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Sample records for water ameliorated cognitive

  1. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Propofol-Induced Cognitive Impairment via an Opioid Receptor-Independent Mechanism.

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    Liu, Yan; Wang, Xin-Juan; Wang, Na; Cui, Cai-Lian; Wu, Liu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    While general anesthesia is known to induce cognitive deficits in elderly and pediatric patients, its influence on adults is less well-characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of propofol on the learning and memory of young adult rats, as well as the potential neuroprotective role of electroacupuncture (EA) in propofol-induced cognitive impairment. Intravenous anesthesia with propofol was administered to young adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 6 h, and EA was administered three times before and after anesthesia. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was conducted to determine the rat's cognitive performance following the anesthesia treatment. Our results showed that propofol induced obvious cognitive impairment in young adult rats, which could be ameliorated by multiple EA treatments. Moreover, the decreased level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (pGSK-3β) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus accompanying the cognitive impairment was also reversed by EA treatment. Further experiments demonstrated that neither 2 nor 10 mg/kg (I.P.) naloxone blocked the effect of EA, indicating that the neuroprotective effect of EA on propofol-induced cognitive impairment was not mediated via the opioid receptors. The present study suggests that EA could ameliorate the cognitive impairment induced by prolonged anesthesia with propofol in young adult rats, which is likely associated with pGSK-3β levels in the CA1 independently of opioid receptors. These findings imply that EA may be used as a potential neuroprotective therapy for post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

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    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  3. Application of actinomycetes to soil to ameliorate water repellency.

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    McKenna, F; El-Tarabily, K A; Petrie, S; Chen, C; Dell, B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel isolation technique using a mixture of Bacillus and Streptomyces phages to selectively isolate wax-utilizing non-streptomycete actinomycetes effective in ameliorating water repellency in a problem soil. Phages added to a soil suspension reduced the dominance of Bacillus and Streptomyces isolates and significantly increased the number of non-streptomycete actinomycetes on isolation plates. Promising isolates, grown on a medium containing beeswax as sole carbon source, were selected for application to water repellent soil. Their addition significantly reduced water repellency. Phage application significantly increased the isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Wax-utilizing isolates were found to significantly reduce water repellency in a problem soil. The phage technique can be used for the routine isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Beeswax medium can be used to selectively isolate wax-utilizing micro-organisms with the potential to ameliorate water repellency in soil.

  4. The Roles of Exercise and Yoga in Ameliorating Depression as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline

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    Rosenbaum, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical treatments to reduce cognitive decline or prevent dementia. At the same time, the global population is aging, and rates of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are on the rise. As such, there is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative interventions to treat or reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Depression is one potentially modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Notably, exercise and yoga are two interventions known to both reduce symptoms of depression and improve cognitive function. The current review discusses the efficacy of exercise and yoga to ameliorate depression and thereby reduce the risk of cognitive decline and potentially prevent dementia. Potential mechanisms of change, treatment implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:28044084

  5. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  6. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting Expression of Tau Pathology in ApoE-Knockout Mice

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    Yang Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, a tyrosine kinase B (TrkB agonist that mimics the neuroprotective properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which can not efficiently deliver into the brain, has been reported to be useful in ameliorating cognitive impairment in many diseases. Researches have indicated that apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO mouse was associated with cognitive alteration via various mechanisms. Our present study investigated the possible mechanisms of cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse fed with western type diet and the protective effects of 7,8-DHF in improving spatial learning and memory in ApoE-KO mouse. 5-weeks-old ApoE-KO mice and C57BL/6 mice were chronically treated with 7,8-DHF (with a dosage of 5mg/kg or vehicles orally for 25 weeks, and then subjected to Morris water maze at the age of 30 weeks to evaluate the cognitive performances. Afterwards, histology analysis and western blotting were performed. Spatial learning and memory deficits were observed in ApoE-KO mice, which were consistent with higher expression of active-asparaginyl endopeptidase (active-AEP as well as AEP-derived truncated tauN368 compared with normal group. In addition to that, long-term treatment of 7,8-DHF dramatically ameliorated cognitive decline in ApoE-KO mice, accompanied by the activation in phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β pathway and down-regulated expression of tau S396 and PHF-tau (phosphorylated tau at ser396 and ser404 epitope. These findings suggested that cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse might associate with tau pathology and 7,8-DHF could activate AKT and then phosphorylate its downstream molecule to inhibit expression of abnormal tau, meanwhile, 7,8-DHF could reduce the expression of active-AEP and then inhibit production of truncated tauN368.

  7. Neuronal and cognitive plasticity: A neurocognitive framework for ameliorating cognitive aging

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    Pamela M Greenwood

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the neurocognitive basis for the considerable individual differences observed in functioning of the adult mind and brain late in life? We review the evidence that in healthy old age the brain remains capable of both neuronal and cognitive plasticity, including in response to environmental and experiential factors. Neuronal plasticity (e.g. neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, cortical re-organization refers to neuron-level changes that can be stimulated by experience. Cognitive plasticity (e.g. increased dependence on executive function refers to adaptive changes in patterns of cognition related to brain activity. We hypothesize that successful cognitive aging requires interactions between these two forms of plasticity. Mechanisms of neural plasticity underpin cognitive plasticity and in turn, neural plasticity is stimulated by cognitive plasticity. We examine support for this hypothesis by considering evidence that neural plasticity is stimulated by learning and novelty and enhanced by both dietary manipulations (low-fat, dietary restriction and aerobic exercise. We also examine evidence that cognitive plasticity is affected by education and training. This is a testable hypothesis which could be assessed in humans in randomized trials comparing separate and combined effects of cognitive training, exercise, and diet on measures of cognitive and brain integrity. Greater understanding of the factors influencing the course of cognitive aging and of the mechanisms underlying those factors could provide information on which people could base choices that improve their ability to age successfully.

  8. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

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    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Autophagy ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of PVT1 and apoptosis in diabetes mice.

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    Li, Zhigui; Hao, Shuang; Yin, Hongqiang; Gao, Jing; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-05-15

    The underlying mechanisms of cognitive impairment in diabetes remain incompletely characterized. Here we show that the autophagic inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) aggravates cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, including exacerbation of anxiety-like behaviors and aggravation in spatial learning and memory, especially the spatial reversal memory. Further neuronal function identification confirmed that both long term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DPT) were exacerbated by autophagic inhibition in diabetic mice, which indicating impairment of synaptic plasticity. However, no significant change of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) was recorded in diabetic mice with autophagic suppression compared with the diabetic mice, which indicated that presynaptic function was not affected by autophagic inhibition in diabetes. Subsequent hippocampal neuronal cell death analysis showed that the apoptotic cell death, but not the regulated necrosis, significantly increased in autophagic suppression of diabetic mice. Finally, molecular mechanism that may lead to cell death was identified. The long non-coding RNA PVT1 (plasmacytoma variant translocation 1) expression was analyzed, and data revealed that PVT1 was decreased significantly by 3-MA in diabetes. These findings show that PVT1-mediated autophagy may protect hippocampal neurons from impairment of synaptic plasticity and apoptosis, and then ameliorates cognitive impairment in diabetes. These intriguing findings will help pave the way for exciting functional studies of autophagy in cognitive impairment and diabetes that may alter the existing paradigms.

  10. How to Cheat and Not Feel Guilty: Cognitive Dissonance and Its Amelioration in the Domain of Academic Dishonesty

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    Stephens, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    The belief that cheating is wrong doesn't prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two "good"…

  11. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

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    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  12. Course of psychopathology, cognition and neurobiological abnormality in schizophrenia: developmental origins and amelioration by antipsychotics?

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    Waddington, J L; Buckley, P F; Scully, P J; Lane, A; O'Callaghan, E; Larkin, C

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that schizophrenia has origins in events occurring during the first or early second trimester that are reflected in minor physical anomalies and which may at least in part predispose to later obstetric complications. This neurodevelopmental basis underlies certain neuromotor and psychosocial abnormalities of infancy and childhood, which are the early manifestations of what will be reconceptualised later as negative symptoms and (particularly frontal) cognitive dysfunction, but gives rise to positive symptoms only on the maturation of other systems necessary for their expression. This later emergence of psychosis may reflect an active morbid process that is associated with increased accrual of negative symptoms and of general (but not frontal) cognitive impairment that may be ameliorated by effective antipsychotic treatment. The psychological or biological basis of this heuristic process is poorly understood. Contemporary re-appraisal of any impact of antipsychotics on the long-term course of schizophrenia must take into account what is known of the origins of the disease process with which such drugs might interact. Much recent work continues to indicate that very early events, during the embryonic/fetal period, are important in, if not fundamental to, the genesis of schizophrenia; i.e. that there is a neurodevelopmental basis to the disorder. The present article seeks to establish a time-line relating early intrauterine adversity and dysmorphogenesis, through the onset of psychosis, to the chronic phase of the illness over adulthood; from this time-line, a schema is elaborated for a beneficial impact of antipsychotics on the course of psychopathology, cognition and, less clearly, neurobiological abnormality.

  13. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Ameliorates Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive and Sensorimotor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in Rats

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    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Kai-Yun; Wu, John Chung-Che; Hoffer, Barry J.; Greig, Nigel H.; Li, Yazhou; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major public health issue, representing 75–90% of all cases of TBI. In clinical settings, mTBI, which is defined as a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13–15, can lead to various physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychological-related symptoms. To date, there are no pharmaceutical-based therapies to manage the development of the pathological deficits associated with mTBI. In this study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was investigated after its steady-state subcutaneous administration, focusing on behavior after mTBI in an in vivo animal model. The mTBI rat model was generated by a mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) and used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of GIP. We used the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, which are tasks for spatial and recognition memory, respectively, to identify the putative therapeutic effects of GIP on cognitive function. Further, beam walking and the adhesive removal tests were used to evaluate locomotor activity and somatosensory functions in rats with and without GIP administration after mCCI lesion. Lastly, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analyses to evaluate the inflammatory markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (BMX) in animals with mTBI. GIP was well tolerated and ameliorated mTBI-induced memory impairments, poor balance, and sensorimotor deficits after initiation in the post-injury period. In addition, GIP mitigated mTBI-induced neuroinflammatory changes on GFAP, APP, and BMX protein levels. These findings suggest GIP has significant benefits in managing mTBI-related symptoms and represents a novel strategy for mTBI treatment. PMID:26972789

  14. Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT): a longitudinal primary prevention program targeting cognitive vulnerability.

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    Schmidt, Norman B; Eggleston, A Meade; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Vasey, Michael W; Richey, J Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Fear of arousal symptoms, often referred to as anxiety sensitivity (AS) appears to be associated with risk for anxiety pathology and other Axis I conditions. Findings from a longitudinal prevention program targeting AS are reported. Participants (n=404) scoring high on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) were randomly assigned to receive a brief intervention designed to reduce AS (Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT)) or a control condition. Participants were followed for up to 24 months. Findings indicate that ASAT produced greater reductions in ASI levels compared with the control condition. Moreover, reductions were specific to anxiety sensitivity relative to related cognitive risk factors for anxiety. ASAT also produced decreased subjective fear responding to a 20% CO(2) challenge delivered postintervention. Data from the follow-up period show a lower incidence of Axis I diagnoses in the treated condition though the overall group difference was not statistically different at all follow-up intervals. Overall, findings are promising for the preventative efficacy of a brief, computer-based intervention designed to decrease anxiety sensitivity.

  15. Capsaicin ameliorates stress-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathological and cognitive impairments in rats.

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    Jiang, Xia; Jia, Lin-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Xiang-Shu; Xie, Jia-Zhao; Ma, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Wei-Jie; Liu, Yue; Yao, Yun; Du, Lai-Ling; Zhou, Xin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles is a hallmark lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is linked to synaptic and cognitive impairments. In animal models, cold water stress (CWS) can cause cognitive disorder and tau hyperphosphorylation. Capsaicin (CAP), a specific TRPV1 agonist, is neuroprotective against stress-induced impairment, but the detailed mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we investigated whether CAP mitigates CWS-induced cognitive and AD-like pathological alterations in rats. The animals were administered CAP (10 mg/kg in 0.2 ml, 0.1% ethanol) or a control (0.2 ml normal saline, 0.1% ethanol) by intragastric infusion 1 h before CWS treatment. Our results showed that CAP significantly attenuated CWS-induced spatial memory impairment and suppression of PP-DG long-term potentiation; CAP abolished CWS-induced dendritic regression and enhanced several memory-associated proteins decreased by CWS, such as synapsin I and PSD93; CAP also prevented CWS-induced tau hyperphosphorylation by abolishing inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. Taken together, this study demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 can mitigate CWS-induced AD-like neuropathological alterations and cognitive impairment and may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention in AD.

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

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    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  17. Fluoxetine ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via down-regulation of HCN2 surface expression in the hippocampal CA1 area in rats.

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    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Lu, Yun; Chen, Cheng; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), could play a neuroprotective role against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion injury and to clarify underlying mechanisms of its efficacy. Rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Two weeks later, rats were treated with 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (intragastric injection, i.g.) for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel objects recognition (NOR) test. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein levels. Our results showed that fluoxetine treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced inhibitory of LTP. Furthermore, 2VO caused an up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) surface expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area and fluoxetine also effectively recovered the disorder of HCN2 surface expressions, which may be a possible mechanism that fluoxetine treatment ameliorates cognitive impairments in rats with CCH.

  18. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

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    Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Nakano, Hideya; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakai, Yuji; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Akikoka, Kohei; Otomaru, Konosuke; Nagano, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w) concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w) Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  19. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice

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    Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Nakano, Hideya; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakai, Yuji; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Akikoka, Kohei; Otomaru, Konosuke; Nagano, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w) concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w) Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons. PMID:26943920

  20. mTOR and autophagy in normal brain aging and caloric restriction ameliorating age-related cognition deficits.

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    Yang, Fengying; Chu, Xiaolei; Yin, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Hairui; Niu, Yanmei; Fu, Li

    2014-05-01

    Defect of autophagy is common to many neurodegenerative disorders because it serves as a major degradation pathway for the clearance of various aggregate-prone proteins. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which is recognized as the most important negative regulator of autophagy, is also involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of mTOR and its dependent autophagy in normal brain during aging remains unknown. Furthermore, caloric restriction (CR) is frequently used as a tool to study mechanisms behind aging and age-associated diseases because CR can prevent age-related diseases and prolong lifespan in several model organisms. Inhibiting mTOR and promoting autophagy activity play roles in aging delayed by CR. However, whether CR can ameliorate age-related cognition deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activate autophagy in hippocampus needs to be further investigated. Here we showed a decline of autophagic degradation in mice hippocampus in correlation with age-dependent cognitive dysfunction, whereas the activity of mTOR and its upstream brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling was decreased with aging. In addition, facilitating the mTOR pathway successfully declines and sustains autophagic degradation with aging in hippocampus by CR treatment and is involved in CR by ameliorating age-related cognitive deficits.

  1. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  2. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and ERK/CREB/BDNF.

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    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Qiao, Qinglian; Sun, Yali; Gao, Yuqi; Liu, Xuebo

    2017-07-24

    Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD). We randomly assigned 3-mo-old C57BL/6J mice to 3 groups with different diets: control group, HFFD group, and HFFD plus EGCG group. Memory loss was assessed by using the Morris water maze test, during which EGCG was observed to prevent HFFD-elicited memory impairment and neuronal loss. Consistent with these results, EGCG attenuated HFFD-induced neuronal damage. Of note, EGCG significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and cognitive disorder by up-regulating the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/AKT and ERK/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways. Long-term HFFD-triggered neuroinflammation was restored by EGCG supplementation by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α. EGCG also reversed high glucose and glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by improving the oxidized cellular status and mitochondrial function. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide compelling evidence that the nutritional compound EGCG has the potential to ameliorate HFFD-triggered learning and memory loss.-Mi, Y., Qi, G., Fan, R., Qiao, Q., Sun, Y., Gao, Y., Liu, X. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and

  3. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates the impairment of spatial cognition learning ability in amyloid beta-infused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabe, Yoko; Fujii, Yoshimi; Kikuta, Toshihiko; Shibata, Hitoshi; Shido, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We investigated whether administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major (n-3) fatty acid of the brain, ameliorates the impairment of learning ability in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), rats infused with amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. Inbred 3rd generation male rats (20 wk old) fed a fish oil-deficient diet were randomly divided into 4 groups: a vehicle group, an Abeta peptide-infused group (Abeta group), a DHA group, and an Abeta + DHA group. A mini-osmotic pump filled with Abeta peptide or vehicle was implanted in the rats, and they were tested for learning ability-related reference and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze. The rats were then orally fed DHA dissolved in 5% gum Arabic solution at 300 mg/(kg . d) (DHA and Abeta + DHA groups) or vehicle alone (vehicle and Abeta groups) and tested again for learning ability. DHA administered for 12 wk significantly reduced the increase in the number of reference and working memory errors in the Abeta-infused rats, and increased both the cortico-hippocampal level of DHA and the molar ratio of DHA/arachidonic acid, suggesting an amelioration of the impaired spatial cognition learning ability. Furthermore, DHA suppressed the increases in the levels of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of Abeta-infused rats, suggesting that DHA increases antioxidative defenses. DHA is thus a possible therapeutic agent for ameliorating learning deficiencies due to Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Pretreatment Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction Through Activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF Pathway in Anesthetized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintian; Zhang, Shixiao; Ma, Huijuan; Yang, Shijie; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Xiaolei; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yixian

    2017-02-01

    Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has protective effects on heart and brain against ischemia injury through mobilizing endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, whether CIHH prevents against cognitive impairment was not elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CIHH treatment on ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: Control, Sham, CIHH (simulating 5000 m high-altitude for 28 days, 6 h per day), IR (three 16-min occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries interrupted by two 10-min intervals), CIHH + IR, PD98059 (inhibitor of MEK1/2) + CIHH + IR, PD98059 + Sham and PD98059 + IR group. Morris water maze and step-down passive avoidance tests were performed to evaluate the capability of learning and memory 1 month after ischemia. Thionine dyeing was to examine histological manifestations of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region. Western blotting assay was for measurement of the protein expressions in ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. There were a shorter escape latency and a longer percentage of time retaining in the target quadrant in Morris water maze test, fewer times of errors in the step-down avoidance test and a higher neuronal density of the hippocampal CA1 subfield in CIHH + IR group than in IR group. CIHH upregulated the expressions of BDNF, phosphorylated CREB, ERK1/2 and TrkB with or without ischemia. The protective effects of CIHH were abolished by PD98059 administration 15 min before ischemia. CIHH ameliorated ischemia-induced cognitive dysfunction through activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway.

  5. Computerized Cognitive Training for Amelioration of Cognitive Late Effects Among Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Heather M.; Ogg, Robert J.; Ashford, Jason M.; Scoggins, Matthew A.; Zou, Ping; Clark, Kellie N.; Martin-Elbahesh, Karen; Hardy, Kristina K.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Jeha, Sima; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children receiving CNS-directed therapy for cancer are at risk for cognitive problems, with few available empirically supported interventions. Cognitive problems indicate neurodevelopmental disruption that may be modifiable with intervention. This study evaluated short-term efficacy of a computerized cognitive training program and neural correlates of cognitive change. Patient and Methods A total of 68 survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT) with identified cognitive deficits were randomly assigned to computerized cognitive intervention (male, n = 18; female, n = 16; ALL, n = 23; BT, n = 11; mean age ± standard deviation, 12.21 ± 2.47 years) or waitlist (male, n = 18; female, n = 16; ALL, n = 24; BT, n = 10; median age ± standard deviation, 11.82 ± 2.42 years). Intervention participants were asked to complete 25 training sessions at home with weekly, telephone-based coaching. Cognitive assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans (intervention group) were completed pre- and postintervention, with immediate change in spatial span backward as the primary outcome. Results Survivors completing the intervention (n = 30; 88%) demonstrated greater improvement than controls on measures of working memory (mean ± SEM; eg, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [fourth edition; WISC-IV] spatial span backward, 3.13 ± 0.58 v 0.75 ± 0.43; P = .002; effect size [ES], 0.84), attention (eg, WISC-IV spatial span forward, 3.30 ± 0.71 v 1.25 ± 0.39; P = .01; ES, 0.65), and processing speed (eg, Conners' Continuous Performance Test hit reaction time, −2.10 ± 1.47 v 2.54 ± 1.25; P = .02; ES, .61) and showed greater reductions in reported executive dysfunction (eg, Conners' Parent Rating Scale III, −6.73 ± 1.51 v 0.41 ± 1.53; P = .002; ES, 0.84). Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant pre- to post-training reduction in activation of left lateral prefrontal and bilateral medial frontal

  6. Nicotine ameliorates schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by maternal LPS exposure: a study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Waterhouse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exposure to infectious agents is a predisposing factor for schizophrenia with associated cognitive deficits in offspring. A high incidence of smoking in these individuals in adulthood might be, at least in part, due to the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine. Here, we have used prenatal exposure to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, bacterial endotoxin at different time points as a model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia to determine whether nicotine reverses any associated impairments. Pregnant rats were treated subcutaneously with LPS (0.5 mg/kg at one of three neurodevelopmental time periods [gestation days (GD 10-11, 15-16, 18-19]. Cognitive assessment in male offspring commenced in early adulthood [postnatal day (PND 60] and included: prepulse inhibition (PPI, latent inhibition (LI and delayed non-matching to sample (DNMTS. Following PND 100, daily nicotine injections (0.6 mg/kg, subcutaneously were administered, and animals were re-tested in the same tasks (PND 110. Only maternal LPS exposure early during fetal neurodevelopment (GD 10-11 resulted in deficits in all tests compared to animals that had been prenatally exposed to saline at the same gestational time point. Repeated nicotine treatment led to global (PPI and selective (LI improvements in performance. Early but not later prenatal LPS exposure induced consistent deficits in cognitive tests with relevance for schizophrenia. Nicotine reversed the LPS-induced deficits in selective attention (LI and induced a global enhancement of sensorimotor gating (PPI.

  7. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  8. Amelioration of Cognitive Dysfunction in APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice by Long-Term Treatment of 4-O-Methylhonokiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu-Yeon; Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease without known ways to cure. A key neuropathologic manifestation of the disease is extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Specific mechanisms underlying the development of the disease have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we investigated effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on memory dysfunction in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. 4-O-methylhonokiol (1 mg/kg for 3 month) significantly reduced deficit in learning and memory of the transgenic mice, as determined by the Morris water maze test and step-through passive avoidance test. Our biochemical analysis suggested that 4-O-methylhonokiol ameliorated Aβ accumulation in the cortex and hippocampus via reduction in beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 expression. In addition, 4-O-methylhonokiol attenuated lipid peroxidation and elevated glutathione peroxidase activity in the double transgenic mice brains. Thus, suppressive effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on Aβ generation and oxidative stress in the brains of transgenic mice may be responsible for the enhancement in cognitive function. These results suggest that the natural compound has potential to intervene memory deficit and progressive neurodegeneration in AD patients.

  9. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Xu, Mengjie; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS) on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg) to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM) could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway). Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  10. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  11. Intranasal BMP9 Ameliorates Alzheimer Disease-Like Pathology and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zigao; Xiong, Lu; Wan, Wenbin; Duan, Lijie; Bai, Xiaojing; Zu, Hengbing

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and has no effective therapies. Previous studies showed that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), an important factor in the differentiation and phenotype maintenance of cholinergic neurons, ameliorated the cholinergic defects resulting from amyloid deposition. These findings suggest that BMP9 has potential as a therapeutic agent for AD. However, the effects of BMP9 on cognitive function in AD and its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, BMP9 was delivered intranasally to 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice for 4 weeks. Our data showed that intranasal BMP9 administration significantly improved the spatial and associative learning and memory of APP/PS1 mice. We also found that intranasal BMP9 administration significantly reduced the amyloid β (Aβ) plaques overall, inhibited tau hyperphosphorylation, and suppressed neuroinflammation in the transgenic mouse brain. Furthermore, intranasal BMP9 administration significantly promoted the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), an important membrane receptor involved in the clearance of amyloid β via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and elevated the phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9), which is considered the main kinase involved in tau hyperphosphorylation. Our results suggest that BMP9 may be a promising candidate for treating AD by targeting multiple key pathways in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:28228716

  12. Depletion of coagulation factor XII ameliorates brain pathology and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Revenko, Alexey S; Singh, Pradeep; MacLeod, A Robert; Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2017-05-04

    Vascular abnormalities and inflammation are found in many Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, but whether these changes play a causative role in AD is not clear. The factor XII (FXII) -initiated contact system can trigger both vascular pathology and inflammation and is activated in AD patients and AD mice. We have investigated the role of the contact system in AD pathogenesis. Cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK), a marker for activation of the inflammatory arm of the contact system, is increased in a mouse model of AD, and this cleavage is temporally correlated with the onset of brain inflammation. Depletion of FXII in AD mice inhibited HK cleavage in plasma and reduced neuroinflammation, fibrinogen deposition, and neurodegeneration in the brain. Moreover, FXII-depleted AD mice showed better cognitive function than untreated AD mice. These results indicate that FXII-mediated contact system activation contributes to AD pathogenesis, and therefore this system may offer novel targets for AD treatment. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Salidroside ameliorates arthritis-induced brain cognition deficits by regulating Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingpeng; Chen, Tong; Chang, Xiayun; Zhou, Rui; Luo, Fen; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yue; Yang, Ying; Long, Hongyan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Tianhua; Ma, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of cognitive impairment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was increasingly serious nowadays. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether salidroside (Sal) could alleviate arthritis-induced cognition deficits and examine the relationship between the impairment and Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established by the injection of chicken type II collagen (CII), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Arthritic lesions of CIA rats were assessed by arthritis index score, swelling of paws and histological analysis. Cognitive deficits symptoms of CIA rats were monitored through Morris water maze test. The contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in hippocampus and serum were significantly reduced with salidroside (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg) treatment compared with those in the CIA group. In parallel, we demonstrated that the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, p-NF-κBp65, p-IκBα, p-IKKα and p-IKKβ were enhanced accompanying the investigation arthritis-induced cognition deficits, which were remarkably down-regulated by salidroside and confirmed by the results obtained from western blot and immunohistochemistry. LC-MS/MS results ascertained that Sal could enter into the blood and brain tissues to exhibit the protective effect on arthritis-induced cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, it was assumed that Sal might be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat arthritis-induced brain cognition deficits through the regulation of Rho/ROCK/NF-κB signaling.

  14. Melatonin ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation in rats: role of oxidative stress, BDNF and CaMKII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hu-Qin; Liang, Xiang-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Fang-E

    2013-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to induce oxidative stress which causes cognitive impairment. Melatonin, an endogenous potent antioxidant, protects neurons from oxidative stress in many disease models. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin against SD-induced cognitive impairment and attempted to define the possible mechanisms involved. SD was induced in rats using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin (15 mg/kg) was administered to the rats via intraperitoneal injection. The open field test and Morris water maze were used to evaluate cognitive ability. The cerebral cortex (CC) and hippocampus were dissected and homogenized. Nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity of hippocampal and cortical tissues (10% wet weight per volume) were performed to determine the level of oxidative stress. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) proteins in CC and hippocampus was assayed by means of immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that SD impairs cognitive ability, while melatonin treatment prevented these changes. In addition, melatonin reversed SD-induced changes in NO, MDA and SOD in both of the CC and hippocampus. The results of immunoreactivity showed that SD decreased gray values of BDNF and CaMKII in CC and hippocamal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions, whereas melatonin improved the gray values. In conclusion, our results suggest that melatonin prevents cognitive impairment induced by SD. The possible mechanism may be attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and increase the levels of CaMKII and BDNF in CC and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chotosan (Diaoteng San-induced improvement of cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8 involves the amelioration of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity systems in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Ken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chotosan (CTS, Diaoteng San, a Kampo medicine (ie Chinese medicine formula, is reportedly effective in the treatment of patients with cerebral ischemic insults. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CTS in cognitive deficits and investigates the effects and molecular mechanism(s of CTS on learning and memory deficits and emotional abnormality in an animal aging model, namely 20-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8, with and without a transient ischemic insult (T2VO. Methods Age-matched senescence-resistant inbred strain mice (SAMR1 were used as control. SAMP8 received T2VO (T2VO-SAMP8 or sham operation (sham-SAMP8 at day 0. These SAMP8 groups were administered CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o. or water daily for three weeks from day 3. Results Compared with the control group, both sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8 groups exhibited cognitive deficits in the object discrimination and water maze tests and emotional abnormality in the elevated plus maze test. T2VO significantly exacerbated spatial cognitive deficits of SAMP8 elucidated by the water maze test. CTS administration ameliorated the cognitive deficits and emotional abnormality of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8 groups. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed a marked decrease in the levels of phosphorylated forms of neuroplasticity-related proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the frontal cortices of sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8. Moreover, these animal groups showed significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2, platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα. CTS treatment reversed the expression levels of these factors down-regulated in the brains of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8

  16. Coenzyme Q10 enhances the anticonvulsant effect of phenytoin in pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats and ameliorates phenytoin-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mona K

    2011-12-01

    Conventional antiepileptic drugs fail to adequately control seizures and predispose to cognitive impairment and oxidative stress with chronic usage in a significant proportion of patients with epilepsy. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant compound, exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects that are attributed to its potent antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 in rats against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and to study its interactions with the conventional antiepileptic drug phenytoin, two experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the effect of phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on seizure severity and oxidative markers in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Experiment 2 was conducted to test the effect of 2 weeks of chronic treatment with phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on oxidative markers and behavioral tests in rats. Overall, CoQ10 reduced the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures and the severity of oxidative stress. Moreover, it potentiated the antiepileptic effects afforded by phenytoin treatment, with the potential safety and efficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress and cognitive impairment caused by chronic phenytoin therapy. Our findings strongly suggest that CoQ10 can be considered a safe and effective adjuvant to phenytoin therapy in epilepsy both to ameliorate seizure severity and to protect against seizure-induced oxidative damage by reducing the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress associated with chronic use of phenytoin.

  17. Atorvastatin ameliorates cognitive impairment, Aβ1-42 production and Tau hyperphosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Huaxia; Li, Chenli; Wang, Fangyan; Shi, Yaosheng; Liu, Lingjiang; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Aiming; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) interacts with the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway and deactivates GSK3β signaling, which result in microtubule protein tau phosphorylation. Atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been proven to improve learning and memory performance, reduce Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it still remains unclear whether atorvastatin is responsible for regulation of AKT/GSK3β signaling and contributes to subsequent down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg APP/PS1) mice. Herein, we aimed to investigate the possible impacts of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the memory deficit by behavioral tests and changes of AKT/GSK3β signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex by western blot test in Tg APP/PS1 mice. The results showed that treatment with atorvastatin significantly reversed the memory deficit in the Tg APP/PS1 mice in a novel object recognition and the Morris water maze tests. Moreover, atorvastatin significantly attenuated Aβ1-42 accumulation and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Tg APP/PS1 mice. In addition, atorvastatin treatment also increased phosphorylation of AKT, inhibited GSK3β activity by increasing phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser9) and decreasing the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression. These results indicated that the memory ameliorating effect of atorvastatin may be, in part, by regulation the AKT/GSK3β signaling which may contribute to down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and tau hyperphosphorylation.

  18. RU486 (mifepristone) ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and reverses the down-regulation of astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Z-F; Wang, W; Niu, L; Kou, Z-Z; Zhu, C; Wang, W; Zhao, X-H; Luo, D-S; Zhang, T; Zhang, F-X; Liu, X-Z; Wu, S-X; Li, Y-Q

    2011-09-08

    Diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD), usually accompanied with chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic alterations, is one of the most serious complications in patients with type-1 diabetes. However, the role for chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic activations in DCD remains to be elucidated, and it is not clear whether astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, involved in cell differentiation and development) participated in DCD. In the present study, three months after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetes onset, rats showed cognitive impairments in Morris water maze test as well as elevated corticosterone level. Diabetic rats also presented down-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a key indicator of astrocytic reactivity) and NDRG2 in hippocampus revealed by immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR and Western blot. Moreover, the diabetic cognitive impairments were ameliorated by 9-day glucocorticoids receptor (GR) blockade with RU486, and the down-regulation of hippocampal NDRG2 and GFAP in diabetic animals was also attenuated by 9-day GR blockade. These results suggest that glucocorticoids-GR system is crucial for DCD, and that astrocytic reactivity and NDRG2 are involved in these processes. Thus, inhibiting GR activation in the hippocampus may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating DCD.

