K.; Colette, W. Arden

    2007-01-01

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, resource usage, and net present value of farm profits over a sixty-year planning horizon.

  3. An analysis on the water landscape design of residential area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆雷

    2012-01-01

    Water is an essential factor in our daily life and one of the most vivid scenery in the nature. Water may modify the local atmosphere, purify the air, irrigate plants, breed fish and prevent from fire, all of which are the important factors for the landscape design.

  4. Integrating stakeholder input into water policy development and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural water use is becoming an issue in much of the South due to population growth. Results of projects evaluating the impacts of conservation strategies aimed at reallocating or extending the life of water supplies are being met with great skepticism by stakeholder groups. In order to gain a...

  5. EPOC WATER INC. MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...

  6. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  7. ALEXI analysis of water consumption in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing can be used to generate diagnostic estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) that provide information regarding consumptive water use across landscapes. These satellite-based assessments can be a valuable complement to prognostic simulations of basin-scale water budgets, providing an inde...

  8. China's water resources vulnerability: A spatio-temporal analysis during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Varis, O.; Yin, H.

    2015-12-01

    The present highly serious situation of China's water environment and aquatic ecosystems has occurred in the context of its stunning socioeconomic development over the past several decades. Therefore, an analysis with a high spatio-temporal resolution of the vulnerability assessment of water resources (VAWR) in China is burningly needed. However, to our knowledge, the temporal analysis of VAWR has been not yet addressed. Consequently, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis of China's water resources vulnerability (WRV), using a composite index approach with an array of aspects highlighting key challenges that China's water resources system is nowadays facing. During our study period of 2003-2013, the political weight of China's integrated water resources management has been increasing continuously. Hence, it is essential and significant, based on the historical socioeconomic changes influenced by water-environment policy making and implementation, to reveal China's WRV for pinpointing key challenges to the healthy functionality of its water resources system. The water resources system in North and Central Coast appeared more vulnerable than that in Western China. China's water use efficiency has grown substantially over the study period, and so is water supply and sanitation coverage. In contrast, water pollution has been worsening remarkably in most parts of China, and so have water scarcity and shortage in the most stressed parts of the country. This spatio-temporal analysis implies that the key challenges to China's water resources system not only root in the geographical mismatch between socioeconomic development (e.g. water demand) and water resources endowments (e.g. water resources availability), but also stem from the intertwinement between socioeconomic development and national strategic policy making.

  9. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  11. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.

    1976-08-01

    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  12. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  13. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  14. Analysis of Appropriate Timescales for Water Diversion Permits in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bof, Luiz Henrique Nobre; Pruski, Fernando Falco; da Silva, Luciano Meneses Cardoso; Justino, Flavio

    2013-02-01

    Agreement on the criteria for granting the right to use water resources between governing bodies represents a significant advance in the process of sharing water use. To aid water resource management agencies in optimizing water use, the impact of using different criteria for permitting water use in the Paracatu river basin, Brazil, was evaluated in this study. The streamflow criteria corresponding to 30 % of the annual Q7,10 (used by the governing body of Minas Gerais), 70 % of the annual Q95 (used by the governing body of the union), 30 % of the monthly Q7,10, and 70 % of the monthly Q95 were evaluated. The use of criteria based on the monthly streamflow allows for better management of water use because it allows for greater utilization of this resource in times when there is high water availability and imposes a more realistic restriction during critical periods. Substitution of the annual Q7,10 for the monthly Q7,10 significantly increases the streamflow permitted in some months, for example, from December to May. Use of the criterion of 70 % of the annual Q95 involves a high risk of drought in critical months, while the criterion of 70 % of the monthly Q95 minimizes this risk.

  15. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  16. Water footprint scenarios for 2050: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercin, A Ertug; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-03-01

    This study develops water footprint scenarios for 2050 based on a number of drivers of change: population growth, economic growth, production/trade pattern, consumption pattern (dietary change, bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective the study is to understand the changes in the water footprint (WF) of production and consumption for possible futures by region and to elaborate the main drivers of this change. In addition, we assess virtual water flows between the regions of the world to show dependencies of regions on water resources in other regions under different possible futures. We constructed four scenarios, along two axes, representing two key dimensions of uncertainty: globalization versus regional selfsufficiency, and economy-driven development versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows how different drivers will change the level of water consumption and pollution globally in 2050. The presented scenarios can form a basis for a further assessment of how humanity can mitigate future freshwater scarcity. We showed with this study that reducing humanity's water footprint to sustainable levels is possible even with increasing populations, provided that consumption patterns change. This study can help to guide corrective policies at both national and international levels, and to set priorities for the years ahead in order to achieve sustainable and equitable use of the world's fresh water resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Suárez-Arriaga, Mayra C; Rojas-Valdes, Aketzally; Montoya-Ciriaco, Nina M; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; Dendooven, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Wells used for drinking water often have a large biomass and a high bacterial diversity. Current technologies are not always able to reduce the bacterial population, and the threat of pathogen proliferation in drinking water sources is omnipresent. The environmental conditions that shape the microbial communities in drinking water sources have to be elucidated, so that pathogen proliferation can be foreseen. In this work, the bacterial community in nine water wells of a groundwater aquifer in Northern Mexico were characterized and correlated to environmental characteristics that might control them. Although a large variation was observed between the water samples, temperature and iron concentration were the characteristics that affected the bacterial community structure and composition in groundwater wells. Small increases in the concentration of iron in water modified the bacterial communities and promoted the growth of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Acidovorax. The abundance of the genera Flavobacterium and Duganella was correlated positively with temperature and the Acidobacteria Gp4 and Gp1, and the genus Acidovorax with iron concentrations in the well water. Large percentages of Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas bacteria were found, and this is of special concern as bacteria belonging to both genera are often biofilm developers, where pathogens survival increases.

  18. ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace William T.; Alverson, James T.; Benoit, Mickie J.; Gillispie, Robert L.; Hunter, David; Kuo, Mike; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Loh, Leslie J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50. The year 2016 was also marked by the end of a long-standing tradition of U.S. sampling and monitoring of Russian Segment potable water sources. Two water samples taken during Expedition 46 in February 2016 and returned on Soyuz 44, represented the final Russian Segment samples to be collected and analyzed by the U.S. side. Although anticipated for 2016, a rise in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the product water from the U.S. water processor assembly due to breakthrough of organic contaminants from the system did not materialize, as evidenced by the onboard TOC analyzer and archive sample results.

  19. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2014-04-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import over recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water, but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North America and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export, and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops, soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina, are the most significant. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should actively be incorporated into national water management strategies. And the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  20. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

  1. Analysis of Water Insulating Effect of Compound Water-Resisting Key Strata in Deep Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mei-mei; MAO Xian-biao; BAI Hai-bo; MIAO Xie-xing

    2007-01-01

    The problem of water preservation in mining and the prevention of water-bursts has been one of the more important issues in deep mining. Based on the concept of water-resisting key strata, the mechanics model of the key strata is established given the structural characteristics and the mechanical properties of the roof rock layers of the working face in a particular coal mine. Four other models were derived from this model by re-arranging the order of the layers in the key strata. The distribution characteristics of stress, deformation, pore pressure and the flow vector of all the models are computed using the analytical module of fluid-structure interaction in the FLAC software and the corresponding risks of a water-burst are analyzed. The results indicate that the water-insulating ability of the key strata is related to the arrangement of soft and hard rocks. The water-insulating ability of the compound water-resisting key strata (CWKS) with a hard-hard-soft-hard-soft compounding order is the best under the five given simulated conditions.

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  3. Quantificational analysis on progress of river water quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN Yi; ZOU Zhihong; FENG Wei; RU Mai

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the dynamic change of water quality in a specific period of time,a type of possibility transition matrix based on the theory of Markov process was established.The transition possibility with a weight to calculate the degree of absolute advancement was given based on the result of water quality evaluation,the concept of relative advancement was presented.It was used to evaluate the extent of water quality changed in a period of time.The method was used to calculate the degrees of relative advancement for 4 rivers in China,and the results were analyzed.

  4. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  5. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990–2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  6. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990–2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  7. A computational component analysis of dielectric relaxation and THz spectra of water/AOT reverse micelles with different water loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmollngruber, Michael; Braun, Daniel; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2016-12-01

    In this computational study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of water/aerosol-OT/isooctane reverse micelles with different water loading. We compare these systems in terms of a detailed analysis of dielectric relaxation spectra and water librations in the THz region. The spectra are decomposed into contributions by molecular species and contributions from individual water solvation shells. Additionally, micellar tumbling motion is shown to have a profound influence on the observed dielectric relaxation spectra, if relaxation by internal reorganization and micellar tumbling occurs within similar time scales. A formalism to directly quantify the effect of micellar tumbling motion on a recorded dielectric spectrum is developed. Since micellar rotational diffusion obeys the laws of hydrodynamics, this method is applicable in an experimental context as well, only knowing the viscosity of the outside medium and the average volume of the reverse micelle.

  8. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Guelinckx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM to total water intake (TWI; therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS 2008/2009–2011/2012 were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%. As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  9. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009–2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public. PMID:27754402

  10. A preliminary analysis of water chemistry of the Mkuze Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... the role of the Mkuze Wetland System in water quality enhancement is essential. ... bodies were identified using the multivariate techniques, classification and ...... physics, and also local topography in that local relief may be.

  11. Water level and vegetation change analysis at Stillwater Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aim of the project summarized in this report was to determine the feasibility of detecting change in surface water levels and associated wetland biomass at the...

  12. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Due to increasing cases of water-borne diseases in recent times, this study was carried out ... are not safe microbiologically for drinking without additional treatment such as boiling ... fever and Cholera. .... The spread of diseases through faecal.

  13. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, K.; Woods, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1??C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1??C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ?? 2 and ?? 0.2???, respectively, for ??D and ??18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents. ?? 1990.

  14. Analysis of Ice Water Path Retrieval Errors Over Tropical Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Retrieval of multi-layered cloud properties, especially ice water path (IWP), is one of the most perplexing problems in satellite cloud remote sensing. This paper develops a method for improving the IWP retrievals for ice-over-water overlapped cloud systems using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) data. A combined microwave, visible and infrared algorithm is used to identify overlapped clouds and estimate IWP separately from liquid water path. The retrieval error of IWP is then evaluated by comparing the IWP to that retrieved from single-layer ice clouds surrounding the observed overlapping systems. The major IWP retrieval errors of overlapped clouds are primarily controlled by the errors in estimating the visible optical depth. Optical depths are overestimated by about 10-40% due to the influence of the underlying cloud. For the ice-over-warm-water cloud systems (cloud water temperature Tw > 273 K), the globally averaged IWP retrieval error is about 10%. This cloud type accounts for about 15% of all high-cloud overlapping cases. Ice-over-super-cooled water clouds are the predominant overlapped cloud system, accounting for 55% of the cases. Their global averaged error is ~17.2%. The largest IWP retrieval error results when ice clouds occur over extremely super-cooled water clouds (Tw ≤ 255 K). Overall, roughly 33% of the VIRS IWP retrievals are overestimated due to the effects of the liquid water clouds beneath the cirrus clouds. To improve the accuracy of the IWP retrievals,correction models are developed and applied to all three types of overlapped clouds. The preliminary results indicate that the correction models reduce part of the retrieval error.

  15. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  16. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  17. Identifying ancient water availability through phytolith analysis: An experimental approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Emma L.; Jamjoum, K; Nuimat, S.; Stafford, Rick; Nortcliff, S.; Mithen, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water management was critical to the development of complex societies but such systems are often difficult, if not impossible, to recognise in the archaeological record, particularly in prehistoric communities when water management began. This is because early irrigation systems are likely to have been ephemeral and as such would no longer be visible in the archaeological record. We conducted a three year crop growing experiment in Jordan to test the hypothesis that phytoliths (opaline silica...

  18. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical...

  19. Life cycle energy analysis of reclaimed water reuse projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; C Chang, Andrew; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output life cycle analysis to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on sewage discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, we apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  20. Analysis and intervention plan of water resource supply and demand in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yuhang

    2017-04-01

    Firstly, this paper use Regression Analysis Prediction Method to analysis surface water, underground water and sewage treatment, so that we can predict the water supply capacity of North China in the next 15 years. After that, we test the trusting degree of this model to ensure the facticity by identifying the statistical significance of each data. Secondly, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP method) to gain the factors mostly affecting sewage treatment capacity is the Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammoniac nitrogen content in sewage. So we can take measures to increase the amount of water supply in the region. Finally, we adjust the charging standard of living water and together with logistic regression, which can improve the water-saving awareness of local residents so as to effectively reduce the water consumption in the future.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  2. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kristyn Scott

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferrable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  3. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2011-08-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large, multi-year project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  4. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  5. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Dorning

    2002-04-15

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  6. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Leskovar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In reactor calculations, the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the steam explosion strength are expected to be caused by the large uncertainties related to the jet breakup. To obtain some insight into these uncertainties, premixing simulations were performed with both available jet breakup models, i.e., the global and the local models. The simulations revealed that weaker explosions are predicted by the local model, compared to the global model, due to the predicted smaller melt droplet size, resulting in increased melt solidification and increased void buildup, both reducing the explosion strength. Despite the lower active melt mass predicted for the pressurized water reactor case, pressure loads at the cavity walls are typically higher than that for the boiling water reactor case. This is because of the significantly larger boiling water reactor cavity, where the explosion pressure wave originating from the premixture in the center of the cavity has already been significantly weakened on reaching the distant cavity wall.

  7. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available China has dramatically increased its virtual water import unconsciously for recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina are the most significant. As crop yield and crop water productivity in North and South America are generally higher than those in Asia and Africa, the effect of China's crop-related virtual water trade positively contributes to optimizing crop water use efficiency at the global scale. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should be actively incorporated into national water management strategies. From the national perspective, China should reduce the export and increase the import of water-intensive crops. But the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  8. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2013-09-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import unconsciously for recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina are the most significant. As crop yield and crop water productivity in North and South America are generally higher than those in Asia and Africa, the effect of China's crop-related virtual water trade positively contributes to optimizing crop water use efficiency at the global scale. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should be actively incorporated into national water management strategies. From the national perspective, China should reduce the export and increase the import of water-intensive crops. But the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  9. Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 2 Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary...Program (WRAP) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-2 February 2016 Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation John...Abstract This document explores hydrologic modeling and flood frequency analysis for ordinary high water mark (OHWM) delineation performed for Clean

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  11. Thermographic analysis of turbulent non-isothermal water boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the turbulent water boundary layer in the jet mixing flows using high-speed infrared (IR) thermography. Two turbulent mixing processes were studied: a submerged water jet impinging on a flat surface and two intersecting jets in a round disc-shaped vessel. An infrared camera (FLIR Systems SC7700) was focused on the window transparent for IR radiation; it provided high-speed recordings of heat fluxes from a thin water layer close to the window. Temperature versus time curves at different points of water boundary layer near the wall surface were acquired using the IR camera with the recording frequency of 100 Hz. The time of recording varied from 3 till 20 min. The power spectra for the temperature fluctuations at different points on the hot-cold water mixing zone were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The obtained spectral behavior was compared to the Kolmogorov "-5/3 spectrum" (a direct energy cascade) and the dual-cascade scenario predicted for...

  12. Using multivariate statistical analysis to assess changes in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis (CCA) showed that the environmental variables used in the analysis, discharge and month of ... International studies with regard to impacts on aquatic systems .... frequently used to assess for the impact of acidic deposition on.

  13. Analysis of paper machine process waters; Paperikoneen prosessivesianalytiikka - MPKT 09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuutinen, J.; Alen, R.; Harjula, P.; Kilpinen, J.; Pallonen, R.; Jurvela, V.

    1998-12-31

    The closure of paper machine circuits demands a better knowledge of the chemical structures and behaviour of organic compounds in pulp mill process waters. Nonionic or negatively charged detrimental substances (anionic trash) which will eventually cause runnability. Paper quality problems are of special interest. The main purpose of the project was to develop routine `fingerprint` analytical procedures to study various process waters. Our major interest was focused on low molecular weight carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and lignin based material. The `fingerprints` (chromatograms and electropherograms) can be used to differentiate various process waters or to find out changes between the composition of organic compounds in various stages of the papermaking process. Until now the most characteristic `fingerprints` were obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Examples of using these techniques are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of Water Features in Gas Leakage Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huaishan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a certain frequency range, gas is an effective absorber and scatterer of sound, which changes the compressibility of water, and then changes the speed and frequency of sound. Gas continues rising, deforming, and dissolving. The same bubble of natural gas has different radii at different depths. By analyzing these changes, the resonance frequency of gas bubble, and its impacts on sound wave, characteristics of the influences of gas at different depths on the incident sound wave can be obtained. The main sound features of gas are relevant to the gas size, gas content, velocity, attenuation, resonance frequency, the scattering cross-section, and so forth. Sound models with hydrate and free gas in the water and sediment are established. Through the practical application to actual data, the sound characteristics yielded when the gas (or gas hydrate dissociation escaped the water of seismic data are very clear.

  15. Analysis on Issues of Variable Flow Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable flow water system has played an important role in the field of energy saving with the Electronic Variable Frequency Drive (VFD widely used in practical projects. How to control the frequency converter to work properly is an essential issue which we must first emphatically solve. The control technology of frequency converter is closely related to characteristics of pumps. Based on the mathmatical a model of pumps with or without inverters, the article discusses some issues in detail, such as inverters configuration, flow rate regulation and overload. These are key issues of control technology of variable flow water system. For those multiple-pump water systems, the engineers may select synchronous frequency conversion control technology or Add-Sub pumps control technology to achieve the maximum energy-saving benefits.  

  16. Performance analysis of photovoltaic based submersible water pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a photovoltaic (PV array based water pumping system situated at Kota Rajasthan (25.18 N and 75.83 E, India has been studied. A 2hp DC motor with 2200W (10 panels of each 225W have been used for discharge 30 m water head. The maximum discharge logged 163litre/minute between 11AM to 2PM at PV power output between 75 to 85W/m2and the system is operating approximately 8 hours in the of November of the winter season. The full day discharge has found 70995litre and it is more than the average discharge given by the manufacturer at 50m depth. It is revealed that PV array based water pumping system is suitable and feasible option for off-grid and drip irrigation system like the interior area of Kota, where clear sky days are more than 250 in a year.

  17. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  18. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley R; Bain, Robert E S; Fisher, Michael B; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma R; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety. To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands. A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141). Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1) and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7) times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58) and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22). Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62) compared to other water sources used for consumption. Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Williams

    Full Text Available Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety.To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands.A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141. Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1 and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7 times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58 and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22. Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62 compared to other water sources used for consumption.Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  20. Application of water quality indices and analysis of the surface water quality monitoring network in semiarid North-Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Lesly; Kretschmer, Nicole; Oyarzún, Jorge; Meza, Francisco; Núñez, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Oyarzo, Paula; Garrido, Marcela; Suckel, Felipe; Amezaga, Jaime; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Surface water quality has increasing importance worldwide and is particularly relevant in the semiarid North-Central Chile, where agriculture and mining activities are imposing heavy pressure on limited water resources. The current study presents the application of a water quality index in four watersheds of the 29°-33°S realm for the period 1999-2008, based on the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment approach and the Chilean regulation for irrigation water quality. In addition, two modifications to the index are tested and a comprehensive characterization of the existing monitoring network is performed through cluster analysis. The basins studied show fairly good water quality in the overall, specially the Limarí basin. On the other hand, the lower index values were obtained for the headwaters of Elqui, associated with the El Indio mining district. The first modification of the indicator (i.e., to consider parameters differentially according to their effect on human health or the environment) did not produce major differences with respect to the original index, given the generally good water quality. The second modification (i.e., to consider as threshold values the more restrictive figures derived from a set of regulations) yielded important differences in the indicator values. Finally, an adequate characterization of the monitoring network was obtained. The results presented spatial coherence and the information can be used as a basis for the optimization of the monitoring network if required.

