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Sample records for water acquisition strategy

  1. Implementing acquisition strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address some of the strategies necessary to effect a successful asset or corporate acquisition. Understanding the corporate objective, the full potential of the asset, the specific strategies to be employed, the value of time, and most importantly the interaction of all these are crucial, for missed steps are likely to result in missed opportunities. The amount of factual information that can be obtained and utilized in a timely fashion is the largest single hurdle to the capture of value in the asset or corporate acquisition. Fact, familiarity and experience are key in this context. The importance of the due diligence process prior to title or data transfer cannot be overemphasized. Some of the most important assets acquired in a merger may be the people. To maximize effectiveness, it is essential to merge both existing staff and those that came with the new acquisition as soon as possible. By thinking together as a unit, knowledge and experience can be applied to realize the potential of the asset. Hence team building is one of the challenges, doing it quickly is usually the most effective. Developing new directions for the new enlarged company by combining the strengths of the old and the new creates more value, as well as a more efficient operation. Equally important to maximizing the potential of the new acquisition is the maintenance of the momentum generated by the need to grow that gave the impetus to acquiring new assets in the first place. In brief, the right mix of vision, facts and perceptions, quick enactment of the post-close strategies and keeping the momentum alive, are the principal ingredients of a focused strategy

  2. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the particular...

  3. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider...

  4. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead system...

  5. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The program...

  6. 48 CFR 307.104-70 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 307... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Planning 307.104-70 Acquisition strategy... designated by the HHS CIO, DASFMP, the CAO, or the cognizant HCA) shall prepare an acquisition strategy using...

  7. Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    Behavior (Acadmic Press, N.Y., 1974). ( 9). Craik , F.I.M., 8 Lockhart , R.S., Levels of processing : A frame- work for memory research, Journal of...C.D., a Stein, B.S., Some general constraints on learning and memory research, in: F.I.M. Craik 6 L.S. Cermak.(eds.), Levels of Processing and...instructions, or instructions in the use of particular strategies. (Belmont & Butterfield, 1971; Craik & Lockhart , 1972; Weinstein, 1978) have had

  8. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and water and nutrient supply differently impact seedling performance of dry woodland species with different acquisition strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Gebrehiwot, K.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increase seedling survival and performance through enhancement of nutrient and water uptake under stress conditions. Acacia etbaica, A. senegal and Boswellia papyrifera dominate large areas in African drylands where both moisture and nutrients are

  10. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce...

  11. Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System (AMWAS) recovers and purifies water from Mars soils for oxygen and fuel production, life support, food production, and...

  12. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  13. Memory strategies and ESL vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of three learning strategies (memory strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. Four intact ESL classes were divided into one control group and three treatment groups (keyword, semantic, and keyword-semantic. These Afrikaans-speaking standard 6 pupils then received 4 days of instruction. Both multiplechoice and cued-recall instruments were used to measure effects both 1 day and 9 days after instruction. The results indicated that for both the multiple-choice and cued-recall tests the combined keyword-semantic strategy differed statistically Significantly as well as practically significantly from the keyword method. The results, therefore, suggest that the combined keyword-semantic strategy increased retention above the other strategies. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die effektiwiteit van drie taalleerstrategiee (geheue strategiee vir die aanleer van woordeskat met mekaar. Vier intak Engels tweedetaal klasse is verdeel in een kontrole groep en drie eksperimentele groepe (sleutelwoord, semantiese en 'n kombinasie van die sleutelwoord-semantiese strategiee. 'n Groep Afrikaanssprekende standerd ses leerlinge het vir 'n tydperk van vier dae onderrig in elk van bogenoemde strategiee ontvang. Multikeuse en "cued-recall" instrumente is gebruik om die effek van onderrig beide een dag en nege dae na eksperimentering te bepaal. Die resultate het aangetoon dat die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie statisties betekenisvol sowel as prakties betekenisvol van die sleutelwoord strategie en die kontrole groep verskil het. Dit wil dus voorkom asof die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie die mees belowende strategie is ten opsigte van die retensie van woordeskat.

  14. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource...... complementarity, c) directing and governing the integration process, and d) post-acquisition evaluation of the achieved integration and proposing ways forward. Using the EA capability in the acquisition process improves Cisco’s ability to rapidly capture value from its acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition...