  19. Yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) ameliorates cognition deficit and attenuates oxidative damage in senescent mice induced by D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Fan, Ming-Jen; Lee, Min-Min; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Han, Chien-Kuo; Lin, Ying-Chih; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to access the neuroprotective effect of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) on the senescent mice induced by D-gal. The mice in the experiments were administered orally with yam (20, 100 or 500 mg/kg for 4 weeks, from the sixth week). The learning and memory abilities of the mice in Morris water maze test and the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of yam on the mice brain tissue were investigated. The content of diosgenin in the yam was also detected by using HPLC. Mice treated with yam were found to significantly improve their learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze test compared to those treated with D-gal (200 mg/kg for 10 weeks). In addition, yam was also found to increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level on the brains of D-gal treated mice. Finally, the amount of diosgenin in the yam was 5.49 mg/g extract. To sum up, these results indicate that yam had the potential to be a useful treatment for cognitive impairment in TCM. Its beneficial effect may be partly mediated via enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities.

  20. The ameliorative effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and white matter injury from blood-brain barrier disruption induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Min Kyung; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jung

    2017-01-18

    Vascular dementia is the progressive change in blood vessels that leads to neuronal injuries in vulnerable areas induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). CCH induces disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and this BBB disruption can initiate the cognitive impairment and white matter injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the cognitive impairment, white matter injury, and BBB disruption induced by CCH. Vascular dementia was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) in rats. The rats in the exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30min once a day for 14 weeks, starting 4 weeks after birth. Our results revealed that treadmill exercise group was alleviated the cognitive impairment and myelin degradation induced by CCH. The disruption of BBB after CCH indicates degradation of occludin, zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Treadmill exercise may provide protective effects on BBB disruption from degradation of occludin, ZO-1, and overexpression of MMP-9 after CCH. These findings suggest that treadmill exercise ameliorates cognitive impairment and white matter injury from BBB disruption induced by CCH in rats. The present study will be valuable for means of prophylactic and therapeutic intervention for patients with CCH.

  1. AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHARMSHILA KUMARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

  2. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize ( Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant ( p crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  3. Defining the optimal window for cranial transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Munjal M; Martirosian, Vahan; Christie, Lori-Ann; Riparip, Lara; Strnadel, Jan; Parihar, Vipan K; Limoli, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Past preclinical studies have demonstrated the capability of using human stem cell transplantation in the irradiated brain to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Intrahippocampal transplantation of human embryonic stem cells and human neural stem cells (hNSCs) was found to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after cranial irradiation. To optimize the potential therapeutic benefits of human stem cell transplantation, we have further defined optimal transplantation windows for maximizing cognitive benefits after irradiation and used induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hNSCs (iPSC-hNSCs) that may eventually help minimize graft rejection in the host brain. For these studies, animals given an acute head-only dose of 10 Gy were grafted with iPSC-hNSCs at 2 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks following irradiation. Animals receiving stem cell grafts showed improved hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear-conditioning performance compared with irradiated sham-surgery controls when analyzed 1 month after transplantation surgery. Importantly, superior performance was evident when stem cell grafting was delayed by 4 weeks following irradiation compared with animals grafted at earlier times. Analysis of the 4-week cohort showed that the surviving grafted cells migrated throughout the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the host hippocampus and differentiated into neuronal (∼39%) and astroglial (∼14%) subtypes. Furthermore, radiation-induced inflammation was significantly attenuated across multiple hippocampal subfields in animals receiving iPSC-hNSCs at 4 weeks after irradiation. These studies expand our prior findings to demonstrate that protracted stem cell grafting provides improved cognitive benefits following irradiation that are associated with reduced neuroinflammation.

  4. Amelioration of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury induced cognitive deficits after neuronal differentiation of transplanted human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Markus S; Ahmed, Aminul Islam; Rivera, Karla N; Yokobori, Shoji; Lee, Stephanie W; Sam, Pingdewinde N; Shear, Deborah A; Hefferan, Michael P; Hazel, Thomas G; Johe, Karl K; Gajavelli, Shyam; Tortella, Frank C; Bullock, Ross

    2017-03-01

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Previous studies in penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), a PTBI rat model revealed widespread peri-lesional neurodegeneration, similar to that seen in humans following gunshot wound to head, which is unmitigated by any available therapies to date. Therefore, we evaluated human neural stem cell (hNSC) engraftment to putatively exploit the potential of cell therapy that has been seen in other central nervous system injury models. Towards this, green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled hNSCs (400,000 per animal) were transplanted in immunosuppressed Sprague Dawley (SD), Fisher, and athymic (ATN) PBBI rats one week after injury. Tacrolimus (3mg/kg two days prior to transplantation, then 1mg/kg/day), Methylprednisolone (10mg/kg on day of transplant, 1mg/kg/week thereafter), and Mycophenolate mofetil (30mg/kg/day) for seven days following transplantation were used to confer immunosuppression. Engraftment in SD and ATN was comparable at 8-weeks post transplantation. Evaluation of hNSC differentiation and distribution revealed increased neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells with time. At 16-weeks post-transplantation neither cell proliferation nor glial lineage markers expression was detected. Transplanted cell morphology was similar to neighboring host neurons and there was relatively little migration of cells from the peri-transplant site. By 16 weeks, GFP positive processes extended both rostro-caudally and bilaterally into parenchyma, spreading along host white matter tracts, traversing internal capsule, extending ~13 mm caudally from transplantation site reaching into the brain stem. In a Morris water maze test at 8-weeks post-transplantation, animals with transplants had shorter latency to platform compared to vehicle treated animals. However, weak injury-induced cognitive deficits in the control group at the delayed time point confounded benefits

  5. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet.

  6. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction (by 33-50 %) of seasonal ETc losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha-1 significantly (p < 0.05) increased ETc losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W25) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W100) while seasonal ETc loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ETc losses while weekly crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  7. A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Christopher A; Kunselman, Allen R; Manyam, Bala V; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2010-08-01

    Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M. pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/kg) and medium (4mg/kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/kg) did not provide significant alleviation of parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without any additives (12mg/kg and 20mg/kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ. These findings suggest that M. pruriens contains water-soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term anti-parkinsonian effects of a parenterally administered water extract of M. pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug

  8. Should children drink more water?: the effects of drinking water on cognition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Burford, Denise

    2009-06-01

    While dehydration has well-documented negative effects on adult cognition, there is little research on hydration and cognitive performance in children. We investigated whether having a drink of water improved children's performance on cognitive tasks. Fifty-eight children aged 7-9 years old were randomly allocated to a group that received additional water or a group that did not. Results showed that children who drank additional water rated themselves as significantly less thirsty than the comparison group (p=0.002), and they performed better on visual attention tasks (letter cancellation, p=0.02; spot the difference memory tasks, ps=0.019 and 0.014).

  9. Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

  10. Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) water extract ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Sung Hee; Park, Kyungmi; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-01-01

    .... Some Koreans drink Cheonnyuncho juice prepared by grinding Cheonnyuncho with water. Cheonnyuncho is well known for its functional properties and antioxidant effects, but its effect on constipation has not been sufficiently studied...

  11. Restoring GM1 ganglioside expression ameliorates axonal outgrowth inhibition and cognitive impairments induced by blast traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubovitch, Vardit; Zilberstein, Yael; Chapman, Joab; Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G.

    2017-01-01

    Blast induced traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) may cause various degrees of cognitive and behavioral disturbances but the exact brain pathophysiology involved is poorly understood. It was previously suggested that ganglioside alteration on the axon surface as well as axonal regenerating inhibitors (ARIs) such as myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) were involved in axonal outgrowth inhibition (AOI), leading to brain damage. GM1 ganglioside content in the brain was significantly reduced while GD1 ganglioside was not affected. The axonal regeneration was also reduced as seen by the phosphorylated NF-H expression. Moreover, B-TBI induced a significant elevation in MAG expression in the brains of the injured mice. The blast injured mice exhibited a significant decline in spatial memory as seen by the Y-maze test. In addition, the injured mice showed pronounced damage to the visual memory (as evaluated by the Novel object recognition test). A single low dose of GM1 (2 mg/kg; IP), shortly after the injury, prevented both the cognitive and the cellular changes in the brains of the injured mice. These results enlighten part of the complicated mechanism that underlies the damage induced by B-TBI and may also suggest a potential new treatment strategy for brain injuries. PMID:28112258

  12. Kaempferia parviflora extract ameliorates the cognitive impairments and the reduction in cell proliferation induced by valproic acid treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Kaempferia parviflora is a herbal plant whose rhizomes are used in traditional medicine. Investigations of this plant have shown it to have antidepressant activity and to improve learning and memory in animal models. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether K. parviflora could protect the brain from the impairments in cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis which are caused by valproic acid (VPA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (180-200g) were given once daily K. parviflora extract (100mg/kg) via oral gavage for 21 days. Rats received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of valproic acid (300mg/kg) from days 8 to 21 of the experiment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test five days after the end of treatment. Cell proliferation in the sub granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus was quantified by immunohistochemistry and levels of doublecortin (DCX) were determined by Western blotting. Co-treatment of VPA and K. parviflora prevented the cognitive decline and reduction in proliferating cells caused by VPA. Furthermore, co-treatment significantly increased DCX protein levels within the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that K. parviflora is able to prevent the brain from VPA-induced the impairments of spatial memory and proliferating cells within the SGZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of postfire soil water repellency amelioration strategies on bluebunch wheatgrass and cheatgrass survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water repellency may significantly limit site recovery following wildfire. This study was designed to compare survival and growth of the native plant species bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve) to the invasive annual weed cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), and to compar...

  14. Hydrogen-Rich Water Ameliorates Total Body Irradiation-Induced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Injury by Reducing Hydroxyl Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI. The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical (OH∙ levels in the c-kit+ cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs increased and apoptotic c-kit+ cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of γ-H2AX and percentage of 8-oxoguanine positive cells significantly decreased in HW-treated c-kit+ cells, indicating that HW can alleviate TBI-induced DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage in c-kit+ cells. Finally, the cell cycle (P21, cell apoptosis (BCL-XL and BAK, and oxidative stress (NRF2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD, and GPX1 proteins were significantly altered by HW in irradiated mouse c-kit+ cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that HW protects against TBI-induced HSC injury.

  15. Long-term cognitive dysfunction in the rat following docetaxel treatment is ameliorated by the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, rolipram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; O'Mara, Shane M

    2015-09-01

    Clinical studies report evidence of long-term cognitive and other deficits following adjunctive chemotherapy treatment, which is often termed "chemobrain" or "chemo-fog". The neurological bases of these impairments are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that systemic chemotherapy treatment causes long-term neurobehavioral deficits, and that these deficits are reversed by manipulation of cAMP by the PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. Male han Wistar rats were treated with docetaxel (an adjunctive chemotherapeutic agent (1mg/kg i.v.)) or control solution (ethanol/Tween 20/0.9% Saline - 5/5/90) once per week for 4 weeks. They were allowed to recover for 4 weeks, administration of rolipram (0.5mg/kg po) or vehicle (maple syrup) then began and continued daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment regime animals were tested for spatial and recognition memory deficits with the object exploration task and for depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and open field exploration. We report docetaxel treatment impaired spatial memory but not object recognition memory, compared to control rats. Docetaxel-treated rats also spent significantly more time immobile than controls in the FST. Chronic rolipram treatment attenuated all of these docetaxel-associated changes, recovering spatial memory and reducing immobility. In conclusion, docetaxel-treated rats exhibit alterations in spatial memory and depressive-like behavior, which are reversed following chronic rolipram administration. These results detect long-term cognitive and mood changes following docetaxel treatment and identify PDE4 inhibition as a target treatment of neuropsychological changes associated with "chemobrain".

  16. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  17. The influence of antidotal treatment of low-level tabun exposure on cognitive functions in rats using a water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, J; Kunesova, G

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning on cognitive function, in the case of low-level tabun exposure, was studied. The impairment of cognitive function was evaluated by the measurement of spatial learning and memory in rats poisoned with a sublethal dose of tabun and treated with atropine alone or in combination with newly developed oximes {K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethyl- pyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and K048 [1-(4-hydroxyimino- methylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide]} or currently available oxime (trimedoxime), using the Morris water maze. While atropine alone caused an impairment of studied cognitive functions, the addition of an oxime to atropine contributes to the improvement of cognitive performance of treated tabun-poisoned rats regardless of the type of oxime. The differences in the ameliorative effects of oximes on atropine-induced mnemonic deficits were not significant. Therefore, each low-level nerve agent exposure should be treated by complex antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug and oxime.

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Cerebral Damage and Ameliorates Long-Term Cognitive Impairments Caused by Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, M; Urigüen, L; Martínez-Millán, L; Hilario, E; Álvarez, A

    2016-10-29

    As the interest in the neuroprotective possibilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain injury has grown in the recent years, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of this fatty acid in an experimental model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. To this end, motor activity, aspects of learning, and memory function and anxiety, as well as corticofugal connections visualized by using tracer injections, were evaluated at adulthood. We found that in the hours immediately following the insult, DHA maintained mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and transmembrane potential, as well as the integrity of synaptic processes. Seven days later, morphological damage at the level of the middle hippocampus was reduced, since neurons and myelin were preserved and the astroglial reactive response and microglial activation were seen to be diminished. At adulthood, the behavioral tests revealed that treated animals presented better long-term working memory and less anxiety than non-treated hypoxic-ischemic animals, while no difference was found in the spontaneous locomotor activity. Interestingly, hypoxic-ischemic injury caused alterations in the anterograde corticofugal neuronal connections which were not so evident in rats treated with DHA. Thus, our results indicate that DHA treatment can lead to long-lasting neuroprotective effects in this experimental model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemic brain injury, not only by mitigating axonal changes but also by enhancing cognitive performance at adulthood.

  19. Improved water quality can ameliorate effects of climate change on corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Done, Terence J

    2009-09-01

    The threats of wide-scale coral bleaching and reef demise associated with anthropogenic climate change are widely known. Moreover, rates of genetic adaptation and/or changes in the coral-zooxanthella partnerships are considered unlikely to be sufficiently fast for corals to acquire increased physiological resistance to increasing sea temperatures and declining pH. However, it has been suggested that coral reef resilience to climate change may be improved by good local management of coral reefs, including management of water quality. Here, using major data sets from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, we investigate geographic patterns of coral bleaching in 1998 and 2002 and outline a synergism between heat stress and nutrient flux as a major causative mechanism for those patterns. The study provides the first concrete evidence for the oft-expressed belief that improved coral reef management will increase the regional-scale survival prospects of coral reefs to global climate change.

  20. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the main constituents in the extract. The effect of ZSS water soluble extract on memory and learning performance was investigated in mice by Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the number of errors (NOE, and increase the transfer latency time (TLT and electrical stimuli time (EST. In addition, spinosin, jujuboside A (JuA and jujuboside B (JuB were simultaneously identified and quantified in the extract. Their contents in the extract were as followed: Spinosin (223.51mg/g, JuA (63.76mg/g and JuB (26.29mg/g. Conclusion: The extract played a promising role in ameliorating memory in mice with alcohol induced memory retrieval disorders, and might help to improve learning capacity to some extent. Spinosin, JuA and JuB were the predominant constituents, which might be mainly responsible for the definite activity.

  1. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-07-19

    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model. A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied. Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly. Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tangible Landscape: Cognitively Grasping the Flow of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Petrasova, A.; Petras, V.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Complex spatial forms like topography can be challenging to understand, much less intentionally shape, given the heavy cognitive load of visualizing and manipulating 3D form. Spatiotemporal processes like the flow of water over a landscape are even more challenging to understand and intentionally direct as they are dependent upon their context and require the simulation of forces like gravity and momentum. This cognitive work can be offloaded onto computers through 3D geospatial modeling, analysis, and simulation. Interacting with computers, however, can also be challenging, often requiring training and highly abstract thinking. Tangible computing - an emerging paradigm of human-computer interaction in which data is physically manifested so that users can feel it and directly manipulate it - aims to offload this added cognitive work onto the body. We have designed Tangible Landscape, a tangible interface powered by an open source geographic information system (GRASS GIS), so that users can naturally shape topography and interact with simulated processes with their hands in order to make observations, generate and test hypotheses, and make inferences about scientific phenomena in a rapid, iterative process. Conceptually Tangible Landscape couples a malleable physical model with a digital model of a landscape through a continuous cycle of 3D scanning, geospatial modeling, and projection. We ran a flow modeling experiment to test whether tangible interfaces like this can effectively enhance spatial performance by offloading cognitive processes onto computers and our bodies. We used hydrological simulations and statistics to quantitatively assess spatial performance. We found that Tangible Landscape enhanced 3D spatial performance and helped users understand water flow.

  3. Mangiferin ameliorates aluminium chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction via alleviation of hippocampal oxido-nitrosative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and acetylcholinesterase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbe, Prajapati; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin is a phytochemical primarily present in the stem, leaves and bark of Mangifera indica. It offers neuroprotection mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines level in the brain. Aluminium has been reported to cause oxidative stress-associated damage in the brain. In the present investigation, protective effect of mangiferin against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment was studied in male Swiss albino mice. AlCl3 (100 mg/kg) was administered once daily through oral gavage for 42 days. Mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) was given to mice for last 21 days of the study. We found cognitive dysfunction in AlCl3-treated group, which was assessed by Morris water maze test, and novel object recognition test. AlCl3-treated group showed elevated level of oxidative stress markers, proinflammatory cytokines level and lowered hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content. Mangiferin (40 mg/kg) prevented the cognitive deficits, hippocampal BDNF depletion, and biochemical anomalies induced by AlCl3-treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that mangiferin offers neuroprotection in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity and it may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammation-associated neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  5. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  6. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration.

  7. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Towards the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eUehara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production.Objectives and methods The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days of tandospirone (0.05 and 5 mg/kg on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of young adult rats..Results Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot shock stress (FS. Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment.Conclusions These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism based on brain energy metabolism by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and related disorders.

  8. Effects of prolonged consumption of water with elevated nitrate levels on certain metabolic parameters of dairy cattle and use of clinoptilolite for their amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Karatzia, M A; Polizopoulou, Z; Florou-Paneri, P; Karatzias, H

    2015-06-01

    Elevated levels of nitrates in feed and water can pose a significant risk for dairy cattle, due to their cumulative action. The effect of prolonged consumption of water naturally contaminated with nitrates on some metabolic parameters in dairy cows was investigated at the present study. Concurrently, whether in-feed inclusion of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite with high selectivity for ammonia cations, could ameliorate nitrate consumption consequences was examined. Two experiments were run simultaneously in two farms each. In both, farms were assigned into two groups according to nitrate levels in borehole water (NG > 40 ppm; CG clinoptilolite in the ration was taken into account (NC-clinoptilolite feeding; CNC-controls). In experiment 1, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations appeared to be affected by nitrate consumption and were significantly higher in NG animals. In experiment 2, BUN concentration was significantly lower in the NC group. The prolonged consumption of water with increased nitrate levels seemed, to some degree, to impair protein metabolism and glucose utilization, while the dietary administration of clinoptilolite could alleviate the nitrates' effects.

  9. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  10. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D, multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  11. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lance A; Zuloaga, Kristen L; Kugelman, Tara L; Mader, Kevin S; Morré, Jeff T; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Marzulla, Tessa; Mulford, Amelia; Button, Dana; Lindner, Jonathan R; Alkayed, Nabil J; Stevens, Jan F; Raber, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  12. Bridges over troubled waters: education and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel; Coch, Donna

    2006-04-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in and debate about the relation between cognitive neuroscience and education. Our goal is to advance the debate beyond both recitation of potentially education-related cognitive neuroscience findings and the claim that a bridge between fields is chimerical. In an attempt to begin a dialogue about mechanisms among students, educators, researchers and practitioner-scientists, we propose that multiple bridges can be built to make connections between education and cognitive neuroscience, including teacher training, researcher training and collaboration. These bridges--concrete mechanisms that can advance the study of mind, brain and education--will benefit both educators and cognitive neuroscientists, who will gain new perspectives for posing and answering crucial questions about the learning brain.

  13. Going beyond the unitary curve: incorporating richer cognition into agent-based water resources models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The increased availability and understanding of agent-based modeling technology and techniques provides a unique opportunity for water resources modelers, allowing them to go beyond traditional behavioral approaches from neoclassical economics, and add rich cognition to social-hydrological models. Agent-based models provide for an individual focus, and the easier and more realistic incorporation of learning, memory and other mechanisms for increased cognitive sophistication. We are in an age of global change impacting complex water resources systems, and social responses are increasingly recognized as fundamentally adaptive and emergent. In consideration of this, water resources models and modelers need to better address social dynamics in a manner beyond the capabilities of neoclassical economics theory and practice. However, going beyond the unitary curve requires unique levels of engagement with stakeholders, both to elicit the richer knowledge necessary for structuring and parameterizing agent-based models, but also to make sure such models are appropriately used. With the aim of encouraging epistemological and methodological convergence in the agent-based modeling of water resources, we have developed a water resources-specific cognitive model and an associated collaborative modeling process. Our cognitive model emphasizes efficiency in architecture and operation, and capacity to adapt to different application contexts. We describe a current application of this cognitive model and modeling process in the Arkansas Basin of Colorado. In particular, we highlight the potential benefits of, and challenges to, using more sophisticated cognitive models in agent-based water resources models.

  14. Pre-treatment of seeds with static magnetic field ameliorates soil water stress in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha; Verma, A P S; Joshi, D K; Pathak, P C; Bhardwaj, Jyotsna

    2012-02-01

    The effect of magnetic field (MF) treatments of maize (Zea mays L.) var. Ganga Safed 2 seeds on the growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme system under soil water stress was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The seeds were exposed to static MFs of 100 and 200 mT for 2 and 1 h, respectively. The treated seeds were sown in sand beds for seven days and transplanted in pots that were maintained at -0.03, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa soil water potentials under greenhouse conditions. MF exposure of seeds significantly enhanced all growth parameters, compared to the control seedlings. The significant increase in root parameters in seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds resulted in maintenance of better leaf water status in terms of increase in leaf water potential, turgor potential and relative water content. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased in plants from treated seeds, compared to control under irrigated and mild stress condition. Leaves from plants of magnetically-treated seeds showed decreased levels of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant defense system enzymes (peroxidases, catalase and superoxide dismutase) under moisture stress conditions, when compared with untreated controls. Mild stress of -0.2 MPa induced a stimulating effect on functional root parameters, especially in 200 mT treated seedlings which can be exploited profitably for rain fed conditions. Our results suggested that MF treatment (100 mT for 2 h and 200 for 1 h) of maize seeds enhanced the seedling growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis rate and lowered the antioxidant defense system of seedlings under soil water stress. Thus, pre sowing static magnetic field treatment of seeds can be effectively used for improving growth under water stress.

  15. α₄β₂ Nicotinic receptor stimulation of the GABAergic system within the orbitofrontal cortex ameliorates the severe crossmodal object recognition impairment in ketamine-treated rats: implications for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jacob M; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with atypical multisensory integration. Rats treated sub-chronically with NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia are severely impaired on a tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task, and this deficit is reversed by systemic nicotine. The current study assessed the receptor specificity of the ameliorative effect of nicotine in the CMOR task, as well as the potential for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) interactions with GABA and glutamate. Male Long-Evans rats were treated sub-chronically for 10 days with ketamine or saline and then tested on the CMOR task after a 10-day washout. Systemic nicotine given before the sample phase of the CMOR task reversed the ketamine-induced impairment, but this effect was blocked by co-administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at a dosage that itself did not cause impairment. Pre-sample systemic co-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not block the remediating effect of nicotine in ketamine-treated rats. The selective α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 and α4β2 nAChR agonist ABT-418 were also tested, with only the latter reversing the ketamine impairment dose-dependently; bicuculline also blocked this effect. Similarly, infusions of nicotine or ABT-418 into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reversed the CMOR impairment in ketamine-treated rats, and systemic bicuculline blocked the effect of intra-OFC ABT-418. These results suggest that nicotine-induced agonism of α4β2 nAChRs within the OFC ameliorates CMOR deficits in ketamine-treated rats via stimulation of the GABAergic system. The findings of this research may have important implications for understanding the nature and potential treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  16. Harpagoside ameliorates the amyloid-β-induced cognitive impairment in rats via up-regulating BDNF expression and MAPK/PI3K pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Ding, X; Zhang, R; Jiang, W; Sun, X; Xia, Z; Wang, X; Wu, E; Zhang, Y; Hu, Y

    2015-09-10

    So far, no effective disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) aiming at protecting or reversing neurodegeneration of the disease have been established yet. The present work aims to elucidate the effect of Harpagoside (abbreviated HAR), an iridoid glycosides purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Scrophularia ningpoensis, on neurodegeneration induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that HAR exerts neuroprotective effects against Aβ neurotoxicity. Rats injected aggregated Aβ₁₋₄₀ into the bilateral hippocampus displayed impaired spatial learning and memory ability in a Y-maze test and novel object recognition test, while HAR treatment ameliorated Aβ₁₋₄₀-induced behavioral deficits. Moreover, administration of HAR increased the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activated the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathways both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Aβ₁₋₄₀-insulted rat model. Furthermore, in cultured primary cortical neurons, Aβ₁₋₄₂ induced significant decrease of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neuron number and neurite outgrowth length, both of which were dose dependently increased by HAR. In addition, HAR pretreatment also significantly attenuated the decrease of cell viability in Aβ₁₋₄₂-injured primary cortical neurons. Finally, when K252a, an inhibitor of Trk tyrosine kinases, and a BDNF neutralizing antibody were added to the culture medium 2 h prior to HAR addition, the protective effect of HAR on Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced neurodegeneration in the primary cortical neuron was almost inhibited. Taken together, HAR exerting neuroprotection effect and ameliorating learning and memory deficit appears to be associated, at least in part, with up-regulation of BDNF content as well as activating its downstream signaling pathways, e.g., MAPK

  17. A Water Extract of Mucuna pruriens Provides Long-Term Amelioration of Parkinsonism with Reduced Risk for Dyskinesias

    OpenAIRE

    Lieu, Christopher A; Kunselman, Allen R.; Manyam, Bala V.; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of Mucuna pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decar...

  18. Hydration status moderates the effects of drinking water on children's cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clinton S; Rapinett, Gertrude; Glaser, Nicole S; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-12-01

    Changes in hydration status throughout the day may affect cognitive performance with implications for learning success in the classroom. Our study tested the hypothesis that the benefit of drinking water on working memory and attention depends upon children's hydration status and renal response to water intake. Fifty-two children aged 9-12 years old were tested under two experimental conditions. The treatment session (Water session) consisted of a standard breakfast with 200 ml water, a baseline test, consumption of 750 ml of water over a period of two hours and subsequently retested. No water was provided after breakfast during the control session. Changes in hydration were assessed via urine samples. Cognitive testing consisted of digit span, pair cancellation, and delayed match to sample tasks. Children who exhibited smaller decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed significantly better on the water day compared to the control day on a digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. Children who exhibited larger decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed better on the control day compared to the water day on the digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. These results suggest that focusing on adequate hydration over time may be key for cognitive enhancement.

  19. The NCAM-derived P2 peptide facilitates recovery of cognitive and motor function and ameliorates neuropathology following traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina

    2008-01-01

    in the second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like module of NCAM, represents the natural cis-binding site for the first NCAM Ig module. The P2 peptide targets NCAM, thereby inducing a number of intracellular signaling events leading to the stimulation of neurite outgrowth and promotion of neuronal survival in vitro...... significantly improved postlesion recovery of motor and cognitive function, reduced neuronal degeneration, protected cells against oxidative stress, and increased reactive astrogliosis and neuronal plasticity in the sublesional area. P2 appeared rapidly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid after subcutaneous...

  20. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of CaM kinase II, protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yui; Ikuno, Tatsuya; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2011-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is one of the most abundant neurosteroids synthesized de novo in the CNS. We here found that sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA improves cognitive function through phosphorylation of synaptic proteins in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mouse hippocampus. We have previously reported that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were impaired in OBX mouse hippocampus. OBX mice were administered once a day for 7-8 days with DHEA (30 or 60 mg/kg p.o.) 10 days after operation. The spatial, cognitive and conditioned fear memories in OBX mice were significantly improved as assessed by Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance task, respectively. DHEA also improved impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation in OBX mice. Notably, DHEA treatment restored PKCα (Ser-657) autophosphorylation and NR1 (Ser-896) and myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Ser-152/156) phosphorylation to the control levels in the hippocampal CA1 region. Likewise, DHEA treatment improved CaMKIIα (Thr-286) autophosphorylation and GluR1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation to the control levels in the CA1 region. Furthermore, DHEA treatment improved ERK and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Ser-133) phosphorylation to the control levels. Finally, NE-100, sigma-1 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the DHEA-induced improvement of memory-related behaviors and CaMKII, PKC and ERK phosphorylation in CA1 region. Taken together, sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA ameliorates OBX-induced impairment in memory-related behaviors and long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region through activation of CaMKII, PKC and ERK. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Activation of Sigma-1 receptor ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Peng, Jun-Bo; Fu, Chang-Hai; Cao, Dong; Li, Dan; Tong, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-09-15

    Among learning and memory processes, fear memories are crucial in some psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accumulating evidence shows that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has comprehensive involvement in cognitive impairment and neuroprotective effects. It has also been reported that BDNF appears to enhance extinction of fear in anxiety disorders via the MAPK signaling cascade. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF-TrkB-MAPK pathway may be mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of sigma-1 receptor in the development of PTSD. To address this question, rats were subjected to a classical single-prolonged stress procedure (SPS) and kept undisturbed for 7 days. After that, rats were re-stressed by re-exposure to the forced swim component of SPS (RSPS). Behavior tests were subsequently performed to assess anxiety and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB and three MAPK pathways, namely, the ERK, JNK and p38. We found that the levels of BDNF and p-TrkB were increased following the RSPS procedure, which were reversed by the administration of PRE-084. Meanwhile, among the three MAPK signaling pathways, only the p-ERK expression was increased following the RSPS procedure. Collectively, our results indicate that BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling pathway may be involved in the activation of sigma-1 receptor to yield therapeutic benefits for PTSD.

  2. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato color (PSPC, a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal. The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks. We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase (CAT, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity.

  3. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  4. The Use of Ameliorant Fe3+ and Rock Phosphates in Peat Soil at Several Water Condition on the P Content of Plants Rice and Carbon Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates containing high Fe cation can reduce effect of toxic organic acids, increase peat stability through formation of complex compounds and reduce carbon emission. The research was conducted in the laboratory and green house of the Departement of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agriculture University. Peat samples with hemic degree of decomposition were taken from Riau. Rock phosphates were taken from the rock phosphates of PT. Petrokimia Gresik, Christmas Island phosphates, and Huinan China and FeCl3.6H2O was used as the other Fe3+ source. The aims of the research were to study (a the effect of the applications of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates on the P content of plants dan (b the effect of the application ameliorant Fe3+ and the contribution of Fe cation in rock phosphates in the decrease of carbon emission. The results showed that the P content of plants rice increased 58 – 286% with the applications of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates. The estimation of carbon loss through CO2 and CH4 emissions from peats if planted continuously with rice was around 2.5, 2.2 and 2.6 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 respectively in field capacity condition, two times of field capacity condition, and 5 cm of saturated condition. The application of ameliorant Fe3+ and rock phosphates containing high Fe cation increased the stability of peats and reduced the carbon loss around 1.7 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (64% in 5 cm of saturated condition, 1.3 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (58% in two times of field capacity condition, and 1.0 Mg of C ha-1 year-1 (41% in field capacity condition.