  1. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of central softening for production of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Goossens, H; Everard, P A; Stemgée, K; Rogge, W

    2009-01-01

    Softening drinking water before distribution yields advantages with environmental impact, such as lower household products consumption, less scaling in piping and machines, and the avoidance of decentralized, domestic softeners. Central softening is under consideration in Flanders by the largest water supplier, VMW (Dutch acronym for "Flemish Company for Water Supply"), to deliver soft (15 degrees F) water to their customers. A case study is presented for a region with hard water (47 degrees F). The chosen technique is the pellet reactor, based on precipitation of CaCO(3) by NaOH addition. This softening operation has possibly large impact on the environment and the water consumption pattern. A cost-benefit analysis has been made to estimate the added value of central softening, by investigating the impact on the drinking water company, on their customers, on employment, on environment, on health, etc. The analysis for the region of study revealed benefits for customers which were higher than the costs for the drinking water company. However, pricing of drinking water remains an important problem. A sensitivity analysis of these results has also been made, to evaluate the impact of important hypothesis, and to be able to expand this study to other regions. The conclusions for this part show that softening is beneficial if water hardness is to be decreased by at least 5 degrees F.

  3. Supercritical water oxidation - Concept analysis for evolutionary Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John B., Jr.; Brewer, Dana A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) concept to reduce the number of processes needed in an evolutionary Space Station design's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), while reducing resupply requirements and enhancing the integration of separate ECLSS functions into a single Supercritical Water Oxidation process, is evaluated. While not feasible for an initial operational capability Space Station, the SCWO's application to the evolutionary Space Station configuration would aid the integration of eight ECLSS functions into a single one, thereby significantly reducing program costs.

  4. Implicit Parallel FEM Analysis of Shallow Water Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chunbo; LI Kai; LIU Ning; ZHANG Qinghai

    2005-01-01

    The velocity field in the Wu River at Chongqing was simulated using the shallow water equation implemented on clustered workstations. The parallel computing technique was used to increase the computing power. The shallow water equation was discretized to a linear system of equations with a direct parallel generalized minimum residual algorithm (GMRES) used to solve the linear system. Unlike other parallel GMRES methods, the direct GMRES method does not alter the sequential algorithm, but bases the parallelization on basic operations such as the matrix-vector product. The computed results agree well with observed results. The parallel computing technique significantly increases the solution speed for this large-scale problem.

  5. Thermal behaviour analysis on ITER component cooling water system loop 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin, E-mail: guobin@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dell’Orco, Giovanni; Liliana, Teodoros; Tao, Jun [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yang, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. • The cooling water temperature profile at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained. • Operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B has been depicted. - Abstract: ITER cooling water system is composed by several cooling loops, the primary heat transfer loops that form the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS), the secondary heat transfer loops that form the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) and the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and a tertiary heat transfer loop which is the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS is further divided into CCWS-1, CCWS-2A, CCWS-2B, CCWS-2C, CCWS-2D depending on the water chemistry needs of clients and wetted area material. The component cooling water system loop 2B (CCWS-2B) has the function to remove heat load from coil power supply component, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) system component and diagnostic system which are located in different buildings. As the total number of the client connections for the loop is a few hundreds, simplified thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. The curve of the cooling water temperature at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained and the cooling water flow rate can meet the thermal removal requirement of client was also confirmed from this analysis. In addition, operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B in this thermal analysis was depicted for main heat exchanger selection purposes. This study has been carried out with the AFT Fathom code.

  6. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  7. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  8. Iron analysis in atmospheric water samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in water-methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikitis, A M; Colin, J L; Desboeufs, K V; Losno, R

    2004-01-01

    To distinguish between Fe(II) and Fe(III) species in atmospheric water samples, we have adapted an analytical procedure based on the formation of a specific complex between Fe(II) and ferrozine (FZ) on a chromatographic column. After elution of Fe(III), the Fe(II) complex is recovered with water-methanol (4:1). The possibility of trace iron measurements in this complex medium by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry has been investigated. A simplex optimization routine was required to complete the development of the analytical method.

  9. A water quality monitoring network design using fuzzy theory and multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Lin, You-Tze

    2014-10-01

    A proper water quality monitoring design is required in a watershed, particularly in a water resource protected area. As numerous factors can influence the water quality monitoring design, this study applies multiple criteria analysis to evaluate the suitability of the water quality monitoring design in the Taipei Water Resource Domain (TWRD) in northern Taiwan. Seven criteria, which comprise percentage of farmland area, percentage of built-up area, amount of non-point source pollution, green cover ratio, landslide area ratio, ratio of over-utilization on hillsides, and density of water quality monitoring stations, are selected in the multiple criteria analysis. The criteria are normalized and weighted. The weighted method is applied to score the subbasins. The density of water quality stations needs to be increased in priority in the subbasins with a higher score. The fuzzy theory is utilized to prioritize the need for a higher density of water quality monitoring stations. The results show that the need for more water quality stations in subbasin 2 in the Bei-Shih Creek Basin is much higher than those in the other subbasins. Furthermore, the existing water quality station in subbasin 2 requires maintenance. It is recommended that new water quality stations be built in subbasin 2.

  10. Valuation of Water and its Sensitive Analysis in Agricultural Sector A Hedonic Pricing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud D. Kakhki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the recent decades water scarcity and its impacts on agricultural sectors and food security are growing concerns worldwide. Water scarcity is one the major problem facing agricultural production in Iran. In this context valuation of irrigation water can be suggest as an appropriate solution. Approach: This research based on utilizing hedonic pricing method for estimating effective variables on the value of agricultural lands and used a way, for obtaining the value of irrigation water in Mashhad. Sensitive analysis is also used for observation of varieties in the value of water. Results: Results showed that, irrigation water is the most effective and significant variable in the controversial area. Results of the sensitive analysis indicated that, by increasing discount rate, the value of water increased. Whereas by decreasing period of investment and annual consumption of water, the value of it, decreased. Conclusion: In the case of agricultural lands are allocated to cultivation of valuable crops, discount rate of investment would increase; and also if agricultural lands invested in quick return activities, period of investment decrease. And therefore, the value of irrigation water in m-3 increases. Results indicated that by decrease of aridity and so increase in water consumption, in a long run period of investment, value of irrigation water decreases.

  11. Grey associated analysis of the underground water quality effected by the leaching water of dumping area or hillock of coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin(卢国斌); ZHANG Lang(张浪); LIU Zi-bin(刘志斌)

    2003-01-01

    The underground water has been contaminated seriously by the leaching water of dumping area or hillock. To determine the pollution limits of underground water, author took samples in the study area, analyzed samples for water quality, assessed the water quality of each monitoring point by the grey associated analysis method, and gave out the classifications of the underground water quality of the study area. Comparing with fuzzy comprehensive appraisal method, it is demonstrated that grey associated analysis method is applied easily, because of its clear concept, simple and convenient calculation and excellently operation.

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Water Distribution System Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of different dis...

  13. Water footprint scenarios for 2050: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study develops water footprint scenarios for 2050 based on a number of drivers of change: population growth, economic growth, production/trade pattern, consumption pattern (dietary change, bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective the study is to understand the changes in the

  14. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-04

    Jul 4, 2005 ... managing urban water supply systems, for example, a shortage of resources available to ... which can be used according to the type of problem, such as choice-based, ranking- .... g(b) and g(a)), in other words, size of larger scale, where max corresponds to the ... ing that a dominance hypothesis is justified.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Water Distribution System Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of different dis...

  16. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  17. GISMOWA: Geospatial Risk-Based Analysis Identifying Water Quality Monitoring Sites in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Lyster; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring water quality in drinking water distribution systems is the basis for proactive approaches to prevent or manage emerging water quality issues, and such a monitoring requires a strategic selection of relevant and representative monitoring sites. GISMOWA is a new GIS and risk......-based analysis tool to identify and prioritize pipe segments for water quality monitoring and to comply with existing monitoring and sampling guidelines. The tool was designed to integrate multiple parameters categorized as (1) hydraulic and structural weaknesses in the system, e.g., residence time; (2) external...... threats, e.g., contaminated sites; and (3) sensitive consumers, e.g., hospitals, in a GIS environment. The tool used a multicriteria decision analysis to evaluate multiple monitoring site parameters and map zones particularly suitable for water quality monitoring. GISMOWA was applied to Danish water...

  18. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  19. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  20. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.

  1. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  2. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent.

  3. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  4. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; Z.M.CHEN; L.ZENG; H.QIAO; B.CHEN

    2016-01-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization,the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply.This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demanddriven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model.In 2007,the Electric Power,Steam,and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW),and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU).Investment,consumption,and exports contribute to 34.6%,33.3%,and 30.6% of the national total EWU,respectively.Specifically,58.0%,51.1%,48.6%,43.3%,and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong,Shanghai,Zhejiang,Jiangsu,and Fujian are attributed to international exports.The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW,of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power,Steam,and Hot Water Production and Supply.Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water,in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver.Without implementing effective watersaving measures and adjusting industrial structures,the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products.Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production,and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  5. Noninvasive analysis of hepatic glycogen kinetics before and after breakfast with deuterated water and acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, John G.; Fagulha, Ana; Barosa, Cristina; Bastos, Margarida; Barros, Luisa; Baptista, Carla; Caldeira, M. Madalena; Carvalheiro, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of hepatic glycogenolysis to fasting glucose production and direct pathway to hepatic glycogen synthesis were quantified in eight type 1 diabetic patients and nine healthy control subjects by ingestion of (2)H(2)O and acetaminophen before breakfast followed by analysis of urinary water and acetaminophen glucuronide. After overnight fasting, enrichment of glucuronide position 5 relative to body water (G5/body water) was significantly higher in type 1 diabetic patients compare...

  6. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) for the Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    requirement for a Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP). Data and information from this COEA is intended to support a Milestone Decision Review ( MDR I/I1) planned... MDR ) with suitable information and analysis to enable them to: (1) Select from among the designated Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP) alternatives and...Service field water quality standards contained in Technical Bulletin, Medical ( TB MED 577). The LWP falls within the Combat Service Support (CSS

  7. Origin of uncontrolled water emissions in Alicante: use of discriminant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchón Payá, Servando; Blas Bravo, Isabel de; Nueda Roldán, María José; García Andreu, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A model has been developed to predict the origin of uncontrolled water flows. For this purpose, we analysed a total of 52 elements using ICP techniques on 72 water samples in all: 40 of them from leaks in the drinking water supply network and the remaining 32 from groundwater outcrops. The study focused on the cases registered within the Alicante town limits (Spain). The use of multivariate statistical classification tools such as discriminant analysis made it possible not only to reduce the ...

  8. Carbon stable isotope analysis of cereal remains as a way to reconstruct water availability: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Flohr, Pascal; Muldner, Gundula; Jenkins, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing past water availability, both as rainfall and irrigation, is important to answer questions about the way society reacts to climate and its changes and the role of irrigation in the development of social complexity. Carbon stable isotope analysis of archaeobotanical remains is a potentially valuable method for reconstructing water availability. To further define the relationship between water availability and plant carbon isotope composition and to set up baseline values for the...

  9. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-21

    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  10. Analysis of the tropospheric water distribution during FIRE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model, as adapted for use at ARC, was used as a testbed for the development and validation of cloud models for use in General Circulation Models (GCM's). This modeling approach also allows us to intercompare the predictions of the various cloud schemes within the same dynamical framework. The use of the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model also allows us to compare our results with FIRE-II (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) observations, instead of climate statistics. Though a promising approach, our work to date revealed several difficulties. First, the model by design is limited in spatial coverage and is only run for 12 to 48 hours at a time. Hence the quality of the simulation will depend heavily on the initial conditions. The poor quality of upper-tropospheric measurements of water vapor is well known and the situation is particularly bad for mid-latitude winter since the coupling with the surface is less direct than in summer so that relying on the model to spin-up a reasonable moisture field is not always successful. Though one of the most common atmospheric constituents, water vapor is relatively difficult to measure accurately, especially operationally over large areas. The standard NWS sondes have little sensitivity at the low temperatures where cirrus form and the data from the GOES 6.7 micron channel is difficult to quantify. For this reason, the goals of FIRE Cirrus II included characterizing the three-dimensional distribution of water vapor and clouds. In studying the data from FIRE Cirrus II, it was found that no single special observation technique provides accurate regional distributions of water vapor. The Raman lidar provides accurate measurements, but only at the Hub, for levels up to 10 km, and during nighttime hours. The CLASS sondes are more sensitive to moisture at low temperatures than are the NWS sondes, but the four stations only cover an area of two hundred kilometers on a side

  11. Grapevine water absorption in different soils. A spatio-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Hillslope vineyards show complex water dynamics between soil and plants. To gain further insight of this relationship, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during two vintages (2011-2013), on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and at harvest, using δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil volumetric humidity was also measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) into Soil Volume Water and therefore to spatialise and describe variations in space and time in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the two years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to substantial water deficit. With this freshly developed method, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. Great heterogeneity was observed, both laterally and vertically in grapevine water absorption. The contribution of each soil region to plant water status varies according to grapevine water status. It is different between day and night and depends from soil characteristics. It is to our knowledge the first time that water absorption by grapevine is revealed in space (2D) and time, and has therefore allowed a deeper comprehension of plant and soil dynamics in grapevine.

  12. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS FOR LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION USING SALINE IRRIGATION DRAINAGE WATER IN TURKMENISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley JOHNSON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation return flows increase the salt concentrations of receiving water bodies and cause water logging which affect agricultural productivity in Turkmenistan. Flooding irrigation drainage water using on natural pastures has also had adverse effects on the long-term productivity of desert ranges. This study examines the economics of halophytes as feed for sheep using saline irrigation water from drainage collector systems on a representative farm. Cost-benefit and rate of return analyses show that the project is economically feasible for reused water with 1400 mg/l mineralization levels or less. At higher mineral concentrations in water, or in more saline soils, bioremediation through halophyte fodder production can be profitably implemented if new market incentives exist. Value chain analysis is applied to evaluate alternative incentive systems for sheep operations based on saline water irrigated halophyte fodder production.

  13. National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment, Part I: Climate Change Adaptation Readiness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report “National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment” is comprised of four parts (Part I to IV), each in an independent volume. The Part I report presented herein describes a preliminary regulatory and technical analysis of water infrastructure and regulations in the ...

  14. Situational analysis of the microbial water quality in a peri-urban catchment in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A situational analysis of a peri-urban catchment experiencing microbial water quality problems was carried out using data collected over two and a half years. The water and land use in the area was determined. The main sources of pollution were...

  15. Modeling water permeability in needle-punched nonwovens using finite element analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available -punching process. The pore size in the nonwovens is measured by liquid extrusion porometry. Water permeability is measured by the water permeability tester. A finite element analysis is employed to predict the flow velocity through the nonwovens. A good correlation...

  16. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  17. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of water pumping rates of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This short review deals with water pumping and analysis of flow, including available techniques and bio-fluid mechanical theory, in burrowing deposit...

  18. THE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS FOR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and fluid flow are studied for the water heater of RV cars, in which the hot water is heated by the combustion energy of liquefied petroleum gases. Three types of combustion tubes are performed in this investigation, which are circular tube, elliptic tube and elliptic tube with screwed wire inserted. The heat transfer performances of numerical simulation results are compared with those of the experimental works; they are in good trend agreement. The elliptic combustion tube performs better than the circular one, which indicates the average 7% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube and 12% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube with screwed wire under static heating.

  19. Strategy for water analysis using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.L.; Llorens, J.F. [Inst. of Earth Sciences, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Vera, F.; Gomez-Artola, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Morell, I. [Universitat Jaume I, Esc. Sup. Tecnologia y Ciencias Experimentales, Castello (Spain); Gimeno, D. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-11-01

    The developed strategy permits determination in three steps of sixty-seven elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sodium, Mg, Si, S, Cl, K, and Ca are determined in a first step; B, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, and Pb are determined in a second step; and Li, Be, Ti, V, Co, Ga, Ge, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Te, I, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Tl, Bi, Th, and U are analyzed in a third step. The figures of merit obtained are adequate to carry out water quality monitoring and other hydrochemical studies, such those based in the application of hydrochemical fingerprinting to water management. (orig.)

  20. Error analysis of integrated water vapor measured by CIMEL photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, I. A.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Frantsuzova, I. S.; Volkova, K. A.; Poberovsky, A. V.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2017-01-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in weather and climate forming, which leads to the need for continuous monitoring of its content in different parts of the Earth. Intercomparison and validation of different methods for integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements are essential for determining the real accuracies of these methods. CIMEL photometers measure IWV at hundreds of ground-based stations of the AERONET network. We analyze simultaneous IWV measurements performed by a CIMEL photometer, an RPG-HATPRO MW radiometer, and a FTIR Bruker 125-HR spectrometer at the Peterhof station of St. Petersburg State University. We show that the CIMEL photometer calibrated by the manufacturer significantly underestimates the IWV obtained by other devices. We may conclude from this intercomparison that it is necessary to perform an additional calibration of the CIMEL photometer, as well as a possible correction of the interpretation technique for CIMEL measurements at the Peterhof site.

  1. Irrigation water demand: A meta-analysis of price elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheierling, Susanne M.; Loomis, John B.; Young, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Metaregression models are estimated to investigate sources of variation in empirical estimates of the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Elasticity estimates are drawn from 24 studies reported in the United States since 1963, including mathematical programming, field experiments, and econometric studies. The mean price elasticity is 0.48. Long-run elasticities, those that are most useful for policy purposes, are likely larger than the mean estimate. Empirical results suggest that estimates may be more elastic if they are derived from mathematical programming or econometric studies and calculated at a higher irrigation water price. Less elastic estimates are found to be derived from models based on field experiments and in the presence of high-valued crops.

  2. Analysis of Water Management in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state, isothermal water-management model for a complete proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was developed. The model includes the transport in the diffusion layer and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) with a pseudo-homogeneous model for the cathode catalyst layer. The predicted fuel cell performance with variable cathode porosities compares well with experimental results. The model is then used to investigate the effects of some structural parameters, such as the rib size, the interdigitated flow field, and various operating conditions including the gas flow rate, the cell temperature and pressure, humidification, and the relative humidity at the inlet. Water management is best achieved by tuning the anode operating conditions.

  3. Passive Gamma Analysis of the Boiling-Water-Reactor Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Passive gamma analysis can be used to determine BU and CT of BWR assembly. The analysis is somewhat more complicated and less effective than similar method for PWR assemblies. From the measurements along the lengths of the BWR1 and BWR9 assemblies, there are hints that we may be able to use their information to help improve the model functions for better results.

  4. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  5. A worldwide analysis of trends in water-balance evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ukkola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the global hydrological cycle, with inevitable consequences for freshwater availability to people and ecosystems. But the attribution of recent trends in the terrestrial water balance remains disputed. This study attempts to account statistically for both trends and interannual variability in water-balance evapotranspiration (ET, estimated from the annual observed streamflow in 109 river basins during "water years" 1961–1999 and two gridded precipitation data sets. The basins were chosen based on the availability of streamflow time-series data in the Dai et al. (2009 synthesis. They were divided into water-limited "dry" and energy-limited "wet" basins following the Budyko framework. We investigated the potential roles of precipitation, aerosol-corrected solar radiation, land use change, wind speed, air temperature, and atmospheric CO2. Both trends and variability in ET show strong control by precipitation. There is some additional control of ET trends by vegetation processes, but little evidence for control by other factors. Interannual variability in ET was overwhelmingly dominated by precipitation, which accounted on average for 54–55% of the variation in wet basins (ranging from 0 to 100% and 94–95% in dry basins (ranging from 69 to 100%. Precipitation accounted for 45–46% of ET trends in wet basins and 80–84% in dry basins. Net atmospheric CO2 effects on transpiration, estimated using the Land-surface Processes and eXchanges (LPX model, did not contribute to observed trends in ET because declining stomatal conductance was counteracted by slightly but significantly increasing foliage cover.

  6. Index decomposition analysis of urban crop water footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Tillotson, MR; Liu, YW; Guo, W.; Yang, AH; Li, YF

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in often unplanned increases in population, and food demand in cities. Historically, hinterlands to these cities have acted as breadbaskets producing food to the urban residents. Accordingly, a large amount of available freshwater has been needed to support these croplands. However, the rapid expansion of cities in developing countries has significantly changed both the croplands around cities and the water demand. It is thus important to quantitatively investi...