  15. Fusions and acquisitions, a strategy of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The fusions and acquisitions (F and A) activity stayed at a high level in 2001 in the overall oil, energy and environment activities, while it has strongly diminished in other sectors, like the telecommunications. The study carried out by L. Le Dortz and B. Debosscher from the French centre of external trade (CFCE) lists and comments more than 170 F and A operations, among which about 40 exceed 1 billion of US$ in terms of valorization. In a general way, the logics of concentration is confirmed in the petroleum industry, while the evolutions are more contrasted in the utilities (gas, electricity, water): decay of the operations performed by north American groups and keeping of the dynamism of F and As in Europe. This article briefly summarizes the content of this study. (J.S.)

  16. Strategy and Tactics of International Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Kiriakov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews contemporary strategy and tactics issues in terms of international mergers and acquisitions, along with displaying cyclical waves of mergers and acquisitions over the last century as well as motivation thereof. Five strategies adhered to by international companies initiating conclusion of such agreements as well as challenges accompanying execution thereof have been analyzed. Modern strategic and tactical tools of international mergers and acquisitions process management have been researched on exemplary buyer (a corporation case-study.

  17. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  18. Breaking Bad: Reforming Cyber Acquisition via Innovative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    relate to infrastructure programs. Acquisition strategies for defensive tools, such as firewalls and antivirus software , will differ from acquisition...working on nuclear concepts for the benefit of the national will. These laboratories, as pointed out by Capt Patrick Roberts, also perform software ... software development, these scientists and engineers now possess experience making cyber systems that could be focused into the development of offensive

  19. Ownership Strategy and Subsidiary Survival in Foreign Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yi; Larimo, Jorma

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the general effect of acquirers’ ownership strategy on the survival in foreign acquisitions. Furthermore, we attempt to address five potential moderating effects: international, regional, target country experience, cultural distance, as well as host country development...

  20. Healthcare mergers and acquisitions: strategies for consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The passage of federal healthcare reform legislation, in combination with other factors, makes it likely that the next few years will be a major period of consolidation for healthcare organizations. This article examines the seven key forces reshaping healthcare delivery--from insurance industry consolidation to cost inflation to the increasing gap between financially strong and struggling providers--and provides advice for organizations on both sides of an acquisition.

  1. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  3. Oral Vocabulary and Language Acquisition Strategies to Increase Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Grace

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses low literacy achievement in students in kindergarten and first grades. The study was designed to help identify how general education teachers can use specific daily research-based oral vocabulary acquisition strategies to close the literacy gap. This quantitative research helped to determine if the implementation of an oral…

  4. Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    COVERED (From - To) 07/31/17 to 04/09/18 Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future Colonel Heather A...efficient and expeditious fielding of technologically superior capabilities. In today’s environment, it is commonplace for private industry to be the...first to develop and deploy technologies that can be adopted for defense systems. The result is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is largely a

  5. Electron backscatter diffraction: Strategies for reliable data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) software packages there are many user choices both in data acquisition and in data processing and display. In order to extract maximum scientific value from an inquiry, it is helpful to have some guidelines for best practice in conducting an EBSD investigation. The purpose of this article therefore is to address selected topics of EBSD practice, in a tutorial manner. The topics covered are a brief summary on the principles of EBSD, specimen preparation, calibration of an EBSD system, experiment design, speed of data acquisition, data clean-up, microstructure characterisation (including grain size) and grain boundary characterisation. This list is not meant to cover exhaustively all areas where EBSD is used, but rather to provide a resource consisting of some useful strategies for novice EBSD users.

  6. The Acquisition of Vocabulary Through Three Memory Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Maritza Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports on an action research study that explores the implications of applying three vocabulary strategies: word cards, association with pictures, and association with a topic through fables in the acquisition of new vocabulary in a group of EFL low-level proficiency teenagers in a public school in Espinal, Tolima, Colombia. The participants had never used vocabulary strategies before and struggled to memorize and recall words.  Two types of questionnaires, a researcher’s journal, and vocabulary tests were the instruments used to gather data.  The results showed that these strategies were effective to expand the range of words progressively and improve the ability to recall them. The study also found that these strategies involve cognitive and affective factors that can affect students’ perception about the strategies and their use. The implementation of the strategies highlighted the need to train teachers and learners in strategies intended to teach and learn vocabulary and to include them in the English language program in any school.