  5. The liquorice root derivative glycyrrhetinic acid can ameliorate ionoregulatory disturbance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) abruptly exposed to ion-poor water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Chih; Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    To consider the idea that a dietary botanical supplement could act as an adaptogen in a teleost fish, the effect of a liquorice root derivative (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18βGA) on rainbow trout following an acute ionoregulatory stressor was examined. Freshwater (FW) trout were fed a control or 18βGA supplemented diet (0, 5, or 50μg 18βGA/g diet) for 2weeks, then abruptly exposed to ion-poor water (IPW) for 24h. Following IPW exposure, muscle moisture content and serum cortisol levels elevated and serum [Na(+)] and/or [Cl(-)] reduced in control and 50μg/g 18βGA-fed fish. However, these endpoints were unaltered in 5μg/g 18βGA-fed fish. Gill tissue was investigated for potential mechanisms of 18βGA action by examining mRNA abundance of genes encoding corticosteroid receptors (CRs), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-hsd2), and tight junction (TJ) proteins, as well as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activity, and mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) morphometrics. Following IPW exposure, CR and 11β-hsd2 mRNA, MRC fractional surface, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activity were unaltered or decreased in 50μg 18βGA fish, as was mRNA encoding select TJ proteins. In contrast, 5μg 18βGA-fed fish exhibited elevated 11β-hsd2 and CR mRNA abundance versus 50μg 18βGA-fed, and reduced MRC apical area as well as some differences in TJ protein mRNA abundance versus control fish. Data suggest that 18βGA, at low levels, may be adaptogenic in trout and might help to ameliorate ionoregulatory perturbation following IPW exposure. This seems to occur, in part, through 18βGA-induced alterations in the biochemistry and physiology of the gill.

  6. Low level exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Surette, Céline; Cormier, Pierre; Foucher, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    Manganese (Mn) is an element found in the environment and certain geographic areas have elevated concentrations in soil and water du to natural conditions or anthropic activities. A growing body of data suggests that exposure to manganese in drinking water could be neurotoxic. Firstly, we aimed to examine the association between exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in children consuming well water. Secondly, we also aimed to examine the relation between cognition and manganese concentrations in children's hair, nail, and saliva. A total 259 children from 189 households consuming well water were included in the present study (ages 5.9 to 13.7 years). We assessed children's cognition with the WISC-IV, and we used five indicators of manganese exposure: concentration in tap water, intake from the consumption of water divided by child's weight, manganese concentration in children's hair, toe nail, and saliva. We used General Estimating Equation analysis to assess the relation between manganese exposure indicators and IQ scores, adjusting for potential confounders, and taking into account family clusters. Drinking water manganese concentrations were generally low, with 48% of children consuming water g/L, 25% >50>g/L, and 4% >400>g/L. Results differed by sex. In girls, higher manganese concentration in water, hair, and toe nail were associated with poorer Performance IQ scores but this was significant only for toe nail (for a 10-fold increase in manganese, β: -5.65, 95% CIs: -10.97, -0.32). Opposite associations were observed in boys, i.e., better Performance IQ scores with higher manganese concentration hair, toe nail, and water, the latter being significant (β: 2.66, 95% CIs: 0.44, 4.89). Verbal IQ scores did not seem to be associated with manganese exposure indicators. Drinking water manganese levels were considerably lower than in previous studies reporting neurotoxic effects. There was no clear indication of an association between exposure to

  7. Energy efficient cooperation in underlay RFID cognitive networks for a water smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-09-30

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model's (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  8. Effects of drinking supplementary water at school on cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Roberta; Rapinett, Gertrude; Grathwohl, Dominik; Parisi, Marinella; Fanari, Rachele; Calò, Carla Maria; Schmitt, Jeroen

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the beneficial effects of drinking supplementary water during the school day on the cognitive performance and transitory subjective states, such as fatigue or vigor, in 168 children aged between 9 and 11years who were living in a hot climate (South Italy, Sardinia). The classes were randomly divided into an intervention group, which received water supplementation, and a control group. Dehydration was determined by urine sampling and was defined as urine osmolality greater than 800mOsm/kg H(2)O (Katz, Massry, Agomn, & Toor, 1965). The change in the scores from the morning to the afternoon of hydration levels, cognitive performance and transitory subjective states were correlated. In line with a previous observational study that evaluated the hydration status of school children living in a country with a hot climate (Bar-David, Urkin, & Kozminsky, 2005), our results showed that a remarkable proportion of children were in a state of mild, voluntary dehydration at the beginning of the school day (84%). We found a significant negative correlation between dehydration and the auditory number span, which indicates a beneficial effect of drinking supplementary water at school on short-term memory. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between dehydration and performance in the verbal analogy task. The results are discussed in the light of the complexity of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the relationship between hydration status and cognition.

  9. Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna Maria; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Parigi, Angelo Del; Capurso, Sabrina A; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    A possible role of the macronutrients and the basic elements of carbohydrates (glucose administration or depletion), proteins (amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine), and fat (unsaturated fatty acids) was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, and the cognitive decline of degenerative (AD) or vascular origin. The availability and utilization of glucose has been implicated in cognitive function not only as a result of nutritional and systemic metabolic conditions, but also, although speculatively, as a crucial phase of the mechanism of action of molecules used as cognitive-enhancers. Furthermore, many lines of evidence have focused on the importance of oxidative stress mechanisms and free radical damage in AD pathogenesis. In addition, epidemiological studies have recently reported an association between alcohol and the incidence of AD and predementia syndromes. Foods with large amounts of aluminium-containing additives or aluminium from drinking water may affect the risk of developing AD, aluminium more likely acting as a cofactor somewhere in the cascade of events leading to the demented brain. A role for other metals in dementia have been speculated, given the encouraging results reported from studies on peripheral zinc concentrations, zinc supplementation, serum copper, either bound with ceruloplasmin or not, and iron metabolism in AD. Nonetheless, more data are needed to support a possible role of these metals in dementing diseases. Healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, and the prevention of nutritional deficiencies or exposure to foods and water with high content of metals could be considered the first line of defence against the development and progression of cognitive decline.

  10. Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Trinies

    Full Text Available There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in Chipata district in Eastern province, Zambia, to assess the efficacy of water provision on cognition. Pupils in grades 3-6 were randomly assigned to either receive a bottle of drinking water that they could refill throughout the day (water group, n = 149 or only have access to drinking water that was normally available at the school (control group, n = 143. Hydration was assessed in the morning before provision of water and in the afternoon through urine specific gravity (Usg measured with a portable refractometer. In the afternoon we administered six cognitive tests to assess short-term memory, concentration, visual attention, and visual motor skills. Morning prevalence of dehydration, defined as Usg≥1.020, was 42%. Afternoon dehydration increased to 67% among the control arm and dropped to 10% among the intervention arm. We did not find that provision of water or hydration impacted cognitive test scores, although there were suggestive relationships between both water provision and hydration and increased scores on tests measuring visual attention. We identified key improvements to the study design that are warranted to further investigate this relationship.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01924546.

  11. Cognitive function in outbred house mice after 22 weeks of drinking oxygenated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Angela M; Bogusch, Corinna; Lerchl, Alexander

    2007-05-16

    Oxygen-enriched drinking water, which is increasingly sold worldwide, is claimed to "keep both the body and the mind healthy." However, currently there is no scientific evidence for such a statement. Therefore, we assessed the effect of 22 weeks of drinking oxygenated water on cognitive performance in healthy mice, using a spatial learning task and behavioral observations. Thirty-six female mice (age 3 to 6 months) received either hyperoxic or normal tap water (approximately 6.6 vs. 1.8 microg O(2) g(-1) day(-1), respectively) throughout the study period. Mice were weighed one to two times per month, and a blood sample was taken from the tail to determine the hematocrit. In addition, red blood cells were counted microscopically one and two months after the start of the experiment. Four weeks after the last blood sample (21 weeks after the start of the experiment), exploration behavior and locomotor activity were observed on a holeboard, and learning ability tests were performed using an elevated open maze. No significant differences were seen between groups for any of the parameters investigated. Thus, the study does not support the hypothesis that drinking oxygenated water improves cognitive function or hematological parameters in mice.

  12. Energy Efficient Cooperation in Underlay RFID Cognitive Networks for a Water Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nasir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking water  resources all over the world and increasing  costs of water consumption  have prompted  water users  and distribution companies  to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient  smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment,  there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones,  Bluetooth  devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices.  In order to reduce the interference  from our proposed RFID network for these primary  devices, we have proposed a cooperating  underlay  RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water.  These underlay  RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2].  This work is an extension of our previous  ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing  a new system model and RFIDs.  Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary  network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation,  this scheme performs  better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model’s (HMM multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed.  This approach has been applied  to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  13. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  14. Effects of Water-Based Exercise Training on the Cognitive Function and Quality of Life of Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayán, Carlos; Carvalho, Paulo; Varela, Silvia; Cancela, José María

    2017-09-25

    Research regarding the impact of aquatic exercise on cognition is scarce. This study aimed at identifying the effects of water-based exercise training on the cognitive function and quality of life of healthy adult women. Fifty-one healthy women [mean age: 46.5 (12.3) y] were assigned to group A or B and followed a water-based exercise program for 6 months. During the first 3 months, the sessions performed by group A were focused on stimulating cognitive function. For the next 3 months, the sessions were mainly aimed at improving physical fitness. Participants in group B followed the same program in reverse order. The trail making and symbol digit modality tests were used to assess the impact of the program on cognition. The effects of the intervention on the participants' physical and mental health were measured by means of the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey. Once the intervention ended, significant improvements were observed in the participants' cognitive function and mental health domain, regardless of the group in which they were initially included. Water-based exercise is a training modality capable of enhancing cognitive function and quality of life through improvements in mental health in healthy adult women.

  15. Hesperidin and Silibinin Ameliorate Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity: Modulation of Antioxidants and Inflammatory Cytokines Level in Mice Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kasbe, Prajapati; Pandey, Surya Narayan; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra S; Kwatra, Mohit; Mishra, Murli; Venu, Athira K; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Gogoi, Ranadeep; Sarma, Nitul; Bezbaruah, Babul K; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that long-term aluminum exposure results in severe toxic effects, including neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. The present study was performed to examine the neuroprotective potential of hesperidin and silibinin against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. AlCl3 (100 mg/kg/day) was injected daily through oral gavage for 42 days. Concomitantly, hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and silibinin (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered for 42 days in different groups. The extent of cognitive impairment was assessed by Morris water maze and novel object recognition test on the 43rd day. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring oxido-nitrosative stress and proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of mice. Six weeks treatment with AlCl3 caused cognitive impairment as indicated by an increase in the retention latency time and reduction in the percentage of recognition index. AlCl3-treated group showed oxido-nitrosative stress as indicated by increase in the level of lipid peroxidation, nitrite and depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the chronic AlCl3 administration raised the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) level and increased acetylcholinesterase activity and reduced the BDNF content in the hippocampus of AlCl3-treated animals. However, chronic treatment with hesperidin and silibinin at higher doses significantly ameliorated the AlCl3-induced cognitive impairment and hippocampal biochemical anomalies. The present study clearly indicated that hesperidin and silibinin exert neuroprotective effects against AlCl3-induced cognitive impairment and neurochemical changes. Amelioration of cognitive impairment may be attributed to the impediment of oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammation in the hippocampus.

  16. Potential in vivo amelioration by N-acetyl-L-cysteine of oxidative stress in brain in human double mutant APP/PS-1 knock-in mice: toward therapeutic modulation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quanzhen; Aluise, Christopher D; Joshi, Gururaj; Sultana, Rukhsana; St Clair, Daret K; Markesbery, William R; Butterfield, D Allan

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia among the elderly. Although the underlying cause has yet to be established, numerous data have shown that oxidative stress is implicated in AD as well as in preclinical stages of AD, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The oxidative stress observed in brains of subjects with AD and MCI may be due, either fully or in part, to increased free radicals mediated by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). By using double human mutant APP/PS-1 knock-in mice as the AD model, the present work demonstrates that the APP/PS-1 double mutation results in elevated protein oxidation (as indexed by protein carbonyls), protein nitration (as indexed by 3-nitrotyrosine), as well as lipid peroxidation (as indexed by protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) in brains of mice aged 9 months and 12 months. APP/PS-1 mice also exhibited lower levels of brain glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in both age groups studied, whereas glutathione reductase (GR) levels in brain were unaffected by the mutation. The activities of both of these antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in APP/PS-1 mouse brains, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased relative to controls in both age groups. Levels of peptidyl prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1) were significantly decreased in APP/PS-1 mouse brain aged 9 and 12 months. Administration of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, to APP/PS-1 mice via drinking water suppressed increased protein oxidation and nitration and also significantly augmented levels and activity of GPx in brain from both age groups. Oral administration of NAC also increased the diminished activity of GR and protected against lipid peroxidation in brains of 9-month-old APP/PS-1 mice only. Pin1 levels, GR levels, and G6PDH activity in brain were unaffected by oral administration of NAC in both age groups. These results are discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of this brain

  17. The influence of indigenous food procurement techniques on populations of cyanobacteria in pre-European Australia: a potential small-scale water amelioration tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John

    2009-09-01

    During times of pre-European Australia, indigenous people utilized methods of food procurement that resulted in toxic phytochemicals from plants entering their waterholes. This paper focuses on three of these plants, namely the leaves of Acacia colei and Duboisia hopwoodii, which were used by hunters to poison water holes to stun fish or a drinking animal, and the seeds of Castanospermum australe, which were eaten following the leaching of toxins into a running stream. If consumed by humans, the main toxins from these plants--saponins/sesquiterpenes, nicotine/nornicotine, and australine/castanospermine--are fatal. However, it is undetermined whether populations of Cyanobacteria also can be affected. During this study, the previously mentioned plants were administered to populations of the species Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Nodularia spumigena, while mimicking the traditional applications of these plants as closely as possible. Results varied with treatments and species; however, cell chlorosis manifested in nearly all treatments, concomitantly with thylakoid membrane disorganization. Cell dormancy typically manifested, along with destruction of populations at higher treatments. The results indicated that populations of Cyanobacteria could have been destroyed or inhibited by indigenous people during traditional applications of these plants. Findings presented herein indicate a more sophisticated and complex traditional Australian resource management scheme than is currently understood, contributing to the growing awareness of the plight of earlier indigenous Australians. The reintroduction of traditional water management techniques may have potential as a suitable small-scale water resource management strategy.

  18. Modulation of glucose metabolism by balanced deep-sea water ameliorates hyperglycemia and pancreatic function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Geun Ha

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing DSW mineral extracts and desalinated water to yield a final hardness of 1000-4000 ppm. Male ICR mice were assigned to 6 groups; mice in each group were given tap water (normal and STZ diabetic groups or STZ with BDSW of varying hardness (0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm for 4 weeks. The STZ with BDSW group exhibited lowered fasting plasma glucose levels than the STZ-induced diabetic group. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW restores the morphology of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and increases the secretion of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glucose oxidation, and glycogenolysis was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in the STZ with BDSW group. BDSW stimulated PI3-K, AMPK, and mTOR pathway-mediated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW is a potential anti-diabetic agent, owing to its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by modulating glucose metabolism, recovering pancreatic islets of Langerhans and increasing glucose uptake.

  19. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massange-Sánchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A.; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA)-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI) provided salt-stress (SS) tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms. PMID:27749893

  20. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology.

  1. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  2. Steering through the murky waters of a scientific conflict: situated and symbolic models of clinical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V L; Kaufman, D R; Arocha, J F

    1995-10-01

    The situated action perspective, which embraces a diversity of views, challenges several of the fundamental assumptions of the symbolic information-processing framework underlying cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we consider the following issues; symbolic representations, plans and actions, distributed cognition, and the transfer of learning. We evaluate each of these issues in terms of research and theories in clinical cognition and examine the implications for education and training, and for the integration of intelligent systems in medical practice. We argue for a reconceptualization of the symbolic framework in terms of the way the role of internal representations and cognitive activities are perceived. However, symbolic representations are integral to medical cognition and should continue to be central in any theoretical framework. A re-examination of cognitive science in medicine in terms of the relationship among physicians, technology, and the workplace could prove to be constructive in bridging the gap between theory and practice.

  3. The water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (Designated as MAK) ameliorates murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, R; Ueno, Y; Tanaka, S; Nagai, K; Onitake, T; Yoshioka, K; Chayama, K

    2011-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum Karst is well known as 'Reishi', a traditional food in China and Japan. It contains a polysaccharide component known to induce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production from murine splenocytes. Moreover, GM-CSF may be a therapeutic agent for Crohn's disease. In this study, we investigated the water-soluble, polysaccharide components of Reishi (designated as MAK) in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). We examined the concentration of GM-CSF in peritoneal macrophage cells (PMs) of C57BL/6 mice during in vitro and in vivo stimulation with MAK. After feeding with chow or MAK for 2 weeks, 2 mg of TNBS/50% ethanol was administered to each mouse. After 3 days of TNBS treatment, intestinal inflammation was evaluated, and mononuclear cells of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and colon were cultured for ELISA. To determine the preventive role of GM-CSF, the mice were pre-treated with or without anti-GM-CSF antibody before TNBS administration. In vitro and in vivo MAK-stimulated PMs produced GM-CSF in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal inflammation by TNBS was improved by feeding with MAK. MLNs of mice treated with TNBS produced IFN-γ, which was inhibited by feeding with MAK. In contrast, MLNs of mice treated with TNBS inhibited GM-CSF production, which was induced by feeding with MAK. The colon organ culture assay also revealed that IFN-γ was decreased and GM-CSF was increased by MAK. The preventive effect was blocked by the neutralization of GM-CSF. We concluded that the induction of GM-CSF by MAK may provide the anti-inflammatory effect.

  4. Life jacket design affects dorsal head and chest exposure, core cooling, and cognition in 10 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Tamara L; Jamieson, Christopher P; Steinman, Alan M; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2005-10-01

    Personal floatation devices (PFDs) differ in whether they maintain the head out of the water or allow the dorsum of the head to be immersed. Partial head submersion may hasten systemic cooling, incapacitation, and death in cold water. Six healthy male volunteers (mean age = 26.8 yr; height = 184 cm; weight = 81 kg; body fat = 20%) were immersed in 10 degrees C water for 65 min, or until core temperature = 34 degrees C, under three conditions: PFD#1 maintained the head and upper chest out of the water; PFD#2 allowed the dorsal head and whole body to be immersed; and an insulated drysuit (control) allowed the dorsal head to be immersed. Mental performance tests included: logic reasoning test; Stroop word-color test; digit symbol coding; backward digit span; and paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Core cooling was significantly faster for PFD#2 (2.8 +/- 1.6 degrees C x h(-1)) than for PFD#1 (1.5 +/- 0.7 degrees C x h(-1)) or for the drysuit (0.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C x h(-1)). Although no statistically significant effects on cognitive performance were noted for the individual PFDs and drysuit, when analyzed as a group, four of the tests of cognitive performance (Stroop word-color, digit symbol coding, backward digit span, and PASAT) showed significant correlations between decreasing core temperature to 34 degrees C and diminished cognitive performance. Performance in more complicated mental tasks was adversely affected as core temperature decreased to 34 degrees C. The PFD that kept the head and upper chest out of the water preserved body heat and mental performance better than the PFD that produced horizontal flotation.

  5. Assessment of relationship on excess arsenic intake from drinking water and cognitive impairment in adults and elders in arsenicosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hongxu; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yang; Wu, Junhua; Li, Dandan; Sun, Dianjun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the relationships between high water arsenic exposure and cognitive impairment were investigated. A total of 483 residents aged 40 or older were randomly recruited and were divided into four groups according to the concentrations of arsenic in their water. Consumption levels (̄x¯±sd) of drinking water arsenic for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 4±2μg/L, 25±11μg/L, 73±15μg/L, and 183±88μg/L, respectively. The average scores (̄x¯±sd) of the Chinese version Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for females in each group were 21.49±3.14, 19.04±5.87, 16.18±8.14, and 15.82±7.78, and the average scores (̄x¯±sd) for males were 24.50±3.97, 23.16±4.45, 21.00±6.57, and 18.92±7.99, respectively. Significant differences among the average scores of MMSE for males or females in the four groups were found (parsenic ˃100 μg/L PR4/1=4.01). The findings of our research suggested a significant positive relationship between arsenic exposure from drinking water and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  7. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the need to apply a cognitive approach to understand deep dynamics and determinants of technological evolutions. After examining main contributions from innovation studies to the conceptualization of innovation and change in complex socio-technical environments, we highlight the contribution coming from the application of the cognitive approach to evolutionary studies on technologies and we introduce the concept of technological memory as an interpretative tool to understand those changes. We discuss our hypothesis with reference to several observations carried out in different local contexts – Mexico, India and Italy – in relation to technological change in the water sector. In those cases deliberate attempts to substitute traditional technologies with modern ones led to interesting trajectories of change ranging from the collapse of old technologies to the development of multifaceted hybridization patterns.

  8. Epistemology, Situated Cognition, and Mental Models: "Like a Bridge over Troubled Water."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Norbert M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses situated cognition as a movement from epistemology, considers the construction of mental models, and describes a study of twelfth graders that investigated the significance of a conceptual model provided at the beginning of the learning process. Results show that mental models are constructed in dependence on the learning situation.…

  9. Manganese in Drinking Water and Cognitive Abilities and Behavior at 10 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bölte, Sven; Derakhshani Hamadani, Jena; Vahter, Marie

    2017-05-26

    Cross-sectional studies have indicated impaired neurodevelopment with elevated drinking water manganese concentrations (W-Mn), but potential susceptible exposure windows are unknown. We prospectively evaluated the effects of W-Mn, from fetal life to school age, on children's cognitive abilities and behavior. We assessed cognitive abilities and behavior in 1,265 ten-year-old children in rural Bangladesh using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), respectively. Manganese in drinking water used during pregnancy and by the children at 5 y and 10 y was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The median W-Mn was 0.20 mg/L (range 0.001–6.6) during pregnancy and 0.34mg/L (<0.001–8.7) at 10 y. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, restricted to children with low arsenic (As) exposure, none of the W-Mn exposures was associated with the children’s cognitive abilities. Stratifying by gender (p for interaction in general <0.081) showed that prenatal W-Mn (3 mg/L) was positively associated with cognitive ability measures in girls but not in boys. W-Mn at all time points was associated with an increased risk of conduct problems, particularly in boys (range 24–43% per mg/L). At the same time, the prenatal W-Mn was associated with a decreased risk of emotional problems [odds ratio (OR)=0.39 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.82)] in boys. In girls, W-Mn was mainly associated with low prosocial scores [prenatal W-Mn: OR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.88)]. Elevated prenatal W-Mn exposure was positively associated with cognitive function in girls, whereas boys appeared to be unaffected. Early life W-Mn exposure appeared to adversely affect children's behavior. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP631.

  10. Embodied experiences for science learning: A cognitive linguistics exploration of middle school students' language in learning about water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Barrios, Ivan Eduardo

    I investigated linguistic patterns in middle school students' writing to understand their relevant embodied experiences for learning science. Embodied experiences are those limited by the perceptual and motor constraints of the human body. Recent research indicates student understanding of science needs embodied experiences. Recent emphases of science education researchers in the practices of science suggest that students' understanding of systems and their structure, scale, size, representations, and causality are crosscutting concepts that unify all scientific disciplinary areas. To discern the relationship between linguistic patterns and embodied experiences, I relied on Cognitive Linguistics, a field within cognitive sciences that pays attention to language organization and use assuming that language reflects the human cognitive system. Particularly, I investigated the embodied experiences that 268 middle school students learning about water brought to understanding: i) systems and system structure; ii) scale, size and representations; and iii) causality. Using content analysis, I explored students' language in search of patterns regarding linguistic phenomena described within cognitive linguistics: image schemas, conceptual metaphors, event schemas, semantical roles, and force-dynamics. I found several common embodied experiences organizing students' understanding of crosscutting concepts. Perception of boundaries and change in location and perception of spatial organization in the vertical axis are relevant embodied experiences for students' understanding of systems and system structure. Direct object manipulation and perception of size with and without locomotion are relevant for understanding scale, size and representations. Direct applications of force and consequential perception of movement or change in form are relevant for understanding of causality. I discuss implications of these findings for research and science teaching.

  11. Propofol ameliorates electroconvulsive shock-induced learning and memory impairment by regulation of synaptic metaplasticity via autophosphorylation of CaMKIIa at Thr 305 in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Zhang, Fan; Min, Su; Hao, Xuechao; Qin, Peipei; Zhu, Xianlin

    2016-06-30

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but it can induce learning and memory impairment. Our previous study found propofol (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist) could ameliorate electroconvulsive shock (ECS, an analog of ECT to animals)-induced cognitive impairment, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of propofol on metaplasticity and autophosphorylation of CaMKIIa in stressed rats receiving ECS. Depressive-like behavior and learning and memory function were assessed by sucrose preference test and Morris water test respectively. LTP were tested by electrophysiological experiment, the expression of CaMKIIa, p-T305-CaMKII in hippocampus and CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction were evaluated by western blot. Results suggested ECS raised the baseline fEPSP and impaired the subsequent LTP, increased the expression of p-T305-CaMKII and decreased the expression of CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction, leading to cognitive dysfunction in stressed rats. Propofol could down-regulate the baseline fEPSP and reversed the impairment of LTP partly, decreased the expression of p-T305-CaMKII and increased the expression of CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction and alleviated ECS-induced learning and memory impairment. In conclusion, propofol ameliorates ECS-induced learning and memory impairment, possibly by regulation of synaptic metaplasticity via p-T305-CaMKII.

  12. Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain β-amyloid through PPARY activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping LIU; Tian-hua YAN; Li-ying JIANG; Wei HU; Meng HU; Chao WANG; Qian ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of pioglitazone,a PPARY agonist,on memory performance and brain amyloidogenesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.Methods:ICR male mice were injected with STZ (150 mg/kg,iv) to induce experimental diabetes.Pioglitazone (9 and 18 mg·kg1-d-1,po) was administered for 6 weeks.Passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were used to evaluate cognitive function.The blood glucose and serum insulin levels were detected using the glucose oxidase method and an ELISA assay,respectively.β-amyloid (Aβ),β-amyloid precursor protein (APP),β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1),NF-κB p65,the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and PPARy in the brains were analyzed using Western blotting assays.Results:The STZ-induced diabetic mice characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia performed poorly in both the passive avoidance and MWM tests,accompanied by increased Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42,APP,BACE1,NF-κB p65 and RAGE levels and decreased PPARy level in the hippocampus and cortex.Chronic pioglitazone treatment significantly ameliorated the memory deficits of STZ-induced diabetic mice,and suppressed expression of APP,BACE1,RAGE and NF-κB p65,and activated PPARy in the hippocampus and cortex.However,pioglitazone did not significantly affect blood glucose and insulin levels.Conclusion:Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain Aβ level via activation of PPARy,which is independent of its effects on blood glucose and insulin levels.The results suggest that pioglitazone may be used for treating the cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Does having a drink help you think? 6-7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Jeffes, Ben

    2009-12-01

    Little research has examined the effect of water consumption on cognition in children. We examined whether drinking water improves performance from baseline to test in twenty-three 6-7-year-old children. There were significant interactions between time of test and water group (water/no water), with improvements in the water group on thirst and happiness ratings, visual attention and visual search, but not visual memory or visuomotor performance. These results indicate that even under conditions of mild dehydration, not as a result of exercise, intentional water deprivation or heat exposure, children's cognitive performance can be improved by having a drink of water.

  15. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  16. Dammarane Sapogenins Ameliorates Neurocognitive Functional Impairment Induced by Simulated Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE, which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS, alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury. Bioinformatics combined with experimental verification identified that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was inhibited and the MAPK pathway was activated during SLSE-induced cognition dysfunction, whereas DS substantially ameliorated the changes in brain. These findings defined the characteristics of SLSE-induced cognitive decline and the mechanisms by which DS improves it. The results provide an effective candidate for improving cognitive function in spaceflight missions.

  17. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  18. Comorbidities and cognitive functioning: implications for nursing research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David; Larsen, Kirsten I; Eagerton, Gregory; Wright, Mary A

    2011-08-01

    Optimal cognitive functioning is necessary to successfully negotiate one's environment, yet medical conditions can interfere with brain health, thus negatively impacting cognitive functioning. Such comorbidities include hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and HIV, as well as others. The physiological properties of these comorbidities can reduce one's cognitive reserve and limit one's cognitive efficiency. This article provides an overview of a few common comorbidities known to affect cognitive functioning and addresses ways in which cognitive functioning may be ameliorated and protected or mitigated in lieu of cognitive declines in such clinical populations. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited.

  19. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  1. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Virginie; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Commenges, Daniel; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2009-02-15

    The authors examined associations between exposure to aluminum or silica from drinking water and risk of cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease among elderly subjects followed for 15 years (1988-2003). They actively searched for incident cases of dementia among persons aged 65 years or over living in 91 civil drinking-water areas in southern France. Two measures of exposure to aluminum were assessed: geographic exposure and individual exposure, taking into account daily consumption of tap water and bottled water. A total of 1,925 subjects who were free of dementia at baseline and had reliable water assessment data were analyzed. Using random-effects models, the authors found that cognitive decline with time was greater in subjects with a higher daily intake of aluminum from drinking water (>or=0.1 mg/day, P=0.005) or higher geographic exposure to aluminum. Using a Cox model, a high daily intake of aluminum was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia. Conversely, an increase of 10 mg/day in silica intake was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (adjusted relative risk =0.89, P=0.036). However, geographic exposure to aluminum or silica from tap water was not associated with dementia. High consumption of aluminum from drinking water may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  3. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. III. Tumors, urolithiasis, fetal malformations, deterioration of the cognitive function in the aged and atopic eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, F; Monarca, S; Premi, S; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    For several decades a causal relation has been hypothesised between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular and other chronic degenerative diseases in humans. Only recently some epidemiological studies also investigated the association between the concentration of the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water (calcium and magnesium) and other chronic diseases. Some case-control studies carried out in Taiwan using aggregated data showed a possible protective effect of water hardness toward the risk of dying from various neoplasms, though more research is needed on the issue, possibly based on individual data, to draw definitive conclusions. There is a substantial evidence that consumption of water with high levels of calcium does not increase, and maybe reduces the risk of developing urinary stones of the most common type in developed countries (calcium oxalate), on the contrary, there is no conclusive evidence on the relation between water hardness and foetal malformations, cognitive functions in old men, diabetes and eczema.

  4. Vitamin D enhances antiepileptic and cognitive effects of lamotrigine in pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ali F; Afify, Mohamed A; Mahfouz, Amal M; Shahzad, Naiyer; Bamagous, Ghazi A; Al Ghamdi, Saeed S

    2017-10-15

    Despite long use of antiepileptic drugs, it remains a challenge to achieve seizure control while reducing adverse effects and preventing cognitive impairment. Several lines of evidence suggest a role of vitamin D in epilepsy. So this study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on epileptogenesis, cognitive dysfunction and antiepileptic activity of lamotrigine, in a rat model of chemical kindling. Rats were kindled by pentylenetetrazole injections every other day over four weeks, together with daily oral treatment by either vehicle, vitamin D, lamotrigine or combination of vitamin D and lamotrigine. The non-treated kindled rats developed generalized seizures and had poor cognitive performance in water maze, associated with prooxidative status; elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with lowered glutathione levels; in brain tissues. Treatment with either vitamin D, lamotrigine or both leads to significant reduction of seizure activity score, improvement of cognitive performance, and amelioration of the disturbed oxidative stress biomarkers. These findings indicate that, vitamin D has anti-epileptic, cognitive improving and antioxidant effects, on its own and enhance the effects of lamotrigine, in a chronic model of epileptic seizures. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may be a useful addition to antiepileptic drugs improving seizure control and cognitive function in patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of cognitive deficits in mice with an alternating hemiplegia-linked mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Dachtler, James; Roder, John C; Clapcote, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is a prominent feature in a range of different movement disorders. Children with Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood are prone to developmental delay, with deficits in cognitive functioning becoming progressively more evident as they grow older. Heterozygous mutations of the ATP1A3 gene, encoding the Na+,K+-ATPase α3 subunit, have been identified as the primary cause of Alternating Hemiplegia. Heterozygous Myshkin mice have an amino acid change (I810N) in Na+,K+-ATPase α3 that is also found in Alternating Hemiplegia. To investigate whether Myshkin mice exhibit learning and memory deficits resembling the cognitive impairments of patients with Alternating Hemiplegia, we subjected them to a range of behavioral tests that interrogate various cognitive domains. Myshkin mice showed impairments in spatial memory, spatial habituation, locomotor habituation, object recognition, social recognition, and trace fear conditioning, as well as in the visible platform version of the Morris water maze. Increasing the duration of training ameliorated the deficit in social recognition but not in spatial habituation. The deficits of Myshkin mice in all of the learning and memory tests used are consistent with the cognitive impairment of the vast majority of AHC patients. These mice could thus help advance our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms influencing cognitive impairment in patients with ATP1A3-related disorders.