  7. Field Portable Methods for Rapid Water Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Law 32 CFR 219 and 45 CFR 46. In conducting research utilizing recombinant DNA technology, the investigator(s) adhered to current guidelines... giardia , viruses, disinfection byproducts, water treatment plant data and other information requirements (2). This recent EPA ruling for information...expression of a recombinant periplasmic protein, Biochem and Molec Biol Intern 38, 315-324 (1996) Hernandez JF, Guibert JM, Delattre JM, Oger C, Charri~re

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis for the surface water quality of the Luan River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-wei ZHAO; Fu-yi CUI

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of surface water resource quality for the reconstruction of old water treatment plant, multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and factor analysis were applied to the data of Yuqiao Reservoir--surface water resource of the Luan River, China. The results of cluster analysis demonstrate that the months of one year were divided into 3 groups and the characteristic of clusters was agreed with the seasonal characteristics in North China. Three factors were derived from the complicated set using factor analysis. Factor 1 included turbidity and chlorophyll, which seemed to be related to the anthropogenic activities; factor 2 included alkaline and hardness, which were related to the natural characteristic of surface water; and factor 3 included Cl and NO-N affected by mineral and agricultural activities. The sinusoidal shape of the score plots of the three factors shows that the temporal variations caused by natural and human factors are linked to seasouality.

  9. Elementary analysis of the corrosion products in the nuclear power plants` primary water; Ydinvoimalaitosveden korroosiotuotteiden alkuaineanalytiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1995-02-01

    The study, based on a literature survey, concentrates on the sampling and analysis methods of the dissolved or colloidal transition metals: iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt in the primary coolant waters of the nuclear power plants. (73 refs.).

  10. Experimental stability analysis of different water-based nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Laura; Colla, Laura; Bobbo, Sergio; Barison, Simona; Agresti, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, great interest has been devoted to the unique properties of nanofluids. The dispersion process and the nanoparticle suspension stability have been found to be critical points in the development of these new fluids. For this reason, an experimental study on the stability of water-based dispersions containing different nanoparticles, i.e. single wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO), has been developed in this study. The aim of this study is to provide stable nanofluids for selecting suitable fluids with enhanced thermal characteristics. Different dispersion techniques were considered in this study, including sonication, ball milling and high-pressure homogenization. Both the dispersion process and the use of some dispersants were investigated as a function of the nanoparticle concentration. The high-pressure homogenization was found to be the best method, and the addition of n-dodecyl sulphate and polyethylene glycol as dispersants, respectively in SWCNHs-water and TiO2-water nanofluids, improved the nanofluid stability.

  11. Experimental stability analysis of different water-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barison Simona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, great interest has been devoted to the unique properties of nanofluids. The dispersion process and the nanoparticle suspension stability have been found to be critical points in the development of these new fluids. For this reason, an experimental study on the stability of water-based dispersions containing different nanoparticles, i.e. single wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and copper oxide (CuO, has been developed in this study. The aim of this study is to provide stable nanofluids for selecting suitable fluids with enhanced thermal characteristics. Different dispersion techniques were considered in this study, including sonication, ball milling and high-pressure homogenization. Both the dispersion process and the use of some dispersants were investigated as a function of the nanoparticle concentration. The high-pressure homogenization was found to be the best method, and the addition of n-dodecyl sulphate and polyethylene glycol as dispersants, respectively in SWCNHs-water and TiO2-water nanofluids, improved the nanofluid stability.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassat, Mohammad; Bailey, Joanne; Yetisir, Metin

    2015-11-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed on the proposed design for the Canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR). The proposed Canadian SCWR is a 1200 MW(e) supercritical light-water cooled nuclear reactor with pressurized fuel channels. The reactor concept uses an inlet plenum that all fuel channels are attached to and an outlet header nested inside the inlet plenum. The coolant enters the inlet plenum at 350 C and exits the outlet header at 625 C. The operating pressure is approximately 26 MPa. The high pressure and high temperature outlet conditions result in a higher electric conversion efficiency as compared to existing light water reactors. In this work, CFD simulations were performed to model fluid flow and heat transfer in the inlet plenum, outlet header, and various parts of the fuel assembly. The ANSYS Fluent solver was used for simulations. Results showed that mass flow rate distribution in fuel channels varies radially and the inner channels achieve higher outlet temperatures. At the outlet header, zones with rotational flow were formed as the fluid from 336 fuel channels merged. Results also suggested that insulation of the outlet header should be considered to reduce the thermal stresses caused by the large temperature gradients.

  13. Analysis of cavitation effect for water purifier using electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Ko, Han Seo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-11-01

    Water is a limited and vital resource, so it should not be wasted by pollution. A development of new water purification technology is urgent nowadays since the original and biological treatments are not sufficient. The microbubble-aided method was investigated for removal of algal in this study since it overcomes demerits of the existing purification technologies. Thus, the cavitation effect in a venturi-type tube using the electrolysis was analyzed. Ruthenium-coated titanium plates were used as electrodes. Optimum electrode interval and applied power were determined for the electrolysis. Then, the optimized electrodes were installed in the venturi-type tube for generating cavitation. The cavitation effect could be enhanced without any byproduct by the bubbly flow induced by the electrolysis. The optimum mass flow rate and current were determined for the cavitation with the electrolysis. Finally, the visualization techniques were used to count the cell number of algal and microbubbles for the confirmation of the performance. As a result, the energy saving and high efficient water purifier was fabricated in this study. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  14. Identifiability analysis of the CSTR river water quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Deng, Y

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual river water quality models are widely known to lack identifiability. The causes for that can be due to model structure errors, observational errors and less frequent samplings. Although significant efforts have been directed towards better identification of river water quality models, it is not clear whether a given model is structurally identifiable. Information is also limited regarding the contribution of different unidentifiability sources. Taking the widely applied CSTR river water quality model as an example, this paper presents a theoretical proof that the CSTR model is indeed structurally identifiable. Its uncertainty is thus dominantly from observational errors and less frequent samplings. Given the current monitoring accuracy and sampling frequency, the unidentifiability from sampling frequency is found to be more significant than that from observational errors. It is also noted that there is a crucial sampling frequency between 0.1 and 1 day, over which the simulated river system could be represented by different illusions and the model application could be far less reliable.

  15. Experimental Analysis of Desalination Unit Coupled with Solar Water Lens Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithanya, K. K.; Rajesh, V. R.; Suresh, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    The main problem that the world faces in this scenario is shortage of potable water. Hence this research work rivets to increase the yield of desalination system in an economical way. The integration of solar concentrator and desalination unit can project the desired yield, but the commercially available concentrated solar power technologies (CSP) are not economically viable. So this study proposes a novel method to concentrate ample amount of solar radiation in a cost effective way. Water acting as lens is a highlighted technology initiated in this work, which can be a substitute for CSP systems. And water lens can accelerate the desalination process so as to increase the yield economically. The solar irradiance passing through the water will be concentrated at a focal point, and the concentration depends on curvature of water lens. The experimental analysis of water lens makes use of transparent thin sheet, supported on a metallic structure. The Plano convex shape of water lens is developed by varying the volume of water that is being poured on the transparent thin sheet. From the experimental analysis it is inferred that, as the curvature of water lens increases, solar irradiance can be focused more accurately on to the focus and a higher water temperature is obtained inside the solar still.

  16. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  17. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  18. A new method of tree xylem water extraction for isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, C.; Newton, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Sacramento Mountain Watershed Study in the southern Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico is designed to assess the forest restoration technique of tree thinning in mountain watersheds as an effective method of increasing local and regional groundwater recharge. The project is using a soil water balance approach to quantify the partitioning of local precipitation within this watershed before and after thinning trees. Understanding what sources trees extract their water from (e.g. shallow groundwater, unsaturated fractured bedrock, and soils) is difficult due to a complex hydrologic system and heterogeneous distribution of soil thicknesses. However, in order to accurately quantify the soil water balance and to assess how thinning trees will affect this water balance, it is important determine the sources from which trees extract their water. We plan to use oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic analysis of various end member waters to identify these different sources. We are in the process of developing a new method of determining the isotopic composition of tree water that has several advantages over conventional methods. Within the tree there is the xylem which transports water from the roots to the leaves and the phloem which transports starches and sugars in a water media throughout the tree. Previous studies have shown that the isotopic composition of xylem water accurately reflects that of source water, while phloem water has undergone isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis and metabolism. The distillation of water from twigs, which is often used to extract tree water for isotopic analysis, is very labor intensive. Other disadvantages to distillation methods include possible fractionation due to phase changes and the possible extraction of fractionated phloem waters. Employing a new mixing method, the composition of the twig water (TW) can be determined by putting twigs of unknown isotopic water composition into waters of known compositions or initial

  19. Analysis of Best Management Practices Implementation on Water Quality Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Motsinger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico can be traced to agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States that are artificially drained in order to make the land suitable for agriculture. A number of best management practices (BMPs have been introduced to improve the water quality in the region but their relative effectivenss of these BMPs in reducing nutrient load has not been properly quantified. In order to determine the BMPs useful for reducing nutrient discharge from a tile drained watershed, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was calibrated and validated for water flow and nitrate load using experimental data from the Little Vermillion River (LVR watershed in east-central Illinois. Then, the performance of four common BMPs (reduced tillage, cover crop, filter strip and wetlands were evaluated. For BMPs, the usage of rye as cover crop performed the best in reducing nitrate discharge from the watershed as a single BMP, with an average annual nitrate load reduction of 54.5%. Combining no tillage and rye cover crops had varying results over the period simulated, but the average nitrate reduction was better than using rye cover crops with conventional tillage, with the average annual nitrate discharge decreased by 60.5% (an improvement of 13% over rye only.

  20. Structured hydrological analysis for targeting fallow evaporation to improve water productivity at the irrigation system level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of an application of a holistic systematic approach of water accounting using remote sensing and GIS coupled with ground water modeling to evaluate water saving options by tracking non-beneficial evaporation in the Liuyuankou Irrigation System (LIS of China. Groundwater rise is a major issue in the LIS, where groundwater levels have risen alarmingly close to the ground surface (within 1 m near the Yellow River. The lumped water balance analysis showed high fallow evaporation losses and which need to be reduced for improving water productivity.

    The seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETs was estimated by applying the SEBAL algorithm for eighteen NOAA AVHRR-12 images over the year of 1990–1991. This analysis was aided by the unsupervised land use classification applied to two Landsat 5 TM images of the study area. SEBAL results confirmed that a significant amount (116.7 MCM of water can be saved by reducing ETs from fallow land which will result in improved water productivity at the irrigation system. The water accounting indicator (for the analysis period shows that the process fraction per unit of depleted water (PFdepleted is 0.52 for LIS, meaning that 52% of the depleted water is consumed by agricultural crops and 48% is lost through non-process depletion.

    Finally, the groundwater modeling was applied to simulate three land use and water management interventions to assess their effectiveness for both water savings and impact on the groundwater in LIS. MODFLOW's Zone Budget code calculates the groundwater budget of user-specified subregions, the exchange of flows between subregions and also calculates a volumetric water budget for the entire model at the end of each time step. The simulation results showed that fallow evaporation could be reduced between 14.2% (25.51 MCM and 45.3% (81.36 MCM by interventions such as canal lining and ground

  1. Remarks on boiling water reactor stability analysis. Pt. 1. Theory and application of bifurcation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Carsten; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Chair of Hydrogen and Nuclear Energy; Schuster, Roland [Kernkraftwerk Brunsbuettel GmbH und Co. oHG, Brunsbuettel (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg; Aguirre, Carlos [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, Aargau (Switzerland); Hennig, Dieter

    2012-11-15

    Modern theoretical methods for analysing the stability behaviour of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) are relatively reliable. The analysis is performed by comprehensive validated system codes comprising 3D core models and one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic parallel channel models in the frequency (linearized models) or time domain. Nevertheless the spontaneous emergence of stable or unstable periodic orbits as solutions of the coupled nonlinear differential equations determining the stability properties of the coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutron kinetic (highly) nonlinear BWR system is a surprising phenomenon, and it is worth thinking about the mathematical background controlling such behaviour. In particular the coexistence of different types of solutions, such as the coexistence of unstable limit cycles and stable fixed points, are states of stability, not all nuclear engineers are familiar with. Hence the part I of this paper is devoted to the mathematical background of linear and nonlinear stability analysis and introduces a novel efficient approach to treat the nonlinear BWR stability behaviour with both system codes and so-called (advanced) reduced order models (ROMs). The efficiency of this approach, called the RAM-ROM method, will be demonstrated by some results of stability analyses for different power plants. (orig.)

  2. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  3. Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Zobėlaitė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..
    Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis of technological flows and documents has indicated problematic points in the following processes:
    1. collection of oily and engine bilge water from ships;
    2. collection of spilled overboard oil products;
    3. exploitation of intermediate accumulative reservoirs in the port;
    4. regular transportation of accumulated oily water engine bilge water to the oil-polluted water treatment station;
    5. distribution, storage, treatment (mechanical, physical, sorption of pumped engine bilge water.
    Among oil polluted waste, its specific kind - oily water emerges in ports and it is called "engine bilge water" in the Waste Management Regulations. Engine bilge water is specific and hazardous to the environment as it is a liquid compound of water and oil products capable of making steady emulsions. It also acquires specific properties during various technological processes. Equipment, technological processes, specificity of the control related to combustibility and inflammability, as well as conformity to the requirements of the International and EU Rights, technological processes management and documents are needed for the management of this specific waste. For this reason, separation of this oily water from the common oil-polluted waste and analysis of these streams of waste treatment are of great importance in enhancement of the effectiveness of environmental protection during the management process of this oily waste.
    Applying a system approach

  4. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m(3) GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  5. ANALYSIS OF WATER CONSUMER SAFETY ARISING FROM HAZARD IN RURAL WATERWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is the analysis of issues related to the safety of water supply systems in rural areas. In the paper the characteristics of risks in the water supply system (WSS resulting directly from the operation of the system and damage of its elements, failures of water pipes and external causes as a result of accidental contamination of water sources, forces of nature, flood, drought, etc. The method of safety assessment of WSS and the method of determining criterion levels of safety were presented.

  6. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF USING AIRFLOW TO PURGE RESIDUAL WATER IN AN INCLINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Fang(沈芳); YAN Zong-yi(严宗毅); ZHAO Yao-hua(赵耀华); Kiyoshi Horii

    2002-01-01

    A refined theoretical analysis for using the spiral airflow and axial airflow to purge residual water in an inclined pipe was presented. The computations reveal that, in most cases, the spiral flow can purge the residual water in the inclined pipe indeed while the axial flow may induce back flow of the water, just as predicted in the experiments presented by Horii and Zhao et al. In addition, the effects of various initial conditions on water purging were studied in detail for both the spiral and axial flow cases.

  7. Surface Analysis of Metal Materials After Water Jet Abrasive Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with a progressive production technology using the water jet cutting technology with the addition of abrasives for material removal. This technology is widely used in cutting various shapes, but also for the technology of machining such as turning, milling, drilling and cutting of threads. The aim of this article was to analyse the surface of selected types of metallic materials after abrasive machining, i.e. by assessing the impact of selected machining parameters on the surface roughness of metallic materials.

  8. Water Supply Analysis for the Guam Comprehensive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    240 Agana Heights Reservoir 18 38 206 * -. Fena Clearwell 18 14 300 Umatac Tank 18-19 0 401 Merizo Reservoir 19 36 411 Windward Hills Large Reservoir 19...BPUHP card would be 8PUMP 50 200 400. d. Pumping from Tank. In specifying a pump taking suction from a tank, clearwell or pressure pipe, not part of...suction from a buried clearwell with water surface at 390 ft and produces 200 ft of head at 300 gpm (HGL at 590 ft), the following statements would be

  9. Kinetic Analysis of Haloacetonitrile Stability in Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Reckhow, David A

    2015-09-15

    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are an important class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are reactive and can undergo considerable transformation on time scales relevant to system distribution (i.e., from a few hours to a week or more). The stability of seven mono-, di-, and trihaloacetonitriles was examined under a variety of conditions including different pH levels and disinfectant doses that are typical of drinking water distribution systems. Results indicated that hydroxide, hypochlorite, and their protonated forms could react with HANs via nucleophilic attack on the nitrile carbon, forming the corresponding haloacetamides (HAMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) as major reaction intermediates and end products. Other stable intermediate products, such as the N-chloro-haloacetamides (N-chloro-HAMs), may form during the course of HAN chlorination. A scheme of pathways for the HAN reactions was proposed, and the rate constants for individual reactions were estimated. Under slightly basic conditions, hydroxide and hypochlorite are primary reactants and their associated second-order reaction rate constants were estimated to be 6 to 9 orders of magnitude higher than those of their protonated conjugates (i.e., neutral water and hypochlorous acid), which are much weaker but more predominant nucleophiles at neutral and acidic pHs. Developed using the estimated reaction rate constants, the linear free energy relationships (LFERs) summarized the nucleophilic nature of HAN reactions and demonstrated an activating effect of the electron withdrawing halogens on nitrile reactivity, leading to decreasing HAN stability with increasing degree of halogenation of the substituents, while subsequent shift from chlorine to bromine atoms has a contrary stabilizing effect on HANs. The chemical kinetic model together with the reaction rate constants that were determined in this work can be used for quantitative predictions of HAN concentrations depending on pH and free chlorine

  10. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  11. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Prediction of Pressure Drop in Chilled Water Piping System Using Theoretical and CFD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish P. Patil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three dimensional models of chilled water piping system is created using design modeler of Ansys-13. Ansys-13 fluent is used to analyses flow through chilled water pipe for pressure drop prediction. Karman-Prandtl equation is used for defining velocity profile of turbulent flow with the help of user defined function. Result obtained from CFD analysis is compared with results of 3K, 2K, ISHARE and Carrier equivalent length methods. Statistical analysis of performance based relative error has been carried out and based on that optimum analytical method for pressure drop prediction in chilled water piping is suggested.

  13. Water quality determination by photographic analysis. [optical density and water turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S. A.; Scherz, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial reconnaissance techniques to extract water quality parameters from aerial photos are reported. The turbidity can be correlated with total suspended solids if the constituent parts of the effluent remain the same and the volumetric flow remains relatively constant. A monochromator is used for the selection of the bandwidths containing the most information. White reflectance panels are used to locate sampling points and eliminate inherent energy changes from lens flare, radial lens fall-off, and changing subject illumination. Misleading information resulting from bottom effects is avoided by the use of Secchi disc readings and proper choice of wavelength for analyzing the photos.

  14. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  15. Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Water quality trend analysis for the Karoon River in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddafi, K; Honari, H; Ahmadi, M

    2007-11-01

    The Karoon River basin, with a basin area of 67,000 km(2), is located in the southern part of Iran. Monthly measurements of the discharge and the water quality variables have been monitored at the Gatvand and Khorramshahr stations of the Karoon River on a monthly basis for the period 1967-2005 and 1969-2005 for Gatvand and Khorramshahr stations, respectively. In this paper the time series of monthly values of water quality parameters and the discharge were analyzed using statistical methods and the existence of trends and the evaluation of the best fitted models were performed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to select the theoretical distribution which best fitted the data. Simple regression was used to examine the concentration-time relationships. The concentration-time relationships showed better correlation in Khorramshahr station than that of Gatvand station. The exponential model expresses better concentration - time relationships in Khorramshahr station, but in Gatvand station the logarithmic model is more fitted. The correlation coefficients are positive for all of the variables in Khorramshahr station also in Gatvand station all of the variables are positive except magnesium (Mg2+), bicarbonates (HCO3-) and temporary hardness which shows a decreasing relationship. The logarithmic and the exponential models describe better the concentration-time relationships for two stations.

  17. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN ZhongDong; HU XiaoQing; HUAI WenXin; AMADOR António

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-e model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  18. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMADOR; António

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-ε model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Surface remediation was completed at the former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, in 1990. Residual radioactive materials (contaminated soil and debris) were removed and disposed of at Union Carbide Corporation`s (Umetco) nearby Gas Hills Title 2 facility. Ground water in the surficial and semiconfined aquifers (known collectively as the `uppermost aquifer`) below the former mill and tailings site has been contaminated. No contamination has been detected in the deeper, confined sandstone aquifer. The contaminant plume extends off site to the south and east. The plume is constrained by surface wetlands and small streams to the east and west of the site and by the Little Wind River to the south. Fifteen monitor wells installed in 1993 were sampled to better define the contaminant plume and to provide additional water quality data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples also were collected from domestic wells in response to a request by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in January 1994. No contamination attributable to the former uranium milling operations have ever been detected in any of the domestic wells used for potable supplies.