  7. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  8. Replacement strategy for ASDEX upgrade's new control and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K.; Cole, R.; Engelhardt, K.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Neu, G.; Treutterer, W.; Vijverberg, Th.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th.

    2004-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade is being equipped with a new real-time plasma control and data acquisition system and a novel time system. Major components were implemented and installed. While much work for performance optimisation and application programming remains to be done, commissioning of the new system parallel to experiment operation is being prepared. Commissioning of the new system will be done step-by-step. To facilitate testing the old and new control systems share all input signals. Switching between old and new system can be performed within 60 min: 23 fibre optics for output of actuator commands and input triggers must be connected to the active system and minor modifications done to interface the machine protection. Commissioning phases include background listening, technical discharges and full plasma operation. With the strategy chosen we minimize risk to the machine and reduce interference with ongoing experiment campaigns

  9. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...., because the changes are to internal Government organization and operating procedures only. The rule... 48 CFR Part 207 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations... Life Cycle of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (DFARS Case 2009-D014) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  10. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included

  11. Optimizing Acquisition Parameters for MASW in Shallow Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaferia, G.; Kruiver, P.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Analogous to the use of Rayleigh waves in MASW on land, Scholte waves can be used to derive shear wave velocity profiles for the subsurface under water. These profiles are useful for dredging operations, offshore wind farms, oil rigs and pipelines. We have determined the optimal acquisition set up

  12. 105-N Basin sediment removal subcontract acquisition strategy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilsey, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-N Basin Sediment Removal Subcontract Acquisition Strategy Plan provides a detailed set of actions to specify and procure services and equipment for removal of approximately 400 ft 3 (wet) of radioactive sediment. The plan outlines a cost-effective approach to remove this sediment safely and within an aggressive schedule. This 105-N Basin Sediment Removal Strategy Plan includes the following key elements: a current vendor survey of capabilities and interest in this type of work, confirming that qualified, competitive sources are available, and in the time frame required; a systematic review of the various options for sediment disposal in enough detail to exhaustively uncover pros and cons of each approach; use of a workshop approach to assess different ways to accomplish the work and ensure the disposal options considered are cost and schedule effective; integration of the complicated sampling and characterization process, which is essential to successful execution of the procurement scheme; review of the various subcontracting options to maximize the use of existing technology, existing equipment, and specialized expertise; detailed early planning and strategizing for early identification of problems that can be solved early before they become restraints or potential added costs; tailored design schedule to cover three alternate approaches so that sample characterization will not delay engineering preparation for disposal; support required from various organizations onsite as well as subcontractors, well in advance of the need for that support, improving availability of the proper personnel to support schedule and cost objectives; and provides the possible opportunity to process the sediment in the valve pit and pump pit through this same subcontractor's process

  13. Nutrition acquisition strategies during fungal infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege H; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, efficient pathogen nutrition is a prerequisite for successful colonization and fungal fitness. Filamentous fungi have a remarkable capability to adapt and exploit the external nutrient environment. For phytopathogenic fungi, this asset has developed within the context of host physiology and metabolism. The understanding of nutrient acquisition and pathogen primary metabolism is of great importance in the development of novel disease control strategies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on how plant nutrient supplies are utilized by phytopathogenic fungi, and how these activities are controlled. The generation and use of auxotrophic mutants have been elemental to the determination of essential and nonessential nutrient compounds from the plant. Considerable evidence indicates that pathogen entrainment of host metabolism is a widespread phenomenon and can be accomplished by rerouting of the plant's responses. Crucial fungal signalling components for nutrient-sensing pathways as well as their developmental dependency have now been identified, and were shown to operate in a coordinate cross-talk fashion that ensures proper nutrition-related behaviour during the infection process.

  14. USMC Acquisition Strategies For Cots Mobile Devices in the Tactical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    D., & Samtani, S. (2011). On the adaptation of commercial smartphones to tactical environments. 2011 Military Communications Conference. Retrieved...acquisition strategies to support rapid adoption and integration of emerging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices into the tactical domain...identified and assessed acquisition strategies to support rapid adoption and integration of emerging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices into