  6. Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Treatment Enhances Hemodynamics and Ameliorates Memory Deficits in Rats with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Xiong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, immunohistochemistry and Morris water maze (MWM to investigate whether NBP can accelerate CBF recovery, reduce neuronal death and improve cognitive deficits in CCH rats after permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO. Rats were intravenously injected with NBP (5 mg/kg daily for 14 days beginning the first day after BCCAO. The results showed that NBP shortened recovery time of CBF to pre-occlusion levels at 2 weeks following BCCAO, compared to 4 weeks in the vehicle group, and enhanced hemodynamic compensation through dilation of the vertebral arteries (VAs and increase in angiogenesis. NBP treatment also markedly reduced reactive astrogliosis and cell apoptosis and protected hippocampal neurons against ischemic injury. The escape latency of CCH rats in the MWM was also reduced in response to NBP treatment. These findings demonstrate that NBP can accelerate the recovery of CBF and improve cognitive function in a rat model of CCH, suggesting that NBP is a promising therapy for CCH patients or vascular dementia.

  7. Hydration and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sécher, M; Ritz, P

    2012-04-01

    A clinical link exists between severe dehydration and cognitive performance. Using rapid and severe water loss induced either by intense exercise and/or heat stress, initial studies suggested there were alterations in short-term memory and cognitive function related to vision, but more recent studies have not all confirmed these data. Some studies argue that water loss is not responsible for the observations made, and studies compensating water losses have failed to prevent the symptoms. Studies in children have suggested that drinking extra water helps cognitive performance, but these data rely on a small number of children. In older adults (mean age around 60) the data are not strong enough to support a relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive function. Data on frail elderly and demented people are lacking. Methodological heterogeneity in these studies are such that the relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive performance cannot be supported.

  8. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  9. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  10. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  11. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. Effects of melatonin on changes in cognitive performances and brain malondialdehyde concentration induced by sub-chronic co-administration of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in male Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Sherifat Banke; Ambali Suleiman Folorunsho; Bisalla Mohammed; Suleiman Mohammed Musa; Onukak Charles; Ayo Joseph Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of melatonin on sub-chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP)-evoked cognitive changes in male Wistar rats. Methods:Fifty adult male Wistar rats, divided into five groups of ten rats each, were used for the study. Groups 1 and II were given distilled water and soya oil (2 mL/kg) respectively. Group III was administered with melatonin at 0.5 mg/kg only. Group IV was administered with CPF [7.96 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] and CYP [29.6 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] , and Group V was administered with CPF [7.96 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] and CYP [29.6 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] 30 min after melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 12 weeks. Thereafter, cognitive performances were determined and the brain was evaluated for malonaldehyde concentration. Results: CPF and CYP induced cognitive deficits and increased brain malonaldehyde concentration, which were all ameliorated by melatonin.Conclusion: Cognitive deficits elicited by CPF and CYP was mitigated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property.

  13. Mangiferin regulates cognitive deficits and heme oxygenase-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongzhi; Song, Chengjie; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Yi; Wu, Jian; Wen, Xiangru; Liang, Chen; Ma, Kai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Xunbao; Shao, Xiaoping; Sun, Yafeng; Du, Yang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to cognitive deficits. Mangiferin, a natural glucoxilxanthone, is known to possess various biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of mangiferin on LPS-induced cognitive deficits and explore the underlying mechanisms. Brain injury was induced in mice via intraperitoneal LPS injection (1mg/kg) for five consecutive days. Mangiferin was orally pretreatmented (50mg/kg) for seven days and then treatmented (50mg/kg) for five days after LPS injection. The Morris water maze was used to detect changes in cognitive function. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting were respectively performed to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus. The results showed that mangiferin can ameliorate cognitive deficits. Moreover, mangiferin decreased LPS-induced IL-6 production and increase HO-1 in the hippocampus. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin attenuates LPS-induced cognitive deficits, which may be potentially linked to modulating HO-1 in the hippocampus.

  14. Effect of miroestrol on ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment and lipid peroxidation in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthakantirat, Orawan; Sukano, Wichitsak; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Chulikhit, Yaowared; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2014-09-25

    Miroestrol (MR) is a phytoestrogen isolated from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (KwaoKrueaKhao), a Thai medicinal plant used for rejuvenation. We examined the effects of MR on cognitive function, oxidative brain damage, and the expression of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), factors implicated in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. OVX decreased serum 17β-estradiol level and uterine weight. OVX also impaired object recognition performance in the novel object recognition test and spatial cognitive performance in the Y-maze test and the water maze test. Daily treatment of MR dose-dependently attenuated OVX-induced cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, OVX mice had a significantly increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and down-regulated expression levels of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. MR treatment as well as hormone replacement therapy with 17β-estradiol significantly reversed these neurochemical alterations caused by OVX. These results suggest that MR ameliorates cognitive deficits in OVX animals via attenuation of OVX-induced oxidative stress and down-regulation of BDNF and CREB mRNA transcription in the brain. Our findings raise the possibility that MR and Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, the plant of origin of MR, may have a beneficial effect on cognitive deficits like AD in which menopause/ovariectomy are implicated as risk factors.

  15. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  16. Paraquat induces oxidative stress, neuronal loss in substantia nigra region and Parkinsonism in adult rats: Neuroprotection and amelioration of symptoms by water-soluble formulation of Coenzyme Q10

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    Sridhar TS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Results Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Conclusion Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of Parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses.

  17. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

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    Shichao Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture. Further mechanistic study revealed that GLP potentiated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and AKT cascades. Consistently, inhibition of FGFR1 effectively blocked the GLP-promoted NPC proliferation and activation of the downstream cascades. Our findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.•G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP improve cognition in transgenic AD mice•GLP promote neural progenitor proliferation and self-renewal to enhance neurogenesis•GLP potentiate FGFR signalingG. lucidum is a revered medicinal herb for promoting health. Pei and colleagues found that the polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLP promoted neural progenitor proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and ameliorated cognition deficits in transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice. These findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Treatment with Akebia Saponin D Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment and Neurotoxicity in Rats

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    Yongde Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ is known to be directly associated with the progressive neuronal death observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, effective neuroprotective approaches against Aβ neurotoxicity are still unavailable. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Akebia saponin D (ASD, a typical compound isolated from the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall, on Aβ1–42-induced impairment of learning and memory formation and explored the probable underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that treatment with ASD (30, 90 or 270 mg/kg significantly ameliorated impaired spatial learning and memory in intracerebroventricularly (ICV Aβ1–42-injected rats, as evidenced by a decrease tendency in escape latency during acquisition trials and improvement in exploratory activities in the probe trial in Morris water maze (MWM. Further study showed that ASD reversed Aβ1–42-induced accumulation of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the hippocampus through down-regulating the expression of BACE and Presenilin 2 accompanied with increased the expression of TACE, IDE and LRP-1. Taken together, our findings suggested that ASD exerted therapeutic effects on Aβ-induced cognitive deficits via amyloidogenic pathway.

  19. Ameliorative effects of a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid on ibotenic acid-induced dementia model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the therapeutic effects and acting mechanism of a combination of Chinese herb active components, i.e., a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid (CBJC on Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHODS: Male rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with ibotenic acid (IBO, and CBJC was orally administered. Therapeutic effect was evaluated with the Morris water maze test, FDG-PET examination, and histological examination, and the acting mechanism was studied with DNA microarrays and western blotting. RESULTS: CBJC treatment significantly attenuated IBO-induced abnormalities in cognition, brain functional images, and brain histological morphology. Additionally, the expression levels of 19 genes in the forebrain were significantly influenced by CBJC; approximately 60% of these genes were related to neuroprotection and neurogenesis, whereas others were related to anti-oxidation, protein degradation, cholesterol metabolism, stress response, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Expression of these genes was increased, except for the gene related to apoptosis. Changes in expression for 5 of these genes were confirmed by western blotting. CONCLUSION: CBJC can ameliorate the IBO-induced dementia in rats and may be significant in the treatment of AD. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to CBJC's modulation of a number of processes, mainly through promotion of neuroprotection and neurogenesis, with additional promotion of anti-oxidation, protein degradation, etc.

  20. Nicotine self-medication of cognitive-attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2009-01-01

    This article selectively reviews research concerning nicotine's effects on cognition, including the neurobiological mechanism for these effects, task and experimental features that may be important for elucidating these effects, and why these effects may have amplified motivational significance among smokers with cognitive deficit. Nicotine has effects on various cognitive processes, though most studies in humans have focused on the amelioration of cognitive deficits experienced during drug withdrawal. The direct cognitive-enhancing effect of nicotine remains a controversial topic. The relationship between attentional and non-attentional cognitive effects of nicotine is discussed in the context of cognitive self-medication. Further research should include theory-driven examination of cognitive effects of nicotine, and develop targeted smoking cessation programs based on an improved understanding of the role of cognitive self-medication in high-risk individuals.

  1. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  2. Role of Neurexin-1β and Neuroligin-1 in Cognitive Dysfunction After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; Li, Haiying; Cui, Yonghua; Zhang, Li; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 play an important role in the formation, maintenance, and regulation of synaptic structures. This study is to estimate the potential role of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Methods— In vivo, 228 Sprague–Dawley rats were used. An experimental SAH model was induced by single blood injection to prechiasmatic cistern. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic SAH in vitro. Specific small interfering RNAs and expression plasmids for neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 were exploited both in vivo and in vitro. Western blot, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, neurological scoring, and Morris water maze were performed to evaluate the mechanism of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1, as well as neurological outcome. Results— Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed SAH-induced decrease in the expressions of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 and the interaction between neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 in neurons. In addition, the interaction between neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 was reduced by their knockdown and increased by their overexpression. The formation of excitatory synapses was inhibited by oxyhemoglobin treatment, which was significantly ameliorated by overexpression of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 and aggravated by the knockdown of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1. More importantly, neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 overexpression ameliorated SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction, whereas neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 knockdown induced an opposite effect. Conclusions— Enhancing the expressions of neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 could promote the interaction between them and the formation of excitatory synapses, which is helpful to improve cognitive dysfunction after SAH. Neurexin-1β and neuroligin-1 might be good targets for improving cognitive function after SAH. PMID:26219651

  3. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-mediated memory dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by attenuating insulin resistance and elevating hippocampal GLUT4 levels independent of insulin receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Sharma, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. The effect of chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) and quercetin treatment on cognition were evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampal neuronal integrity was observed by histopathological examination. Blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits and insulin resistance was evaluated in terms of HOMA-IR index. Hippocampal insulin signaling was determined by immunofluorescence staining. CUS induced significant cognitive dysfunction (NOR and MWM) and severely damaged hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region. Quercetin treatment alleviated memory dysfunction and rescued neurons from CUS-mediated damage. Fasting blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and serum insulin were significantly elevated in stressed animals, besides, having significantly higher HOMA-IR index, suggesting the development of insulin resistance. Quercetin treatment alleviated insulin resistance and attenuated altered biochemical parameters. CUS markedly down-regulated insulin signaling in CA3 region and quercetin treatment improved neuronal GLUT4 expression, which seemed to be independent of insulin and insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that intact insulin functioning in the hippocampus is essential for cognitive functions and quercetin improves CUS-mediated cognitive dysfunction by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Cognitive Functions of Rats with Depression-Like Disorders Induced by Ultrasound Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, V M; Zubkov, E A; Morozova, A Y; Gorlova, A V; Pavlov, D A; Inozemtsev, A N; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-09-01

    We studied the effect of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functions in rats with depression-like disorder caused by exposure to ultrasound of varying frequency (20-45 kHz). Object recognition and Morris water-maze tests revealed no negative effects of the therapy on memory. Moreover, positive effect of therapy was demonstrated that manifested in amelioration of memory disturbances in depression-like disorders in these behavioral tests. The results of this study do not support the idea about side effects of electroconvulsive therapy, in particular, development of transient amnesia, and are a prerequisite for a more thorough study of internal mechanisms of the effect of the therapy on cognitive sphere.

  5. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, David; Taylor, Amy M; Barkus, Christopher; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2016-04-01

    A common strategy when searching for cognitive-enhancing drugs has been to target the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), given its putative role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Evidence in favour of this approach has come primarily from studies with rodents using behavioural assays like the Morris water maze. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of the synaptic NMDAR. Inhibiting DAO could therefore provide an effective and viable means of enhancing cognition, particularly in disorders like schizophrenia, in which NMDAR hypofunction is implicated. Indirect support for this notion comes from the enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and facilitated water maze acquisition of ddY/Dao(-) mice, which lack DAO activity due to a point mutation in the gene. Here, in Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice, we report both better and worse water maze performance, depending on the radial distance of the hidden platform from the side wall of the pool. Dao(-/-) mice displayed an increased innate preference for swimming in the periphery of the maze (possibly due to heightened anxiety), which facilitated the discovery of a peripherally located platform, but delayed the discovery of a centrally located platform. By contrast, Dao(-/-) mice exhibited normal performance in two alternative assays of long-term spatial memory: the appetitive and aversive Y-maze reference memory tasks. Taken together, these results question the proposed relationship between DAO inactivation and enhanced long-term associative spatial memory. They also have generic implications for how Morris water maze studies are performed and interpreted.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. 深圳富士康E综合工业厂房纯水系统的改善设计%Purify Water System Design Ameliorated of the Foxeonn E Colligate Industry Plant in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雷磊

    2009-01-01

    The E colligate industry plant is built to the standard garde, The plant is consisted of plateing manufacture workshop, office, the storehouse of the electron products and cleanness room. The article introduced the purify water system in the plant how to be improved,and present the design and operation of the main design parameters before and after and design experience.%E综合工业厂房按标准厂房设计,主要功能为电镀生产车间、办公、电子仓储、无尘室生产车间.介绍了该厂房的纯水设计改善前后主要设计参数及运行情况和设计体会.

  8. Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 μg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD.

  9. Inhibition of inflammation by astaxanthin alleviates cognition deficits in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Xiaotong; Chen, Jing; Wen, Xiangru; Sun, Ying; Liu, Yonghai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-11-01

    Neurons in the hippocampal and cortical functional regions are more susceptible to damage induced by hyperglycemia, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Neuroprotection ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Astaxanthin has been widely studied in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications due to its hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. However, whether astaxanthin can alleviate cognition deficits induced by DE and its precise mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, DE was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg) in ICR mice. We observed the effect of astaxanthin on cognition and investigated its potential mechanisms in DE mice. Results showed that astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the latency and enhanced the distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, neuronal survival was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the frontal cortex following treatment with astaxanthin. Meanwhile, immunoblotting was used to observe the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results indicated that astaxanthin could inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation and downregulate TNF-α expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall, the present study implied that astaxanthin could improve cognition by protecting neurons against inflammation injury potentially through inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and down-regulating TNF-α.

  10. Salidroside prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Guo-Xiang; Huang, Jian-Guo; Hou, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Yong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of salidroside on cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36) were divided into three groups (n = 12 per group): sham operation; bilateral permanent occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2-VO); 2-VO + salidroside. Rats received 20 mg/kg per day salidroside or vehicle intraperitoneal injection beginning the day before surgery and continuing until 34 days postoperatively. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze test and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) measurement. Hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was evaluated via immunofluorescence. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion caused marked cognitive deficit and LTP inhibition. These effects were largely ameliorated by salidroside administration. Salidroside prevented caspase-3 activation, increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and reversed hippocampal neuronal loss induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Salidroside prevents cognitive deficits caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats, and alleviates apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 area. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Asiaticoside attenuates diabetes-induced cognition deficits by regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhujun; Yu, Haiyang; Chen, She; Ma, Chunhua; Ma, Xiao; Xu, Lixing; Ma, Zhanqiang; Qu, Rong; Ma, Shiping

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction, referred as "diabetic encephalopathy", has been confirmed in a great deal of literature. Current evidence support that oxidative stress, inflammation, energy metabolism imbalance, and aberrant insulin signaling are associated with cognition deficits induced by diabetes. The present study explore the effect of asiaticoside on the cognition behaviors, synapses, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Asiaticoside could markedly ameliorate the performance in the Morris Water Maze (decreased latency time and path length, and increased time spent in the target quadrant), which was correlated with its capabilities of suppressing oxidative stress, restoring Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and protecting hippocampal synapses. In vitro, asiaticoside could up-regulate synaptic proteins expression via modulating Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B(AKT)/Nuclear Factor -kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with high glucose chronically. In conclusion, asiaticoside had beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, which was involved in oxidative stress, PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and synaptic function in the development of cognitive decline induced by diabetes.

  12. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. “The Mind Is Its Own Place”: Amelioration of Claustrophobia in Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla N. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are among the few intensely fearful experiences we regularly have in our everyday lives, yet the brain basis of phobic responses remains incompletely understood. Here we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with a typical clinicoanatomical syndrome of semantic dementia led by selective (predominantly right-sided temporal lobe atrophy, who showed striking amelioration of previously disabling claustrophobia following onset of her cognitive syndrome. We interpret our patient’s newfound fearlessness as an interaction of damaged limbic and autonomic responsivity with loss of the cognitive meaning of previously threatening situations. This case has implications for our understanding of brain network disintegration in semantic dementia and the neurocognitive basis of phobias more generally.

  14. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  15. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  17. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Madhunapantula, Subbarao V; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Dubala, Anil; Muthureddy Nataraj, Satish Kumar; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the loss of normal functions of brain cells and neuronal death, ultimately leading to memory loss. Recent accumulating evidences have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of anti-diabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing opportunities to explore and test the DPP-4 inhibitors for treating this fatal disease. Prior studies determining the efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM, Fabaceae) and Eugenia jambolana (EJ, Myrtaceae) extracts for ameliorating type 2 diabetes have demonstrated the DPP-4 inhibitory properties indicating the possibility of using of these extracts even for the treating AD. Therefore, in the present study, the neuroprotective roles of PM and EJ for ameliorating the streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD have been tested in rat model. Experimentally, PM and EJ extracts, at a dose range of 200 and 400mg/kg, were administered orally to STZ induced AD Wistar rats and cognitive evaluation tests were performed using radial arm maze and hole-board apparatus. Following 30 days of treatment with the extracts, a dose- and time-dependent attenuation of AD pathology, as evidenced by decreasing amyloid beta 42, total tau, phosphorylated tau and neuro-inflammation with an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels was observed. Therefore, PM and EJ extracts contain cognitive enhancers as well as neuroprotective agents against STZ induced AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The aging memory: Modulating epigenetic modifications to improve cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-09-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a major concern in society. Here, I discuss recent evidence that shows an age-related modulation of gene transcription by epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation, is unbalanced in aging, with an increase in histone deacetylation, that limits the expression of plasticity-related genes. By modifying the balance towards histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitors present a new pharmacological approach to ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits.

  20. Effect of Furfural Residue on Control of Soil Alkalization and Amelioration of Solonetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIAXING; SONGRONGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Furfural residue ,an industrial waste,is a kind of strongly acidic organic materials.Its comprehensive utilization in agriculture showed a significant effect on control of soil alkaliztion,amelioration of solonetz and increase of crop yields.In detail it may adjust pH,depress alkalinity,reduce bulk density and compactness and increase water permeability and retention ability of the soil.Meanwhile agricultural use of furfural residue provided an effective way to avoid its pollution of the soil,water and air.

  1. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the relation to social skills and functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B. Glenthøj

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

  2. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  3. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  4. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazaitis, Marius; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Steponaviciute, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2014-01-01

    Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20) or slow cooling (SC; n = 20) responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re) decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re) did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force) and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition) performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α), markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone) and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine) were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min) with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C) in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group) showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of specific

  5. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20 or slow cooling (SC; n = 20 responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α, markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  6. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  7. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  8. Critical Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Cognitive Impairment Induced by Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that cyanobacteria-derived microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR can cause hippocampal pathological damage and trigger cognitive impairment; but the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of MCLR-induced cognitive deficit; with a focus on endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. The Morris water maze test and electrophysiological study demonstrated that MCLR caused spatial memory injury in male Wistar rats; which could be inhibited by ER stress blocker; tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA. Meanwhile; real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression level of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78; C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and caspase 12 were significantly up-regulated. These effects were rescued by co-administration of TUDCA. In agreement with this; we also observed that treatment of rats with TUDCA blocked the alterations in ER ultrastructure and apoptotic cell death in CA1 neurons from rats exposed to MCLR. Taken together; the present results suggested that ER stress plays an important role in potential memory impairments in rats treated with MCLR; and amelioration of ER stress may serve as a novel strategy to alleviate damaged cognitive function triggered by MCLR.

  9. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, L.; Sellaro, R.; van Hemert, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Colzato, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Objective: Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient chan

  10. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This finding suggests that simvastatin and rosuvastatin may have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney damage via amelioration of lipid peroxidation as well as due to improvement of renal function, and lipid-lowering effects.

  11. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  12. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Wei, Gang; You, Yilin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Dong, Meng; Lin, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hanlin; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Ye, Rongcai; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhai, Baiqiang; Huang, Weidong; Liu, Shunai; Xie, Wen; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Chengbi; Li, Donghao; Zhan, Jicheng; Cheng, Jun; Yuan, Zengqiang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Rutin also induced brown-like adipocyte (beige) formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models. Mechanistically, we found that rutin directly bound to and stabilized SIRT1, leading to hypoacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein, which stimulated Tfam transactivation and eventually augmented the number of mitochondria and UCP1 activity in BAT. These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.-Yuan, X., Wei, G., You, Y., Huang, Y., Lee, H. J., Dong, M., Lin, J., Hu, T., Zhang, H., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Ye, R., Qi, X., Zhai, B., Huang, W., Liu, S., Xie, W., Liu, Q., Liu, X., Cui, C., Li, D., Zhan, J., Cheng, J., Yuan, Z., Jin, W. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation. © FASEB.

  13. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  14. Wnt7a treatment ameliorates muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Parise, Gianni; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2012-12-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscular disorder of childhood marked by progressive debilitating muscle weakness and wasting, and ultimately death in the second or third decade of life. Wnt7a signaling through its receptor Fzd7 accelerates and augments regeneration by stimulating satellite stem cell expansion through the planar cell polarity pathway, as well as myofiber hypertrophy through the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) anabolic pathway. We investigated the therapeutic potential of the secreted factor Wnt7a for focal treatment of dystrophic DMD muscles using the mdx mouse model, and found that Wnt7a treatment efficiently induced satellite cell expansion and myofiber hypertrophy in treated mucles in mdx mice. Importantly, Wnt7a treatment resulted in a significant increase in muscle strength, as determined by generation of specific force. Furthermore, Wnt7a reduced the level of contractile damage, likely by inducing a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch. Finally, we found that Wnt7a similarly induced myotube hypertrophy and a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch in human primary myotubes. Taken together, our findings suggest that Wnt7a is a promising candidate for development as an ameliorative treatment for DMD.

  15. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  16. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  17. Puerarin alleviates cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Xie, Ning; Li, Libo; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojie; Dong, Miaoxian

    2014-04-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, there is interest in developing antioxidant therapies for the prevention/treatment of cognitive decline during AD. We reported previously that puerarin has antioxidative properties in vitro. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether puerarin improves cognitive function and reduces oxidative stress in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mice, a well established AD mouse model, and explore its potential mechanism. Our results show that oral administration of puerarin significantly ameliorates cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) through, at least in part, induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice at 9 months of age, but without altering brain Aβ burden. Furthermore, puerarin significantly activated Akt, reduced activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice but did not alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, puerarin may improve cognitive performance in APP/PS1 mice through activation of the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. These findings suggest that puerarin might be an attractive agent for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  18. Resveratrol Improves Cognitive Impairment by Regulating Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of resveratrol on cognitive impairment in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Con group, n = 15, Res group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with resveratrol, n = 15, diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 15 and DM + Res group (diabetic rats treat with resveratrol, n = 15. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally to establish the diabetic model. One week after diabetic model induction, the animals in the Res group and the DM + Res group received resveratrol intraperitoneally once a day for consecutive 4 weeks. The Morris water maze test was applied to assess the effect of resveratrol on learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms of resveratrol on cognition, we detected the protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, NMDAR1 (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor and BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor via western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol has no obvious effect on normal SD rats. Compared to Con group, cognitive ability was significantly impaired with increased expression of Caspase-3, Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, NMDAR1 and BDNF in diabetic rats. By contrast, resveratrol treatment improved the cognitive decline. Evidently, resveratrol treatment reversed diabetes-induced changes of protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol significantly ameliorates cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic model rats. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect could be attributed to the inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis through the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 signaling pathways and improvement of synaptic dysfunction. BDNF may also play an indispensable role in this mechanism.

  19. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  20. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  2. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  3. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference.

  4. Intranasal telmisartan ameliorates brain pathology in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Cohen, Hagit; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2017-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major circulative system engaged in homeostasis modulation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as its main effector hormone upon binding to its primary receptor, Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R). It is well established that an intrinsic independent brain RAS exists. Abnormal AT1R activation both in the periphery and in the brain probably contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology that is characterized, among others, by brain inflammation. Moreover, treatment with drugs that block AT1R (AT1R blockers, ARBs) ameliorates most of the clinical risk factors leading to AD. Previously we showed that short period of intranasal treatment with telmisartan (a brain penetrating ARB) reduced brain inflammation and ameliorated amyloid burden (a component of Alzheimer's plaques) in AD transgenic mouse model. In the present study, we aimed to examine the long-term effect of intranasally administrated telmisartan on brain inflammation features including microglial activation, astrogliosis, neuronal loss and hippocampus-dependent cognition in five-familial AD mouse model (5XFAD). Five month of intranasal treatment with telmisartan significantly reduced amyloid burden in the cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice as compared with the vehicle-treated 5XFAD group. Similar effects were also observed for CD11b staining, which is a marker for microglial accumulation. Telmisartan also significantly reduced astrogliosis and neuronal loss in the cortex of 5XFAD mice compared with the vehicle-treated group. Improved spatial acquisition of the 5XFAD mice following long-term intranasal administration of telmisartan was also observed. Taken together, our data suggest a significant role for AT1R blockage in mediating neuronal loss and cognitive behavior, possibly through regulation of amyloid burden and glial inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  6. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  7. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment, accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD.

  8. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  9. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  10. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients are disproport......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...... for cognitive neuropsychology are opened up. The questions addressed in this symposium is whether the questions posed by cognitive neuropsychology are still relevant, and whether new methods can spark a new interest in the field, or if the time has passed when the observation of single and double dissociations...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk...

  11. Dehydration and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Ann C; Grandjean, Nicole R

    2007-10-01

    Human neuropsychology investigates brain-behavior relationships, using objective tools (neurological tests) to tie the biological and behavior aspects together. The use of neuropsychological assessment tools in assessing potential effects of dehydration is a natural progression of the scientific pursuit to understand the physical and mental ramifications of dehydration. It has long been known that dehydration negatively affects physical performance. Examining the effects of hydration status on cognitive function is a relatively new area of research, resulting in part from our increased understanding of hydration's impact on physical performance and advances in the discipline of cognitive neuropsychology. The available research in this area, albeit sparse, indicates that decrements in physical, visuomotor, psychomotor, and cognitive performance can occur when 2% or more of body weight is lost due to water restriction, heat, and/or physical exertion. Additional research is needed, especially studies designed to reduce, if not remove, the limitations of studies conducted to date.

  12. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  13. Amelioration of painful crises in sickle cell disease by venesections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombos, Yannis; Tzanetea, Revekka; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Simitzis, Spyros; Tassiopoulos, Thomas; Aessopos, Athanasios; Fessas, Phaedon

    2002-01-01

    Sickle cell disease patients who acquire iron deficiency may experience a degree of amelioration from painful crises in terms of frequency, severity, and duration. This observation prompted us to identify the potential utility of iron load reduction in the management of this disease. Thirteen sickle cell patients not ameliorated by conventional treatment entered a weekly venesection protocol. Hematological values and painful crises of all degrees of severity were recorded and compared to those of the last 12 months before venesection for each case separately ("historical controls"). A decrease was noted in the frequency and intensity of several types of painful crises. Reduction of iron load by venesection seems to be a simple, safe, side-effect-free, and efficient way of preventing and ameliorating to a large extent painful crises in sickle cell disease. The biological effects of venesection on other parameters of sickle cell disease remain to be determined.

  14. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide facilitates glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus and effectively prevents vascular dementia induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Yao, Yang; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chunxiao; Wang, Faqi; Guo, Jie; Wang, Zhiyun; Yang, Zhuo; Ming, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been proved to be an important neuromodulator in the brain and involved in a variety of neurological diseases. Whether GRP could attenuate cognition impairment induced by vascular dementia (VD) in rats, and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity and GRP's action on synaptic efficiency are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigated the effects of GRP on glutamatergic transmission with patch-clamp recording. We found that acute application of GRP enhanced the excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons via GRPR in a presynaptic mechanism. Secondly, we examined whether exogenous GRP or its analogue neuromedin B (NMB) could prevent VD-induced cognitive deficits and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity. By using Morris water maze, long-term potentiation (LTP) recording, western blot assay and immunofluorescent staining, we verified for the first time that GRP or NMB substantially improved the spatial learning and memory abilities in VD rats, restored the impaired synaptic plasticity and was able to elevate the expression of synaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and CaMKII, which play pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that the facilitatory effects of GRP on glutamate release may contribute to its long-term action on synaptic efficacy which is essential in cognitive function. Our findings present a new entry point for a better understanding of physiological function of GRP and raise the possibility that GRPR agonists might ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with neurological diseases.

  16. Neuroprotective effect and mechanism of daucosterol palmitate in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Zhong-Qi; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and cognitive impairment. Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the causative role for the pathogenesis of AD. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Aβ neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity. Daucosterol palmitate (DSP), a plant steroid with anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect, was isolated from the anti-aging traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. in our previous study. Based on the anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect of DSP, in this study we investigated potential benefit and mechanism of DSP in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in AD model rats. Results from this study showed that DSP administration effectively ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in rats, markedly inhibited Aβ-induced hippocampal ROS production, effectively prevented Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and significantly restored hippocampal synaptophysin expression level. This study suggests that DSP may be a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for AD cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self...

  18. Spatial cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  19. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need......, cognitive psychology, and semantics. However, machine learning for signal processing plays a key role at all the levels of the cognitive processes, and we expect this to be a new emerging trend in our community in the coming years. Current examples of the use of machine learning for signal processing...

  20. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decline tend to occur in parallel as the disease progresses. Significant cognitive impairment in PD is often associated with: Caregiver distress Worse day-to-day function Diminished quality of life Poorer treatment outcomes Greater medical costs due to ...

  1. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    dysfunction in MDD. Several other novel agents may be repurposed as cognitive enhancers for MDD treatment, including minocycline, insulin, antidiabetic agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, S-adenosyl methionine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, modafinil......BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD...

  2. Cognitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Levesque, Hector J.; Lakemeyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Ray Reiter. It is also an overview of cognitive robotics, as we understand it to have been envisaged by him.1 Of course, nobody can control the use of a term or the direction of research. We apologize in advance to those who feel that other approaches to cognitive robotics and related problems are inadequately represented here.

  3. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  4. Cognitive Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Nyord, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics is an influential branch of linguistics, which has played an increasing role in different areas of Egyptology over the last couple of decades. Concepts from cognitive linguistics have been especially influential in the study of determinatives/classifiers in the hieroglyphic script, but they have also proven useful to elucidate a number of other questions, both narrowly linguistic and more broadly cultural historical.