  20. Economic Analysis of Water Demand in Greenhouses of Khash Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the way of affecting of water in production of cucumber. From aspect of econometrics, mutual relationships of production function and expenses have been analysed in which Translog cost function has been used. This function has been estimated using the conditional input demand functions, the shefard theorem, chemical fertilizer, animal fertilizer, labour force, seed, and pesticide in the framework of a system of equations by taking advantage of the irrelevant regression method. Applied inputs is for 151 cucumber Beneficiaries in Khash in farming year of 2011-12 that insider and crossing tendency of input demand for this product has been investigated through collecting questionnaires and using obtained coefficients. The results show that the translog cost model is a good fit compared to the data of research. According to the reviews, demand for water has a minor Insidersuccession tendency more than one which shows possible stretch of demand function rather than the price of the inputs. Hence, appropriate pricing policies can be used to take a positive step in preventing the extreme usage of this input and directing beneficiaries for optimum use of these inputs.

  1. Performance Assessment in Water Polo Using Compositional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Enrique García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify groups of offensive performance indicators which best discriminated between a match score (favourable, balanced or unfavourable in water polo. The sample comprised 88 regular season games (2011-2014 from the Spanish Professional Water Polo League. The offensive performance indicators were clustered in five groups: Attacks in relation to the different playing situations; Shots in relation to the different playing situations; Attacks outcome; Origin of shots; Technical execution of shots. The variables of each group had a constant sum which equalled 100%. The data were compositional data, therefore the variables were changed by means of the additive log-ratio (alr transformation. Multivariate discriminant analyses to compare the match scores were calculated using the transformed variables. With regard to the percentage of right classification, the results showed the group that discriminated the most between the match scores was “Attacks outcome” (60.4% for the original sample and 52.2% for cross-validation. The performance indicators that discriminated the most between the match scores in games with penalties were goals (structure coefficient (SC = .761, counterattack shots (SC = .541 and counterattacks (SC = .481. In matches without penalties, goals were the primary discriminating factor (SC = .576. This approach provides a new tool to compare the importance of the offensive performance groups and their effect on the match score discrimination.

  2. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  3. Quality-assurance data for routine water analysis in the National Water-Quality Laboratory of the US Geological Survey for water year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Geological Survey maintains a quality assurance program based on the analysis of reference samples for its National Water Quality Laboratory located in Denver, Colorado. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and precipitation (low-level concentration) constituents are prepared at the Survey 's Water Quality Services Unit in Ocala, Florida, disguised as routine samples, and sent daily or weekly, as appropriate, to the laboratory through other Survey offices. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), the Survey 's database for all water data. These data are analyzed statistically for precision and bias. An overall evaluation of the inorganic major ion and trace metal constituent data for water year 1988 indicated a lack of precision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for the determination of 8 out of 58 constituents: calcium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry), fluoride, iron (atomic absorption spectrometry), iron (total recoverable), magnesium (atomic absorption spectrometry), manganese (total recoverable), potassium, and sodium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry). The results for 31 constituents had positive or negative bias during water year 1988. A lack of precision was indicated in the determination of three of the six nutrient constituents: nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus. A biased condition was indicated in the determination of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen. There was acceptable precision in the determination of all 10 constituents contained in precipitation samples. Results for ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, sodium, and fluoride indicated a biased condition. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Preliminary analysis for trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, water years 1952-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Selected water-quality data from two streamflow-gaging stations on the Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, were statistically analyzed for trends using the seasonal Kendall test. Data for water years 1952-63 and 1975-85 from the Powder River near Locate, Montana, and water years 1967-68 and 1976-85 from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, were analyzed. Data for the earlier period near Locate were discharge-weighted monthly mean values, whereas data for the late period near Locate and at Sussex were from periodic samples. For data from water years 1952-63 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in sodium and sodium-adsorption ratio; no trends were detected in specific conductance, hardness, non-carbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or sulfate. For data from water years 1975-85 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in specific conductance, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride; no trends were detected in hardness, noncarbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, or sulfate. At Sussex (water years 1967-68 and 1976-85), increasing trends were detected in sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride, and a decreasing trend was detected in sulfate. No trends were detected in specific conductance, alkalinity, or dissolved solids. When the 1967-68 data were deleted and the analysis repeated for the 1976-85 data, only sodium-adsorption ratio displayed a significant (increasing) trend. Because the study was exploratory, causes and effects were not considered. The results might have been affected by sample size, number of seasons, heterogeneity, significance level, serial correlation, and data adjustment for changes in discharge. (USGS)

  5. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  6. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  7. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the weak non-elastic porous model, the expressions of pore pressure, effective stress and displacements of soil skeletal frame and pore water have been deduced for a finite depth seabed. The distributions of several physical parameters have been analyzed for three kinds of marine sediment, including pore pressure, effective stress, stress angle, displacement of skeletal frame and pore fluid, and the variations of elastic waves with wave period. According to the experimental results, the resonant phenomena in the silt bed and the mechanism underlying such events have been discussed. It is proposed that the existence of a stiff soil layer inside the silt bed is a necessary condition for resonance to occur, and the possible location of resonance can be forecasted.

  8. Diallel analysis in white oat cultivars subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to determine the combining ability of three white oat parental genotypes (UPF 18, URS21and URS 22 and to estimate the heterosis of F1 hybrids in two conditions, with and without water stress. The results indicate a largeeffect of the environment on the evaluated characters (cycle, leaf area, plant stature, grain yield per plant, main panicle weight andnumber of grains of the main panicle. The condition without stress was the most efficient for the selection of superior genotypes.Based on the general and specific combining ability, the cultivar URS 22 was shown to be indicated for cycle and stature reduction,while UPF 18 lead to increases in leaf area, main panicle weight and number of grains of the main panicle. The specific cross URS22 x URS 21 was the best for the selection of superior genotypes.

  9. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  10. ANALYSIS OF SOLUBLE CHEMICAL TRANSFER BY RUNOFF WATER IN FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ju-xiu; YANG Jin-zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the main factors influencing soluble chemical transfer and corresponding techniques for reducing fertilizer loss caused by runoff in irrigated fields, a physically based two-layer model was developed with incomplete mixing theory. Different forms of incomplete mixing parameters were introduced in the model, which was successfully verified with previous published experimental data. According to comparison, the chemicals loss of fertilizer is very sensitive to the runoff-related parameter while it is not sensitive to the infiltration-related parameter. The calculated results show that the chemicals in infiltration water play an important role in the early time of rainfall even with saturated soil, and it is mainly in the runoff flow in the late rainfall. Therefore, prevention of shallow subsurface drainage in the early rainfall is an effective way to reduce fertilizer loss, and the coverage on soil surface is another effective way.

  11. Stability Analysis of Closed-loop Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzheng FU; Keqi WU; Yaqiao CAI

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at closed-loop water system, by the method that shutting certain subcircuit, and solving the piping network, computing flow deviation of other subcircuits, then analyzing the rules of variation of stability with various factors, following conclusions are obtained: When reducing the resistance in main pipes, increasing resistance of subcircuits, system stability can be improved. Centralized regulation by changing power has no influence on system stability; centralized regulation by changing resistances will decrease system stability. Pump characteristics curve influences system stability, stability of the flat characteristic is superior to the steep one. For direct return system (DRS), the stability of subcircuit which is farthest from the heat source is the worst. For reverse return system (RRS), the stability of subcircuit in the middle of the pipe-network has the worst stability.Overall, stability of RRS is inferior to that of DRS.

  12. Piping Stress Analysis of Secondary Cooling Water System in CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Some piping valves of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) cannot maintain the leak tightness when debugging. Because the valves need to be exchanged, the stress analysis and evaluation should be made for the piping with new valves in order to make sure whether

  13. Tracing gadolinium-based contrast agents from surface water to drinking water by means of speciation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birka, Marvin; Wehe, Christoph A; Hachmöller, Oliver; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, a significant amount of anthropogenic gadolinium has been released into the environment as a result of the broad application of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since this anthropogenic gadolinium anomaly has also been detected in drinking water, it has become necessary to investigate the possible effect of drinking water purification on these highly polar microcontaminats. Therefore, a novel highly sensitive method for speciation analysis of gadolinium is presented. For that purpose, the hyphenation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed. In order to enhance the detection power, sample introduction was carried out by ultrasonic nebulization. In combination with a novel HILIC method using a diol-based stationary phase, it was possible to achieve superior limits of detection for frequently applied gadolinium-based contrast agents below 20pmol/L. With this method, the contrast agents Gd-DTPA, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BT-DO3A were determined in concentrations up to 159pmol/L in samples from several waterworks in a densely populated region of Germany alongside the river Ruhr as well as from a waterworks near a catchment lake. Thereby, the direct impact of anthropogenic gadolinium species being present in the surface water on the amount of anthropogenic gadolinium in drinking water was shown. There was no evidence for the degradation of contrast agents, the release of Gd(3+) or the presence of further Gd species.

  14. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  15. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  16. Multivariate analysis of surface water quality in the Three Gorges area of China and implications for water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhao; Guo Fu; Kun Lei; Yanwu Li

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques,cluster analysis,non-parametric tests,and factor analysis were applied to analyze a water quality dataset including 13 parameters at 37 sites of the Three Gorges area,China,from 2003-2008 to investigate spatio-temporal variations and identify potential pollution sources.Using cluster analysis,the twelve months of the year were classified into three periods of lowflow (LF),normal-flow (NF),and high-flow (HF); and the 37 monitoring sites were divided into low pollution (LP),moderate pollution (MP),and high pollution (HP).Dissolved oxygen (DO),potassium permanganate index (CODMn),and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+-N)were identified as significant variables affecting temporal and spatial variations by non-parametric tests.Factor analysis identified that the major pollutants in the HP region were organic matters and nutrients during NF,heavy metals during LF,and petroleum during HF.In the MP region,the identified pollutants primarily included organic matter and heavy metals year-around,while in the LP region,organic pollution was significant during both NF and HF,and nutrient and heavy metal levels were high during both LF and HF.The main sources of pollution came from domestic wastewater and agricultural activities and runoff; however,they contributed differently to each region in regards to pollution levels.For the HP region,inputs from wastewater treatment plants were significant; but for MP and LP regions,water pollution was more likely from the combined effects of agriculture,domestic wastewater,and chemical industry.These results provide fundamental information for developing better water pollution control strategies for the Three Gorges area.

  17. Effects of sterilization treatments on the analysis of TOC in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiming; Xu, Lingfeng; Gong, Dongqin; Lu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition experiments conducted with and without microbial processes are commonly used to study the effects of environmental microorganisms on the degradation of organic pollutants. However, the effects of biological pretreatment (sterilization) on organic matter often have a negative impact on such experiments. Based on the principle of water total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, the effects of physical sterilization treatments on determination of TOC and other water quality parameters were investigated. The results revealed that two conventional physical sterilization treatments, autoclaving and 60Co gamma-radiation sterilization, led to the direct decomposition of some organic pollutants, resulting in remarkable errors in the analysis of TOC in water samples. Furthermore, the extent of the errors varied with the intensity and the duration of sterilization treatments. Accordingly, a novel sterilization method for water samples, 0.45 microm micro-filtration coupled with ultraviolet radiation (MCUR), was developed in the present study. The results indicated that the MCUR method was capable of exerting a high bactericidal effect on the water sample while significantly decreasing the negative impact on the analysis of TOC and other water quality parameters. Before and after sterilization treatments, the relative errors of TOC determination could be controlled to lower than 3% for water samples with different categories and concentrations of organic pollutants by using MCUR.

  18. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (water supply analysis will be reviewed by project managers and a technical work group, and recommendations will be made to the Council for any changes needed in the location and/or design of the proposed production project facilities.

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution

  20. Fluorescence Analysis of E. coli Bacteria in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Bulycheva, Elizaveta Vladimirovna; Korotkova, Elena Ivanovna; Voronova, Olesya Aleksandrovna; Kustova, A. A.; Petrova, Ekaterina Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was done. It has been established that a luminescent signal from the one of metabolites (reduction form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH) can be adopted as a vitality indicator of the bacteria. This signal was chosen as an analytical signal. It was determined that the nature of this signal is fluorescence. In order to eliminate influence of the light scattering on this fluorescence signal optimal conditions were chosen.

  1. Exergy analysis of inlet water temperature of condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi Aysakhanam m

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most of the power plant designed by energetic performance criteria based on first law of thermodynamics. According to First law of thermodynamics energy analysis cannot be justified the losses of energy.The method of exergy analysis is well suited to describe true magnitude of waste and loss to be determined. Such information can be used in the design of new energy efficient system and increasing the efficiency of existing systems.In the present study exergy analysis of the shell and tube condenser is carried out. As the condenser is one of the major components of the power plant, so it is necessary to operate the condenser efficiently under the various operating condition to increase the overall efficiency of the power plant. In the present study inlet temperature of the condenser is optimized using the exergy method. The main aim of paper is to be find out causes of energy destruction that can be helpful to redesign the system and to increase the efficiency

  2. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  3. A Study of Characteristics of Water Tree Growth by Electric Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Masahiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    Three-dimensional electric fields analysis was applied to the tip of water trees in XLPE cable. First, pre-breakdown detection was curried out on “needle-shaped” water trees. The results were analyzed by the three-dimensional electric field F.E.M. The water tree was simplified by a spheroid in the analysis. The position of the trees, length, tip radius were read from the microphotographs. The analysis was done on all 11 examples. The test results could be explained well when the conductivity of the water tree region was assumed to be 5×10-7S/m. Next, the electric fields of tip of three kinds of water tree (“blue”, “needle-shaped” and “white” water tree) were analyzed. Three kinds of water tree were expressed by changing the conductivity of water tree region. And, a distance from water trees to inside half conductor was made to change in three kinds. These were analyzed about the cable (insulation thickness: 3, 6, 9 mm) of 6.6, 22, 66 kV respectively. It was found out that “blue” and needle-shaped tree in the 66 kV cable and “blue” tree in the 22 kV cable may cause a breakdown under the operation voltage. As for other cases, the tree may propagate without making breakdown until it bridges the insulation. And, the possibility that the growth of “white” water tree declined rapidly in 66, the 22 kV cable when it touches inner semi-conducting layer so that the tip electric fields of the tree are the same as the average electric fields of the cable was suggested.

  4. Sustainable Water Infrastructure Asset Management: A Gap Analysis of Customer and Service Provider Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjong Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of urban water infrastructure asset management may be sustainable water supply with satisfaction for customers. In this work, we attempted to evaluate the gaps between the perspectives of customers and service providers in Korea’s water infrastructure asset management. To evaluate the customers’ perspective, a hierarchical questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the weights of influence for six customer values and their attributes on Korean water utility management. To evaluate the service providers’ perspective, an AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis was performed to estimate the weights of influence for the customer values and their PIs (performance indicators. The gap analysis results show that customers place higher value on customer service satisfaction (emotion and information than do the service providers (managers, whereas the managers place more value on affordability than do the customers. The findings from this work imply that improving customer service is effective in satisfying the desirable water LOS (level of service for customers. Recommendations have also been provided for administrators and engineers to develop integrated decision-making systems that can reflect customer needs regarding the improvement of their water infrastructure asset management. The findings from this work may be helpful for the Korean government and water supply utilities in improving the sustainability of their water infrastructure asset management.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  6. Scenario analysis for sustainable development of Chongming Island: water resources sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiong; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Wilson, P Chris

    2012-11-15

    With the socioeconomic and urban development of Chongming Island (the largest alluvial island in the world), water demand is rapidly growing. To make adjustments to the water utilization structure of each industry, allocate limited water resources, and increase local water use efficiency, this study performed a scenario analysis for the water sustainability of Chongming Island. Four different scenarios were performed to assess the water resource availability by 2020. The growth rate for water demand will be much higher than that of water supply under a serious situation prediction. The water supply growth volume will be 2.22 × 10(8)m(3) from 2010 to 2020 under Scenario I and Scenario II while the corresponding water demand growth volume will be 2.74 × 10(8)m(3) and 2.64 × 10(8)m(3), respectively. There will be a rapid growth in water use benefit under both high and low development modes. The water use benefit will be about 50 CNY/m(3) under Scenarios I and II in 2020. The production structure will need to be adjusted for sustainable utilization of water resources. Sewage drainage but not the forest and grass coverage rate will be a major obstacle to future development and environmental quality. According to a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, Scenario II is finally deemed to be the most desirable plan, suggesting that the policy of rapid socioeconomic development and better environmental protection may achieve the most sustainable development of Chongming Island in the future.

  7. Determination of Thermal Properties of Fresh Water and Sea Water Ice using Multiphysics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, T.; KHAWAJA, H.; K Edvardsen

    2016-01-01

    Publisher's version, source: http://dx.doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.10.3.277. This paper presents a methodology to determine the thermal conductivity of ice using multiphysics analysis. This methodology used a combination of both experimentation and numerical simulation. In the experimental work, an ice block is observed using an infrared camera. The results reveal the variation in temperature over the surface. These results are dependent on two primary heat transfer parameters, namely, cond...

  8. Microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for trace metals analysis in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, R.G.; Park, F.W.; Kirsten, F.A.; Phillips, S.L.; Binnall, E.P.

    1981-04-01

    The construction and use of a portable, microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for on-site simultaneous metal analysis of copper, lead and cadmium in tap water is discussed. The instrumental system is comprised of a programmable controller which permits keying in analytical parameters such as sparge time and plating time; a rotating cell for efficient oxygen removal and amalgam formation; and, a magnetic tape which can be used for data storage. Analysis time can be as short as 10 to 15 minutes. The stripping analysis is based on a pre-measurement step during which the metals from a water sample are concentrated into a thin mercury film by deposition from an acetate solution of pH 4.5. The concentrated metals are then electrochemically dissolved from the film by application of a linearly increasing anodic potential. Typical peak-shaped curves are obtained. The heights of these curves are related to the concentration of metals in the water by calibration data. Results of tap water analysis showed 3 +- 1 ..mu..g/L lead, 22 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/L copper, and less than 0.2 ..mu..g/L cadmium for a Berkeley, California tap water, and 1 to 1000 ..mu..g/L Cu, 1 to 2 ..mu..g/L Pb for ten samples of Seattle, Washington tap water. Recommendations are given for a next generation instrument system.

  9. THEORETICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF VACUUM MEMBRANE DISTILLATION FOR TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof .V.C. Renge

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermally driven process in which only vapor molecules pass through a membrane. The liquid feed to be treated by membrane distillation should be in direct contact with one side of the membrane and should not penetrate inside the dry pores of the membrane. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. In this process, vacuum is applied on the permeate side to drive the evaporation of water. The performance of vacuum membrane distillation studied by the effect of feed flow rate , effect of permeate pressure,& effect of feed temperature etc The process was a found to be sensitive with respect to permeate-sidepressure; it is always negative and therefore on increasing permeate-side pressure, the mass flux decreases. The process sensitivity is not much affected by changing membrane characteristics parameter and membrane pore diameter, however mass flux increase linearly with membrane characteristics and pore diameter both. Theprocess is much sensitive below feed temperature of 52oC and is always positive.

  10. Time-resolved spectral analysis of Radachlorin luminescence in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, V. P.; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Semenova, I. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2017-05-01

    We report results of spectral- and time-resolved study of Radachlorin photosensitizer luminescence in water in the spectral range of 950-1350nm and for determination of the photosensitizer triplet state and the singlet oxygen lifetimes responsible for singlet oxygen generation and degradation. At any wavelength within the explored spectral range the luminescence decay contained two major contributions: a fast decay at the ns time scale and a slow evolution at the μs time scale. The fast decay was attributed to electric dipole fluorescence transitions in photosensitizer molecules and the slow evolution to intercombination phosphorescence transitions in singlet oxygen and photosensitizer molecules. Relatively high-amplitude ns peak observed at all wavelengths suggests that singlet oxygen monitoring with spectral isolation methods alone, without additional temporal resolution can be controversial. In the applied experimental conditions the total phosphorescence signal at any wavelength contained a contribution from the photosensitizer triplet state decay, while at 1274nm the singlet oxygen phosphorescence dominated. The results obtained can be used for optimization of the methods of singlet oxygen monitoring and imaging.