  15. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nutrient acquisition and modulate nitrogen loss with variable water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Jackson, Louise E; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will alter both the amount and pattern of precipitation and soil water availability, which will directly affect plant growth and nutrient acquisition, and potentially, ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling and losses as well. Given their role in facilitating plant nutrient acquisition and water stress resistance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may modulate the effects of changing water availability on plants and ecosystem functions. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant mycorrhiza-defective tomato genotype rmc were grown in microcosms in a glasshouse experiment manipulating both the pattern and amount of water supply in unsterilized field soil. Following 4 weeks of differing water regimes, we tested how AM fungi affected plant productivity and nutrient acquisition, short-term interception of a 15NH4+ pulse, and inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching from microcosms. AM fungi enhanced plant nutrient acquisition with both lower and more variable water availability, for instance increasing plant P uptake more with a pulsed water supply compared to a regular supply and increasing shoot N concentration more when lower water amounts were applied. Although uptake of the short-term 15NH4+ pulse was higher in rmc plants, possibly due to higher N demand, AM fungi subtly modulated NO3- leaching, decreasing losses by 54% at low and high water levels in the regular water regime, with small absolute amounts of NO3- leached (<1 kg N/ha). Since this study shows that AM fungi will likely be an important moderator of plant and ecosystem responses to adverse effects of more variable precipitation, management strategies that bolster AM fungal communities may in turn create systems that are more resilient to these changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  17. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  19. Deliberating A Contract Type Based Risk Mitigation Strategy For South African Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    cash flow may lead to cost overruns and schedule slippage. Table 1 shows the description, schedule and cost performance status for two SA DOD...possibility of applying a contract-type based strategy to manage acquisition program costs and schedule risks for the South African (SA) Department of...deviations between technical, cost and schedule performance. 14. SUBJECT TERMS acquisition process, defense acquisition, contract-type, risk

  20. Low Computational Signal Acquisition for GNSS Receivers Using a Resampling Strategy and Variable Circular Correlation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqing Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the objective of essentially decreasing computational complexity and time consumption of signal acquisition, this paper explores a resampling strategy and variable circular correlation time strategy specific to broadband multi-frequency GNSS receivers. In broadband GNSS receivers, the resampling strategy is established to work on conventional acquisition algorithms by resampling the main lobe of received broadband signals with a much lower frequency. Variable circular correlation time is designed to adapt to different signal strength conditions and thereby increase the operation flexibility of GNSS signal acquisition. The acquisition threshold is defined as the ratio of the highest and second highest correlation results in the search space of carrier frequency and code phase. Moreover, computational complexity of signal acquisition is formulated by amounts of multiplication and summation operations in the acquisition process. Comparative experiments and performance analysis are conducted on four sets of real GPS L2C signals with different sampling frequencies. The results indicate that the resampling strategy can effectively decrease computation and time cost by nearly 90–94% with just slight loss of acquisition sensitivity. With circular correlation time varying from 10 ms to 20 ms, the time cost of signal acquisition has increased by about 2.7–5.6% per millisecond, with most satellites acquired successfully.

  1. Low Computational Signal Acquisition for GNSS Receivers Using a Resampling Strategy and Variable Circular Correlation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeqing; Wang, Meiling; Li, Yafeng

    2018-01-01

    For the objective of essentially decreasing computational complexity and time consumption of signal acquisition, this paper explores a resampling strategy and variable circular correlation time strategy specific to broadband multi-frequency GNSS receivers. In broadband GNSS receivers, the resampling strategy is established to work on conventional acquisition algorithms by resampling the main lobe of received broadband signals with a much lower frequency. Variable circular correlation time is designed to adapt to different signal strength conditions and thereby increase the operation flexibility of GNSS signal acquisition. The acquisition threshold is defined as the ratio of the highest and second highest correlation results in the search space of carrier frequency and code phase. Moreover, computational complexity of signal acquisition is formulated by amounts of multiplication and summation operations in the acquisition process. Comparative experiments and performance analysis are conducted on four sets of real GPS L2C signals with different sampling frequencies. The results indicate that the resampling strategy can effectively decrease computation and time cost by nearly 90–94% with just slight loss of acquisition sensitivity. With circular correlation time varying from 10 ms to 20 ms, the time cost of signal acquisition has increased by about 2.7–5.6% per millisecond, with most satellites acquired successfully. PMID:29495301

  2. EFL Vocabulary Acquisition through Word Cards: Student Perceptions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in second language proficiency, and learners need to acquire thousands of words in order to become proficient in the target language. As numerous studies have shown that incidental vocabulary acquisition is not sufficient on its own, it is clear that learners must devote considerable time and effort to…

  3. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (i) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ii) the variables affecting the use of language learning st...