  5. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  6. Salidroside, a Bioactive Compound of Rhodiola Rosea, Ameliorates Memory and Emotional Behavior in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Agostino; Mammana, Leonardo; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Gulisano, Walter; Puzzo, Daniela

    2016-02-26

    Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) is a plant used in traditional popular medicine to enhance cognition and physical performance. R. Rosea medicinal properties have been related to its capability to act as an adaptogen, i.e., a substance able to increase the organism's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors in a non-specific way. These adaptogen properties have been mainly attributed to the glycoside salidroside, one of the bioactive compounds present in the standardized extracts of R. Rosea. Here, we aimed to investigate whether a single dose of salidroside is able to affect memory and emotional behavior in wild type adult mice. We performed fear conditioning to assess cued and contextual memory, elevated plus maze and open field to evaluate anxiety, and tail suspension test to evaluate depression. Our results showed that a single i.p. administration of salidroside was able to enhance fear memory and exerted an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect. These data confirmed the adaptogenic effect of R. Rosea bioactive compounds in animal models and suggest that salidroside might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to ameliorate cognition and counteract mood disorders.

  7. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  8. Offloading Cognition onto Cognitive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dror, Itiel

    2008-01-01

    "Cognizing" (i.e., thinking, understanding, knowing, and having the capacity to do what cognizers can do) is a mental state. Systems without mental states, such as cognitive technology, can sometimes also do some of what cognizers can do, but that does not make them cognizers. Cognitive technology allows cognizers to offload some of the functions they would otherwise have had to execute with their own brains and bodies alone; it also extends cognizers' performance powers beyond those of brains and bodies alone. Language itself is a form of cognitive technology that allows cognizers to offload some of their brain functions onto the brains of other cognizers. Language also extends cognizers' individual and joint performance powers, distributing the load through interactive and collaborative cognition. Reading, writing, print, telecommunications and computing further extend cognizers' capacities. And now the web, with its distributed network of cognizers, digital databases and sofware agents, has become the Cogn...

  9. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  10. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  11. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Swiss Albino ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of vitamin B-complex on the nephrotoxicity of ... increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug ...

  12. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  13. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats.

  14. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  15. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  16. Pain ameliorating effect of eye movement desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, H; Groth, S; Rogers, D

    1994-06-01

    This study explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) in the management of acute pain induced by hand exposures to ice water. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, (b) eye movement desensitization with music (EMD/M), and (c) control. The EMD/R participants focused on negative experiences associated with exposure to ice water, generated positive self-talk, and diverted their attention away from pain by focusing on a rapidly moving light on a monitor. The EMD with music group received eye movement desensitization coupled with preferred music. Repeated measures univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that both procedures alleviated participants' pain to a similar degree and significantly more than the control, P < 0.05.

  17. Natural Amelioration in Flooded Mine Shafts and Related Changes in Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Cox, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Metal and sulfate concentrations have decreased in nine flooded mine shafts in Butte, Montana since mining operations ceased in 1982. In addition to our data, thirty years of groundwater monitoring data provided by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) indicated that each site continues to undergo natural amelioration - defined as a reduction in dissolved metal and sulfate concentrations and an increase in pH without assisted remediation or water treatment. Microbiological and water samples taken from these nine mines represented three distinct geochemical zones. The groundwater divide located between these zones separates differences in sulfate and carbonate bedrock composition, which contributes to changes in water-rock interactions. The MBMG recorded sulfate levels as high as 100 mM and metal concentrations at 375, 2.69, and 10,800 mM for Cu, Fe, and Zn, respectively, upon initial shutdown of the mines. Over time, pH values have increased by 0.5 to 2 and metal concentrations have decreased by several orders of magnitude. Notable exceptions to amelioration were three mines (Anselmo, Steward, and Kelley) located east of the groundwater divide. These mines were lower in pH (between 3.5-6.5) than the west (between 6.0-7.5), contained trace amounts of sulfide (0.3-0.5 µM), were lower in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations than the west side (an average of 100 mg/L versus 200 mg/L), and contained reduced iron(II) and arsenic(III) species. In the Anselmo and Steward, arsenic levels have been increasing at rates of 0.2 and 1.4 µMyr-1 and iron levels at 29.5 and 105.3 µMyr-1, respectively. Increasing arsenic concentrations at a rate of 5.3 µMyr-1 were also measured in the Kelley but iron concentrations were decreasing at a rate of 1392 µMyr-1. In addition, the pH in the Kelley mine has continuously decreased since 1990 for a total change of one pH unit, and the temperature has increased by 18°C. Combining aqueous geochemistry and microbial diversity

  18. Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia buergeriana in scopolamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Yong; Kim, Seung Hyun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2008-06-24

    The cognitive-enhancing activities of E-harpagoside and 8-O-E-p-methoxycinnamoylharpagide (MCA-Hg) isolated from Scrophularia buergeriana were evaluated in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice by the Morris water maze and by passive avoidance tests. E-harpagoside and MCA-Hg significantly improved the impairment of reference memory induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze test. The mean escape latency, the mean path length and swimming movement were also improved by both compounds. In passive avoidance test, E-harpagoside and MCA-Hg (2 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced amnesia by as much as 70% of the level found in normal control mice. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and the most widely used drug for AD treatment was employed as a positive control. The activity of acetylcholinesterase was inhibited significantly by E-harpagoside or MCA-Hg within the cortex and hippocampus to a level similar to that observed in mice treated with donepezil (2 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). Moreover, treatment with E-harpagoside or MCA-Hg to scopolamine-induced amnesic mice significantly decreased TBARS level which was accompanied by an increase in the activities or contents of glutathione reductase, SOD and reduced GSH. We believe these data demonstrate that E-harpagoside or MCA-Hg exerted potent cognitive-enhancing activity through both anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant mechanisms.

  19. Piromelatine ameliorates memory deficits associated with chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wan; Xie, Heng; Laudon, Moshe; Zhou, Shouhong; Tian, Shaowen; You, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that piromelatine (a melatonin and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D agonist) exerts an antidepressant activity in rodent models of acute stress and improves cognitive impairments in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of piromelatine in chronic stress-induced memory dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether piromelatine ameliorates chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced memory deficits and explore the underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed randomly to chronic mild stressors for 7 weeks to induce anhedonia (reflected by a significant decrease in sucrose intake), which was used to select rats vulnerable (CMS-anhedonic, CMSA) or resistant (CMS-resistant, CMSR) to stress. Piromelatine (50 mg/kg) was administered daily during the last 2 weeks of CMS. The tail suspension and forced swimming tests were adopted to further characterize vulnerable and resilient rats. The Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests were used to evaluate memory performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and cytogenesis were measured in the hippocampus. We found that only CMSA rats displayed significant increases in immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests; memory deficits in the Y-maze and NOR tests; significant decreases in hippocampal BDNF, CREB, and pCREB expression; and cytogenesis. All these anhedonia-associated effects were reversed by piromelatine. Piromelatine ameliorates memory deficits associated with CMS-induced anhedonia in rats and this effect may be mediated by restoring hippocampal BDNF, CREB, and cytogenesis deficits.

  20. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  1. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    ...: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition...

  2. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavinder; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2009-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis. DSS (2%) was administered orally in drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. The extent and severity of ulceration was analysed macroscopically, histopathologically and using a disease activity index. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of inflammation; histamine, a marker of mast cell degranulation; superoxide anion generation and, lipid peroxides were analysed. Administration of DSS resulted in a significant development of ulceration in the colon along with a rise in histamine, MPO activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic inflammation along with attenuation of histamine, MPO and oxidative stress. The antiulcerative effect of Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction were comparable to sulphasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg/kg i.p). It is concluded that Punica granatum has a potential for ameliorating DSS-induced colitis and its ellagic acid rich fraction may be responsible for this effect. Further, the antiulcerative effects may be attributed to mast cell stabilizing, antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions.

  4. Exogenous iodide ameliorates perchlorate-induced thyroid phenotypes in threespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M; von Hippel, Frank A; Adams, Elise M; Dillon, Danielle M; Petersen, Ann M; Postlethwait, John H; Cresko, William A; Buck, C Loren

    2017-03-01

    Perchlorate is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has widespread endocrine disrupting effects in vertebrates, including threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The target of perchlorate is thyroid tissue where it induces changes in the organization, activation, and morphology of thyroid follicles and surrounding tissues. To test the hypothesis that some phenotypes of perchlorate toxicity are not mediated by thyroid hormone, we chronically exposed stickleback beginning at fertilization to perchlorate (10, 30, 100ppm) or control water with and without supplementation of either iodide or thyroxine (T4). Stickleback were sampled across a one-year timespan to identify potential differences in responses to treatment combinations before and after sexual maturation. We found that most thyroid histomorphological phenotypes induced by perchlorate (follicle proliferation, reduced follicle area (adults only), colloid depletion, thyrocyte hypertrophy (subadults only)) were significantly ameliorated by exogenous iodide supplementation. In contrast, treatment with exogenous T4 did not correct any of the thyroid-specific histopathologies induced by perchlorate. Whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by perchlorate exposure; however, supplementation with iodide and T4 significantly increased T4 concentrations. This study also revealed an increased erythrocyte area in the thyroid region of perchlorate-exposed adults, while lipid droplet number increased in perchlorate-exposed subadults. Increased erythrocyte area was ameliorated by both iodide and T4, while neither supplement was able to correct lipid droplet number. Our finding on lipid droplets indicates that exposure to perchlorate in early development may have obesogenic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Panagea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  6. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  7. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  8. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  9. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  10. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  11. Late treatment with choline alfoscerate (l-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, α-GPC) increases hippocampal neurogenesis and provides protection against seizure-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kho, A Ra; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Choi, Hui Chul; Suh, Sang Won

    2017-01-01

    Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) is a common choline compound and acetylcholine precursor in the brain, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. α-GPC has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer's patients but currently remains untested in patients suffering from epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate whether α-GPC treatment after seizure can ameliorate seizure-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. The potential therapeutic effects of α-GPC on seizure-induced cognitive impairment were tested in an animal model of pilocarpine-induced seizure. Seizures were induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in male rats. α-GPC (250mg/kg) was injected into the intramuscular space once daily for one or three weeks from immediately after seizure, or from 3 weeks after the seizure onset for 3 weeks. Here we found that immediate 1-week treatment of α-GPC showed no neuroprotective effects and neurogenesis. Immediate 3-week treatment of α-GPC showed neuroprotective effect but no effect on neurogenesis. To evaluate the effect of late treatment of α-GPC on cognitive impairment following seizure, rats were injected α-GPC from 3 weeks after seizure for 3 weeks and subjected to a water maze test. In the present study, we found that administration of α-GPC starting at 3 weeks after seizure improved cognitive function through reduced neuronal death and BBB disruption, and increased neurogenesis. Therefore, α-GPC injection may serve as a beneficial treatment for improvement of cognitive function in epilepsy patients.

  12. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunwar; Shailubhai; Vaseem; Palejwala; Krishna; Priya; Arjunan; Sayali; Saykhedkar; Bradley; Nefsky; John; A; Foss; Stephen; Comiskey; Gary; S; Jacob; Scott; E; Plevy

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administeredplecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models.METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cG MP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cellbased assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid(5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic(TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout(TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity.RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C(GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cG MP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs(0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity(P < 0.05) and disease activity index(P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first

  13. The role of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the amelioration of MK-801-induced learning and memory deficits by the novel atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Toma, Satoko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Ono, Michiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-05-01

    Lurasidone is a novel atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. We previously reported that lurasidone and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104-A improved learning and memory deficits induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in the rat passive avoidance test. In this study, we first examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone in its pro-cognitive effect to ameliorate MK-801-induced deficits in the rat passive avoidance test. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19, (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino) tetralin, (3 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the attenuating effects of lurasidone (3 mg/kg, p.o.), highlighting the importance of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the pro-cognitive effect of lurasidone. AS19 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked the ameliorating effect of SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the same experimental paradigm. To further extend our observation, we next tested whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonism still led to the amelioration of MK-801-induced deficits when combined with D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and found that SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits even in the presence of the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone plays an important role in its effectiveness against MK-801-induced deficits, and may contribute to its pharmacological actions in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  15. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  16. Transplanted bone marrow stromal cells protect neurovascular units and ameliorate brain damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Taku; Maruichi, Katsuhiko; Kawabori, Masahito; Nakayama, Naoki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) could ameliorate brain damage when transplanted into the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). The BMSC or vehicle was stereotactically engrafted into the striatum of male SHR-SP at 8 weeks of age. Daily loading with 0.5% NaCl-containing water was started from 9 weeks. MRIs and histological analysis were performed at 11 and 12 weeks, respectively. Wistar-Kyoto rats were employed as the control. As a result, T2-weighted images demonstrated neither cerebral infarct nor intracerebral hemorrhage, but identified abnormal dilatation of the lateral ventricles in SHR-SP. HE staining demonstrated selective neuronal injury in their neocortices. Double fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed that they had a decreased density of the collagen IV-positive microvessels and a decreased number of the microvessels with normal integrity between basement membrane and astrocyte end-feet. BMSC transplantation significantly ameliorated the ventricular dilatation and the breakdown of neurovascular integrity. These findings strongly suggest that long-lasting hypertension may primarily damage neurovascular integrity and neurons, leading to tissue atrophy and ventricular dilatation prior to the occurrence of cerebral stroke. The BMSC may ameliorate these damaging processes when directly transplanted into the brain, opening the possibility of prophylactic medicine to prevent microvascular and parenchymal-damaging processes in hypertensive patients at higher risk for cerebral stroke.

  17. Environmental enrichment mitigates cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowsky, Joanna L; Melnikova, Tatiana; Fadale, Daniel J; Xu, Guilian M; Slunt, Hilda H; Gonzales, Victoria; Younkin, Linda H; Younkin, Steven G; Borchelt, David R; Savonenko, Alena V

    2005-05-25

    Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with greater education or more cognitively demanding occupations have diminished risk of developing dementia. We wanted to test whether this effect could be recapitulated in rodents using environmental enrichment, a paradigm well documented to attenuate behavioral deficits induced by various pathological insults. Here, we demonstrate that learning and memory deficits observed in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease can be ameliorated by enrichment. Female transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilin-1 and nontransgenic controls were placed into enriched or standard cages at 2 months of age and tested for cognitive behavior after 6 months of differential housing. Enrichment significantly improved performance of all genotypes in the radial water maze and in the classic and repeated-reversal versions of the Morris water maze. However, enrichment did not benefit all genotypes equally. Mice overproducing amyloid-beta (Abeta), particularly those with amyloid deposits, showed weaker memory for the platform location in the classic Morris water maze and learned new platform positions in the repeated-reversals task less quickly than their nontransgenic cagemates. Nonetheless, enrichment normalized the performance of Abeta-overproducing mice to the level of standard-housed nontransgenic mice. Moreover, this functional preservation occurred despite increased neuritic plaque burden in the hippocampus of double-transgenic animals and elevated steady-state Abeta levels, because both endogenous and transgene-derived Abeta are increased in enriched animals. These results demonstrate that the generation of Abeta in vivo and its impact on the function of the nervous system can be strongly modulated by environmental factors.

  18. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  19. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic effects in the catfish and its amelioration with co-contamination with glyphosate. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  20. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  1. Pycnogenol ameliorates depression-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  2. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT- treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  3. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE.

  4. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n=109 and the Active Control Group (n=100. Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  5. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  6. Arsenic toxicity in mice and its possible amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. J. Verma; Archana Vasu, Abdu; Alim Saiyed

    2004-01-01

    Oral administration of arsenic trioxide(3 and 6 mg/kg body weight/d) for 30 d caused, as compared with vehicle control, dose- dependent significant reductions in body weight, absolute weight, protein, glycogen, as well as, total, dehydro and reduced ascorbic acid contents both in the liver) and kidney of arsenic- treated mice. Succinic dehydrogenase(SDH) and phosphorylase(only in the liver activities were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased in the liver of low dose arsenic-treated animals; however, significant rise in its activity was observed in high dose group. As compared with vehicle control, treatment also caused significant dose-dependent reductions in SDH, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities in the kidney of mice. Vitamin E cotreatment as well as, 30 d withdrawal of arsenic trioxide treatment with or without vitamin E caused significant amelioration in arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Administration of vitamin E during withdrawal of treatment also caused significant amelioration as compared from only withdrawal of the treatment. It is concluded that vitamin E ameliorates arsenic-induced toxicities in the liver and kidney of mice.

  7. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  8. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    in the experiment were selected based on their entrepreneurial intentions, with a high degree of comparability and a limited impact of prior entrepreneurial experience. The data include measures of behavior in situations of risk and uncertainty with real monetary incentives, risk perception, and a number...... of individual characteristics, including personality traits, cognitive biases, and demographics. In the first essay, I explore how individuals with and without entrepreneurial intentions differ in terms of risk behavior by testing their sensitivity to prior monetary outcomes and an increasing degree of risk...... faced with risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this latter stream of research by examining how individuals differ in their cognition and behaviors in situations of risk and uncertainty in a controlled environment. More specifically, the dissertation explores how...

  9. Anti-amnesic effect of Dendropanax morbifera via JNK signaling pathway on cognitive dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Kang, Jin Yong; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-10-01

    The ameliorating effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from Dendropanax morbifera (EFDM) on cognitive impairment in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice were examined by measuring its possible pharmacological activities. Administration of EFDM (20 and 50mg/kg body weight) in HFD-induced diabetic mice significantly improved glucose tolerance status in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In animal experiments using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests, the cognitive and behavioral disorders in HFD-induced diabetic mice were considerably recovered by regulating cholinergic systems, including acetylcholine (ACh) levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and antioxidant systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, HFD-induced abnormal activity of mitochondria were also significantly protected by the improvement of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathway with phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (p-IRS), serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). Finally, rutin, orientin, isoorientin, and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside as the main phenolics of EFDM were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS(2)). These findings suggest that EFDM may have an effect as a multiple preventive substances to reduce diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.

  10. Chronic Dehydration and Regularly Drinking Water to Mitigate Age-Related Cognitive Impairment%慢性脱水与老年认知损伤及饮水干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 强敏; 赫荣乔

    2012-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment undergoes a continuous progression:pre-mild cognitive impairment(preMCI),mild cognitive impairment(MCI)and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). So far,chronic dehydration is regarded as a common symptom for the patients with age-related cognitive impairment,in particular of those with AD. Monitored with an infrared-CCD camera,a marked decrease in the drinking frequency(P65 years old)and in the hippocampus of Alzheimer’s patients. Regularly drinking water relieves not only chronic dehydration for aging people,but also significantly decreases the concentration of endogenous formaldehyde, which may offer protection of central nervous system. Therefore,building the habit to regularly drink water should be emphasized at the early stage to relieve chronic dehydration and scavenge cytotoxic metabolic products including formaldehyde for aging people,which might be beneficial to mitigate age-related cognitive impairment at its early stage.%老年认知损伤被认为是一个连续发展的病理生理学过程,包括轻度认知损伤前期(pre-mild cognitive impairment,pre-MCI)、轻度认知损伤(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)、阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer’s disease, AD)三个阶段,慢性脱水是老年性痴呆患者共同具有的一种特征。红外线摄像监控C57 BL/6小鼠饮水频率和饮水量的结果显示,老龄鼠的饮水频率和饮水量均较年轻对照组显著减少(P65岁)而逐渐升高,且AD病人脑内甲醛含量也显著升高。研究表明,甲醛代谢失调所造成的中枢神经系统慢性损伤被认为是老年认知损伤的原因之一,合理饮水不但可以改善老龄化人群的慢性脱水状态,同时能够明显降低体内的甲醛浓度,防止甲醛过量对中枢神经系统的危害,因此,合理饮水习惯的建立,被认为是减缓中老年人慢性脱水和体内细胞毒性代谢产物累积的方法之一,也可能在某种程度上,起

  11. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    approaches vary but most involve machine learning and data mining techniques and specific computational methods will be highlighted. Digital traces from...dynamics (which are a behavioral biometric) with linguistic features (Juola et al. 2013). Linguistic features include lexical statis- tics (e.g., word...concerning aggregated features suggesting the possibility of similar computational approaches in cap- turing a cognitive fingerprint. Prior work in Web

  12. Nonquantum Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha

    2012-01-01

    The Hilbert space structure of classical field theory is proposed as a general theoretical framework to model human cognitive processes which do not often follow classical (Bayesian) probability principles. This leads to an extension of the circumplex model of affect and a Poincar\\'{e} sphere representation. A specific toy field theoretic model of the brain as a coherent structure in the presence of noise is also proposed that agrees qualitatively with Pavlovian fear conditioning studies.

  13. Heightened inflammasome activation is linked to age-related cognitive impairment in Fischer 344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawhinney Lana J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the mammalian nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (LRR-containing receptor (NLR family of proteins are key modulators of innate immunity regulating inflammation. Our previous work has shown that among the members of this family, NLRP1/NALP1, present in neurons, plays a crucial role in inflammasome formation and the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL -1β and IL-18 after various types of central nervous system injury. Results We investigated whether age-related cognitive decline may involve a heightened inflammatory response associated with activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome in the hippocampus. Young (3 months and aged (18 months male Fischer 344 rats were tested in a spatial acquisition task via Morris water maze. Following behavioral testing, hippocampal lysates were assayed for expression of NLRP1 inflammasome components and inflammatory cytokines. Hippocampal lysates from aged rats showed significantly higher levels of NLRP1 inflammasome constituents, caspase-1, caspase-11, the purinergic receptor P2X7, pannexin-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP than lysates from younger animals. Following treatment with probenecid, an inhibitor or pannexin-1, aged animals demonstrated reduction in inflammasome activation and improvement in spatial learning performance. Conclusions Our behavioral findings are consistent with increases in IL-1β and IL-18 that have been previously shown to correlate with spatial learning deficits. Probenecid reduced activated caspase-1 and ameliorated spatial learning deficits in aged rats. Thus, aging processes stimulate activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that may contribute to age-related cognitive decline in the growing elderly population. Moreover, probenecid may be potentially useful as a therapy to improve cognitive outcomes in the aging population.

  14. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  15. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics.

  16. miR-196a Ameliorates Cytotoxicity and Cellular Phenotype in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Monkey Neural Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard L.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Yang, Jinjing; Parnpai, Rangsun; Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that leads to motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment. Currently there is no cure for HD. A transgenic HD nonhuman primate (HD-NHP) model was developed with progressive development of clinical and pathological features similar to human HD, which suggested the potential preclinical application of the HD-NHP model. Elevated expression of miR-196a was observed in both HD-NHP and human HD brains. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were ameliorated by the overexpression of miR-196a in HD-NHP neural progenitor cells (HD-NPCs) and differentiated neural cells (HD-NCs). The expression of apoptosis related gene was also down regulated. Mitochondrial morphology and activity were improved as indicated by mitotracker staining and the upregulation of CBP and PGC-1α in HD-NPCs overexpressing miR-196a. Here we demonstrated the amelioration of HD cellular phenotypes in HD-NPCs and HD-NCs overexpressing miR-196a. Our results also suggested the regulatory role of miR-196a in HD pathogenesis that may hold the key for understanding molecular regulation in HD and developing novel therapeutics. PMID:27631085

  17. A pilot study of iPad-assisted cognitive training for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jin; Zhang, Jiangtao; Guo, Zhongwei; Lu, Weihong; Cai, Jun; Shi, Zhongying; Zhang, Chen

    2014-06-01

    In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether iPad-assisted cognitive training could be beneficial in ameliorating some of the cognitive impairment that accompany schizophrenia. Totally, 20 first-episode schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to an experiment group (with cognitive training) or to a control group (without cognitive training). The N-back task was assessed at baseline and after intervention, to see what effects iPad-assisted training might have (week 4). The experimental group exhibited significant improvement in the accuracy rate at 2-back, and reaction time at 0, 1 and 2-back tasks. These findings suggest that iPad- or other technically-assisted cognitive training may potentially be a valid strategy for pursuing cognitive rehabilitation among those with schizophrenia.

  18. Cognitive Remediation for Individuals with Psychosis in a Supported Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Kidd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation (CR is a treatment approach that is being increasingly examined as a means through which the cognitive impacts of schizophrenia might be ameliorated. While CR has demonstrated good outcomes when paired with supported employment, little is known regarding how it might be integrated within supported education contexts. In this study CR was examined in a supported education context with 16 individuals with psychosis. The findings indicated that CR aligned well with the academic curriculum with very low attrition, was found useful by students, and showed similar pre-post differences on cognitive measures as those found in previous work.

  19. 1,2-Dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by preventing neuronal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguchi Takahiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has pointed that a variety of lipids could exert their beneficial actions against dementia including Alzheimer disease and age-related cognitive decline via diverse signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced neuronal apoptosis, on the other hand, is a critical factor for pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, senile dementia, and ischemic neuronal damage. The present study examined the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPhtEtn, a phospholipid, on ER stress-induced neuronal death and age-related cognitive disorders. Methods PC-12 cell viability was assayed before and after treatment with amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin in the presence and absence of DLPhtEtn. A series of behavioral tests were performed for senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice after 7-month oral administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG or DLPhtEtn and then, the number of hippocampal neurons was counted. Results Amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin is capable of causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. DLPhtEtn (30 μM significantly inhibited PC-12 cell death induced by amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin. In the water maze test, oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months (three times a week significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for SAMP8 mice. In contrast, DLPhtEtn had no effect on the acquisition and retention latencies in both the open field test and the passive avoidance test for SAMP8 mice. Oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months prevented a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons for SAMP8 mice. Conclusion The results of the present study show that DLPhtEtn ameliorates age-related spatial memory decline without affecting motor activities or fear memory, possibly by protecting hippocampal neuronal death. DLPhtEtn, thus, might exert its beneficial action against

  20. 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by preventing neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-09-13

    Accumulating evidence has pointed that a variety of lipids could exert their beneficial actions against dementia including Alzheimer disease and age-related cognitive decline via diverse signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal apoptosis, on the other hand, is a critical factor for pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, senile dementia, and ischemic neuronal damage. The present study examined the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPhtEtn), a phospholipid, on ER stress-induced neuronal death and age-related cognitive disorders. PC-12 cell viability was assayed before and after treatment with amyloid-β(1-40) peptide or thapsigargin in the presence and absence of DLPhtEtn. A series of behavioral tests were performed for senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice after 7-month oral administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or DLPhtEtn and then, the number of hippocampal neurons was counted. Amyloid-β(1-40) peptide or thapsigargin is capable of causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. DLPhtEtn (30 μM) significantly inhibited PC-12 cell death induced by amyloid-β(1-40) peptide or thapsigargin. In the water maze test, oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg) for 7 months (three times a week) significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for SAMP8 mice. In contrast, DLPhtEtn had no effect on the acquisition and retention latencies in both the open field test and the passive avoidance test for SAMP8 mice. Oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg) for 7 months prevented a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons for SAMP8 mice. The results of the present study show that DLPhtEtn ameliorates age-related spatial memory decline without affecting motor activities or fear memory, possibly by protecting hippocampal neuronal death. DLPhtEtn, thus, might exert its beneficial action against senile dementia and neurodegenerative diseases such as

  1. A Case Study of Cognitive and Biophysical Models of Education as Linked to Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive and biophysical factors have been considered contributors linked to identifiable markers of obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders. Research demonstrates multiple causes and mixed results for the short-term success of educational programs designed to ameliorate problems that children with obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders…

  2. PSD-93 Attenuates Amyloid-β-Mediated Cognitive Dysfunction by Promoting the Catabolism of Amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linjie; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaolei; Cao, Xiang; Gao, Jun; Zhao, Hui; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postsynaptic density protein 93 (PSD-93) is a key scaffolding protein enriched at postsynaptic sites. The aim of the present study was to examine whether PSD-93 overexpression could alleviate Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice by reducing Aβ levels in the brain. The level of PSD-93 was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Following lentivirus-mediated PSD-93 overexpression, cognitive function, synaptic function, and amyloid burden were investigated. The open field test, Morris water maze test, and fear condition test revealed that PSD-93 overexpression ameliorated spatial memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. The facilitation of long-term potentiation induction was observed in APP/PS1 mice after PSD-93 overexpression. The expression of somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4) and neprilysin was increased, while the amyloid plaque load and Aβ levels were decreased in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, PSD-93 interacted with SSTR4 and affected the level of SSTR4 on cell membrane, which was associated with the ubiquitination. Together, these findings suggest that PSD-93 attenuates spatial memory deficits and decreases amyloid levels in APP/PS1 mice, which might be associated with Aβ catabolism, and overexpression of PSD-93 might be a potential therapy for AD.

  3. Effects of estradiol on cognition and hippocampal pathology after lateral fluid percussion brain injury in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebesgue, Diane; LeBold, David G; Surles, Nathan O; Morales, Diego M; Etgen, Anne M; Zukin, R Suzanne; Saatman, Kathryn E

    2006-12-01

    Studies involving animal models of acute central nervous system (CNS) stroke and trauma strongly indicate that sex and/or hormonal status are important determinants of outcome after brain injury. The present study was undertaken to examine the ability of estradiol to protect hippocampal neurons from lateral fluid percussion brain injury. Sprague-Dawley female rats (211-285 g; n = 119) were ovariectomized, and a subset (n = 66) were implanted with 17beta-estradiol pellets to provide near physiological levels of estradiol. Animals were subjected to lateral fluid percussion brain injury or sham injury 1 week later. Activation of caspase-3 (n = 26) and TUNEL staining (n = 21) were assessed at 3 and 12 h after injury, respectively, in surviving control and estradiol-treated animals. Memory retention was examined using a Morris water maze test in a separate subset of animals (n = 43) at 8 days after injury. Activated caspase-3 and TUNEL staining were observed in the dentate hilus, granule cell layer, and CA3 regions in all injured rats, indicative of selective hippocampal cell apoptosis in the acute posttraumatic period. Estradiol did not significantly alter the number of hippocampal neurons exhibiting caspase-3 activity or TUNEL staining. Brain injury impaired cognitive ability, assessed at 1 week post-injury (p < 0.001). However, estradiol at physiological levels did not significantly alter injury-induced loss of memory. These data indicate that estradiol at physiological levels does not ameliorate trauma-induced hippocampal injury or cognitive deficits in ovariectomized female rats.

  4. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  5. Lycopene Pretreatment Ameliorates Acute Ethanol Induced NAD+ Depletion in Human Astroglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Guest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with reduced brain volume and cognition. While the mechanisms by which ethanol induces these deleterious effects in vivo are varied most are associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative processes. In order to further characterise the effect of acute ethanol exposure on oxidative damage and NAD+ levels in the brain, human U251 astroglioma cells were exposed to physiologically relevant doses of ethanol (11 mM, 22 mM, 65 mM, and 100 mM for ≤ 30 minutes. Ethanol exposure resulted in a dose dependent increase in both ROS and poly(ADP-ribose polymer production. Significant decreases in total NAD(H and sirtuin 1 activity were also observed at concentrations ≥ 22 mM. Similar to U251 cells, exposure to ethanol (≥22 mM decreased levels of NAD(H in primary human astrocytes. NAD(H depletion in primary astrocytes was prevented by pretreatment with 1 μM of lycopene for 3.5 hours. Unexpectedly, in U251 cells lycopene treatment at concentrations ≥ 5 μM resulted in significant reductions in [NAD(H]. This study suggests that exposure of the brain to alcohol at commonly observed blood concentrations may cause transitory oxidative damage which may be at least partly ameliorated by lycopene.

  6. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  7. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  8. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin‑induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS‑induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC‑1 and ICAM‑1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels

  9. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... integrated drought (i.e., DI and PRD) and salt (i.e., inoculating plant with PGPB) management approaches. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar could be successfully used to ameliorate drought and salt stress in plants. However, further research is warranted under drought prone and salt affected...