  11. Water flow simulation and analysis in HMA microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new method for reconstructing virtual two-dimensional (2-D microstructure of hot mix asphalt (HMA. Based on the method, the gradation of coarse aggregates and the film thickness of the asphalt binder can be defined by the user. The HMA microstructure then serves as the input to the computational fluid dynamic (CFD software (ANSYS-FLUENT to investigate the water flow pattern through it. It is found that the realistic flow fields can be simulated in the 2-D micro-structure and the flow patterns in some typical air void structures can be identified. These flow patterns can be used to explain the mechanism that could result in moisture damage in HMA pavement. The one-dimensional numerical permeability values are also derived from the flow fields of the 2-D HMA microstructure and compared with the measured values obtained by the Karol-Warner permeameter. Because the interconnected air voids channels in actual HMA samples cannot be fully represented in a 2-D model, some poor agreements need to be improved.

  12. Assessing BMP effectiveness: multiprocedure analysis of observed water quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppad, Pushpa; Santhi, Chinnasamy; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2010-11-01

    Observed water quality data obtained from eight stream monitoring locations within Richland-Chambers Watershed in north central Texas were analyzed for trends using box-and-whisker plots, exceedance probability plots, and linear and Mann-Kendall statistical methods. Total suspended solids decreased at seven out of eight stations, and at two of these stations, the decrease was significant. Mixed results were obtained for nitrogen across the stations. A nonsignificant and significant increase in nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (nitrite+nitrate N) was noticed in two stations each, whereas at the other four stations showed nonsignificant decrease. The results of organic nitrogen (Org N) was similar to nitrite+nitrate N except that the two stations that showed significant increase in nitrite+nitrate N showed nonsignificant decrease in Org N. Mixed results were also noticed for orthophosphorus (Ortho P) including nonsignificant decrease at two stations, significant decrease and increase at one station each, and nonsignificant increase in four stations. In general, total phosphorus (TP) decreased at all stations, significantly at some, except one station where it increased significantly. Decreasing trends in sediment, Org N, Ortho P, and TP were likely related to implementation of best management practices (BMPs). Increasing trends in dissolved constituents including Ortho P and nitrite+nitrate N were likely due to increased surface residue as a result of some BMPs such as conservation tillage.

  13. Analysis of bacteria contaminating ultrapure water in industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, Leonid A; McAlister, Morven B; Ogden, Kimberly L; Larkin, Michael J; O'Hanlon, John F

    2002-04-01

    Bacterial populations inhabiting ultrapure water (UPW) systems were investigated. The analyzed UPW systems included pilot scale, bench scale, and full size UPW plants employed in the semiconductor and other industries. Bacteria present in the polishing loop of the UPW systems were enumerated by both plate counts and epifluorescence microscopy. Assessment of bacterial presence in UPW by epifluorescence microscopy (cyanotolyl tetrazolium chloride [CTC] and DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole] staining) showed significantly higher numbers (10 to 100 times more bacterial cells were detected) than that determined by plate counts. A considerable proportion of the bacteria present in UPW (50 to 90%) were cells that did not give a positive signal with CTC stain. Bacteria isolated from the UPW systems were mostly gram negative, and several groups seem to be indigenous for all of the UPW production systems studied. These included Ralstonia pickettii, Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas saccharophilia, and Stenotrophomonas strains. These bacteria constituted a significant part of the total number of isolated strains (>or=20%). Two sets of primers specific to R. pickettii and Bradyrhizobium sp. were designed and successfully used for the detection of the corresponding bacteria in the concentrated UPW samples. Unexpectedly, nifH gene sequences were found in Bradyrhizobium sp. and some P. saccharophilia strains isolated from UPW. The widespread use of nitrogen gas in UPW plants may be associated with the presence of nitrogen-fixing genes in these bacteria.

  14. Exploring Northwest China's agricultural water-saving strategy: analysis of water use efficiency based on an SE-DEA model conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L; Fang, L; Wang, H; Chen, L; Yang, Y; Qu, X J; Wang, C Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, S B; Wang, Y N

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is often recommended to reduce water demand, especially in water-scarce areas. In this paper, agricultural water use efficiency (AWUE) is examined using the super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in Xi'an in Northwest China at a temporal and spatial level. The grey systems analysis technique was then adopted to identify the factors that influenced the efficiency differentials under the shortage of water resources. From the perspective of temporal scales, the AWUE increased year by year during 2004-2012, and the highest (2.05) was obtained in 2009. Additionally, the AWUE was the best in the urban area at the spatial scale. Moreover, the key influencing factors of the AWUE are the financial situations and agricultural water-saving technology. Finally, we identified several knowledge gaps and proposed water-saving strategies for increasing AWUE and reducing its water demand by: (1) improving irrigation practices (timing and amounts) based on compatible water-saving techniques; (2) maximizing regional WUE by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales as well as enhancing coordination among Chinese water governance institutes.

  15. Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Judit; Schnetzer, Florian; Ingold, Karin

    2013-08-15

    Environmental policy and decision-making are characterized by complex interactions between different actors and sectors. As a rule, a stakeholder analysis is performed to understand those involved, but it has been criticized for lacking quality and consistency. This lack is remedied here by a formal social network analysis that investigates collaborative and multi-level governance settings in a rigorous way. We examine the added value of combining both elements. Our case study examines infrastructure planning in the Swiss water sector. Water supply and wastewater infrastructures are planned far into the future, usually on the basis of projections of past boundary conditions. They affect many actors, including the population, and are expensive. In view of increasing future dynamics and climate change, a more participatory and long-term planning approach is required. Our specific aims are to investigate fragmentation in water infrastructure planning, to understand how actors from different decision levels and sectors are represented, and which interests they follow. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, but also cantonal and national actors. The network analysis confirmed our hypothesis of strong fragmentation: we found little collaboration between the water supply and wastewater sector (confirming horizontal fragmentation), and few ties between local, cantonal, and national actors (confirming vertical fragmentation). Infrastructure planning is clearly dominated by engineers and local authorities. Little importance is placed on longer-term strategic objectives and integrated catchment planning, but this was perceived as more important in a second analysis going beyond typical questions of stakeholder analysis. We conclude that linking a stakeholder analysis, comprising rarely asked questions, with a rigorous social network analysis is very fruitful and generates complementary results. This combination gave us deeper insight into the

  16. ASSESSMENT OF OIL PALM PLANTATION AND TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FOREST WATER QUALITY BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seca Gandaseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in river and canal water quality of peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation sites of Sarawak, Malaysia. To investigate temporal changes, 192 water samples were collected at four stations of BatangIgan, an oil palm plantation site of Sarawak, during July-November in 2009 and April-July in 2010. Nine water quality parameters including Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Turbidity (TER, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Temperature (TEMP, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N, Total Suspended Solids (TSS were analysed. To investigate spatial changes, 432water samples were collected from six different sites including BatangIgan during June-August 2010. Six water quality parameters including pH, DO, COD, BOD5, NH3-N and TSS were analysed to see the spatial variations. Most significant parameters which contributed in spatio-temporal variations were assessed by statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA, Factor Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (FA/PCA and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA. HACA identified three different classes of sites: Relatively Unimpaired, Impaired and Less Impaired Regions on the basis of similarity among different physicochemical characteristics and pollutant level between the sampling sites. DFA produced the best results for identification of main variables for temporal analysis and separated parameters (EC, TER, COD and identified three parameters for spatial analysis (pH, NH3-N and BOD5. The results signify that parameters identified by statistical analyses were responsible for water quality change and suggest the possibility the agricultural and oil palm plantation activities as a source of pollutants. The results suggest dire need for proper watershed management measures to restore the water quality of this tributary for a

  17. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  18. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  19. Analysis of Physiochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Drinking Water Quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rahmanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking water quality was investigated in suspected parts of Perak state, Malaysia, to ensure the continuous supply of clean and safe drinking water for the public health protection. In this regard, a detailed physical and chemical analysis of drinking water samples was carried out in different residential and commercial areas of the state. A number of parameters such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS, total dissolved solids (TDS, and heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, and Sn were analysed for each water sample collected during winter and summer periods. The obtained values of each parameter were compared with the standard values set by the World Health Organization (WHO and local standards such as National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS. The values of each parameter were found to be within the safe limits set by the WHO and NDWQS. Overall, the water from all the locations was found to be safe as drinking water. However, it is also important to investigate other potential water contaminations such as chemicals and microbial and radiological materials for a longer period of time, including human body fluids, in order to assess the overall water quality of Perak state.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Effect of Water on Explosive Wave Propagation in Tunnels and Surrounding Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chang-jing; SONG Zhen-duo; TIAN Lu-lu; LIU Hong-bin; WANG Lu; WU Xiao-fang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the application of practical engineering, propagation processes of explosive waves in rock with water well and tunnel are simulated by ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The evolution of damage in rock is presented. The effect of water on the damage of the concrete slab in a tunnel is compared with damage inflicted without water. The numerical simulation illustrates that water plays an important role in the evolution of damage of the concrete slab in a mine tunnel. In the presence of water in the rock the concrete slab is damaged more severely than without water in rock. The effect of water location in the rock is also considered. It is found that the concrete slab in the tunnel shows various degrees of damage as a function of the different locations of water. Attenuation laws of stress waves over time-space in rock with water are also obtained. Numerical results indicate that, under blast loading, there are three zones in the rock: a crushed zone nearby the explosive charge, a damaged zone and an elastic zone. The conclusions of numerical analysis may provide references for blasting designs and structure protection.

  1. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, P; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2003-01-10

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed as an alternative to liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water samples. The extraction efficiency of five different commercially available fibres was evaluated and the 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane coating was the most suitable for the absorption of the SCCPs. Optimisation of several SPME parameters, such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength and desorption time, was performed. Quality parameters were established using Milli-Q, tap water and river water. Linearity ranged between 0.06 and 6 microg l(-1) for spiked Milli-Q water and between 0.6 and 6 microg l(-1) for natural waters. The precision of the SPME-GC-ECD method for the three aqueous matrices was similar and gave relative standard deviations (RSD) between 12 and 14%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.02 microg l(-1) for Milli-Q water and 0.3 microg l(-1) for both tap water and river water. The optimised SPME-GC-ECD method was successfully applied to the determination of SCCPs in river water samples.

  2. Comparative analysis of decision tree algorithms on quality of water contaminated with soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andrea Dota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, roads, animal farms and other land uses may modify the water quality from rivers, dams and other surface freshwaters. In the control of the ecological process and for environmental management, it is necessary to quickly and accurately identify surface water contamination (in areas such as rivers and dams with contaminated runoff waters coming, for example, from cultivation and urban areas. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different classification algorithms applied to the data collected from a sample of soil-contaminated water aiming to identify if the water quality classification proposed in this research agrees with reality. The sample was part of a laboratory experiment, which began with a sample of treated water added with increasing fractions of soil. The results show that the proposed classification for water quality in this scenario is coherent, because different algorithms indicated a strong statistic relationship between the classes and their instances, that is, in the classes that qualify the water sample and the values which describe each class. The proposed water classification varies from excelling to very awful (12 classes

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Light Water Reactor Fuel Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the calculation of uncertainty based on available cross-section covariance data and computational tool on fuel lattice levels, which included pin cell and the fuel assembly models. Uncertainty variations due to temperatures changes and different fuel compositions are the main focus of this analysis. Selected assemblies and unit pin cells were analyzed according to the OECD LWR UAM benchmark specifications. Criticality and uncertainty analysis were performed using TSUNAMI-2D sequence in SCALE 6.1. It was found that uncertainties increase with increasing temperature, while kinf decreases. This increase in the uncertainty is due to the increase in sensitivity of the largest contributing reaction of uncertainty, namely, the neutron capture reaction 238U(n, γ due to the Doppler broadening. In addition, three types (UOX, MOX, and UOX-Gd2O3 of fuel material compositions were analyzed. A remarkable increase in uncertainty in kinf was observed for the case of MOX fuel. The increase in uncertainty of kinf in MOX fuel was nearly twice the corresponding value in UOX fuel. The neutron-nuclide reaction of 238U, mainly inelastic scattering (n, n′, contributed the most to the uncertainties in the MOX fuel, shifting the neutron spectrum to higher energy compared to the UOX fuel.

  4. Degraded core analysis for the pressurized-water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-02-09

    An analysis of the likelihood and the consequences of 'degraded-core accidents' has been undertaken for the proposed Sizewell B PWR. In such accidents, degradation of the core geometry occurs as a result of overheating. Radionuclides are released and may enter the environment, causing harmful effects. The analysis concludes that degraded-core accidents are highly improbable, the plant having been designed to reduce the frequency of such accidents to a value of order 10/sup -6/ per year. Tbe building containing the reactor would only fail in a small proportion of degraded-core accidents. In the great majority of cases the containment would remain intact and the release of radioactivity to the environment would be small. The risk to individuals have been calculated for both immediate and long term effects. Although the estimates of risk are approximate, studies to investigate the uncertainties, and sensitivities to different assumptions, show that potential errors are small compared with the very large 'margin of safety' between the risks estimated for Sizewell B and those that already exist in society.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Nozzle in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Chandresekaran, M.; Muthuraman, V.; Sathish, S.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in rapid wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. It is well known that the inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the erosion characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The objective of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis would be carried out by varying the inlet pressure of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. The availability of minimized process parameters such as of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive.

  6. Impact analysis of government investment on water projects in the arid Gansu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xiubin; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Haiming

    In this paper, we introduced three-nested Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function into a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Through four levels of factor productivity, we constructed three nested production function of land use productivity in the conceptual modeling frameworks. The first level of factor productivity is generated by the basic value-added land. On the second level, factor productivity in each sector is generated by human activities that presents human intervention to the first level of factor productivity. On the third level of factor productivity, water allocation reshapes the non-linear structure of transaction among first and second levels. From the perspective of resource utilization, we examined the economic efficiency of water allocation. The scenario-based empirical analysis results show that the three-nested CES production function within CGE model is well-behaved to present the economy system of the case study area. Firstly, water scarcity harmed economic production. Government investment on water projects in Gansu thereby had impacts on economic outcomes. Secondly, huge governmental financing on water projects bring depreciation of present value of social welfare. Moreover, water use for environment adaptation pressures on water supply. The theoretical water price can be sharply increased due to the increasing costs of factor inputs. Thirdly, water use efficiency can be improved by water projects, typically can be benefited from the expansion of water-saving irrigation areas even in those expanding dry area in Gansu. Therefore, increasing governmental financing on water projects can depreciate present value of social welfare but benefit economic efficiency for future generation.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESIN AND FATTY ACIDS ENRICHED IN PAPERMAKING PROCESS WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Valto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a special pilot-scale installation (Short Circulation Device was studied for demonstrating the enrichment of selected resin and fatty acids in process waters when increasing water reuse during the manufacture of paper. The traditional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID, turbidity, and online sample enrichment (solid phase extraction, SPE for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS measurements were used for the analysis of the resin and fatty acids. The data from all the measurements with unbleached thermomechanical pulp (TMP process waters were in a good agreement, and correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9 were obtained in each case. Rapid information about the levels of wood extractives in papermaking process waters is of great importance, and it offers a suitable way to predict oncoming pitch problems. It was concluded that the routine control of the extractives level in papermaking process waters is possible by all these methods.

  8. Biological stability in drinking water: a regression analysis of influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-jian

    2005-01-01

    Some parameters, such as assimilable organic carbon(AOC), chloramine residual, water temperature, and water residence time, were measured in drinking water from distribution systems in a northern city of China. The measurement results illustrate that when chloramine residual is more than 0.3 mg/L or AOC content is below 50 tμg/L, the biological stability of drinking water can be controlled.Both chloramine residual and AOC have a good relationship with Heterotrophic Plate Counts(HPC)(log value), the correlation coefficient was -0.64 and 0.33, respectively. By regression analysis of the survey data, a statistical equation is presented and it is concluded that disinfectant residual exerts the strongest influence on bacterial growth and AOC is a suitable index to assess the biological stability in the drinking water.

  9. Case study sensitivity analysis of transmission spectra for water contaminant monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using transmission spectra, with respect to types and relative concentrations, requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared. For this purpose, correlation between spectral signatures and types of contaminants within specific water resources must be made, as well as correlation of spectral signatures with results of processes for removal of contaminants, such as ozonation. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of transmission spectra with respect to general characteristics of water contaminants for spectral analysis of water samples.

  10. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  11. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  12. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    Burrowing animals maintain contact with the water above the sediment by pumping water through a tube system and therefore measurements of water pumping rate of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This review deals...... with the measuring of water pumping and the analysis of flow generated by burrowing deposit- and filter-feeding zoobenthos in order to determine the type of pump and mechanisms involved, flow rate, pump pressure, and pumping power. The practical use of fluid mechanical principles is examined, and it is stressed...... that not only the pump pressure that a burrowing animal can apply is of interest for assessing the energy cost of pumping, but also the distribution of excess pressure along its burrow is of importance for assessing the seepage flow of oxygen-rich water into the sediment surrounding the burrow because...

  13. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  14. Mapping of drinking water research: A bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan, E-mail: ysho@asia.edu.tw

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science and Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research. - Highlights: ► Drinking water research was characterized based on SCI-Expanded during 1992–2011. ► Research emphases were obtained from title, author keywords and KeyWords Plus. ► Ozonation, chlorination and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. ► Emerging contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium.

  15. Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Water reclamation for aquifer recharge at the eight case study sites: a cross case analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Corre, K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation Technologies for Safe Managed Aquifer Recharge Water reclamation for aquifer recharge at the eight case study sites: a cross case analysis Le Corre, Kristell, Aharoni, Avi, Cauwenberghs, Johan, Chavez, Alma, Cikurel, Haim,Ayuso Gabella..., Tredoux, Gideon, Wintgens, Thomas, Cheng Xuzhou, Yu, Liang and Zhao, Xuan Abstract: Water scarcity combined with the quality deterioration of freshwater due to the rapid augmentation of population and industrial development is a major concern...

  17. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  18. CFD Analysis of the Anti-Surge Effects by Water Hammering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-oh; Jeong, Hyo-min; Chung, Han-shik; Lee, Sin-il; Lee, Kwang-sung

    2015-09-01

    Water hammering occurs due to the surge effect that comes from operating the pump, sudden stop during the operating due to a blackout and rapid open and close of the valve. By the water hammering of the pipeline and the pump, the valve are damaged. In this paper, transient analysis is conducted by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The purpose of this paper is to provide the research data about the change of the pressure and flow in the pipe that caused by the water hammering.

  19. Covalent features in the hydrogen bond of a water dimer: molecular orbital analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bo; Dai, Xing; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The covalent-like characteristics of hydrogen bonds offer a new perspective on intermolecular interactions. Here, using density functional theory and post-Hartree-Fock methods, we reveal that there are two bonding molecular orbitals (MOs) crossing the O and H atoms of the hydrogen-bond in water dimer. Energy decomposition analysis also shows a non-negligible contribution of the induction term. These results illustrate the covalent-like character of the hydrogen bond between water molecules, which contributes to the essential understanding of ice, liquid water, related materials, and life sciences.

  20. Controllability analysis as a pre-selection method for sensor placement in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-15

    Detection of contamination events in water distribution systems is a crucial task for maintaining water security. Online monitoring is considered as the most cost-effective technology to protect against the impacts of contaminant intrusions. Optimization methods for sensor placement enable automated sensor layout design based on hydraulic and water quality simulation. However, this approach results in an excessive computational burden. In this paper we outline the application of controllability analysis as preprocessing method for sensor placement. Based on case studies we demonstrate that the method decreases the number of decision variables for subsequent optimization dramatically to app. 30 to 40 percent.

  1. Analysis of land use changes near large water bodies in Ukraine using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanets, Vyacheslav; Vlaev, Anatoliy

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of land use and land cover changes in Ukraine were evaluated with special attention given to the interaction of land and water resources. The rational fresh water management in agriculture under future climate change conditions is of great importance. The hydrological regime of a river has huge impact on the environment of the surrounding area. Creating reservoirs, changes the landscape of river valleys and lake basins. Changes in the hydrological regime of the river and the process taking place in the coastal zone are reflected in land cover, wildlife and micro-climatic conditions. In the area closer to the shore line of the reservoir, there is greater amplitude of fluctuations in the level of ground water due to low rate of filtration behind fluctuations in the level of the reservoir. The interaction of water reservoirs with the environment, especially with the nature of the catchment area is substantially different from the natural water bodies. Analysis was done using GIS and remotely sensed data of land use near large water reservoirs and processed statistically. The ratio of arable lands and forested territories and future analysis of land use has been discussed.