  10. Rebamipide ameliorates atherosclerosis by controlling lipid metabolism and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, JooYeon; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Se-Young; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Na, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jung, KyungAh; Min, Jun-Ki; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-01-01

    The oral administration of rebamipide decreased plaque formation in atherosclerotic lesions as well as the markers of metabolic disorder in ApoE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by rebamapide. In addition, the population of Th17 was decreased, whereas Treg was increased in the spleen of rebamipide-treated ApoE deficient mice. Rebamipide also ameliorated the severity of obese arthritis and has the capability to reduce the development of atherosclerosis by controlling the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. Thus, rebamipide could be a therapeutic agent to improve the progression of inflammation in metabolic diseases.

  11. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... integrated drought (i.e., DI and PRD) and salt (i.e., inoculating plant with PGPB) management approaches. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar could be successfully used to ameliorate drought and salt stress in plants. However, further research is warranted under drought prone and salt affected...

  12. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J

    2004-01-01

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when...... ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin...

  13. Rikkunshito ameliorates cachexia associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice by stimulating ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Cachexia is a frequent complication in patients with respiratory failure, such as lung fibrosis, and it is a determining factor for functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Reductions in body weight and skeletal muscle mass are key features of cachexia that are resistant to current therapies. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. By using bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice in this study, we tested our hypothesis that RKT administration could ameliorate pulmonary cachexia. After BLM administration, mice were provided with either RKT or distilled water on a daily basis. Compared with the BLM-injected mice, the RKT-treated mice had smaller reductions of food intake and body weight. Skeletal muscle weights were retained in the RKT-treated mice, in conjunction with reduced expressions of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in the lysates of skeletal muscle found in lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito administration restored the plasma concentrations of ghrelin in BLM-injected mice. The anticachectic efficacies of RKT administration in BLM-injected mice were canceled by the concurrent treatment of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Rikkunshito administration did not decrease the degree of loss of body weight or food intake reduction in either ghrelin-deficient mice or growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects on pulmonary cachexia by ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and food intake reduction as mediated by the ghrelin system and, thus, highlight RKT as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of lung fibrosis.

  14. Metformin ameliorates ionizing irradiation-induced long-term hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoshun; Wu, Hongying; Zhang, Junling; Li, Deguan; Wang, Yueying; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengcheng; Huang, Song; Xing, Yonghua; Zhou, Daohong; Meng, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only by the radiolysis of water but also through IR-induced perturbation of the cellular metabolism and disturbance of the balance of reduction/oxidation reactions. Our recent studies showed that the increased production of intracellular ROS induced by IR contributes to IR-induced late effects, particularly in the hematopoietic system, because inhibition of ROS production with an antioxidant after IR exposure can mitigate IR-induced long-term bone marrow (BM) injury. Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin also has the ability to regulate cellular metabolism and ROS production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Therefore, we examined whether metformin can ameliorate IR-induced long-term BM injury in a total-body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Our results showed that the administration of metformin significantly attenuated TBI-induced increases in ROS production and DNA damage and upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 expression in BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These changes were associated with a significant increase in BM HSC frequency, a considerable improvement in in vitro and in vivo HSC function, and complete inhibition of upregulation of p16Ink4a in HSCs after TBI. These findings demonstrate that metformin can attenuate TBI-induced long-term BM injury at least in part by inhibiting the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs and HSC senescence. Therefore, metformin has the potential to be used as a novel radioprotectant to ameliorate TBI-induced long-term BM injury. PMID:26086617

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  16. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  17. Music and Cognitive Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kersten, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Extended cognition holds that cognitive processes sometimes leak into the world (Dawson, 2013). A recent trend among proponents of extended cognition has been to put pressure on phenomena thought to be safe havens for internalists...

  18. Music and Cognitive Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luke Kersten

    2015-01-01

    Extended cognition holds that cognitive processes sometimes leak into the world (Dawson, 2013). A recent trend among proponents of extended cognition has been to put pressure on phenomena thought to be safe havens for internalists...

  19. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants.

  20. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  1. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    that there is not anything special about the biological boundary of the skin and skull per se, rather than some positive claim about where the boundaries of extended or distributed cognitive systems really are. I also examine the role of the concept of cognition in the theoretical frameworks of Distributed Cognition, Joint...... as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...

  2. Coffee and caffeine ameliorate hyperglycemia, fatty liver, and inflammatory adipocytokine expression in spontaneously diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Misato; Matsuda, Yuji; Ojika, Makoto; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Yuko; Tou, Yoshie; Inoue, Takashi; Katagiri, Takao; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2010-05-12

    Epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that habitual coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this work was to study the antidiabetic effect of coffee and caffeine in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice. KK-A(y) mice were given regular drinking water (controls) or 2-fold diluted coffee for 5 weeks. Coffee ingestion ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity. White adipose tissue mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, and TNFalpha), adipose tissue MCP-1 concentration, and serum IL-6 concentration in the coffee group were lower than the control group. Moreover, coffee ingestion improved the fatty liver. Caffeine ingestion as drinking water also caused an amelioration of hyperglycemia and an improvement of fatty liver. These results suggest that coffee exerts a suppressive effect on hyperglycemia by improving insulin sensitivity, partly due to reducing inflammatory cytokine expression and improving fatty liver. Moreover, caffeine may be one of the effective antidiabetic compounds in coffee.

  3. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  4. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  5. The impact of social cognition training on recovery from psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anthony R

    2013-09-01

    Social cognition training is an emerging intervention, which aims to ameliorate impairment in social interaction and improve functional outcomes in persons with a psychosis. This article reviews the research conducted on the impact of this intervention published in English language journals over the past 2 years. Social cognition training comprises three types of programs; targeted, broad-based, and comprehensive - targeted programs being the most effective. Programs largely focus on the domains of facial affect, or emotion recognition (FAR), Theory of Mind (ToM), and attributional bias. There is some evidence that ToM is amenable to change, but not FAR and attributional bias. Interventions designed to ameliorate impairment in social functioning largely involve a skills training laboratory model underpinned by social learning theory. The evidence for the effectiveness of current social cognition training strategies to improve functional outcome for persons with psychosis in general and schizophrenia in particular remains equivocal. Clearly, further work is required beyond the laboratory training model and future research may well benefit from the inclusion of longitudinal naturalistic studies.

  6. 27 CFR 24.304 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. 24.304 Section 24.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. (a) General. A proprietor who chaptalizes juice...

  7. Cooperative Cognitive Radio Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-05-08

    This thesis aims to investigate the incorporation of cooperative techniques in cognitive radio networks over Nakagami-m fading channels. These last years, spectrum sharing mechanisms has gained a lot of interest in the wireless communication domain. Using cooperation in a cognitive set up make the use of spectrum much more efficient. Moreover, it helps to extend the coverage area of the cognitive network and also to reduce the transmitting power and, thus, the generated interference. In this work, we consider two particular scenarios for cooperative cognitive radio systems. The first scenario consider multihop regenerative relaying in an underlay cognitive set up. The cooperation is performed in the secondary system, in the presence of multiple primary users. Both interference power and peak power constraints are taking into account. Closed-form expressions for the statistical characteristics and multiple end- to-end performance metrics are derived. Different scenarios are presented to illustrate the obtained results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the accuracy of our analytical derivations. In the second part of this work, we consider an overlay cognitive network with the spectrally efficient two-phase two-way relaying protocol. Two relay selection techniques, optimizing both the primary and the secondary communication, are presented. The overall outage performance is investigated and an optimal power allocation scheme, that ameliorate the outage performance of the system, is proposed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results.

  8. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. CBP gene transfer increases BDNF levels and ameliorates learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Antonella; Maldonado, Monica A.; Bokov, Alex F.; Majumder, Smita; Oddo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and memory loss are common features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormalities in the expression profile of immediate early genes that play a critical role in memory formation, such as the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), have been reported in the brains of AD patients. Here we show that amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, which plays a primary role in the cognitive deficits of AD, interferes with CREB activity. We further show that restoring CREB function via brain viral delivery of the CREB-binding protein (CBP) improves learning and memory deficits in an animal model of AD. Notably, such improvements occur without changes in Aβ and tau pathology, and instead are linked to an increased level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The resulting data suggest that Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits are mediated by alterations in CREB function, based on the finding that restoring CREB activity by directly modulating CBP levels in the brains of adult mice is sufficient to ameliorate learning and memory. Therefore, increasing CBP expression in adult brains may be a valid therapeutic approach not only for AD, but also for various brain disorders characterized by alterations in immediate early genes, further supporting the concept that viral vector delivery may be a viable therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21149712

  10. Pu-erh Tea Extract Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Rats and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro.Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups. Ovariectomized (OVX rats were used as an animal model of osteoporosis. The animals were intragastrically administered distilled water, XLGB, or different concentrations of PTE for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical indicators, relative organ coefficients, femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were examined and analyzed. Additionally, the in vitro effects of PTE on osteoclastic activities were investigated using the RAW 264.7 cell line as an osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PTE on osteoclast differentiation and the expression of osteoclast-specific genes and proteins were determined.Results: PTE reduced OVX-induced body weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment, and the high-dose exerted a significant effect. High-dose PTE significantly ameliorated OVX-induced estradiol (E2 deficiency. PTE treatment maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and improved other blood biochemical parameters to various degrees. In addition, PTE treatment improved organ coefficients of the femur, uterus, and vagina and improved femoral BMD and bone biomechanical properties. PTE treatment strikingly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, in the in vitro studies, osteoclast differentiation using the differentiation cell model was significantly inhibited by PTE without cytotoxic effects. Additionally

  11. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The researc...

  12. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  13. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  14. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis ameliorates sepsis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Xu, Qingqing; Deng, Bo; Zheng, Yin; Tian, Hongyan; Wang, Li; Ding, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Overwhelming activation of granulocytes and monocytes is central to inflammatory responses during sepsis. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal leukocyte apheresis device filled with cellulose acetate beads and selectively adsorbs granulocytes and monocytes from the peripheral blood. In this study, septic rats received the GMA treatment for 2 h at 18 h after cecal ligation and puncture. GMA selectively adsorbed activated neutrophils and monocytes from the peripheral blood, reduced serum inflammatory cytokine expression, and seemed to improve organ injuries and animal survival. GMA potentially reduced lung injury by alleviating the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of cytokines. This study showed that selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorption with cellulose acetate beads might ameliorate cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and improve survival and organ function.

  15. Calcitonin, as SMS 201-995, ameliorates the VIPoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, A; Gambuzza, C; Bertoni, F; Baschieri, L

    1993-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for diarrhea, abdominal and back pain, weight loss, low serum potassium level. Pathological findings and high circulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) levels allowed us to diagnose "VIPoma syndrome". The patient underwent a treatment with SMS 201-995 with improvement of symptomatology and reduction of circulating VIP levels. After a wash-out period the patient was treated with salmon calcitonin with a net improvement of diarrhea, normalization of potassium serum level and reduction of VIP level. The symptomatology recurred after calcitonin withdrawal. These data confirm the effectiveness of SMS 201-995 in the VIPoma syndrome and suggest that calcitonin may ameliorate symptomatology and reduce circulating VIP level in patients with VIPoma tumor.

  16. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  17. On Achievable Performance of Cognitive Radio Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Majed; Hayar, Aawatif Menouni

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the idea of using cognitive radio to reuse locally unused spectrum to increase the total system capacity. We consider a multiband/wideband system in which the primary and cognitive users wish to communicate to different receivers, subject to mutual interference and assume that each user knows only his channel and the unused spectrum through adequate sensing. Under this scheme, a cognitive radio will listen to the channel and, if sensed idle, will transmit during the voids. Within this setting, we provide two simple methods for sensing the idle sub-bands over the total bandwidth. We impose the constraint that users successively transmit over available bands through proper water filling. For the first time, our study has quantified the achievable gain of using cognitive radio with respect to classical radio devices and derive the total spectral efficiency as well as the maximum number of possible pairwise communications of such a cognitive radio system. We finally show that ...

  18. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by phosphate salts in mungbean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnakar, Arpita; Mukherji, Subhendu

    2005-07-01

    Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4.7H2O) is a potent inhibitor of mungbean seed germination and seedling growth. Germination is totally stopped at or above 50 microM Na2HAsO4.7H2O. Inhibition of seedling elongation started at a lower concentration of 5 microM As(V) and was drastically reduced at 20 microM As(V). Nutrients like salts of macroelements viz., NaH2PO4.2H2O, KH2PO4, K2SO4, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, (NH4)2SO4 NH4NO3 solutions at a concentration of 10mM and microelements viz., ZnSO4, CuSO4.5H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, MnCl2.4H2O, CoCl2.6H2O, FeSO4.7H2O solutions at a concentration of 1mM could help to ameliorate the toxic effects of As(V) to different degrees. Amelioration of As(V) toxicity was possible only when the mungbean seeds were pretreated with the above mentioned nutrients for 24 hr and then transferred to sodium arsenate. Simultaneous treatment of nutrients with As(V) or using nutrient solutions following As(V) treatment were of no help to reverse the toxic effects of sodium arsenate.

  19. Decreasing self-reported cognitive biases and increasing clinical insight through meta-cognitive training in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawęda, Łukasz; Krężołek, Martyna; Olbryś, Joanna; Turska, Agnieszka; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of meta-cognitive training (MCT) on cognitive biases, symptoms, clinical insight, and general functioning among low-level functioning persons diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia who were attending a daily Community Social Support Group Program; we compared the treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition with the MCT + TAU condition. Forty-four patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia were allocated to either the MCT + treatment-as-usual condition or the treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition. Delusion and hallucination severity, cognitive biases, clinical insight, and global functioning were assessed pre- and post-treatment (clinical trial NCT02187692). No significant changes were found in symptom severity as measured with the PSYRATS. Conversely, a medium to large effect size was observed for delusional ideation changes when assessed by the self-report measure (Paranoia Checklist). MCT was found to ameliorate cognitive biases as measured by the self-report scale at large effect size, however, no changes in jumping to conclusions (the Fish Task) and theory of mind deficits ("Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test) were found in the behavioral tasks. MCT increased insight at large effect size. No changes in global functioning were found between the two conditions. Low intensity intervention. No follow-up assessment was provided. Only PSYRATS was assessed blind to patient allocation. MCT has a beneficial effect on low-functioning chronic schizophrenic patients in ameliorating cognitive biases and increasing clinical insight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neuropsychological treatment of cognitive deficits in substance abuse disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders - current status and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschert, V C; Zwanzger, P; Brunnauer, A

    2015-05-01

    Neuropsychological treatment represents a promising therapeutic approach in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognitive impairment constitutes a core feature that often persists beyond psychopathological symptoms having a significant impact on psychosocial functioning. However, research interest and evidence of efficacy vary considerably between disease groups. Although neuropsychological treatment is frequently used in clinical practice, there are, with the exception of schizophrenia, relatively few studies on its effectiveness.

  1. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  2. Levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and cognitive deficit in experimental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.

  3. Rutin, a flavonoid phytochemical, ameliorates certain behavioral and electrophysiological alterations and general toxicity of oral arsenic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárközi, Kitti; Papp, András; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Paulik, Edit; Szabó, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic affects large populations and attacks, among others, the nervous system. Waterborne or occupational exposure causes electrophysiological alterations and motor disturbances in humans, and analogous effects were found in animals. Certain phytochemicals may be protective against As-caused damages. In the present study it was investigated whether the flavonoid rutin, applied via the drinking water (2 g/L), ameliorates the effects of arsenic given by gavage (10 mg/kg b.w., in form of NaAsO2) on open field motility, evoked cortical and peripheral electrophysiological activity, and body weight gain in adult male Wistar rats. Body weight gain was significantly reduced from the 4th week of the 6 weeks arsenic treatment and this effect was largely abolished by rutin in the combination treatment group. Rats treated by arsenic alone showed decreased open field motility; latency of the cortical evoked potentials increased and peripheral nerve conduction velocity decreased. These functional alterations were also counteracted by co-administration of rutin, and both the antioxidant and the chelating activity of rutin might have contributed to the ameliorative effect. These results are apparently novel and support the potential role of natural agents in preserving human health in a contaminated environment.

  4. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  5. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Yukio; Kotani, Tomomi; Ito, Mikako; Nagai, Taku; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ohno, Kinji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2׳-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurogenetic effects on cognition in aging brains: A window of opportunity for intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Reinvang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic influences on cognitive aging can constrain and guide interventions aimed at limiting age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Progress in understanding the neural basis of cognitive aging also requires a better understanding of the neurogenetics of cognition. This selective review article describes studies aimed at deriving specific neurogenetic information from three parallel and interrelated phenotype based approaches: psychometric constructs, cognitive neuroscience based processing measures, and brain imaging morphometric data. Developments in newer genetic analysis tools, including genome wide association, are also described. In particular, we focus on models for establishing genotype-phenotype associations within an explanatory framework linking molecular, brain, and cognitive levels of analysis. Such multiple-phenotype approaches indicate that individual variation in genes central to maintaining synaptic integrity, neurotransmitter function, and synaptic plasticity are important in affecting age-related changes in brain structure and cognition. Investigating phenotypes at multiple levels is recommended as a means to advance understanding of the neural impact of genetic variants relevant to cognitive aging. Further knowledge regarding the mechanisms of interaction between genetic and preventative procedures will in turn help in understanding the ameliorative effect of various experiential and lifestyle factors on age-related cognitive decline.

  7. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Xie, Keliang; Zhang, Changsheng; Song, Rui; Zhang, Hong

    2014-06-18

    Cognitive decline after surgery in the elderly population is a major clinical problem with high morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning can induce significant neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that HBO preconditioning would prevent the development of postoperative cognitive impairment. Elderly male rats (20 months old) underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under general anesthesia after HBO preconditioning (once a day for 5 days). Separate cohorts of animals were tested for cognitive function with fear conditioning and Y-maze tests, or euthanized at different times to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity, systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase-3 activity. Animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment evidenced by a decreased percentage of freezing time and an increased number of learning trials on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery, which were significantly prevented by HBO preconditioning. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly ameliorated the increase in serum and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and high-mobility group protein 1 in surgery-challenged animals. Moreover, HBO preconditioning markedly improved blood-brain barrier integrity and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of surgery-challenged animals. These findings suggest that HBO preconditioning could significantly mitigate surgery-induced cognitive impairment, which is strongly associated with the reduction of systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity.

  9. Cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction and its amelioration by Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, S A; Femi-Akinlosotu, O M; Omirinde, J O

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the ameliorative potential of Launea taraxacifolia (LT) aqueous leaf extract on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of 5 rats each: Group A which served as control received water; Group B was intraperitoneally (ip) injected 10 mg kg(-1) body wt cisplatin on day 21; Groups C and D were given 100 and 400 mg of LT via oral administration, respectively, for 21 days while Groups E and F received similar treatment as Groups C and D, respectively, and then exposed to ip administration of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight cisplatin on the 21st day. Exclusively, Cisplatin-exposed Group B rats showed reduced sperm characteristics and increased sperm morphological abnormalities; distorted histological architecture of seminiferous tubules; significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)levels in the testes. These parameters in LT alone treated Groups C and D were not markedly different compared with the control group. The rats with the combined treatment in Groups E and F showed significantly improved sperm parameters, testicular histo-architecture and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Conclusively, aqueous extract of L. taraxacifolia has protective potential against cisplatin damage.

  10. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  11. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses.

  13. Fly ash as a soil ameliorant for improving crop production - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jala, S.; Goyal, D. [Deemed University, Patiala (India)

    2006-06-15

    Fly ash, a resultant of combustion of coal at high temperature, has been regarded as a problematic solid waste all over the world. Many possible beneficial applications of fly ash are being evaluated to minimize waste, decrease cost of disposal and provide value-added products. The conventional disposal methods for fly ash lead to degradation of arable land and contamination of the ground water. However fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients. In conjunction with organic manure and microbial inoculants, fly ash can enhance plant biomass production from degraded soils. Detailed studies on the nature and composition of fly ash, conducted during the latter half of the 20th century have helped in repeatedly confirming the various useful applications of this hitherto neglected industrial waste. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of fly ash and explore the possibility of exploiting them for agronomic advantage.

  14. Protodioscin ameliorates fructose-induced renal injury via inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyang; Yang, Xiaolin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Guo, Changrun

    2016-11-15

    High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively. The glucose intolerance, serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. Protodioscin significantly improved glucose intolerance and reduced the levels of serum UA, BUN, Cr, TC and TG. Histological examinations showed that protodioscin ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes. Protodioscin significantly reduced renal concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In addition, the effect of protodioscin on the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway was examined. Taken together, protodioscin is a potential drug candidate for high dietary fructose-induced metabolic syndrome and renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase-Mimetic Drug, Ameliorates Progression of Renal Disease in CKD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD and antioxidants may ameliorate disease progression. We investigate the beneficial effect of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, on progression of disease in a mouse model of CKD. Methods: CKD was surgically induced in c57BL/6 mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx and Nx+Tempol (2 mmol/l in drinking water. Mice were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks. Renal function, structure as well as expression of key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, fibrosis and progression in mice were measured. Results: Reduced body weight and impaired renal function (elevation on serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin, segmental sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage was demonstrated in Nx mice but was significantly improved by Tempol administration. Nx animals exhibited significantly elevated proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, activation of NF-κB, increased expression of NADPH oxidase related subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox, and elevated activation of TGF-ß/Smad3, EGFR, MAPK signaling pathway. Tempol inhibited NF-κB mediated inflammation, TGF-ß/Smad3-induced renal fibrosis as well as EGFR and MAPK signaling pathway activation. Conclusions: Tempol administration attenuated renal injury in CKD mice through NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad3, redox-senstive EGFR activation and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways.

  16. The ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Eman E; Kames, Amany O G; Sayed, S M; Nisr, Neveen A E L; Wahba, Nahed M; Elsherif, Walaa M; Nafady, Allam M; Abdel-Hafeez, M M; Aamer, A A

    2014-12-01

    A study was designed to evaluate ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor (MXC) induced ovarian toxicity in rat. The organochlorine pesticide (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether chronic exposure to MXC could cause ovarian dysfunction, two groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were exposed to MXC alone in a dose of 200mg/kg, twice/weekly, orally or MXC dose as previous plus propolis in a dose of 200mg/l/day, in drinking water for 10 months. Another two groups of rat were given corn oil (control) or propolis. Multiple reproductive parameters, ovarian weight, serum hormone levels, ovarian oxidative status and ovarian morphology were examined. In MXC-exposed group, there is a significant decrease in body and ovarian weight vs. control. MXC decreases serum estradiol and progesterone levels. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation was obtained while a significant decrease of the total antioxidant was recorded. Ovarian histopathology showed primary, secondary and vesicular follicles displaying an atretic morphology. Increase in the ovarian surface epithelium height accompanied with vacuolated, pyknotic oocytes were obtained. The previous toxic effects were neutralized by the administration of propolis in MXC+propolis group. The present results suggest that propolis may be effective in decreasing of MXC-induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

  17. Sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Chang, Chih-Ching; Mo, Fan-E; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-08-01

    Hypokalemia and hypertension are common manifestations of preclinical cardiovascular conditions that have a predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, an important risk factor in heart failure, is attributed to long-term hypokalemia and hypertension. Sesame oil is rich in nutrients and possesses potent antihypertensive activities. We investigated the therapeutic potential of sesame oil using a hypertensive model created by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/mL/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was administered by oral gavage (0.5 or 1 mL/kg/d for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrocardiography (ECG), and K(+) and Mg(2+) levels were assessed 24 hours after the last dose of sesame oil. Heart tissue was collected for histologic analysis. Sesame oil effectively reduced the SBP/DBP and ECG abnormalities and increased the serum levels of K(+) and Mg(2+) while limiting the urinary excretion of K(+) in DOCA/salt-induced hypertensive rats. In addition, sesame oil decreased the heart mass, the thickness of the left ventricle, and the diameter of cardiomyocytes, indicating the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in the hypertensive rats. We demonstrate that sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. [Learning and memory amelioration of transplantation of the neural stem cells modified with human brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene on Alzheimer disease model rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiying; Hu, Haitao; Feng, Gaifeng

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the memory amelioration of the Alzheimer disease (AD) model rat after being transplanted the single neural stem cells (NSC) and NSC modified with human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (hBDNF) gene. Forty SD rats were divided evenly into 4 groups randomly. The AD model rats were made by cutting unilaterally the fibria-fornix of male rats. Ten to twelve days after surgery, the genetically modified and unmodified NSC were implanted into the lateral cerebral ventricle of group III and group IV respectively. Two weeks after transplantation, the amelioration of memory impairment of the rats was detected by Morris water maze. The average escaping latency of the group III and group IV (41.84 +/- 21.76 s, 25.23 +/- 17.06 s respectively) was shorter than that of the group II (70.91 +/- 23.67 s) (P0.05). More lineal and oriented strategies were used in group IV. The behavioral amelioration of AD model rat was obtained by transplanting single NSC and hBDNF-gene-modified NSC. The effect of the NSC group modified with hBDNF gene is better than that of the group III.

  19. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Learning and Memory via Activation of the CREB Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus to Attenuate Apoptosis after Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA ameliorates learning and memory after ischemic injury. However, there have been few studies elucidating the mechanisms of EA on learning and memory in cerebral hypoperfusion. In this study, we explored the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB signaling pathway-mediated antiapoptotic action involved in EA-induced improvement of learning and memory. EA at GV20 and GV14 acupoints was applied in cerebral hypoperfusion rats. A Morris water maze task was performed, and the immunoreactivities of pCREB, Bcl-2, and Bax in the hippocampal CA1 area were evaluated by the Western blotting technique. Our findings indicated that (1 EA ameliorated spatial learning and memory impairment in cerebral hypoperfusion rats; (2 EA increased the immunoreactivities of pCREB and Bcl-2 and decreased the immunoreactivity of Bax; (3 intracerebroventricular administration of H89 (the inhibitor of protein kinase A blocked EA-induced, pCREB-mediated antiapoptotic action and improved learning and memory. These results suggest that EA can ameliorate learning and memory via activation of the CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus to attenuate apoptosis after cerebral hypoperfusion.

  20. The distribution of Biomphalaria spp. in different habitats in relation to physical, biological, water contact and cognitive factors in a rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Helmut

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 256 sites in 11 habitats were surveyed for Biomphalaria in Melquiades rural area (State of Minas Gerais in August and November 1999 and in March 2000. Of the 1,780 Biomphalaria collected, 1,721 (96.7% were B. glabrata and 59 (3.3% B. straminea. Snails were found in all habitats except in wells, with the largest mean numbers in tanks, seepage ponds and canals, and the smallest numbers in springs, rice fields and fishponds. People's knowledge of the occurrence of Biomphalaria at the collection sites and the presence of Biomphalaria ova were strongly correlated with the occurrence of snails, and distance between houses and collection sites, as well as water velocity were inversely correlated with Biomphalaria occurrence (p < 0.001. The strongest predictor o f Biomphalaria occurrence was the presence of tilapia fish in fishponds. Fourteen Biomphalaria (0.8% of all snails found at 6 sites were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Suggestions are made for the utilization of local people's knowledge in snail surveys and further studies are recommended on the possible use of tilapia for biological control of Biomphalaria in fishponds, as well as modeling of S. mansoni transmission and reinfection.

  1. Aerobic fitness and cognitive function in midlife: an association mediated by plasma insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function, fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21 ± 0.08 versus -0.26 ± 0.10, P = 0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6 ± 0.6 versus 21.3 ± 1.5 ulU/mL, P cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels.

  2. Royal Jelly Facilitates Restoration of the Cognitive Ability in Trimethyltin-Intoxicated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Hattori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyltin (TMT is a toxic organotin compound that induces acute neuronal death selectively in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG followed by cognition impairment; however the TMT-injured hippocampal DG itself is reported to regenerate the neuronal cell layer through rapid enhancement of neurogenesis. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/NPCs are present in the adult hippocampal DG, and generate neurons that can function for the cognition ability. Therefore, we investigated whether royal jelly (RJ stimulates the regenerating processes of the TMT-injured hippocampal DG, and found that orally administered RJ significantly increased the number of DG granule cells and simultaneously improved the cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have already shown that RJ facilitates neurogenesis of cultured NS/NPCs. These present results, taken together with previous observations, suggest that the orally administered RJ may be a promising avenue for ameliorating neuronal function by regenerating hippocampal granule cells that function in the cognition process.

  3. Necessary, but not sufficient: links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia are moderated by disorganized symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  5. Morning Cortisol Levels and Cognitive Abilities in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Strachan, Mark W.J.; Labad, Javier; Lee, Amanda J.; Frier, Brian M.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Mitchell, Rory; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Deary, Ian J.; Walker, Brian R.; Price, Jackie F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment but the mechanism is uncertain. Elevated glucocorticoid levels in rodents and humans are associated with cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine whether fasting cortisol levels are associated with cognitive ability and estimated lifetime cognitive change in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 1,066 men and women aged 60–75 years with type 2 diabetes, living in Lothian, Scotland (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). Cognitive abilities in memory, nonverbal reasoning, information processing speed, executive function, and mental flexibility were tested, and a general cognitive ability factor, g, was derived. Prior intelligence was estimated from vocabulary testing, and adjustment for scores on this test was used to estimate lifetime cognitive change. Relationships between fasting morning plasma cortisol levels and cognitive ability and estimated cognitive change were tested. Models were adjusted for potential confounding and/or mediating variables including metabolic and cardiovascular variables. RESULTS In age-adjusted analyses, higher fasting cortisol levels were not associated with current g or with performance in individual cognitive domains. However, higher fasting cortisol levels were associated with greater estimated cognitive decline in g and in tests of working memory and processing speed, independent of mood, education, metabolic variables, and cardiovascular disease (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS High morning cortisol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes are associated with estimated age-related cognitive change. Strategies targeted at lowering cortisol action may be useful in ameliorating cognitive decline in individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:20097784

  6. Hearing loss and cognition: the role of hearing AIDS, social isolation and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation, depression and hearing aid use was carried out with a subsample of the UK Biobank data set (n = 164,770 of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years who completed a hearing test. Age, sex, general health and socioeconomic status were controlled for as potential confounders. Hearing aid use was associated with better cognition, independently of social isolation and depression. This finding was consistent with the hypothesis that hearing aids may improve cognitive performance, although if hearing aids do have a positive effect on cognition it is not likely to be via reduction of the adverse effects of hearing loss on social isolation or depression. We suggest that any positive effects of hearing aid use on cognition may be via improvement in audibility or associated increases in self-efficacy. Alternatively, positive associations between hearing aid use and cognition may be accounted for by more cognitively able people seeking and using hearing aids. Further research is required to determine the direction of association, if there is any direct causal relationship between hearing aid use and better cognition, and whether hearing aid use results in reduction in rates of cognitive decline measured longitudinally.

  7. NLRP3 deficiency ameliorates neurovascular damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Ziying; Wei, Xinbing; Han, Huirong; Meng, Xianfang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Weichen; Li, Fengli; Xin, Tao; Pang, Qi; Yi, Fan

    2014-04-01

    Although the innate immune response to induce postischemic inflammation is considered as an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of innate immunity mediator NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is unknown. In this study, focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in NLRP3(-/-), NOX2(-/-), or wild-type (WT) mice. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Evans blue permeability, and electron microscopic analyses, we found that NLRP3 deficiency ameliorated cerebral injury in mice after ischemic stroke by reducing infarcts and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We further showed that the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage was associated with an autocrine/paracrine pattern of NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release as evidenced by increased brain microvessel endothelial cell permeability and microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Finally, we found that NOX2 deficiency improved outcomes after ischemic stroke by mediating NLRP3 signaling. This study for the first time shows the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage and provides direct evidence that NLRP3 as an important target molecule links NOX2-mediated oxidative stress to neurovascular damage in ischemic stroke. Pharmacological targeting of NLRP3-mediated inflammatory response at multiple levels may help design a new approach to develop therapeutic strategies for prevention of deterioration of cerebral function and for the treatment of stroke.

  8. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia.