  2. A novel water quality data analysis framework based on time-series data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihui; Wang, Guoyin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid development of time-series data mining provides an emerging method for water resource management research. In this paper, based on the time-series data mining methodology, we propose a novel and general analysis framework for water quality time-series data. It consists of two parts: implementation components and common tasks of time-series data mining in water quality data. In the first part, we propose to granulate the time series into several two-dimensional normal clouds and calculate the similarities in the granulated level. On the basis of the similarity matrix, the similarity search, anomaly detection, and pattern discovery tasks in the water quality time-series instance dataset can be easily implemented in the second part. We present a case study of this analysis framework on weekly Dissolve Oxygen time-series data collected from five monitoring stations on the upper reaches of Yangtze River, China. It discovered the relationship of water quality in the mainstream and tributary as well as the main changing patterns of DO. The experimental results show that the proposed analysis framework is a feasible and efficient method to mine the hidden and valuable knowledge from water quality historical time-series data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  4. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  5. Solar UV Photooxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar ultraviolet radiation as sample pretreatment or preparation step in stripping voltammetric analysis of trace metals in presence of low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC natural water samples (river water was studied. River water samples were collected from downstream of Warnow river (Germany and acidified to pH of 2±0.2 (by addition of 1 mL of ultrapure 65% HNO3 per liter sample. Furthermore, 100 μL/L of hydrogen peroxide solution (ultrapure, 30% H2O2 was added to the samples as photochemical reaction initiator. The samples were transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and irradiated with solar radiation of UV-A intensity of 3.6 mW/m2 for six hours, and the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV. The comparison of the values with the results obtained for the original untreated sample and artificial UV-treated one proved that solar UV radiation can be applied to the digestion of dissolved organic carbon in trace metal analysis in natural waters like river water, lake waters, well waters, and so forth.

  6. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  7. Cooling water system thermal performance analysis using the COCO computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hom, J.; Jakub, R.M.; Durkosh, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Energy Systems Business Unit

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Energy Systems Business Unit (ESBU) has worked with electric utility personnel to analyze the thermal performance of essential cooling water systems at nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of these analyses has been to demonstrate the operability of the cooling water systems during postulated limiting post-accident operation. In previous cooling water system thermal analyses, peak containment operating conditions were generally used as input assuming steady-state conditions. This approach is conservative as it does not take into account the improvement in containment conditions and cooling water system temperatures over time. This approach can, also, lead to an inconsistent set of assumptions between the two distinct analyses which may result in overly conservative calculated system operating conditions. These conditions inevitably impose unnecessary restrictions on cooling water system operation. Over the last few years, Westinghouse ESBU has coupled both the containment integrity and the cooling water system thermal calculations into an integrated analysis. This allows the use of a consistent set of input parameters and assumptions in the calculation of limiting cooling water system operating conditions. This approach has been successfully used to increase system operating margins. This paper provides an overview of this coupled thermal analysis along with examples of where increased operating margins can be applied.

  8. Sequence-based analysis of the microbial composition of water kefir from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-11-01

    Water kefir is a water-sucrose-based beverage, fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast to produce a final product that is lightly carbonated, acidic and that has a low alcohol percentage. The microorganisms present in water kefir are introduced via water kefir grains, which consist of a polysaccharide matrix in which the microorganisms are embedded. We aimed to provide a comprehensive sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial population of water kefir beverages and grains, while providing an initial insight into the corresponding fungal population. To facilitate this objective, four water kefirs were sourced from the UK, Canada and the United States. Culture-independent, high-throughput, sequencing-based analyses revealed that the bacterial fraction of each water kefir and grain was dominated by Zymomonas, an ethanol-producing bacterium, which has not previously been detected at such a scale. The other genera detected were representatives of the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Our analysis of the fungal component established that it was comprised of the genera Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora and Lachancea. This information will assist in the ultimate identification of the microorganisms responsible for the potentially health-promoting attributes of these beverages. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs, thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy. The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position.

  10. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Mian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Johnson, W., Sowerby, R., Venter, R. D., Plane Strain Slip Line Fields for Metal Deformation Processes——A Source Book and Bibliography, New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.[2]Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.[3]Sokolovsky, V. V., Theory of Plasticity(in Russia), Moskow: Nat. Tech. Press, 1950.[4]Kachanov, L. M., Foundations Theory of Plasticity, London: North-Holland, 1975.[5]Shield, R. T., On the plastic flow of metal condition of axial symmetry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1955, 233A: 267.[6]Lippmann, H., IUTAM Symposium on Metal Forming Plasticity, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979.[7]Spencer, A. J. M., The approximate solution of certain problem of axially-symmetric plastic flow, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1964, 12: 231.[8]Wang, R., Xiong, Z. H., Wang, W. B., Foundation of Plasticity (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1982.[9]Collins, I. E., Dewhurst, P., A slip line field analysis of asymmetrical hot rolling, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1975, 17: 643.[10]Collins, I. F., Slip line field analysis of forming processes in plane strain and axial symmetry, Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984, 11: 1074.[11]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., Liu, C. Y. et al., Unified plane-strain slip line field theory system, J. Civil Engineering (in Chinese), 1997, 30(2): 14[12]Simmons, J. A., Hauser, F., Dorn, E., Mathematical Theories of Plastic Deformation Under Impulsive Loading, Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.[13]Lin, C. C., On a perturbation theory based on the method of characteristies, J. Math. Phys., 1954, 33: 117—134.[14]Hopkins, H. G., The method of characteristics and its applications to the theory of stress waver in solids, in Engineering Plasticity, Combridge: Combridge University Press, 1968, 277—315.[15]Shield, R. T., The plastic indentation of a layer by a flat punch, Quart. Appl. Math., 1955, 13: 27.[16]Haar, A., von

  11. LIBS: a potential tool for industrial/agricultural waste water analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpate, Tanvi; K. M., Muhammed Shameem; Nayak, Rajesh; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Santhosh, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a multi-elemental analysis technique with various advantages and has the ability to detect any element in real time. This technique holds a potential for environmental monitoring and various such analysis has been done in soil, glass, paint, water, plastic etc confirms the robustness of this technique for such applications. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, LIBS has several advantages, viz. no need for sample preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. In LIBS, powerful pulsed laser generates plasma which is then analyzed to get quantitative and qualitative details of the elements present in the sample. Another main advantage of LIBS technique is that it can perform in standoff mode for real time analysis. Water samples from industries and agricultural strata tend to have a lot of pollutants making it harmful for consumption. The emphasis of this project is to determine such harmful pollutants present in trace amounts in industrial and agricultural wastewater. When high intensity laser is made incident on the sample, a plasma is generated which gives a multielemental emission spectra. LIBS analysis has shown outstanding success for solids samples. For liquid samples, the analysis is challenging as the liquid sample has the chances of splashing due to the high energy of laser and thus making it difficult to generate plasma. This project also deals with determining the most efficient method for testing of water sample for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis using LIBS.

  12. Analysis Methods for Water Quality Evaluation, Applied in Environmental Laboratory, ICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN Cecilia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to human activities, global scale pollution of the environment has increased significantly in the last twocenturies. In the last decades, it was acknowledged that population health is strictly connected with environment quality.As the influence of anthropogenic factors on water sources quality increased, the water quality assessment has a rolethat’s become more and more important. Laboratory for Environment Analysis (LAM from Research Institute forAnalytical Instrumentation is accredited according to the SR EN ISO/CEI 17025:2005, by Romanian AccreditationAssociation and has all the required resourced for quality analysis of environmental samples. Analytical techniquesused in the Laboratory for Environment Analysis for water quality determination are: Gas Chromatography, LiquidChromatography, Ion Chromatography, Flame or Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Inductively CoupledOptical Emission Spectrometry, UV/VIS Spectrophotometry, pHmetry, Potentiometry, Conductometry, Titrimetry andGravimetry.

  13. Quantitative analysis of soil chromatography. I. Water and radionuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, M.; Francis, C.W.; Duguid, J.O.

    1977-12-01

    Soil chromatography has been used successfully to evaluate relative mobilities of pesticides and nuclides in soils. Its major advantage over the commonly used suspension technique is that it more accurately simulates field conditions. Under such conditions the number of potential exchange sites is limited both by the structure of the soil matrix and by the manner in which the carrier fluid moves through this structure. The major limitation of the chromatographic method, however, has been its qualitative nature. This document represents an effort to counter this objection. A theoretical basis is specified for the transport both of the carrier eluting fluid and of the dissolved constituent. A computer program based on this theory is developed which optimizes the fit of theoretical data to experimental data by automatically adjusting the transport parameters, one of which is the distribution coefficient k/sub d/. This analysis procedure thus constitutes an integral part of the soil chromatographic method, by means of which mobilities of nuclides and other dissolved constituents in soils may be quantified.

  14. Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milena N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice exergy can be used for technical and economic optimization of energy conversion processes. The problem of increasing energy consumption suggests that heating plants, i.e. hot water boilers, as energy suppliers for household heating should be subjected to exergy and energy analysis. Heating plants are typically designed to meet energy demands, without the distinguished difference between quality and quantity of the produced heat. In this paper, the energy and exergy analysis of a gas fired hot water boiler is conducted. Energy analysis gives only quantitative results, while exergy analysis provides an insight into the actually available useful energy with respect to the system environment. In this paper, a hot water boiler was decomposed into control volumes with respect to its functional components. Energy and exergy of the created physical model of the hot water boiler is performed and destruction of exergy and energy loss in each of the components is calculated. The paper describes the current state of energy and exergy efficiency of the hot water boiler. The obtained results are analyzed and used to investigate possibilities for improvement of availability and reliability of the boiler. A comparison between the actual and the proposed more reliable solution is made.

  15. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  16. Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Shiau-Chian; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.

  17. Determination of Thermal Properties of Fresh Water and Sea Water Ice using Multiphysics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Rashid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to determine the thermal conductivity of ice using multiphysics analysis. This methodology used a combination of both experimentation and numerical simulation. In the experimental work, an ice block is observed using an infrared camera. The results reveal the variation in temperature over the surface. These results are dependent on two primary heat transfer parameters, namely, conductivity of ice within the ice cuboid and overall heat transfer coefficient. In addition to these two parameters, the surrounding temperature also affects the observed temperature profile. In the numerical simulation, the same behaviour is simulated using multiphysics tools. In this work, the finite difference method is used to discretize the heat equation and is solved using an FTCS (Forward-Time Central-Space method in MATLAB® software. The inputs to the simulation are the thermal properties of ice. These parameters are varied to match with the experimental results, hence revealing the real-time thermal properties of ice and surroundings.

  18. Water Budget Analysis in Arid Regions, Application to the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Gonzalez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and economic development have impacted the capacity of water resources to meet demands in a number of arid countries. This study focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE where low rainfall, high rate of growth and agricultural development are resulting in a dramatic depletion of groundwater resources and an increased dependence on desalination. A water budget for the region was developed. It represents the variations in groundwater storage as a balance of total precipitation, desalinated water and evapotranspiration. The components of the water budget are obtained from ground observations, documented information, models and remote sensing data, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites to estimate changes in groundwater storage and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellites and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS data to obtain precipitation and soil moisture respectively. Results show a negative trend of 0.5 cm/year in groundwater levels corresponding to an average decrease of 0.86 km3/year during the study period (2003 to 2012. This negative trend indicates that the aquifers are not being recharged fast enough to compensate for human withdrawals. Most of the precipitation was found to be lost through evapotranspiration. A discussion of the current water budget components is presented and propositions are made for a sustainable use of water resources in the UAE, including a more efficient use of recycled water. This analysis is applicable to other Gulf countries and it can help to determine the optimal allocation of water resources to optimize agricultural productivity.

  19. Water and growth: An econometric analysis of climate and policy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassaan Furqan; Morzuch, Bernard J.; Brown, Casey M.

    2017-06-01

    Water-related hazards such as floods, droughts, and disease cause damage to an economy through the destruction of physical capital including property and infrastructure, the loss of human capital, and the interruption of economic activities, like trade and education. The question for policy makers is whether the impacts of water-related risk accrue to manifest as a drag on economic growth at a scale suggesting policy intervention. In this study, the average drag on economic growth from water-related hazards faced by society at a global level is estimated. We use panel regressions with various specifications to investigate the relationship between economic growth and hydroclimatic variables at the country-river basin level. In doing so, we make use of surface water runoff variables never used before. The analysis of the climate variables shows that water availability and water hazards have significant effects on economic growth, providing further evidence beyond earlier studies finding that precipitation extremes were at least as important or likely more important than temperature effects. We then incorporate a broad set of variables representing the areas of infrastructure, institutions, and information to identify the characteristics of a region that determine its vulnerability to water-related risks. The results identify water scarcity, governance, and agricultural intensity as the most relevant measures affecting vulnerabilities to climate variability effects.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of RNA viruses in a fresh water lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appolinaire Djikeng

    Full Text Available Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as Norwalk Virus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, and Adenovirus. While RNA virus populations have been studied in marine environments, to this date there has been very limited analysis of the viral community in freshwater. Here we present a survey of RNA viruses in Lake Needwood, a freshwater lake in Maryland, USA. Our results indicate that just as in studies of other aquatic environments, the majority of nucleic acid sequences recovered did not show any significant similarity to known sequences. The remaining sequences are mainly from viral types with significant similarity to approximately 30 viral families. We speculate that these novel viruses may infect a variety of hosts including plants, insects, fish, domestic animals and humans. Among these viruses we have discovered a previously unknown dsRNA virus closely related to Banna Virus which is responsible for a febrile illness and is endemic to Southeast Asia. Moreover we found multiple viral sequences distantly related to Israeli Acute Paralysis virus which has been implicated in honeybee colony collapse disorder. Our data suggests that due to their direct contact with humans, domestic and wild animals, freshwater ecosystems might serve as repositories of a wide range of viruses (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic and possibly be involved in the spread of emerging and pandemic diseases.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of RNA viruses in a fresh water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikeng, Appolinaire; Kuzmickas, Ryan; Anderson, Norman G; Spiro, David J

    2009-09-29

    Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as Norwalk Virus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, and Adenovirus. While RNA virus populations have been studied in marine environments, to this date there has been very limited analysis of the viral community in freshwater. Here we present a survey of RNA viruses in Lake Needwood, a freshwater lake in Maryland, USA. Our results indicate that just as in studies of other aquatic environments, the majority of nucleic acid sequences recovered did not show any significant similarity to known sequences. The remaining sequences are mainly from viral types with significant similarity to approximately 30 viral families. We speculate that these novel viruses may infect a variety of hosts including plants, insects, fish, domestic animals and humans. Among these viruses we have discovered a previously unknown dsRNA virus closely related to Banna Virus which is responsible for a febrile illness and is endemic to Southeast Asia. Moreover we found multiple viral sequences distantly related to Israeli Acute Paralysis virus which has been implicated in honeybee colony collapse disorder. Our data suggests that due to their direct contact with humans, domestic and wild animals, freshwater ecosystems might serve as repositories of a wide range of viruses (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and possibly be involved in the spread of emerging and pandemic diseases.

  2. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 3.2 milligrams per liter. Water samples from wells MW1 and MW2 were analyzed for volatile organic compounds for the first quarter; no confirmed volatile organic compounds were detected above laboratory reporting limits. Detected chemical concentrations in water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells during the four sampling periods were below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant levels for public drinking-water supplies. Overall, water-quality characteristics of water from the chromic acid pit ground-water monitoring wells are similar to those of other wells in the surrounding area. Statistical analyses were performed on 56 of the chemical constituents analyzed for in ground water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells. Concentrations of chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and potassium were significantly less in water from one or both downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and dissolved solids were significantly greater in water from the downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen, chloride, and potassium were significantly different in water from the two downgradient wells. Statistical analysis of chemical constituents in water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells did not appear to indicate a release of hazardous chemicals from the chromic acid pit. There was no indication of ground-water contamination in either downgradient well.

  3. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  5. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

    2014-02-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the

  6. ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN SHALLOW WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somboon Otarawanna; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2005-01-01

    A finite element method for analysis of pollutant dispersion in shallow water is presented. The analysis is divided into two parts: ( 1 ) computation of the velocity flow field and water surface elevation, and (2) computation of the pollutant concentration field from the dispersion model. The method was combined with an adaptive meshing technique to increase the solution accuracy ,as well as to reduce the computational time and computer memory. The finite element formulation and the computer programs were validated by several examples that have known solutions. In addition, the capability of the combined method was demonstrated by analyzing pollutant dispersion in Chao Phraya River near the gulf of Thailand.

  7. Life cycle cost analysis of new FRP based solar parabolic trough collector hot water generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. VALAN ARASU; T. SORNAKUMAR

    2008-01-01

    Parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) are employed for a variety of applications including steam generation and hot water generation. This paper deals with the experimental results and an economic analysis of a new fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) based solar PTC with an embedded electronic controlled tracking system designed and developed for hot water generation in a restaurant in Madurai, India. The new collector performance has been tested according to ASHRAE Standard 93 (1986). The performance of a new PTC hot water generation system with a well mixed hot water storage tank is investigated by a series of extensive tests over ten months period. The average maximum storage tank water temperature observed was 74.91 ℃, when no energy is withdrawn from the tank to the load during the collection period. The total cost of the new economic FRP based solar PTC for hot water generation with an embedded electronic controlled tracking system is Rs. 25000 (US$ 573) only. In the present work, life cycle savings (LCS) method is employed for a detailed economic analysis of the PTC system. A computer program is used as a tool for the economic analysis. The present worth of life cycle solar savings is evaluated for the new solar PTC hot water generation system that replaces an existing electric water heating system in the restaurant and attains a value of Rs. 23171.66 after 15 years, which is a significant saving. The LCS method and the MATLAB computer simulation program presented in this paper can be used to estimate the LCS of other renewable energy systems.

  8. Non normal modal analysis of oscillations in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.uy [Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria (MIEM), Montevideo (Uruguay); Flores-Godoy, Jose-Job, E-mail: job.flores@ibero.mx [Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), Mexico, DF (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica Y Matematicas

    2013-07-01

    The first objective of the present work is to construct a simple reduced order model for BWR stability analysis, combining a two nodes nodal model of the thermal hydraulics with a two modes modal model of the neutronics. Two coupled non-linear integral-differential equations are obtained, in terms of one global (in phase) and one local (out of phase) power amplitude, with direct and cross feedback reactivities given as functions of thermal hydraulics core variables (void fractions and temperatures). The second objective is to apply the effective life time approximation to further simplify the nonlinear equations. Linear approximations for the equations of the amplitudes of the global and regional modes are derived. The linearized equation for the amplitude of the global mode corresponds to a decoupled and damped harmonic oscillator. An analytical closed form formula for the damping coefficient, as a function of the parameters space of the BWR, is obtained. The coefficient changes its sign (with the corresponding modification in the decay ratio) when a stability boundary is crossed. This produces a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, with the steady state power of the reactor as the bifurcation parameter. However, the linearized equation for the amplitude of the regional mode corresponds always to an over-damped and always coupled (with the amplitude of the global mode) harmonic oscillator, for every set of possible values of core parameters (including the steady state power of the reactor) in the framework of the present mathematical model. The equation for the above mentioned over damped linear oscillator is closely connected with a non-normal operator. Due to this connection, there could be a significant transient growth of some solutions of the linear equation. This behavior allows a significant shrinking of the basin of attraction of the equilibrium state. The third objective is to apply the above approach to partially study the stability of the regional mode and

  9. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality data in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, M.; Ye, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon, is part of the longest barrier island complex in the United States, is a region of particular concern to the environmental scientist because of the rapid rate of human development throughout the region and the geographical position in between the colder temperate zone and warmer sub-tropical zone. Thus, the surface water quality analysis in this region always brings the newer information. In this present study, multivariate statistical procedures were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal water quality in the Indian River Lagoon over the period 1998-2013. Twelve parameters have been analyzed on twelve key water monitoring stations in and beside the lagoon on monthly datasets (total of 27,648 observations). The dataset was treated using cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and non-parametric trend analysis. The CA was used to cluster twelve monitoring stations into four groups, with stations on the similar surrounding characteristics being in the same group. The PCA was then applied to the similar groups to find the important water quality parameters. The principal components (PCs), PC1 to PC5 was considered based on the explained cumulative variances 75% to 85% in each cluster groups. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen), salinity, specific conductivity and erosion factors (TSS, Turbidity) were major variables involved in the construction of the PCs. Statistical significant positive or negative trends and the abrupt trend shift were detected applying Mann-Kendall trend test and Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK), for each individual stations for the important water quality parameters. Land use land cover change pattern, local anthropogenic activities and extreme climate such as drought might be associated with these trends. This study presents the multivariate statistical assessment in order to get better information about the quality of surface water. Thus, effective pollution control/management of the surface

  10. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations

  11. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  12. Statistical Analysis of Ground Water Quality in Rural Areas of Uttar Pradesh City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of groundwater for the existence of human society cannot be exaggerated. Groundwater is the major source of water in both rural and urban India.Duringlast decade, it was observed that ground water get polluted drastically and hence, resulted into many water borne diseases which is a cause of many health hazards. In this paper an attempt has been made to test groundwater quality of different villages of Uttar Pradesh, India on the basis of thirteen parameters like pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand etc. The results obtained were compared with the BIS (IS 10500:1991 Permissible Standards for drinking water. Normal Distribution analysis was applied to describe various characteristics of the samples collected and Correlation Analysiswas done on the samples which measured the strength of association between twowaterparameters.On the basis of results obtained from analytical and statistical analysis, it was revealed that all the water sources chosen for study are not suitable for the utilization of water.

  13. Environmental Characteristics of Groundwater: an Application of PCA to Water Chemistry Analysis in Yulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dong-lin; HUANG Song-lin; WU Qiang; ZHANG Rui; SONG Ying-xia; CHEN Shu-ke; LI Pei; LIU Shou-qiang; BI Cen-cen; LV Zhen-qi

    2007-01-01

    For our investigation into the water quality in Yulin city, we collected 76 typical water samples to be tested for particle quality. By applying a Romani type classification method the groundwater of Yulin city was classified into nine categories by type, i.e., Ca-HCO3, Na-HCO3, Na-HCO3-SO4-Cl, Na-HCO3-SO4, Na-Cl, Na-Cl-HCO3, Na-CaHCO3, Ca-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3-SO4-Cl. A principal component analysis was carried out in order to analyze the groundwater environment. From this analysis we considered that the information collected could be represented by 21 indices from which we extracted seven principal components, which, respectively, accounted for 37.4%, 13.0%, 8.1%,7.2%, 6.3%, 5.9% and 4.6% of the total variation. The results show that the groundwater environment of this region is largely determined by characteristic components of the natural groundwater background. One part of the water was polluted by leaching/eluviation of solid waste generated from coal mining. Another part of the ground water was contaminated by acid mine water from the coal layer and from improper irrigation. In addition, geological and hydrogeological conditions also cause changes in the water environment.

  14. Letter Report: Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of B-Complex Perched Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Fine-grained sediments associated with the Cold Creek Unit at Hanford have caused the formation of a perched water aquifer in the deep vadose zone at the B Complex area, which includes waste sites in the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit and the single-shell tank farms in Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. High levels of contaminants, such as uranium, technetium-99, and nitrate, make this aquifer a continuing source of contamination for the groundwater located a few meters below the perched zone. Analysis of deuterium (2H) and 18-oxygen (18O) of nine perched water samples from three different wells was performed. Samples represent time points from hydraulic tests performed on the perched aquifer using the three wells. The isotope analyses showed that the perched water had δ2H and δ18O ratios consistent with the regional meteoric water line, indicating that local precipitation events at the Hanford site likely account for recharge of the perched water aquifer. Data from the isotope analysis can be used along with pumping and recovery data to help understand the perched water dynamics related to aquifer size and hydraulic control of the aquifer in the future.

  15. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  16. Stable isotope analysis of saline water samples on a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Ford, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of water using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments utilizing infrared absorption spectroscopy have been comprehensively tested. However, potential limitations of infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of highly saline water have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we assessed uncertainty arising from elevated salt concentrations in water analyzed on a CRDS instrument and the necessity of a correction procedure. We prepared various solutions of mixed salts and separate solutions with individual salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) using deionized water with a known stable isotope composition. Most of the individual salt and salt mixture solutions (some up to 340 g L(-1)) had δ-values within the range usual for CRDS analytical uncertainty (0.1‰ for δ (18)O and 1.0‰ for δ (2)H). Results were not compromised even when the total load of salt in the vaporizer reached ∼38.5 mg (equivalent to build up after running ∼100 ocean water samples). Therefore, highly saline mixtures can be successfully analyzed using CRDS, except highly concentrated MgCl2 solutions, without the need for an additional correction if the vaporizer is frequently cleaned and MgCl2 concentration in water is relatively low.

  17. Correlation Study and Regression Analysis of Drinking Water Quality in Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi HEYDARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on drinking water samples at five fields (21 sampling wells with hot and dry climate in Kashan city, central Iran was carried out. Samples were collected during October 2006 to May 2007 (25 - 30 °C. Comparing the results with drinking water quality standards issued by World Health Organization (WHO, it is found that some of the water samples are not potable. Hydrochemical facies using a Piper diagram indicate that in most parts of the city, the chemical character of water is dominated by NaCl. All samples showed sulfate and sodium ion higher and K+ and F- content lower than the permissible limit. A strongly positive correlation is observed between TDS and EC (R = 0.995 and Ca2+ and TH (R = 0.948. The results showed that regression relations have the same correlation coefficients: (I pH -TH, EC -TH (R = 0.520, (II NO3- -pH, TH-pH (R = 0.520, (III Ca2+-SO42-, TH-SO42-, Cl- -SO42- (R = 0.630. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.

  18. Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqian Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1 Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM, annual mean lake water level (WL, and annual minimum lake water level (WLm increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2 The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3 A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October; (4 The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake.

  19. Multivariate statistical analysis of surface water chemistry: A case study of Gharasoo River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Sayadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional water quality is a hot spot in the environmental sciences for inconsistency of pollutants. In this paper, the surface water quality of the Gharasoo River in western Iran is assessed incorporating multivariate statistical techniques. Parameters like EC, TDS, pH, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ were analyzed. Principal component and factor analysis is showed the parameters generated 3 significant factors, which explained 73.06% of the variance in data sets. Factor 1 may be derived from agricultural activities and subsequent release of EC, TDS, SO4 2- and Na+ to the water. Factor 2 could be influenced by domestic pollution and explained the deliverance of HCO3-, Cl- and Mg2+ into the water. Factor 3 contains hydro-geochemical variable Ca2+ and pH, originating from mineralization of the geological components of bed sediments and soils of watershed area. Likewise, the clustering analysis generated 3 groups of the stations as the groups had similar characteristic features. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between HCO3- and Mg2+ (0.775, Ca2+ (0.552 as well as TDS and Na+ (0.726. With reference to multivariate statistical analyses it can be concluded that the agricultural, domestic and hydro-geochemical sources are releasing the pollutants into the Gharasoo River water.

  20. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In

  1. Relevance of hydrological variables in water-saving efficiency of domestic rainwater tanks: Multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo Rosa; Maia, Adelena Gonçalves; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the relevance of four hydrological variables in the performance of a domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) system. The hydrological variables investigated are average annual rainfall (P), precipitation concentration degree (PCD), antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), and ratio of dry days to rainy days (nD/nR). Principal component analyses are used to group the water-saving efficiency into a select set of variables, and the relevance of the hydrological variables in a water-saving efficiency system was studied using canonical correlation analysis. The P associated with PCD, ADWP, or nD/nR attained a better correlation with water-saving efficiency than single P. We conclude that empirical models that represent a large combinations of roof-surface areas, rainwater-tank sizes, water demands, and rainfall regimes should also consider a variable for precipitation temporal variability, and treat it as an independent variable.

  2. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  4. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed.

  5. Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

  6. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  7. Ocean optical measurements—II. Statistical analysis of data from Canadian eastern Arctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topliss, B. J.; Miller, J. R.; Horne, E. P. W.

    1989-02-01

    The attenuation of light in Arctic waters was found to be controlled by chlorophyll pigment and dissolved material with a possible contribution from suspended particulate matter. The potential dependence of the attenuation coefficient on pigment concentration, depth and material type was statistically investigated to evaluate these individual, but intercorrelated, contributions. When the variation of dissolved material with depth was selected as a separation criteria for the intercorrelated in situ variables the statistical analysis suggested a concentration dependence for the specific attenuation coefficient of chlorophyll pigments. A non-linear attenuation/pigment relationship for the Arctic data, governed by concentration and proportion of phaeophytin to chlorophyll, was found to be consistent with clear water data from the open ocean as well as from turbid waters on the Grand Banks. Although only approximately 25% of available light was absorbed by chlorophyll a pigment itself, the under-water spectrum was modified by these pigments in a manner similar to that occurring in clear open ocean waters. Scattering calculations gave large specific back-scattering values for low pigment concentrations in Arctic waters as well as for waters from an inshore glacial fjord, posing potential interpretation problems for remote sensing applications. In contrast scattering calculations for high pigment concentrations from the Arctic implied that potentially useful information might be extracted from high latitude imagery.

  8. Dipole Moment and Binding Energy of Water in Proteins from Crystallographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozenko, A; Leontyev, I V; Stuchebrukhov, A A

    2014-10-14

    The energetics of water molecules in proteins is studied using the water placement software Dowser. We compared the water position predictions for 14 high-resolution crystal structures of oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) containing a large number of resolved internal water molecules. From the analysis of the outputs of Dowser with variable parameters and comparison with experimental X-ray data, we derived an estimate of the average dipole moment of water molecules located in the internal cavities of the protein and their binding energies. The water parameters thus obtained from the experimental data are then analyzed within the framework of charge-scaling theory developed recently by this group; the parameters are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions that the theory makes for the dipole moment in a protein environment. The water dipole in the protein environment is found to be much different from that in the bulk and in such models as SPC or TIPnP. The role of charge scaling due to electronic polarizability of the protein is discussed.

  9. Cellulose microfibril-water interaction as characterized by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K. Sen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microfibrillated celluloses, liberated from macroscopic lignocellulosic fibers by mechanical means, are sub-fiber elements with lengths in the micron scale and diameters ranging from 10 to a few hundred nanometers. These materials have shown strong water interactions. This article describes an investigation and quantification of the ‘hard-to-remove (HR water content’ in cellulose fibers and microfibrillated structures prepared from fully bleached softwood pulp (BSW. The fiber/fibril structure was altered by using an extended beating process (up to 300 minutes, and water interactions were determined with isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Isothermal TGA is shown to be a convenient and insightful characterization method for fiber-water interactions for fibers and microfibrils at small sample size. In addition, scanning electron microscopic (SEM images depict the differences between fibers and microfibrils with respect to beating time in the dried consolidated structures. Highly refined pulps with microfibrils were determined to have two critical drying points, i.e., two minima in the second derivative of weight versus time, not before reported in the literature. Also in this study, hard-to-remove (HR water content is related to the area above the first derivative curve in the constant rate and falling rate drying zones. This measure of HR water correlates with a previous measurement method of HR water but is less ambiguous for materials that lack a constant drying rate zone. Blends of unbeaten fibers and microfibril containing samples were prepared and show potential as composite materials.

  10. Analysis of Water Flow Pressure on Bridge Piers considering the Impact Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of water current impact and fluid-structure interaction on the bridge piers, the mechanism of water flow impact on the bridge pier is firstly studied. Then a finite element model of a bridge pier is established including the effects of water flow impact as well as the water circumferential motion around the pier. Comparative study is conducted between the results of water impact effect, fluid-structure coupling effect, theoretical analysis, and also the results derived using the formulas specified in the design codes home and abroad. The results show that the water flow force calculated using the formulas provided by the codes should be multiplied by an impact amplifier to account for the effect of flood impact on the bridge pier. When the flood flows around the pier, the fluid-structure coupling effect on the bridge pier can be neglected. The method specified in the China guidelines of General Code for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts tends to provide a larger result of the water flow force.

  11. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  12. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J; Varis, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  13. Determination of the principal factors of river water quality through cluster analysis method and its prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang GUO; Ying ZHAO; Peng WANG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network model was built to predict the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODMn) measured by permanganate index in Songhua River. To enhance the prediction accuracy, principal factors were determined through the analysis of the weight relation between influencing factors and forecasting object using cluster analysis method, which optimized the topological structure of the prediction model input items of the artificial neural network. It was shown that application of the principal factors in water quality prediction model can improve its forecasting skill significantly through the comparison between results of prediction by artificial neural network and the measurements of the CODMn. This methodology is also applicable to various water quality prediction targets of other water bodies and it is valuable for theoretical study and practical application.

  14. A new approach to water resources system assessment——set pair analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Most traditional assessment methods, which have complicated mathematic formulas, are difficult for calculation and application in water resources system assessment. A new approach to water resources system assessment, the set pair analysis method (SPAM), has been proposed based on the principle of set pair analysis (SPA). The basic ideals and steps of SPAM are discussed. The proposed method can take fuzzy property of threshold values for grade standards into full account and avoid determining the discrepancy uncertainty coefficient i or i1, i2, i3, … in SPA. The presented method is simple in concept, convenient to calculate and feasible for application. Two case studies of water resources assessment have been made. The results show that the proposed method is satisfactory.

  15. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  16. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Tanner, Chris C; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water...... depths from 0 – 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth...... differed between the three species, and were non-linear. P. tenax growth rapidly decreased in standing water > 0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths > 0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis...

  17. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  18. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  19. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  20. Significant drivers of the virtual water trade evaluated with a multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2014-05-01

    International trade of food is vital for the food security of many countries, which rely on trade to compensate for an agricultural production insufficient to feed the population. At the same time, food trade has implications on the distribution and use of water resources, because through the international trade of food commodities, countries virtually displace the water used for food production, known as "virtual water". Trade thus implies a network of virtual water fluxes from exporting to importing countries, which has been estimated to displace more than 2 billions of m3 of water per year, or about the 2% of the annual global precipitation above land. It is thus important to adequately identify the dynamics and the controlling factors of the virtual water trade in that it supports and enables the world food security. Using the FAOSTAT database of international trade and the virtual water content available from the Water Footprint Network, we reconstructed 25 years (1986-2010) of virtual water fluxes. We then analyzed the dependence of exchanged fluxes on a set of major relevant factors, that includes: population, gross domestic product, arable land, virtual water embedded in agricultural production and dietary consumption, and geographical distance between countries. Significant drivers have been identified by means of a multivariate regression analysis, applied separately to the export and import fluxes of each country; temporal trends are outlined and the relative importance of drivers is assessed by a commonality analysis. Results indicate that population, gross domestic product and geographical distance are the major drivers of virtual water fluxes, with a minor (but non-negligible) contribution given by the agricultural production of exporting countries. Such drivers have become relevant for an increasing number of countries throughout the years, with an increasing variance explained by the distance between countries and a decreasing role of the gross

  1. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of estimated soil hydraulic parameters for simulating soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Garg, Naveen Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the scalar parameters (soil hydraulic parameters (SHPs)), which govern the simulation of soil water content in the unsaturated soil zone. The study involves field experiments, which were conducted in real field conditions for wheat crop in Roorkee, India under irrigated conditions. Soil samples were taken for the soil profile of 60 cm depth at an interval of 15 cm in the experimental field to determine soil water retention curves (SWRCs). These experimentally determined SWRCs were used to estimate the SHPs by least square optimization under constrained conditions. Sensitivity of the SHPs estimated by various pedotransfer functions (PTFs), that relate various easily measurable soil properties like soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content, is compared with lab derived parameters to simulate respective soil water retention curves. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the monte carlo simulations and the one factor at a time approach. The different sets of SHPs, along with experimentally determined saturated permeability, are then used as input parameters in physically based, root water uptake model to ascertain the uncertainties in simulating soil water content. The generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure (GLUE) was subsequently used to estimate the uncertainty bounds (UB) on the model predictions. It was found that the experimentally obtained SHPs were able to simulate the soil water contents with efficiencies of 70-80% at all the depths for the three irrigation treatments. The SHPs obtained from the PTFs, performed with varying uncertainties in simulating the soil water contents. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Uncertainty estimation, Pedotransfer functions, Soil hydraulic parameters, Hydrological modelling

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout Caused by External Flooding Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impact of these factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the application of a RISMC detailed demonstration case study for an emergent issue using the RAVEN and RELAP-7 tools. This case study looks at the impact of a couple of challenges to a hypothetical pressurized water reactor, including: (1) a power uprate, (2) a potential loss of off-site power followed by the possible loss of all diesel generators (i.e., a station black-out event), (3) and earthquake induces station-blackout, and (4) a potential earthquake induced tsunami flood. The analysis is performed by using a set of codes: a thermal-hydraulic code (RELAP-7), a flooding simulation tool (NEUTRINO) and a stochastic analysis tool (RAVEN) – these are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  4. The Silica-Water Interface from the Analysis of Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lardhi, Sheikha F.

    2013-05-01

    Surface chemistry is an emerging field that can give detailed insight about the elec- tronic properties and the interaction of complex material surfaces with their neigh- bors. This is for both solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. Among the latter class, the silica-water interface plays a major role in nature. Silica is among the most abundant materials on earth, as well in advanced technological applications such as catalysis and nanotechnology. This immediately indicates the relevance of a detailed understanding of the silica-water interface. In this study, we investigate the details of this interaction at microscopic level by analyzing trajectories obtained with ab initio molecular dynamic simulations. The system we consider consists of bulk liquid water confined between two β-cristobalite silica surfaces. The molecular dynamics were generated with the CP2K, an ab initio molecular dynamic simulation tool. The simulations are 25 picoseconds long, and the CP2K program was run on 64 cores on a supercomputer cluster. During the simulations the program integrates Newton’s equations of motion for the system and generates the trajectory for analysis. For analysis, we focused on the following properties that characterize the silica water interface. We calculated the density profile of the water layers from the silica surface, and we also calculated the radial distribution function (RDF) of the hydrogen bond at the silanols on the silica surface. The main focus of this thesis is to write the programs for calculating the atom density profile and the RDF from the generated MD trajectories. The atomic probability density profile shows that water is strongly adsorbed on the (001) cristobalite surface, while the RDF indicates differently ad- sorbed water molecules in the first adsorption layer. As final remark, the protocol and the tools developed in this thesis can be applied to the study of basically any crystal-water interface.

  5. A sensitivity analysis of a radiological assessment model for Arctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    A model based on compartment analysis has been developed to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in Arctic waters for an assessment of doses to man. The model predicts concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment and doses to man from a range of exposure pathways. A parameter sen...

  6. Combined calibration and sensitivity analysis for a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, van der M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the error in results of a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland, due to uncertainties in calibrated model parameters. The procedure used in this study combines calibration and sensitivity analysis. Finally,the model was validated to test the model capabil

  7. Manganese Analysis in Water Samples. Training Module 5.211.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the spectrophotometric analysis of manganese in water using the persulfate method. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and transparency masters. A video tape is also available from the author. This module…

  8. Uncertainty analysis of an irrigation scheduling model for water management in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling tools are critical to allow producers to manage water resources for crop production in an accurate and timely manner. To be useful, these tools need to be accurate, complete, and relatively reliable. The current work presents the uncertainty analysis and its results for the Mis...

  9. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated ground water. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations. Permeable reactive barriers are no longer perceiv...

  10. The transfer function analysis of various schemes for the two-dimensional shallow-water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Neta, B.; DeVito, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper various finite difference and finite element approximations to the linearized two-dimensional shallow-water equations are analyzed. This analysis complements previous results for the one-dimensional case. The first author would like to thank the NPS Foundation Research program for its support of this research.

  11. Method 365.5 Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of low-level orthophosphate concentrations normally found in estuarine and/or coastal waters. It is based upon the method of Murphy and Riley1 adapted for automated segmented flow analysis2 in which the two reagent solutions ...

  12. Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known health effects, is presented as an instructive example for undergraduate chemistry students. It allows the students to perform an experiment and evaluate to monitor risk factors and common hazard of everyday life.