  9. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  10. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

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    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  11. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  12. Ameliorative Effect of Allopurinol on Vascular Complications of Insulin Resistance

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    Hany M. El-Bassossy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of allopurinol (Allo on experimentally induced insulin resistance (IR and vascular complications. Rats were divided into four groups: control, IR, allopurinol-treated IR (IR-Allo, and allopurinol-treated control (Allo. IR was induced by adding fructose and high fat, high salt diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that Allo has alleviated the increased level of TNF-α and the systolic, diastolic, mean, and notch pressure observed in IR with no change in pulse pressure. In addition, Allo decreased the heart rate in the treated group compared to IR rats. On the other hand, it has no effect on increased levels of insulin, glucose, fructosamine, or body weight gain compared to IR group, while it increased significantly the insulin level and body weight without hyperglycemia in the control group. Moreover, Allo treatment ameliorated increased level of 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1. In conclusion, the results of the current study show that Allo has a protective effect on vascular complications of IR which may be attributed to the effect of Allo on decreasing the TNF-α, 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1 as well as increasing the level of insulin secretion.

  13. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  14. Ozone therapy ameliorates paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldirim, Umit; Uysal, Bulent; Yuksel, Ramazan; Macit, Enis; Eyi, Yusuf E; Toygar, Mehmet; Tuncer, Salim K; Ardic, Sukru; Arziman, Ibrahim; Aydin, Ibrahim; Oztas, Yesim; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Topal, Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) overdose can cause acute lung injury and death. Ozone therapy (OT) was previously demonstrated to alleviate inflammation and necrosis in various pathologies. We therefore hypothesized that OT has ameliorative and preventive effects on PQ-induced lung damage due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were separated into three groups: sham, PQ, and PQ+OT groups. 15 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ+OT groups to induce experimental lung injury. One hour after PQ treatment, PQ+OT group was administered a single dose of ozone-oxygen mixture (1 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal route for four consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on fifth day after PQ administration. Blood samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate the inflammatory processes, antioxidant defense and pulmonary damage. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neopterin levels, tissue oxidative stress parameters, total TGF-β1 levels, and histological injury scores in PQ+OT group were significantly lower than PQ group (Ptherapy.

  15. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  16. Food Restriction Ameliorates the Development of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Gina; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Nin, Veronica; Edwards, Marika; Chini, Claudia C S; Hopp, Katharina; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E; Chini, Eduardo N

    2016-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of kidney cysts that ultimately leads to loss of renal function and kidney failure. At present, the treatment for ADPKD is largely supportive. Multiple studies have focused on pharmacologic approaches to slow the development of the cystic disease; however, little is known about the role of nutrition and dietary manipulation in PKD. Here, we show that food restriction (FR) effectively slows the course of the disease in mouse models of ADPKD. Mild to moderate (10%-40%) FR reduced cyst area, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and injury in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular and biochemical studies in these mice indicate that FR ameliorates ADPKD through a mechanism involving suppression of the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and activation of the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data suggest that dietary interventions such as FR, or treatment that mimics the effects of such interventions, may be potential and novel preventive and therapeutic options for patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J; Fischer, M Dominik; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Javazon, Elisabeth H; Flake, Alan W; Edvinsson, Lars; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2004-09-21

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when transgenically overexpressed has provided an important impetus for identifying activators of utrophin expression. The utrophin promoter A is transcriptionally regulated in part by heregulin-mediated, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent activation of the GABP(alpha/beta) transcription factor complex. Therefore, this pathway offers a potential mechanism to modulate utrophin expression in muscle. We tested the ability of heregulin to improve the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Intraperitoneal injections of a small peptide encoding the epidermal growth factor-like region of heregulin ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin up-regulation offers a pharmacological therapeutic modality and obviates many of the toxicity and delivery issues associated with viral vector-based gene therapy for DMD.

  18. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  19. Magnesium lithospermate B ameliorates renal cortical microperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-guang CHEN; Yi-ping WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae on renal microcirculation, and renal and systemic hemodynamics in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: MLB (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and renal blood flow (RBF), renal cortical microperfusion (RCM), and systemic hemodynamic function parameters including heart rate (HR),mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal velocity of pressure increase (dp/dtmax) were measured for 45 min after administration. Results: Intravenous MLB at doses of 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg increased RCM significantly, but had no obvious effects on RBF or systemic hemodynamics. The effect of MLB on RCM reached its peak 15 min after injection and returned to baseline after 45 min. Up to60 mg/kg MLB increased RCM by 62.4%±20.2% (changes from baseline, P<0.01),whereas RBF (3.7%±9.7% vs baseline) and renal vascular resistance (-1.4%±9.1%vs baseline) did not obviously change. Conclusion: These results indicate that MLB ameliorates renal microcirculation in a dose-dependent manner, which may be related to the renoprotective effects of MLB.

  20. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  1. Thiazolidinediones attenuate lipolysis and ameliorate dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhan; Xu, Chong; Kuang, Jiangying; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Hongfeng; Mo, Li; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-07-01

    Elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids induce insulin resistance and often occur in obese and diabetic conditions. One pharmacological basis for the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is that TZDs reduce levels of circulating FFAs by accelerating their uptake and reesterification from plasma into adipocytes. Here, we investigated whether TZDs affect adipose lipolysis, a process controlling triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA efflux to the bloodstream. The effects of TZDs on lipolysis were investigated in primary rat adipocytes in vitro and in rats in vivo. In rat primary adipocytes, the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone inhibited the lipolytic reaction dose- and time-dependently and in a post-receptor pathway by decreasing cAMP level and total lipase activity. TZDs increased the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, an action required for activating cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, a major enzyme responsible for cAMP hydrolysis in adipocytes. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the lipolytic action in dexamethasone-stimulated adipocytes, thereby preventing the increased level of circulating FFAs, and ameliorated insulin resistance in vivo in dexamethasone-treated rats. TZDs may attenuate lipolysis and FFA efflux by activating Akt signaling to decrease cAMP level and hence reduce lipase activity in adipocytes. Inhibiting lipolysis and FFA efflux with TZDs could be a pharmacological basis by which TZDs antagonize diabetes, particularly in patients with hypercortisolemia or glucocorticoid challenge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  3. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  4. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  5. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by

  6. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  7. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constra

  8. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  9. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  10. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  11. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  12. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy in rats by postirradiation treatment with dexamethasone and/or captopril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Sun, M.C.; Mariano, M.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) and captopril are effective drugs in the treatment of radiation nephropathy in experimental animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two drugs and to see if their combination is more effective than either drug alone. For this purpose both kidneys of 143 rats were exposed surgically and irradiated with 13-20 Gy {gamma} rays. The surrounding tissues, with the exception of a segment of lumbar cord, were shielded. Each group had free access to acidified drinking water containing either DEX (94 {mu}g/l), captopril (500 mg/l), DEX (94{mu}g/l) + captopril (500 mg/l) or drug-free water. Dexamethasone treatment was stopped after 90 days, but animals continued to receive captopril until death. At approximately monthly intervals the animals were weighed and renal function (PUN, hematocrit, {sup 51}Cr-EDTA retention) was measured. A side effect of treatment with DEX and DEX + captopril was a reduced increase in body weight. Paralysis of the hind limbs developed in nine animals that received captopril and/or DEX treatment. The classical histological lesions associated with radiation myelopathy were not evident in these paretic rats. It is therefore suggested that paralysis may be attributed in part to drug-induced neurotoxicity in animals with impaired renal clearance. Macroscopically and histologically, nearly all the animals that survived more than 400 days had evidence of renal tumor development. dexamethasone and/or captopril appear to selectively ameliorate glomerular compared to tubular damage, based on histological findings. All three experimental treatments delayed but did not stop the progression of lethal renal injury as measured by kidney function tests and survival time. Median survival times for nontreated and captopril-DEX- and DEX + captopril-treated animals exposed to 14.5 to 19.0 Gy kidney irradiation were 175,242,261 and 395 days, respectively. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Ameliorative effect of two Ayurvedic herbs on experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is a threat to society in West Bengal, India and in Bangladesh. The human being may also be affected by the exposed cattle from the affected area by consuming milk, egg, meat and others. In Ayurveda, several herbs like Haridra (turmeric), Shunthi (dried ginger root) and others are used for the management of arsenic poisoning. The study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of turmeric and ginger powder against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. Twenty four calves were divided into four groups (group I, II, III and IV) having six animals in each group. Animals of group I, II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite at 1mg/kg body weight for 90 days and in addition group II and group III animals were treated orally with turmeric and ginger powder respectively at 10mg/kg body weight from 46th day onwards. Group IV animals were given food and water without drug and served as control. Arsenic content was estimated in faeces, hair, urine and plasma in every 15 days. Bio-chemical, haematological and anti-oxidant parameters were also assessed. Turmeric and ginger powder significantly (Parsenic levels through increased excretion via faeces and urine. Haemoglobin level, TEC and TLC were decreased in groups I, II and III, however these were improved significantly (Parsenic from the body but also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure, it may be concluded from the present study that turmeric and ginger can be helpful in the therapy of chronic arsenic toxicity in calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group. Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.

  15. P2RX7 purinoceptor: a therapeutic target for ameliorating the symptoms of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sinadinos

    2015-10-01

    .038, diaphragm (p = 0.042, and heart muscles (p < 0.001. We show that the amelioration of symptoms was proportional to the extent of receptor depletion and that improvements were observed following administration of two P2RX7 antagonists (CK, p = 0.030 and p = 0.050 without any detectable side effects. However, approaches successful in animal models still need to be proved effective in clinical practice.These results are, to our knowledge, the first to establish that a single treatment can improve muscle function both short and long term and also correct cognitive impairment and bone loss in DMD model mice. The wide-ranging improvements reflect the convergence of P2RX7 ablation on multiple disease mechanisms affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles, inflammatory cells, brain, and bone. Given the impact of P2RX7 blockade in the DMD mouse model, this receptor is an attractive target for translational research: existing drugs with established safety records could potentially be repurposed for treatment of this lethal disease.

  16. [Cognitive aging in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Nadine

    2011-09-01

    The development of studies of aging patients with schizophrenia results from their increasing life expectancy in accordance with that of the general population, but remains far below that one. Studies devoted to cognitive deficits in these patients globally show various complex cognitive deficits, which usually remain stable in their evolution. However, some patients develop a severe cognitive decline after 65 years, following a long institutionalization. Complex cognitive functions particularly deserve to be systematically explored in patients presenting with cognitive complaints and/or communication difficulties. As an example, we present the case report of a patient showing a theory of mind deficit.

  17. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  18. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...... of documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...

  19. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  20. How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Park, Denise C

    2014-09-01

    "The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC)", proposed in 2009, is a conceptual model of cognitive aging that integrated evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging to explain how the combined effects of adverse and compensatory neural processes produce varying levels of cognitive function. The model made clear and testable predictions about how different brain variables, both structural and functional, were related to cognitive function, focusing on the core construct of compensatory scaffolding. The present paper provides a revised model that integrates new evidence about the aging brain that has emerged since STAC was published 5 years ago. Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time. Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline. The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions. STAC-r goes beyond the previous model by combining a life-span approach with a life-course approach to understand and predict cognitive status and rate of cognitive change over time.

  1. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  3. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.

  4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  5. Tert-butylhydroquinone alleviates early brain injury and cognitive dysfunction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: role of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wang

    Full Text Available Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ, an Nrf2 activator, has demonstrated neuroprotection against brain trauma and ischemic stroke in vivo. However, little work has been done with respect to its effect on early brain injury (EBI after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. At the same time, as an oral medication, it may have extensive clinical applications for the treatment of SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of tBHQ on EBI, secondary deficits of learning and memory, and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in a rat SAH model. SD rats were divided into four groups: (1 Control group (n=40; (2 SAH group (n=40; (3 SAH+vehicle group (n=40; and (4 SAH+tBHQ group (n=40. All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once in 20 s. In SAH+tBHQ group, tBHQ was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, changes in cognition and memory were investigated in a Morris water maze. Results shows that administration of tBHQ after SAH significantly ameliorated EBI-related problems, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB impairment, clinical behavior deficits, cortical apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. Learning deficits induced by SAH was markedly alleviated after tBHQ therapy. Treatment with tBHQ markedly up-regulated the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GSTα1 after SAH. In conclusion, the administration of tBHQ abated the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction in this SAH model. Its action was probably mediated by activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway.

  6. Decrease in age-related tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive improvement following vitamin D supplementation are associated with modulation of brain energy metabolism and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, T L; Darwish, H

    2014-03-14

    In the present study we examined whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce age-related tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive impairment by enhancing brain energy homeostasis and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, and modulating the redox state. Male F344 rats aged 20 months (aged) and 6 months (young) were randomly assigned to either vitamin D supplementation or no supplementation (control). Rats were housed in pairs and the supplementation group (n=10 young and n=10 aged) received subcutaneous injections of vitamin D (1, α25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for 21 days. Control animals (n=10 young and n=10 aged) received equal volume of normal saline and behavioral testing in the water maze started on day 14 after the initiation of vitamin D supplementation. Tau phosphorylation, markers of brain energy metabolism (ADP/ATP ratio and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and redox state (levels of reactive oxygen species, activity of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione levels) as well as PP2A activity were measured in hippocampal tissues. Our results extended previous findings that: (1) tau phosphorylation significantly increased during aging; (2) markers of brain energy metabolism and redox state are significantly decreased in aging; and (3) aged rats demonstrated significant learning and memory impairment. More importantly, we found that age-related changes in brain energy metabolism, redox state, and cognitive function were attenuated by vitamin D supplementation. No significant differences were seen in tau hyperphosphorylation, markers of energy metabolism and redox state in the young animal groups. Our data suggest that vitamin D ameliorated the age-related tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive decline by enhancing brain energy metabolism, redox state, and PP2A activity making it a potentially useful therapeutic option to alleviate the effects of aging.

  7. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  8. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. FINDINGS: Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  9. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  10. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  11. C-PEPTIDE AMELIORATES KIDNEY INJURY FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Maltese, Giuseppe; LaMontagne, Timberly; Piraino, Giovanna; Denenberg, Alvin; O’Connor, Michael; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2013-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following hemorrhagic shock is accompanied by the development of a systemic inflammatory state that may lead to organ failure. C-peptide has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. Hence, we investigated the effect of C-peptide on kidney injury following hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that C-peptide would exert reno-protective effects by blunting inflammation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male rats (3–4 months old) by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. Animals were kept in shock for 3h at which time they were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, one group of animals received C-peptide (280 nmol/kg intravenously) while another group received vehicle. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rise in plasma levels of creatinine and elevated kidney neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in vehicle-treated rats in comparison with sham rats, thus suggesting kidney injury. Treatment with C-peptide significantly attenuated the rise in creatinine and kidney MPO activity when compared to vehicle group. At a molecular level these effects of C-peptide were associated with reduced expression of the c-Fos subunit and reduced activation of the pro-inflammatory kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequently, reduced DNA binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the kidney. Thus, our data suggest that C-peptide may exert reno-protective effects following hemorrhagic shock by modulating AP-1 signaling. PMID:21263384

  12. Telmisartan ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawia, Reem T; Esmat, Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Doaa A; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the potential hepatoprotective effect of telmisartan (TLM), a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptor blocker, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of male Wistar rats with CCl4 1 mL kg(-1) , 1:1 mixture with corn oil for 3 days increased serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. This is in addition to the disrupted histological architecture in the CCl4 group. Rats receiving CCl4 and co-treated with TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) , orally) showed ameliorated serum biochemical and histological changes almost to the control level. Nevertheless, rats treated with TLM (1 mg kg(-1) ) didn't show any significant changes compared to CCl4 intoxicated group. In addition, TLM rectified oxidative status disrupted by CCl4 intoxication. Interestingly, TLM protected against CCl4 -induced expressions of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, in a dose related manner. Moreover, TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) significantly modified CCl4 -induced elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, TLM showed a marked decline in CD68+ cells stained areas and reduced activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme compared to CCl4 -intoxicated group. In conclusion, both doses of TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) showed significant hepato-protective effects. However, TLM at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) didn't show significant efficacy above 3 mg kg(-1) which is nearly equivalent to the human anti-hypertensive dose of 40 mg. Thus, may be effective in guarding against several hepatic complications due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 359-370, 2017.

  13. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  14. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  16. Cognition as coordinated non-cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W; Breazeal, Cynthia; Smith, Linda B

    2007-06-01

    We propose that cognition is more than a collection of independent processes operating in a modular cognitive system. Instead, we propose that cognition emerges from dependencies between all of the basic systems in the brain, including goal management, perception, action, memory, reward, affect, and learning. Furthermore, human cognition reflects its social evolution and context, as well as contributions from a developmental process. After presenting these themes, we illustrate their application to the process of anticipation. Specifically, we propose that anticipations occur extensively across domains (i.e., goal management, perception, action, reward, affect, and learning) in coordinated manners. We also propose that anticipation is central to situated action and to social interaction, and that many of its key features reflect the process of development.

  17. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction Greg Trafton, Ph.D Naval Research Laboratory Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT...that cognition is for action (embodied cognition) • We are building embodied models for cognitive robotics and human-robot interaction • Online

  18. Cognitive Dynamic Systems: A Technical Review of Cognitive Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Krishanth; Schwering, Taralyn; Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    We start with the history of cognitive radar, where origins of the PAC, Fuster research on cognition and principals of cognition are provided. Fuster describes five cognitive functions: perception, memory, attention, language, and intelligence. We describe the Perception-Action Cyclec as it applies to cognitive radar, and then discuss long-term memory, memory storage, memory retrieval and working memory. A comparison between memory in human cognition and cognitive radar is given as well. Atte...

  19. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  20. Ameliorating effect of piperine on behavioral abnormalities and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragnya, B; Kameshwari, J S L; Veeresh, B

    2014-08-15

    Post natal exposure to VPA (valproic acid) in mice induces behavioral deficits, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior, observed in autism. Piperine has been reported to have protective effect on brain. The present study aimed at evaluating effect of piperine on VPA induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in BALB/c mice. Young BALB/c mice 13 days old were procured from five different litters and segregated into five groups (n=6; 3 male, 3 female) i.e., Group I served as control group, received physiological saline on PND (Post natal day) 14 & Tween 80 p.o. from PND13-40. Group II served as normal treated group and received piperine (20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 and saline s.c. on PND 14. Group III served as valproate treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 and Tween 80 p.o. from PND 13-40. Group IV & V served as disease treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 & piperine (5 & 20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 respectively. BALB/c mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess motor skill development, nociceptive response, locomotion, anxiety, and cognition on various postnatal days up to PND 40. At the end of behavioral evaluation, mice were sacrificed; brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, MDA and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Our study revealed that treatment with piperine significantly improved behavioral alterations, lowered oxidative stress markers, and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. This ameliorating effect of piperine is attributed to its anti-oxidant activity, cognition enhancing and neuroprotective activity.

  1. Calcineurin inhibition with FK506 ameliorates dendritic spine density deficits in plaque-bearing Alzheimer model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozkalne, Anete; Hyman, Bradley T; Spires-Jones, Tara L

    2011-03-01

    Synapse loss is the strongest correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, and synapses are an attractive therapeutic target due to their plastic nature that allows for potential recovery with intervention. We have previously demonstrated in transgenic mice that form senile plaques that dendrites surrounding plaques become dystrophic and lose postsynaptic dendritic spines. Furthermore, we found strong evidence that plaque-associated dendritic changes are mediated by calcineurin, a calcium-dependent phosphatase involved in cell signaling, using in vitro models and genetically encoded inhibitors in mouse models. In this study, we pharmacologically inhibited calcineurin with FK506 treatment to test the hypothesis that calcineurin inhibition will allow recovery of plaque-associated synapse loss. We found that in plaque bearing transgenic mice, short term (1 week) FK506 treatment results in an amelioration of dendritic spine loss. We also observe an effect on spine morphology in wild-type mice with FK506 treatment. These data show that systemic FK506 administration, and hence calcineurin inhibition, may be neuroprotective for amyloid beta induced synaptic alterations.

  2. Intracerebral transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alternatively activates microglia and ameliorates neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tuo; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Yan, Yufang; Song, Bo; Huang, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiufang; Gong, Yandao

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells might have therapeutic effects in preventing pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising new cell source for regenerative therapy. However, whether transplantation of ADSCs could actually ameliorate the neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanisms involved has not yet been established. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of intracerebral ADSC transplantation on AD pathology and spatial learning/memory of APP/PS1 double transgenic AD model mice. Results showed that ADSC transplantation dramatically reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposition and significantly restored the learning/memory function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. It was observed that in both regions of the hippocampus and the cortex there were more activated microglia, which preferentially surrounded and infiltrated into plaques after ADSC transplantation. The activated microglia exhibited an alternatively activated phenotype, as indicated by their decreased expression levels of proinflammatory factors and elevated expression levels of alternative activation markers, as well as Aβ-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, ADSC transplantation could modulate microglial activation in AD mice, mitigate AD symptoms, and alleviate cognitive decline, all of which suggest ADSC transplantation as a promising choice for AD therapy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation.

  3. The integration of cognitive remediation therapy into the whole psychosocial rehabilitation process: an evidence-based and person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penadés, Rafael; Catalán, Rosa; Pujol, Núria; Masana, Guillem; García-Rizo, Clemente; Bernardo, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapies seem to ameliorate cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, some improvement in daily functioning can also be expected as a result. However, to achieve these results it is necessary that cognitive remediation is carried out in the context of broader psychosocial rehabilitation involving the learning of other communication, social, and self-control skills. Unfortunately, little is known about how to integrate these different rehabilitation tools in broader rehabilitation programs. Based on both the neurocognitive behavioral approach and the action theory framework, a hierarchical flowchart is represented in this paper to integrate CRT with other evidence-based psychological therapies in outpatient settings. Finally, some evidence is provided in which cognitive abilities need to be targeted in remediation programs to improve functioning. In summary, to improve daily functioning, according to these studies, cognitive remediation needs to include the teaching of some cognitive strategies that target executive skills.

  4. The Integration of Cognitive Remediation Therapy into the Whole Psychosocial Rehabilitation Process: An Evidence-Based and Person-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Penadés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapies seem to ameliorate cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, some improvement in daily functioning can also be expected as a result. However, to achieve these results it is necessary that cognitive remediation is carried out in the context of broader psychosocial rehabilitation involving the learning of other communication, social, and self-control skills. Unfortunately, little is known about how to integrate these different rehabilitation tools in broader rehabilitation programs. Based on both the neurocognitive behavioral approach and the action theory framework, a hierarchical flowchart is represented in this paper to integrate CRT with other evidence-based psychological therapies in outpatient settings. Finally, some evidence is provided in which cognitive abilities need to be targeted in remediation programs to improve functioning. In summary, to improve daily functioning, according to these studies, cognitive remediation needs to include the teaching of some cognitive strategies that target executive skills.

  5. Acetylcholine elevation relieves cognitive rigidity and social deficiency in a mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvat, Golan; Kimchi, Tali

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are defined by behavioral deficits in social interaction and communication, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, and restricted interests/cognitive rigidity. Recent studies in humans and animal-models suggest that dysfunction of the cholinergic system may underlie autism-related behavioral symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that augmentation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase may ameliorate autistic phenotypes. We first administered the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) Donepezil systemically by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. Second, the drug was injected directly into the rodent homolog of the caudate nucleus, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), of the inbred mouse strain BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR), a commonly-used model presenting all core autism-related phenotypes and expressing low brain ACh levels. We found that i.p. injection of AChEI to BTBR mice significantly relieved autism-relevant phenotypes, including decreasing cognitive rigidity, improving social preference, and enhancing social interaction, in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of the drug directly into the DMS, but not into the ventromedial striatum, led to significant amelioration of the cognitive-rigidity and social-deficiency phenotypes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of the key role of the cholinergic system and the DMS in the etiology of ASD, and suggest that elevated cognitive flexibility may result in enhanced social attention. The potential therapeutic effect of AChEIs in ASD patients is discussed.

  6. Hydroxytyrosol mildly improve cognitive function independent of APP processing in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunhua; Hou, Chen; Yang, Ziqi; Li, Caixia; Jia, Liyan; Liu, Jing; Tang, Ying; Shi, Le; Li, Yongqin; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-11-01

    Olive products, the hallmark of Mediterranean diet, are associated with reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and other groups have shown that hydroxytyrosol (HT), a bioactive compound of olive products, ameliorates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neural toxicity. However, whether HT in Mediterranean diet acts as a functional ingredient in delaying AD pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD, were administrated for 6 months with 5 mg/kg/day of HT, a comparable level of HT in daily Mediterranean diet. HT improved electroencephalography activity and marginally benefited cognitive behavior of transgenic mice. In addition, HT treatment ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial carbonyl protein, enhanced superoxide dismutase 2 expression, reversed the phase 2 enzyme system and reduced the levels of brain inflammatory markers, but had no effect on brain β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that HT may represent as a functional ingredient in Mediterranean diet in ameliorating AD-involved neuronal impairment via modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress, neuronal inflammation, and apoptosis without affecting APP processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Moral cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jonathan; Langdon, Robyn; Brüne, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Disordered moral behaviour and understanding of moral rules were described early in the literature on schizophrenia; however, moral cognition has received scant attention in spite of a large literature focused on social cognitive impairments and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the literature on violence, moral judgement and schizophrenia. Initial empirical research into moral cognition in schizophrenia did not fully account for the basic- and social-cognitive deficits now known to characterise schizophrenia. Importantly, research into moral cognition in autism and psychopathy, disorders in part characterised by social cognitive impairments indicates subtle patterns of difference to the moral cognition of control participants. Recent neuroeconomic studies of moral cognition in schizophrenia have indicated that individuals with schizophrenia display subtle dysfunction in their fairness-related behaviours, but not in their propensity to engage in altruistic punishment. Further research has the potential to broaden our understanding of what is intact and what is impaired in moral cognition in schizophrenia and also to inform our theories of the structures subserving moral judgement in the general population. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of moral cognitive impairments in schizophrenia may have implications for both legal process and psychosocial rehabilitation.

  8. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  9. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  10. Coping with cancer-related cognitive dysfunction: a scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) impacts memory, attention, concentration, language, multi-tasking, and organizational skills and decreases participation and quality of life for cancer survivors. The objectives of this article are: (1) to outline the neuroscience of CRCD, its risk factors, and its effect on participation; and (2) to identify and summarize the literature on rehabilitation interventions and coping techniques for CRCD in cancer survivors. A scoping review of articles cited in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and CINAHL was performed. To be included, articles must have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal between 1996 and 2014, written in English, and included a quantitative or qualitative non-pharmacological study of interventions and/or coping strategies for adult cancer survivors experiencing CRCD. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for final review. Six studies tested the efficacy of rehabilitation treatments on CRCD. Three involved cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), while three tested neuropsychological and/or cognitive training interventions. Four qualitative studies investigated coping strategies used by survivors with CRCD. CBT-based treatments and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most commonly-reported coping strategy is utilization of assistive technology and memory aids. Further research is needed about efficacious rehabilitation techniques for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) may impact up to 50% of cancer survivors. CRCD can significantly decrease participation and quality of life during survivorship. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most common coping strategy reported by cancer survivors with CRCD is the use of assistive technology and memory aids.

  11. Improving clinical cognitive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Seth A.; Barrett, A.M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H. Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Hart, John J.; Lerner, Alan J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Pietras, Alison C.; Voeller, Kytja S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Methods: Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Results: Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. Conclusions: We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. PMID:26163433

  12. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  13. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  14. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C and E on hematological alterations induced by chlorpyrifos alone and in conjunction with fluoride in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer A. Baba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide for the management of agricultural and household pests. Similarly excessive fluoride (F ingestion is an important public health problem all over the world due to high fluoride content in groundwater. The present study aimed to investigate the alterations in hematological parameters by CPF alone and in conjunction with fluoride and their amelioration by vitamin C and E. Methods: The study was carried out in two phases; in the first phase toxicity was induced by toxicants and in the second phase ameliorative efficacy of vitamins was tested. Results: In the first phase, repeated oral administration of fluoride in drinking water at the dose of 1 and 10 mg/l caused increased monocyte and total leukocyte count (TLC. On the other hand, orally administered CPF (1 mg/kg resulted in decrease of packed cell volume (PCV with increase in TLC; in addition, granulocytes and monocytes were significantly increased. CPF at 10 mg/kg significantly decreased PCV and total erythrocyte count (TEC, whereas increase in TLC was observed. Co-administration of fluoride in drinking water (10 mg/l and CPF via oral gavage (10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in decrease of hemoglobin (Hb, PCV, TEC whereas increase in TLC. The differential leukocyte count (DLC showed a decrease in lymphocyte values but an increase in granulocytes and monocytes. Conclusion: Simultaneous administration of with vitamin C and E along with CPF and fluoride ameliorated various hematological parameters, except TLC, granulocytes and monocytes, induced by co-exposure of CPF and fluoride in Wistar rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 213-218

  15. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  16. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  17. Effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 张光霁; 丁学华; 江基尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: An acute experimental closed TBI model in rats was induced by a fluid-percussion brain injury model. At five and sixty minutes after TBI, the animals were intraperitoneally injected by ganglioside GM1 (30 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline. At the 6th hour after TBI, effects of ganglioside GM1 or saline on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), contents of water, lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the injured cerebral tissues were observed.Results: After TBI, MAP decreased and contents of water, LA and LPO increased in brain injury group; however, MAP was back to normal levels and contents of water, LA and LPO decreased in ganglioside GM1 treated group, compared with those in brain injury group (P0.05) was observed.Conclusions: Ganglioside GM1 does have obvious neuroprotective effect on early TBI.

  18. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Michinaga

    Full Text Available Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice. Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist, IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist, or FR139317 (ETA antagonist prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  19. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  1. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  2. Withania somnifera ameliorates lead-induced augmentation of adrenergic response in rat portal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Hore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Present study was undertaken to elucidate the ameliorating potential of Withania somnifera root extract (WRE against lead-induced augmentation of adrenergic response in rat portal vein. Materials and Methods: In-vitro studies were conducted on effect of lead alone and lead+WRE on rat-isolated portal vein while in-vivo studies were done in three groups of 12 rats each; Group-II and III received 0.5% lead acetate and 1.0% WRE + 0.5% lead acetate, respectively, in drinking water for 12 weeks whereas group-I served as control. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in brain and blood were determined by HPLC assay while vascular reactivity of portal vein to lead and WRE was determined by measuring the isometric tension. Results: Following in-vitro exposure, lead did not alter the contractile effect of phenylephrine. In-vivo studies revealed that contractile effect of lead on portal vein was significantly potentiated and it was antagonized by prazosin (10 -7 M and WRE (1%. WRE treatment significantly reduced elevated blood noradrenaline (37.80% and restored noradrenaline level in brain (39.39% in lead-exposed animals. These values were almost comparable to the control group. But it failed to significantly affect the blood and brain adrenaline levels. Conclusions: Results suggest that following pre-exposure of rats to WRE, lead-induced augmentation of alpha 1 -adrenoceptors mediated response was reversed possibly by regulating catecholamine release from nerve endings. Thus, WRE may be useful in therapeutic management of lead-induced hypertension.

  3. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation.

  4. Situated Entrepreneurial Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dew, Nicholas; Grichnik, Dietmar; Mayer-Haug, Katrin; Read, Stuart; Brinckmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12051 This paper reviews and integrates research from both within and outside the entrepreneurship field under the label of ‘situated cognition’. Situated cognition is the notion that cognitive activity inherently involves perception and action in the context of a human body situated in a real-world environment. The review concentrates on three areas of the situated cognition literature that hav...

  5. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  6. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    directly related to the protocol stack, e.g., environmental or positioning data) that can be exploited to design and test novel cognitive networking ...quality of service (QoS) is challenging. Currently, 5G technologies are being developed to answer the need for further increasing network capacity, and...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In the ARO “Cognitive Protocol Stack Design" project we proposed cognitive networking solutions published in international

  7. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD.