  13. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and bioassay application in water quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, A.; Schriks, M.; Brand, W; Bäuerlein, P.S.; van der Kooi, M.M.E.; van Doorn, R.H.; Emke, E.; Reus, A.; van der Linden, S.; de Voogt, P.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39 chemi

  14. Manganese Analysis in Water Samples. Training Module 5.211.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the spectrophotometric analysis of manganese in water using the persulfate method. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and transparency masters. A video tape is also available from the author. This module…

  15. The added value of a water footprint approach: Micro- and macroeconomic analysis of cotton production, processing and export in water bound Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, I.; Bekchanov, M.; Djanibekov, U.; Lamers, J. P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Since independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, Uzbekistan is challenged to consolidate its efforts and identify and introduce suitable agricultural policies to ease the threat of advancing land, water and ecosystem deterioration. On the one hand, irrigated cotton production provides income, food and energy sources for a large part of the rural households, which accounts for about 70% of the total population. On the other hand, this sector is considered a major driver of the on-going environmental degradation. Due to this dual nature, an integrated approach is needed that allows the analyses of the cotton sector at different stages and, consequently, deriving comprehensive options for action. The findings of the economic based value chain analysis and ecologically-oriented water footprint analysis on regional level were complemented with the findings of an input-output model on national level. This combination gave an added value for better-informed decision-making to reach land, water and ecosystem sustainability, compared to the individual results of each approach. The synergy of approaches pointed at various options for actions, such as to (i) promote the shift of water use from the high water consuming agricultural sector to a less water consuming cotton processing sector, (ii) increase overall water use efficiency by expanding the highly water productive industrial sectors and concurrently decreasing sectors with inefficient water use, and (iii) reduce agricultural water use by improving irrigation and conveyance efficiencies. The findings showed that increasing water use efficiency, manufacturing products with higher value added and raising water users' awareness of the real value of water are essential for providing water security in Uzbekistan.

  16. The Rocky Path to Source Water Protection: A Cross-Case Analysis of Drinking Water Crises in Small Communities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Hanrahan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Source water protection (SWP is increasingly seen as effective in reducing the incidence and extent of drinking water crises, yet its facilitation requires certain measures. Canada has one of the most decentralized water governance systems in the world. We sought to understand the experience and impacts of drinking water crises at community and government levels in a decentralized context: the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador through cross-case analysis. We selected our three study communities through a database of media reports in 2014 followed by invitations to community leaders. We used descriptive and qualitative methods, specifically structured interview schedules with both closed- and open-ended questions, and interviewed four community leaders and three provincial government officials. We used NVivo in data analysis, especially in the identification of themes. While government officials defined water crises largely in terms of SWP, this was not the same for communities, whose concern was mainly water access, specifically water shortages. Thus, while the prioritizing of SWP can be useful, the current focus on SWP has the potential to overlook aspects of water security, particularly in some rural and Indigenous communities in Canada. If we envision water security as a ladder representing a hierarchy of needs, some communities are too far down on the ladder to operationalize SWP because their water problems are more extreme.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures to reach water safety targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal performance and water quality analysis of paper machine white water in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Wang, Can; Fang, Shuai; Jia, Minghao; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-09-29

    Paper machine white water is generally characterized as a high concentration of suspended solids and organic matters. A combined physicochemical-biological and filtration process was used in the study for removing pollutants in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of the pollutant in physicochemical and biological process was evaluated, respectively. Furthermore, advanced technology was used to analyse the water quality before and after the process treatment. Experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of suspend solids (SS) of the system was above 99%, while the physicochemical treatment in the forepart of the system had achieved about 97%. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour had the similar trend after physicochemical treatment and were corresponding to the proportion of suspended and the near-colloidal organic matter in the wastewater. After biological treatment, the removal efficiency of COD and colour achieved were about 97% and 90%, respectively. Furthermore, molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis showed that after treatment low MW molecules (chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the composition of organic matter in the wastewater was not complicated. Methylsiloxanes were the typical organic components in the raw wastewater and most of them were removed after treatment.

  19. Water Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for: alkali and alkaline earth metals; transition metals; precious metals; group 12, 13, 14, and 15 metals, nonmetals; radionuclides; multiple metals; anions; gases; chromatography; mass spectroscopy; photometry; sampling; volatile compounds; surfactants; detergents; pesticides; herbicides; and fungicides. (MVL)

  20. Sustainable development of Shandong peninsula Peninsula urban agglomeration: a scenario analysis based on water shortage and water environment changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has experienced a rapid urbanization since late 1970s. The great increase of urban population has resulted in various environmental changes, of which urban water shortage and water environment problems have occurred in most cities, especially in the rapidly developing urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal region. This research, taking Shandong Peninsula Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) as a case study area, analyzes the urbanization expansion in the last decades, discusses the water shortage and water environment changes following the rapid economic development and urbanization such as groundwater sinking in the urban and plain area, sea water and salt-water intrusion in the coastal cities, water pollution overspreading and "water ecosystem degradation, and puts forwards some strategies for sustainability in populous regions with severe water shortage. Some countermeasures for sustainable development of SPUA are put forward, such as modern water resources inter-city networks to regulate water resource between cities, adjusting urbanization policy and urban scale planning to promote the development of small towns and medium sized cities, optimizing urban industry structure by restricting high water consumption enterprises and stimulating the growth of tertiary industry, improving water use efficient to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, introducing economic means to water pricing and water management system. and restoring ecological conditions to strengthen the natural water-making capacity.

  1. Multilayer geospatial analysis of water availability for shale resources development in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, C.; Cook, M. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    Mexico’s government enacted an energy reform in 2013 that aims to foster competitiveness and private investment throughout the energy sector value chain. As part of this reform, it is expected that extraction of oil and gas via hydraulic fracturing will increase in five shale basins (e.g. Burgos, Sabinas, Tampico, Tuxpan, and Veracruz). Because hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive activity, it is relevant to assess the potential water availability for this activity in Mexico. This research aims to quantify the water availability for hydraulic fracturing in Mexico and identify its spatial distribution along the five shale basins. The methodology consisted of a multilayer geospatial analysis that overlays the water availability in the watersheds and aquifers with the different types of shale resources areas (e.g. oil and associated gas, wet gas and condensate, and dry gas) in the five shale basins. The aquifers and watersheds in Mexico are classified in four zones depending on average annual water availability. Three scenarios were examined based on different impact level on watersheds and aquifers from hydraulic fracturing. For the most conservative scenario analyzed, the results showed that the water available could be used to extract between 8.15 and 70.42 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of energy in the typical 20–30 year lifetime of the hydraulic fracturing wells that could be supplied with the annual water availability overlaying the shale areas, with an average across estimates of around 18.05 Quads. However, geographic variation in water availability could represent a challenge for extracting the shale reserves. Most of the water available is located closer to the Gulf of Mexico, but the areas with the larger recoverable shale reserves coincide with less water availability in Northern Mexico. New water management techniques (such as recycling and re-use), more efficient fracturing methods, shifts in usage patterns, or other water sources

  2. Analysis of first flush to improve the water quality in rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, B; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

    2010-01-01

    Although most Australians receive their domestic supply from reticulated mains or town water, there are vast areas with very low population densities and few reticulated supplies. In many of these areas rainwater collected in tanks is the primary source of drinking water. Heavy metals have recently become a concern as their concentration in rain water tanks was found to exceed recommended levels suitable for human consumption. Rainwater storage tanks also accumulate contaminants and sediments that settle to the bottom. Although not widely acknowledged, small amounts of contaminants such as lead found in rain water (used as drinking water) may have a cumulative and poisonous effect on human health over a life time. This is true for certain factors that underlie many of the chronic illnesses that are becoming increasingly common in contemporary society. The paper reports on a study which is part of a project that aims to develop a cost effective in-line filtration system to improve water quality in rainwater tanks. To enable this, the characteristics of rainwater need to be known. One component of this characterization is to observe the effects of the first flush on a rainwater tank. Samples of the roof runoff collected from an urban residential roof located in the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the initial first few millimetres of rain were analysed. The results show that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives water with most water quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) standards. The parameters that did not comply were lead and turbidity, which required bypassing approximately the first 5 mm of rainfall to meet ADWG standards. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analysis showed that the concentration of rainwater organic matter (RWOM) decreased with increasing amount of roof runoff.

  3. A global analysis of zooplankton in natural and artificial fresh waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye L. Merrix-Jones

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-body size and location influence zooplankton diversity in freshwaters, but less is known about systematic variations in zooplankton community composition between natural and artificial waters on different continents. We used meta-analysis to assess how zooplankton in artificial water bodies across different biomes might differ from natural water bodies of similar size. Among 79 lakes, ponds and reservoirs (11 artificial and 68 natural, proximity to other water bodies apparently increased species richness in all lake types, probably reflecting dispersal. However, richness did not differ systematically between natural and artificial water bodies of comparable size. In contrast, community composition differed between artificial and natural waters after accounting for depth, productivity, longitude and conductivity, with models explaining up to 50% of the overall variance at genus level. Leptodiaptomus, Chydorus, Cyclops, Acanthocyclops, Skistodiaptomus, Epischura, Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus all occurred more frequently in natural waters, whilst Thermocyclops, Moina and Epischura occurred more frequently in artificial lakes. Rank-occurrence data revealed that Ceriodaphnia, Orthocyclops, Holopedium and Eucyclops were equitably distributed across water bodies of contrasting sizes, depths and climates. Other genera occurred under more specific conditions, typically where they had strong associations with natural lakes (e.g. Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus. These results are among the first to illustrate systematic differences in zooplankton composition between natural and artificial lakes at a global scale. Potential explanations require further evidence, but might include provision for niche specialists in natural lakes versus reduced heterogeneity, management or disturbance effects in artificial lakes; and effects of lake age, stability and habitat naturalness in

  4. Inter-basin water transfer-supply model and risk analysis with consideration of rainfall forecast information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new inter-basin water transfer-supply and risk assessment model with consideration of rainfall forecast information. Firstly, based on the current state of reservoir and rainfall forecast information from the global forecast system (GFS), the actual diversion amount can be determined according to the inter-basin water transfer rules with the decision tree method; secondly, the reservoir supply operation system is used to distribute water resource of the inter-basin water transfer reservoir; finally, the integrated risk assessment model is built by selecting the reliability of water transfer, the reliability (water shortage risk), the resiliency and the vulnerability of water supply as risk analysis indexes. The case study shows that the inter-basin water transfer-supply model with rainfall forecast information considered can reduce the comprehensive risk and improve the utilization efficiency of water resource, as compared with conventional and optimal water distribution models.

  5. Study on the introduction of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept of the water quality management in water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, H; Embutsu, I; Yoda, M; Waseda, K

    2006-01-01

    In the latest revision in 2004, the 3rd edition, the Water Safety Plans (WSP) was newly introduced into the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. The Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) is a basic concept that underlies the WSPs, and is also known as the product quality management method in the field of food and the medical manufacturing industries. In the amendments of the Drinking Water Quality Standards in Japan, water suppliers are required to reasonably achieve both safe water and efficient water quality management. Therefore, the HACCP concept is focused as an adequate management method covering a whole process of water supply systems, in a systematic way. The purpose of this study is to investigate a practical procedure in introducing the HACCP into water quality management in Japan. In comparison to conventional applications of the HACCP, unmanageable variations of raw water quality, continuous treatment and supply, and numerous standards of water quality items need to be considered. The HACCP system is expected to achieve a quick response to improvements in water quality, accountability towards consumers and a decrease in accidents.

  6. Assessment of the contamination of drinking water supply wells by pesticides from surface water resources using a finite element reactive transport model and global sensitivity analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    2013-01-01

    SummaryA reactive transport model is employed to evaluate the potential for contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model considers various geologic settings, includes sorption and degradation processes and is tested by comparison with data from a tracer experiment where fluorescein dye injected in a river is monitored at nearby drinking water wells. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and relatively persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a newer biodegradable and strongly sorbing pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the Morris method is employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results show that the characteristics of clay aquitards (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depths are crucial factors when evaluating the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. This study suggests that it is unlikely that glyphosate in streams can pose a threat to drinking water wells, while MCPP in surface water can represent a risk: MCPP concentration at the drinking water well can be up to 7% of surface water concentration in confined aquifers and up to 10% in unconfined aquifers. Thus, the presence of confining clay aquitards may not prevent contamination of drinking water wells by persistent compounds in surface water. Results are consistent with data on pesticide occurrence in Denmark where pesticides are found at higher concentrations at shallow depths and close to streams.

  7. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p < 0.001) and in HSW (p = 0.03). Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  8. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, Arvind; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  9. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  10. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  11. RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF URBAN RAINSTORM WATER LOGGING IN TIANJIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Su-qin; XIE Yi-yang; LI Da-ming; LI Pei-yan; SUN Mei-ling

    2006-01-01

    The risk analysis of urban rainstorm water logging facing Tianjin city by using methods of probability, investigation and numerical simulation was carried out in this article.Firstly, a mathematical model for the urban rainstorm water logging was established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional unsteady flow theory and the technique of non-structural irregular grid division, Secondly, the precipitation over heavy rain was divided into seven grades, the experiential expression of frequency and rain grades was got according to the observed rainfall from May 1918 to October 1998.Thirdly, the mathematical model was used to simulate various rain process according to the features of the rainstorm and the draining rule, based on the simulated maximum water depths, 3 class of disaster extents were established, the disaster risks were mainly in Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, The risk analysis of water logging on traffic were primarily evaluated, and finally, some management and mitigation measures of the urban rainstorm water logging disaster were discussed.

  12. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  13. Computer-Aided Analysis of Flow in Water Pipe Networks after a Seismic Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for a reliability-based flow analysis for a water pipe network after an earthquake. For the first part of the framework, we propose to use a modeling procedure for multiple leaks and breaks in the water pipe segments of a network that has been damaged by an earthquake. For the second part, we propose an efficient system-level probabilistic flow analysis process that integrates the matrix-based system reliability (MSR formulation and the branch-and-bound method. This process probabilistically predicts flow quantities by considering system-level damage scenarios consisting of combinations of leaks and breaks in network pipes and significantly reduces the computational cost by sequentially prioritizing the system states according to their likelihoods and by using the branch-and-bound method to select their partial sets. The proposed framework is illustrated and demonstrated by examining two example water pipe networks that have been subjected to a seismic event. These two examples consist of 11 and 20 pipe segments, respectively, and are computationally modeled considering their available topological, material, and mechanical properties. Considering different earthquake scenarios and the resulting multiple leaks and breaks in the water pipe segments, the water flows in the segments are estimated in a computationally efficient manner.

  14. Informing Regional Water-Energy-Food Nexus with System Analysis and Interactive Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Communicating scientific results to non-technical practitioners is challenging due to their differing interests, concerns and agendas. It is further complicated by the growing number of relevant factors that need to be considered, such as climate change and demographic dynamic. Visualization is an effective method for the scientific community to disseminate results, and it represents an opportunity for the future of water resources systems analysis (WRSA). This study demonstrates an intuitive way to communicate WRSA results to practitioners using interactive web-based visualization tools developed by the JavaScript library: Data-Driven Documents (D3) with a case study in Great Ruaha River of Tanzania. The decreasing trend of streamflow during the last decades in the region highlights the need of assessing the water usage competition between agricultural production, energy generation, and ecosystem service. Our team conduct the advance water resources systems analysis to inform policy that will affect the water-energy-food nexus. Modeling results are presented in the web-based visualization tools and allow non-technical practitioners to brush the graph directly (e. g. Figure 1). The WRSA suggests that no single measure can completely resolve the water competition. A combination of measures, each of which is acceptable from a social and economic perspective, and accepting that zero flows cannot be totally eliminated during dry years in the wetland, are likely to be the best way forward.

  15. [Research on signal processing for water quality monitoring based on continuous spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kang-lin; Chen, Ming; Wen, Zhi-yu; Xie, Yin-ke

    2014-12-01

    Based on continuous spectrum analysis, the mathematical model for spectrum signal was established. And the spectrum signal's systematic error processing method based on the invariance of the ratio of the light intensities at any two wavelengths in the range of continuous spectrum was put forward. Combined with wavelet multi-resolution filtering noise processing techniques, the background interference processing method was established based on the spectral characteristics of the measured water quality parameter. These signal processing methods were applied to our independently developed multi-parameter water quality monitoring instrument to on-line measure COD (chemical oxygen demand), six valence chromium and anionic surfactant in the normative and actual environmental water samples, and the monitoring instrument had good repeatability (10%) and high accuracy (±10%) to meet the technical requirements of national environmental protection standards, which was verified by the contrast experiment with China national standard analysis method for determination of the three water quality parameter. The results showed that the researched signal processing methods were able to effectively reduce the spectrum signal's systematic error and the interference from noise and background, which was very important to improve the water quality monitoring instrument's technical function.

  16. Water quality management using statistical analysis and time-series prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Kulwinder Singh; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with water quality management using statistical analysis and time-series prediction model. The monthly variation of water quality standards has been used to compare statistical mean, median, mode, standard deviation, kurtosis, skewness, coefficient of variation at Yamuna River. Model validated using R-squared, root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error, maximum absolute percentage error, mean absolute error, maximum absolute error, normalized Bayesian information criterion, Ljung-Box analysis, predicted value and confidence limits. Using auto regressive integrated moving average model, future water quality parameters values have been estimated. It is observed that predictive model is useful at 95 % confidence limits and curve is platykurtic for potential of hydrogen (pH), free ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, water temperature (WT); leptokurtic for chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand. Also, it is observed that predicted series is close to the original series which provides a perfect fit. All parameters except pH and WT cross the prescribed limits of the World Health Organization /United States Environmental Protection Agency, and thus water is not fit for drinking, agriculture and industrial use.

  17. Improving water quality assessments through a hierarchical Bayesian analysis of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-10-15

    Water quality measurement error and variability, while well-documented in laboratory-scale studies, is rarely acknowledged or explicitly resolved in most model-based water body assessments, including those conducted in compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. Consequently, proposed pollutant loading reductions in TMDLs and similar water quality management programs may be biased, resulting in either slower-than-expected rates of water quality restoration and designated use reinstatement or, in some cases, overly conservative management decisions. To address this problem, we present a hierarchical Bayesian approach for relating actual in situ or model-predicted pollutant concentrations to multiple sampling and analysis procedures, each with distinct sources of variability. We apply this method to recently approved TMDLs to investigate whether appropriate accounting for measurement error and variability will lead to different management decisions. We find that required pollutant loading reductions may in fact vary depending not only on how measurement variability is addressed but also on which water quality analysis procedure is used to assess standard compliance. As a general strategy, our Bayesian approach to quantifying variability may represent an alternative to the common practice of addressing all forms of uncertainty through an arbitrary margin of safety (MOS).

  18. Application of enzyme multibiosensor for toxicity analysis of real water samples of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatkin A. P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The analysis of toxicity of different water samples with the multibiosensor developed earlier. Methods. The potentiometric multibiosensor with several immobilized enzymes as bioselective elements and the matrix of pH-sensitive field effect transistors as transducers of the biochemical signal into the electric one was applied for the analysis. Results. The bioselective elements of the multibiosensor were developed using acetylcholinesterase, butyryl- cholinesterase, urease, glucose oxidase, and three-enzyme system (invertase, mutarotase, glucose oxidase. The measurement of toxic compounds in water samples of different origin was performed using the constructed sensor. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by the conventional methods of toxic agent’s analysis (atomic absorption spectrometry, thin-film chroma- tography, and atomic absorbic analyser of mercury. Conclusion. A strong conformity between the results obtained with the multibiosensor and traditional methods has been shown.

  19. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Prokaryotes in Environmental Water Using DNA Microarray Analysis and Whole Genome Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Ishii

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The microflora in environmental water consists of a high density and diversity of bacterial species that form the foundation of the water ecosystem. Because the majority of these species cannot be cultured in vitro, a different approach is needed to identify prokaryotes in environmental water. A novel DNA microarray was developed as a simplified detection protocol. Multiple DNA probes were designed against each of the 97,927 sequences in the DNA Data Bank of Japan and mounted on a glass chip in duplicate. Evaluation of the microarray was performed using the DNA extracted from one liter of environmental water samples collected from seven sites in Japan. The extracted DNA was uniformly amplified using whole genome amplification (WGA, labeled with Cy3-conjugated 16S rRNA specific primers and hybridized to the microarray. The microarray successfully identified soil bacteria and environment-specific bacteria clusters. The DNA microarray described herein can be a useful tool in evaluating the diversity of prokaryotes and assessing environmental changes such as global warming.