  8. GABAergic effect of valeric acid from Valeriana wallichii in amelioration of ICV STZ induced dementia in rats

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    Shilpa Vishwakarma

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Valeriana wallichii DC., Caprifoliaceae, is used to have anti-ulcer, anti-spasmodic, anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, anti-anxiety, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-asthmatic and diuretic activities. V. wallichii is reported to contain valpotriates, valeric acid, valerenic acid, valechlorine, valerianine, resins and alkaloids. Valeric acid, found in V. wallichii appears similar in structure to the neurotransmitter GABA. Valeric acid also acts as an NMDA-receptor antagonist. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of V. wallichii containing valeric acid and its possible mechanism of action in amelioration of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neurodegeneration in Wistar rats. The rhizomes of V. wallichii were powdered coarsely and extracted by percolation method using dichloromethane. Wistar rats (220–250 g of either sex were divided into 5 groups, comprising 6 animals each. Valeric acid was isolated from plant extract and characterized using FT-IR. Picrotoxin (2 mg/kg was used as GABA-A antagonist. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin administration caused significant (p < 0.05 increase in escape latency, retention transfer latency on morris water maze on 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th day and elevated plus maze on 19th and 20th day respectively, as compared to normal untreated rats. Treatment with V. wallichii extract 100 and 200 mg/kg and valeric acid 20 and 40 mg/kg significantly decreased the escape latency and retention transfer latency, as compared to intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin group. Plant extract and valeric acid also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and restored glutathione level in rat brains. Administration of picrotoxin significantly reversed the effects produced by plant extract and valeric acid in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin treated rats. The findings may conclude that valeric acid present in V. wallichii has significant GABAergic effect in

  9. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation ameliorates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mice with PPARγ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousei Ohshima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2 receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2 receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21 might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetes (T2DM with PPARγ activation, mainly focusing on adipose tissue. METHODS: T2DM mice, KK-Ay, were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of C21 and/or a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662 in drinking water for 2 weeks. Insulin resistance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and uptake of 2-[(3H] deoxy-D-glucose in white adipose tissue. Morphological changes of adipose tissues as well as adipocyte differentiation and inflammatory response were examined. RESULTS: Treatment with C21 ameliorated insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice without influencing blood pressure, at least partially through effects on the PPARγ pathway. C21 treatment increased serum adiponectin concentration and decreased TNF-α concentration; however, these effects were attenuated by PPARγ blockade by co-treatment with GW9662. Moreover, we observed that administration of C21 enhanced adipocyte differentiation and PPARγ DNA-binding activity, with a decrease in inflammation in white adipose tissue, whereas these effects of C21 were attenuated by co-treatment with GW9662. We also observed that administration of C21 restored β cell damage in diabetic pancreatic tissue. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that direct AT(2 receptor stimulation by C21 accompanied with PPARγ activation ameliorated insulin resistance in T2DM mice, at least partially due to improvement of adipocyte dysfunction and protection of pancreatic β cells.

  10. The Effectiveness of Ameliorant to Increase Carbon Stock of Oilpalm and Rubber Plantation on Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of peatland amelioration can improve soil quality, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration. The research aimed to study the effect of peatland amelioration on oil palm and rubber carbon stock improvement. Research was conducted from August 2013 until June 2014. The researches on oil palm were done in Arang-arang Village, Kumpeh Subdistrict, Muaro Jambi District, and in Lubuk Ogong Village, Bandar Seikijang Sub-district, Pelalawan District. Both sites are in Jambi and Riau Province. The research on rubber was done in Jabiren Village, Jabiren Raya Subdistrict, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan Province. The study used a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD, in four treatments and four replications. The treatments were pugam (peat fertilizer enriched by polyvalent cation, manure; empty fruit bunch compost, and control (no application. The measurement of C stock was performed 10 months after application using nondestructive methods. The results showed that peatland amelioration treatments had no significant effect to improve C stock on oil palm in 6 years old and 7 years old of rubber. After 10 months of amelioration application, the treatments increased C - stock of oil palm and rubber were 2.1-2.4 Mg ha-1 and 5-11 Mg ha-1, respectively. Longer time observation may be needed to study the effect of ameliorant on C-stock of annual crops.

  11. Pregnancy amelioration of arthritis in SKG mice corresponds with alterations in serum amyloid A3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A; Stefanski, Adrianne L; Peterson, Lisa K; Rumer, Kristen K; Vondracek, Andrea; Phang, Tzu L; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Winn, Virginia D; Dragone, Leonard L

    2012-06-30

    OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy leads to rheumatoid arthritis remission in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKG mouse could serve as a model for pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. In addition, the maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptome was assessed to define a biomarker associated with remission. METHODS: Cohorts of zymosan-treated pregnant SKG mice and controls were monitored for arthritis progression. Microarray analysis evaluated alterations in gene expression in maternal PBMCs at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. A selected target, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), was further investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Pregnancy resulted in complete or partial remission in the majority of the zymosan-treated SKG mice. Twenty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed in the PBMCs between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. Expression and plasma SAA3 levels decreased with pregnancy-induced arthritis amelioration and plasma SAA3 levels correlated with arthritis severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish the SKG mouse as a model system to study pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis. These studies also establish SAA3 as a biomarker of arthritis amelioration in SKG mice. This model can be used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impact of pregnancy on the maternal immune system that results in arthritis amelioration.

  12. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  13. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    amelioration at low concentrations and an aggravation at high concentrations. Low concentrations of HNPs may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  14. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Priscila J.; Clevelario, Amanda L.; Padilha, Gisele A.; Silva, Johnatas D.; Kitoko, Jamil Z.; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Capelozzi, Vera L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.; Cruz, Fernanda F.

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease for which no effective therapy exists. We hypothesized that bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might ameliorate inflammatory responses, attenuate pulmonary fibrosis, and thus improve lung function in experimental silicosis. For this purpose, we investigated the potential efficacy of bosutinib in the treatment of experimental silicosis induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal administration of silica particles. After 15 days, once disease was established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or bosutinib (1 mg/kg/dose in 0.1 mL 1% DMSO) by oral gavage, twice daily for 14 days. On day 30, lung mechanics and morphometry, total and differential cell count in alveolar septa and granuloma, levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenate, M1 and M2 macrophages, total leukocytes, and T cells in BALF, lymph nodes, and thymus, and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and granuloma were analyzed. In a separate in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to silica particles in the presence or absence of bosutinib. After 24 h, gene expressions of arginase-1, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and caspase-3 were evaluated. In vivo, in silicotic animals, bosutinib, compared to DMSO, decreased: (1) fraction area of collapsed alveoli, (2) size and number of granulomas, and mononuclear cell granuloma infiltration; (3) IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in lung homogenates, (4) collagen fiber content in lung parenchyma, and (5) viscoelastic pressure and static lung elastance. Bosutinib also reduced M1 cell counts while increasing M2 macrophage population in both lung parenchyma and granulomas. Total leukocyte, regulatory T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts in the lung-draining lymph

  15. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  16. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  17. Is social cognition embodied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alvin; de Vignemont, Frederique

    2009-04-01

    Theories of embodied cognition abound in the literature, but it is often unclear how to understand them. We offer several interpretations of embodiment, the most interesting being the thesis that mental representations in bodily formats (B-formats) have an important role in cognition. Potential B-formats include motoric, somatosensory, affective and interoceptive formats. The literature on mirroring and related phenomena provides support for a limited-scope version of embodied social cognition under the B-format interpretation. It is questionable, however, whether such a thesis can be extended. We show the limits of embodiment in social cognition.

  18. Embodied Cognition of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T Vallet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging (these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications.

  19. Networks in Cognitive Science

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    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-01-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in cognitive science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions or collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into cognitive sciences, and the expansion of complex systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the cognitive sciences.

  20. COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A. H. M. Cleutjens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD has been considered a disease of the lungs, often caused by smoking. Nowadays, COPD is regarded as a systemic disease. Both physical effects and effects on brains, including impaired psychological and cognitive functioning, have been demonstrated. Patients with COPD may have cognitive impairment, either globally or in single cognitive domains, such as information processing, attention and concentration, memory, executive functioning, and self-control. Possible causes are hypoxemia, hypercapnia, exacerbations, and decreased physical activity. Cognitive impairment in these patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities, such as gray-matter pathologic changes and the loss of white matter integrity which can be induced by smoking. Cognitive impairment can have a negative impact on health and daily life and may be associated with widespread consequences for disease management programs. It is important to assess cognitive functioning in patients with COPD in order to optimize patient-oriented treatment and to reduce personal discomfort, hospital admissions, and mortality. This paper will summarize the current knowledge about cognitive impairment as extrapulmonary feature of COPD. Hereby, the impact of smoking on cognitive functioning and the impact of cognitive impairment on smoking behaviour will be examined.

  1. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  2. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  3. Protective effects of salidroside against isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Ma, Z; Dong, M; Ma, J; Jiang, A; Sun, X

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, which is associated with a wide range of cognitive functions including working memory, long-term memory, information processing, attention, and cognitive flexibility, is a major clinical issue in geriatric surgical patients. The aim of the current study was to determine the protective role and possible mechanisms of salidroside against isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups and were treated with or without salidroside before isoflurane exposure. Open-field and fear conditioning tests were conducted to evaluate the cognitive function of the rats. Moreover, the hippocampus tissues were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the isoflurane anesthesia decreased the freezing time to context significantly at 48 h after the isoflurane exposure in the fear conditioning test. Salidroside could ameliorate isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction. Further analysis demonstrated salidroside markedly suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Moreover, salidroside reversed the decreased activity of choline acetyltransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and content of acetylcholine, as well as the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase and content of malondialdehyde in hippocampal tissue of isoflurane-exposed rats. According to the results, we concluded that that salidroside has a protective effect against isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction by inhibiting excessive inflammatory responses, decreasing oxidative stress, and regulating the cholinergic system.

  4. Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Khanra, Ritu; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-05

    Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used against Arsenic (As) poisoning in folk medicines in India. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against As-intoxication. AEIA was chemically standardized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on isolated murine hepatocytes. The effect on redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM) + AEIA (400 μg/ml). The protective effect of AEIA (400 μg/ml) in expressions of apoptotic proteins were estimated in vitro. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, biochemical, As bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to ensure the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) intoxication. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of substantial quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and ascorbic acid in AEIA. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with AEIA (0-400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) exerted a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM, ~ IC50) induced apoptosis via augmenting oxidative stress. NaAsO2 treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly (p animals. However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis. Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

  5. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatic (Convolvulaceae, Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Dewanjee

    Full Text Available Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae, an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication.The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM along with AEIA (400 μg/ml. The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg intoxication.Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01 of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01 of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01 the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored significantly the evaluated-parameters to the near-normal position.The extract may offer the protective effect via counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting the elimination of Pb by chelating. The presence of substantial quantities of flavonoids, phenolics and saponins would be responsible for the overall protective effect.

  6. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  7. The effectiveness of surface liming in ameliorating the phytotoxic effects of soil contaminated by copper acid leach pad solution in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of sites following soil contamination can be challenging especially in identifying the most effective method for ameliorating phytotoxic effects in arid ecosystems. This study at a copper mine in the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia investigated vegetation restoration of a site contaminated by acid (H2SO4) leach pad solution. Elevated soil copper at low soil pH is phytotoxic to plant roots inhibiting root elongation. In arid ecosystems where rapid root growth is crucial for seedling survival post germination physical or chemical barriers to root growth need to be identified and ameliorated. Initial attempt at rehabilitation of contaminated site with hydrated lime (CaOH2) at 2 tonnes/ha followed by ripping to 30 cm depth then seeding was ineffective as successful seedling emergence was followed by over 90% seedling mortality which was 10-fold greater than seedling mortality in an uncontaminated reference site. High mortality was attributed to seedling roots being impededed as soil water was more than 3-fold greater at 5 to 40 cm depth in contaminated site than reference site. In response to high seedling mortality after emergence test pits were dug to 1 m deep to collect soil samples at 10 cm intervals for phytotoxicity testing and to measure soil pH-CaCl2, copper (DPTA ion extraction), electrical conductivity and gravimetric water content in three replicate pits at three replicate sites. Also, soil impedance was measured down the soil profile at 5 cm intervals at six replicate points/pit. For phytotoxicity testing soil samples were placed into three replicate plastic pots/sample and seeded with 10 seeds of Avena sativa and watered daily. Seedlings were harvested after at least two weeks after seedling emergence and rooting depth in pots measured. There was no difference in seedling emergence and survival of seedlings between contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples however mean seedling root growth was significantly lower in soil samples

  8. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Social Challenge (p = .001, d = 1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms...... an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients......Objective: Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical...

  9. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  10. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  11. Linoleic and alpha linolenic acids ameliorate streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Lea; Werner, Haim; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2014-02-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice progresses with decreased desaturase activities and alterations in the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA). Based on our previous studies with soybean oil that ameliorated the STZ damage in mice, we tested here the accountability of its main EFA components, i.e. linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), in the prevention of pancreas damage and Δ6 desaturase decrease. Seven days after injection with STZ and EFA gavage, ICR mice were sacrificed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, pancreas histology and liver fatty acid desaturases were analysed. EFA reduced pancreas damage, insulin and glucose plasma levels and restored Δ6 desaturase activity and mRNA expression levels. By reducing pancreas damage, EFA ameliorated insulin levels, Δ6 desaturase and fatty acid metabolism. LA further enhanced Fads2 promoter activity. EFA ameliorate STZ induced diabetes in mice.

  12. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  13. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  14. Chemical basis for minimal cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Ikegami, Takashi

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the chemical-molecular origins of movement, perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. The aqueous phase contains a surfactant that modulates the interfacial...... tension between the drop of oil and its environment. We embed a chemical reaction in the oil phase that reacts with water when an oily precursor comes in contact with the water phase at the liquidliquid interface. This reaction not only powers the droplet to move in the aqueous phase but also allows......H and the environmental gradient. In our modeling, we demonstrated that a computational autopoietic cell could move by continuously self-repairing the membrane, but in this case failed to show any gradientclimbing behavior (Suzuki et al., 2008, Artificial Life, in press). This may be due to the fact that the autopoietic...

  15. Chemical basis for minimal cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Ikegami, Takashi

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the chemical-molecular origins of movement, perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. The aqueous phase contains a surfactant that modulates the interfacial...... tension between the drop of oil and its environment. We embed a chemical reaction in the oil phase that reacts with water when an oily precursor comes in contact with the water phase at the liquidliquid interface. This reaction not only powers the droplet to move in the aqueous phase but also allows...... for sustained movement. The direction of the movement is governed by a self-generated pH gradient that surrounds the droplet. In addition this self-generated gradient can be overridden by an externally imposed pH gradient, and therefore the direction of droplet motion may be controlled. Also we noticed...

  16. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  17. Blonanserin ameliorates phencyclidine-induced visual-recognition memory deficits: the complex mechanism of blonanserin action involving D₃-5-HT₂A and D₁-NMDA receptors in the mPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT₂A/dopamine-D₂ receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D₂/₃ receptors than for serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D₃ receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT₂A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D₃ receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D₁ receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr(197) and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser(897) by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser(896) by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D₁-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D₃ and serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors in the mPFC.

  18. Corpora and cultural cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can...

  19. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, ELEANOR E.; RAU, LUCY

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY OF 6 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (120) IN GRADE 5. SCORES ON THE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TEST, IOWA ACHIEVEMENT TEST, AND CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY WERE USED AS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. (JK)

  1. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  3. Embodiment and social cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedenthal, P.M.; Eelen, J.; Maringer, M.; Decety, J.; Cacioppo, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews models of the conceptual system on which most research in social cognition research was based until very recently. It then outlines the principles of another account, which is the theory of embodied or grounded cognition. Relevant research findings are presented to demon

  4. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  5. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  6. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  7. Effect of crude extract and its semi purified constituents from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart. lucke] on cognitive performance in Morris water maze in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crude lyophilized extract (EBPC and the semi-purified constituents (EPA and EPB of Paullinia cupana (guaraná seeds long-term administered in rats by gavage at different doses was studied on cognitive behavior in rats. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg and EPA (2.0 mg/kg, but not EPB (2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg showed a smaller escape latency to find the emerged platform in Morris water maze test (MWMT, showing nootropic-like effect in normal rats, and in scopolamine induced amnesia rats compared to their controls (saline + 0.2% Tween 80 group. These extracts had no significant effect in open field test (OFT. Caffeine did alter escape latency in MWMT only in scopolamine induced amnesia rats and increased the crossings number in OFT, showing significant stimulant effect. Chronic treatment showed the same increase in body weight and average lifespan indicating a low toxicity for the extracts.O efeito do tratamento crônico (gavagem do extrato bruto liofilizado (EBPC das sementes da Paullinia cupana, guaraná, e seus constituintes semi-purificados EPA e EPB, sobre o comportamento cognitivo foi estudado em ratos submetidos ao teste do labirinto aquático de Morris. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg e EPA (2.0 mg/kg, mostraram menor latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa quando comparados ao grupo controle (salina+ tween 80 a 0.2%, em ratos normais ou tratados com escopolamina, o que sugere efeito benéfico sobre a cognição. Estes extratos não alteraram a atividade locomotora no teste do campo aberto. A cafeína, reduziu o tempo de latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa no teste do labirinto aquático de Morris em tratados com escopolamina. Além disso, aumentou o número de cruzamentos no teste do campo aberto, mostrando efeito estimulante. Ratos tratados com EPB não produziram alteração significativa nos testes utilizados. Os animais tratados cronicamente com EBPC, EPA ou EPB tiveram a mesma evolução ponderal e sobrevida o que sugere baixa toxicidade

  8. The social life of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New Views on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Reviews recent empirical findings toward three cognitive developmental perspectives: the fears of infancy, the discontinuous quality of stages in cognitive functioning, and the capacity for resilience in cognitive development. (DEP)

  10. Evaluating the ameliorative effect of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality on copper toxicity to Daphnia magna: improving the BLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Smith, D Scott; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    Various quality predictors of seven different natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) and humic substances were evaluated for their influence on protection of Daphnia magna neonates against copper (Cu) toxicity. Protection was examined at 3 and 6 mg l(-1) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each DOM isolate added to moderately hard, dechlorinated water. Other water chemistry parameters (pH, concentrations of DOC, calcium, magnesium and sodium) were kept relatively constant. Predictors included absorbance ratios Abs(254/365) (index of molecular weight) and Abs-octanol(254)/Abs-water(254) (index of lipophilicity), specific absorption coefficient (SAC(340); index of aromaticity), and fluorescence index (FI; index of source). In addition, the fluorescent components (humic-like, fulvic-like, tryptophan-like, and tyrosine-like) of the isolates were quantified by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Up to 4-fold source-dependent differences in protection were observed amongst the different DOMs. Significant correlations in toxicity amelioration were found with Abs(254/365), Abs-octanol(254)/Abs-water(254), SAC(340), and with the humic-like fluorescent component. The relationships with FI were not significant and there were no relationships with the tryptophan-like or tyrosine-like fluorescent components at 3 mg C l(-1), whereas a negative correlation was seen with the fulvic-like component. In general, the results indicate that larger, optically dark, more lipophilic, more aromatic DOMs of terrigenous origin, with higher humic-like content, are more protective against Cu toxicity. A method for incorporating SAC(340) as a DOM quality indicator into the Biotic Ligand Model is presented; this may increase the accuracy for predicting Cu toxicity in natural waters.

  11. Dietary nitrite ameliorates renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tomita, Shuhei; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Abe, Shinji; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2010-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions in the kidney, and long-term blockage of nitric oxide synthases in rats by L-NAME results in severe hypertension and progressive kidney damage. On the other hand, NO production seems to be low in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and NO deficiency may play a role in CKD progression. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of amelioration of renal injury induced by L-NAME treated rats by treatment of nitrite. First, we demonstrate whether orally-administrated nitrite-derived NO can shift to the circulation. When 3mg/kg body weight Na(15)NO(2) was orally administered to rats, an apparent EPR signal derived from Hb(15)NO (A(z)=23.4 gauss) appeared in the blood, indicating that orally ingested nitrite can be a source of NO in vivo. Next, in order to clarify the capacity of nitrite to prevent renal disease, we administered low-dose nitrite (LDN: 0.1mg of sodium nitrite in 1L of drinking water), medium-dose nitrite (MDN: 1mg sodium nitrite/L, which corresponds to the amount of nitrite ingested by vegetarians), or high-dose nitrite (HDN: 10mg sodium nitrite/L) to rats simultaneously with L-NAME (1 g l-NAME/L) for 8 weeks, then examined the blood NO level as a hemoglobin-NO adduct (iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin) using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, urinary protein excretion, and renal histological changes at the end of the experiment. It was found that oral administration of MDN and HDN but not LDN increased the blood iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin concentration to the normal level, ameliorated the L-NAME-induced proteinuria, and reduced renal histological damage. The findings demonstrate that chronic administration of a mid-level dietary dose of nitrite restores the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin levels reduced by L-NAME and that maintenance of the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin level in a controlled range protects against L-NAME-induced renal injury. Taking these findings together, we

  12. Situated clinical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  13. Cognitive and Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton

    People with cognitive disabilities are gaining in a long struggle for recognition of their right to control their lives. In the information society access to the Web is essential to this control. Cognitive barriers to this access are diverse, reflecting the complexity of human cognitive faculties. These barriers are not well managed in current accessibility practice and policy, in part because cognitive accessibility, like usability, cannot be reduced to a checklist of simple attributes. Advances in representing the meaning as well as the form of information, and in supporting configurable presentation and interaction methods, will yield progress. Increased inclusion of people with cognitive disabilities in the processes of technology development and policy making will also pay off.

  14. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...... of documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...... imagination. The article analyses case studies of documentaries dealing with climate change and the environment and documentaries dealing with social history....

  15. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  16. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  17. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  18. An Introduction to Cognitive Musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Niels Trusbak

    2015-01-01

    This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive, and neuros......This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive...

  19. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor gene therapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jie Liu; Ji-De Jin; Tong-De Lv; Zu-Ze Wu; Xiao-Qin Ha

    2011-01-01

    /mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 46.10 ± 6.23 vs 25.35 ± 4.76 and 27.82 ± 6.42 U/mg, P < 0.01) and MDA contents decreased accordingly (d 7: 7.40 ± 0.88 vs 9.81 ± 1.21 and 10.45 ± 1.40 nmol/mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 4.36 ± 0.62 vs 8.41 ± 0.92 and 8.71 ± 1.27 nmol/mg, P < 0.01), compared with SP and control groups. CONCLUSION: KGF gene therapy mediated by attenuated Salmonella ameliorates ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acids, and it may be a safe and effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.

  1. Effects of forest road amelioration techniques on soil bulk density, surface runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy K. Kolka; Mathew F. Smidt

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous methods have been used to retire roads, new technologies have evolved that can potentially ameliorate soil damage, lessen ,the generation of nonpoint source pollution and increase tree productivity on forest roads. In this study we investigated the effects of three forest road amelioration techniques, subsoiling, recontouring and traditional...

  2. Does non-invasive brain stimulation improve cognition in major depressive disorder? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Gabriel; Selingardi, Priscila M L; Moreno, Marina L; Veronezi, Beatriz P; Brunoni, Andre R

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been increasingly used in different contexts to improve cognitive performance and ameliorate depression symptoms. Considering that major depression is usually accompanied by cognitive deficits, NIBS technique could be also helpful to improve cognition in depressed patients. In this systematic review, we researched for articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE from the first date available to June 2014 that assessed cognitive performance in patients with depression before and after NIBS. Out of 191 references, 25 (16 for rTMS and 9 for tDCS) studies matched our eligibility criteria. Non-invasive brain stimulation interventions, such as rTMS and tDCS seem to be a promising tool for cognitive enhancement in MDD, although several issues and biases (e.g., blinding issues, tests without correction for multiple comparisons, placebo effects and exploratory analyses, practice effects) hinder us to conclude that NIBS technique improve cognition in patients with depression. We discussed possible shortcomings of the included studies, such as the use of different depression treatment protocols, the possibility that some findings were false-positive results of the employed cognitive tasks and whether cognition improvement could have been an epiphenomenon secondary to depression improvement. To conclude, whereas these non-pharmacological, non-invasive techniques are particularly appealing for cognitive improvement in depression, further studies are still warranted to disentangle whether NIBS technique induce positive effects on cognition beyond their antidepressant effects.

  3. Ameliorating effect of new constituents from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla on scopolamine-induced memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Suk-Chul; LEE Dong-Ung

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents and their anti-amnesic effect from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla.METHODS:The isolation of compounds was performed by chromatographic techniques and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis.Their ameliorating effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo using a Morris water-maze task and passive avoidance task system were evaluated.RESULTS:Activity-guided fractionation of the total extracts resulted in the isolation of four constituents,trans-anethole (1),p-anisaldehyde (2),estragole (3),and 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4),which were found for the first time from this plant.CONCLUSION:Compound 1 exhibited a better memory enhancing effect than tacrine,a positive agent,at the same dose in the passive avoidance test and a similar property in the water-maze test,and its action may be mediated,in part,by the acetylcholine enhancing cholinergic nervous system.

  4. Mechanism of Cerebralcare Granule® for Improving Cognitive Function in Resting-State Brain Functional Networks of Sub-healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebralcare Granule® (CG, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty sub-healthy participants were instructed to take one 2.5-g package of CG three times a day for 3 months. Clinical cognitive functions were assessed with the Chinese Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and fMRI scans were performed at baseline and the end of intervention. Functional brain network data were analyzed by conventional network metrics (CNM and frequent subgraph mining (FSM. Then 21 other sub-healthy participants were enrolled as a blank control group of cognitive functional. We found that administrating CG can improve the full scale of intelligence quotient (FIQ and Memory Quotient (MQ scores. At the same time, following CG treatment, in CG group, the topological properties of functional brain networks were altered in various frontal, temporal, occipital cortex regions, and several subcortical brain regions, including essential components of the executive attention network, the salience network, and the sensory-motor network. The nodes involved in the FSM results were largely consistent with the CNM findings, and the changes in nodal metrics correlated with improved cognitive function. These findings indicate that CG can improve sub-healthy subjects' cognitive function through altering brain functional networks. These results provide a foundation for future studies of the potential physiological mechanism of CG.

  5. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  6. Cognitive aging in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Behavior of wild-type, mutant and gamma-irradiated zebrafish (Danio rerio was documented using image-analysis technique. Conditioned responses to spatial, visual and temporal cues were investigated in young, middle-aged and old animals. The results demonstrate that zebrafish aging is associated with changes in cognitive responses to emotionally positive and negative experiences, reduced generalization of adaptive associations, increased stereotypic and reduced exploratory behavior and altered temporal entrainment. Genetic upregulation of cholinergic transmission attenuates cognitive decline in middle-aged achesb55/+ mutants, compared to wild-type siblings. In contrast, the genotoxic stress of gamma-irradiation accelerates the onset of cognitive impairment in young zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings would allow the use of powerful molecular biological resources accumulated in the zebrafish field to address the mechanisms of cognitive senescence, and promote the search for therapeutic strategies which may attenuate age-related cognitive decline.

  7. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Yu-ping; TIAN Ya-jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water), positive control group (gavage of donepezil), low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively), 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water). After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholine esterase (AchE), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), monoamine oxidase (MAO), and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX) as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results:In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  8. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ping XIONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water, positive control group (gavage of donepezil, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water. After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholine esterase (AchE, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, monoamine oxidase (MAO, and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results: In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  9. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project

  10. Where Is Cognition? Emotion and Cognition in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the brain is the seat of cognition, that cognitive processes are neutral processes, and that, in the brain, affect and cognition are distinguishable but inseparable. This perspective allows a reconceptualization of the affective filter in terms of the brain's stimulus appraisal system, which interacts with cognition to promote or…

  11. Principles of minimal cognition : Casting cognition as sensorimotor coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Marc van; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend

  12. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHA

  13. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  14. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Leitman, David I

    2008-07-01

    Social cognition in schizophrenia is a rapidly emerging area of study. Because the number and diversity of studies in this area have increased, efforts have been made to better define terms and provide organizing frameworks. A key challenge confronting the study of social cognition in schizophrenia is building bridges between clinical scientists and social neuroscientists. The articles in this theme summarize data-based studies that have attempted to build or strengthen such bridges to better understand the neural bases of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  15. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic disea

  16. Synergistic antioxidant action of Phikud Navakot ameliorates hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthaneth Nalinratana

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the synergistic antioxidant action of PN ameliorates endothelial stress, which may provide some clues for understanding the traditional use of PN for the treatment of circulatory disorder. Additionally, the selection of a suitable solvent for the extraction of PN herbal combination is essential for maximal efficacy and safety.

  17. An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative Effects of Modafinil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Nap: Evolution, Chronobiology, and Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep , C. Stampi, Editor. 1992, Birkhauser: Boston. p. 217-241. 3. Babkoff...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013763 TITLE: An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative...Effects of Modafinil DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited rhis paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Sleep

  18. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2009-01-01

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/aj

  19. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Beilharz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments.

  20. Neural basis for the ability of atypical antipsychotic drugs to improve cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

    2013-10-16

    Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence. The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefited by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g., event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some AAPDs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors. These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia.

  1. Characteristics of Salt Affected Soil and Its Amelioration by Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Salt-affected soils extensively distribute on the earth.Although the causes are various,generally speaking salinization occurrence results from the accumulation of free salts to an extent that causes degradation of vegetation and soils.Besides,irrational human practices have increased soil salinity by allowing excess recharging of groundwater to change the natural balance of the water cycle in the landscape. This reduces the suitability to plant growth and increases the potential for other forms of land ...

  2. Creativity and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    1980-01-01

    The article focuses on research on improving creativity, including early efforts to enhance, operationalize, and define creativity. Studies dealing with behavioral management of creativity are discussed, as are those concerning the effects of self-statements and cognition. (CL)

  3. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    and of its crucial notion of habit with the so-called “extended mind hypothesis” and ii) the application of such a framework on cognitive linguistic conceptions of language. This was necessary to develop a sound conceptual reflection on how social and intersubjective linguistic activities put to play......The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... by bodily structures and activities as well as by social and intersubjective dynamics of coordination. The current investigation adds to the picture the role of language using theoretical analysis, corpus linguistics and experimental behavioural techniques. The aim was indeed to develop a framework...

  4. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rothganger, Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Brian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warrender, Christina E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  5. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  6. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  7. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  8. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  9. Ritual and embodied cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.; Klocova, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive.......Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive....

  10. Summary: Cognition in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 79th Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology on Cognition held on May 28–June 2, 2014 was to survey recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and assess future prospects. The symposium succeeded beyond the dreams of the organizers and the participants were treated to an extraordinarily rich feast of 58 long talks, six short talks, and 137 posters. Equally important to the success of the symposium was the perfect setting for informal scientific exchange between 260 ...

  11. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  12. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  13. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  14. Sex-Specific Life Course Changes in the Neuro-Metabolic Phenotype of Glut3 Null Heterozygous Mice: Ketogenic Diet Ameliorates Electroencephalographic Seizures and Improves Sociability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Zhao, Yuanzi; Tomi, Masatoshi; Shin, Bo-Chul; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Mazarati, Andrey; Sankar, Raman; Wang, Elizabeth A; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S; Zhang, Jingjing; Frew, Andrew; Alger, Jeffry R; Clark, Peter M; Sondhi, Monica; Kositamongkol, Sudatip; Leibovitch, Leah; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features, which include aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5 months of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP. Exogenous insulin-induced hypoglycemia increased brain glucose uptake in glut3+/- males alone. Higher plasma-CSF ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate) and lower brain Glut3 in females vs males proved protective in the former while enhancing vulnerability in the latter. As a consequence, increased synaptic proteins (neuroligin4 and SAPAP1) with spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity subsequently reduced hippocampal glucose content and increased brain amyloid β1-40 deposition in an age-dependent manner in glut3+/- males but not females (4 to 24 months of age). We then explored the protective effect of a ketogenic diet on ultrasonic vocalization, sociability, spatial learning and memory, and electroencephalogram seizures in male mice (7 days to 6 to 8 months of age) alone. A ketogenic diet partially restored sociability without affecting perturbed vocalization, spatial learning and memory, and reduced seizure events. We conclude that (1) sex-specific and age-dependent perturbations underlie the phenotype of glut3+/- mice, and (2) a ketogenic diet ameliorates seizures caused by increased cortical excitation and improves sociability, but fails to rescue vocalization and cognitive deficits in glut3+/- male mice. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but