  4. Naval Ships Acquisition Strategy for the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    8. Jefatura de Logistica Comandancia General de la Marina Avenida Vollmer, San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 9. Professor M. B. Kline, Code 54Kx 2...34...the GSN must determine the acquisition of defense systems, on the basis of the priority demand requested for the tasks de - rived from the...the contract is signed by both parties, the MOD and the Contractor(s). Transportation and installation of the Venezuelan Naval Mission in the

  5. Acquisition Management for System of Systems: Requirement Evolution and Acquisition Strategy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    of modern portfolio and control theory . The reformulation allows for possible changes in estimated quantities (e.g., due to market shifts in... Portfolio Theory (MPT). Final Report: NPS award N00244-11-1-0003 5 Extending CEM and Markov: Agent-Based Modeling Approach Research conducted in the...integration and acquisition from a robust portfolio theory standpoint. Robust portfolio management methodologies have been widely used by financial

  6. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) technology holds great promise for treating mixed wastes, in an environmentally safe and efficient manner. In the spring of 1994 the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Operations Office awarded Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation, of Boston Massachusetts and its sub-contractor MODAR, Inc. of Natick Massachusetts a Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing (SCWODAT) program. The SCWODAT program was contracted through a Cooperative Agreement that was co-funded by the US Department of Energy and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The SCWODAT testing scope outlined by the DOE in the original Cooperative Agreement and amendments thereto was initiated in June 1994 and successfully completed in December 1995. The SCWODAT program provided further information and operational data on the effectiveness of treating both simulated mixed waste and typical Navy hazardous waste using the MODAR SCWO technology

  7. The Role of Knowledge Base and Declarative Metamemory in the Acquisition of a Reading Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Hack-Weiner, Nancy

    A study examined whether previous knowledge facilitates the acquisition of a reading comprehension strategy by children who are poor readers. Subjects, 54 fourth- and fifth-grade boys in Palm Beach County, Florida, who were poor readers and baseball experts, were trained in the use of a reading strategy (asking "why" questions), with…

  8. STRATEGIES IN IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH VOCABULARY ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Razali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary acquisition concerns on how people expand the numbers of words they understand when learning a new language. Knowing words in a second or foreign language is vitally important because the reader will be able to understand the written text well and the speaker will be able to communicate basic ideas through vocabulary even if the person does not understand how to create a grammatically correct sentence. As Madsen argued, “mastering vocabulary is the primary thing that every student should acquire in learning English” (Harold, 1983. Therefore, acquiring a sufficiently large vocabulary is one of the important tasks faced by L2 learners in order to comprehend the written texts in reading as one of the four basic features of language learning.

  9. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the nation. ... Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19) ...

  10. Literacy Acquisition and Cultural Awareness: Folksongs as Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Yoruba folksongs in the context of performance for the purpose of entertainment, and more important, as an educational strategy essentially geared towards moral and cultural development. It discusses how folksongs have remained a vigorous aspect of the dissemi nation of knowledge about popular ...

  11. Primary teachers' knowledge and acquisition of stress relieving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, A D

    1996-09-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been numerous studies of teacher stress but little is known of how teachers acquire coping strategies; their knowledge of those available to them and their opinion of these techniques. A total of 335 Norfolk primary teachers responded to a postal questionnaire providing biographical details; levels of job satisfaction and work related stress; responses to a range of commonly advocated techniques to reduce teacher stress and their opinion on who-if anyone-should take more responsibility for reducing teacher stress. On average the respondents were aware of 35 stress reduction strategies. The most effective strategies were ensuring that one understood what one was about to teach and thorough lesson preparation. A significant proportion of practitioners said that they would not consider seeking expert sources of advice. A total of 89 per cent of practitioners reported that they acquired at least some strategies through their own experience. It was concluded that the issue of teacher stress needs to be considered at governmental, school and individual levels. In the light of some resistance to traditional methods of stress reduction, the implications for initial and in-service training were explored.

  12. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  13. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  14. Supportability in Aircraft Systems through Technology and Acquisition Strategy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    structures is their corrosion resistance. These integral structures are water impregnable. Also, the absence of rivet and fastener hole eliminates the...REPCRT SECURITY CLASS,F,CAT ON lb RESTR;CTIVE MARK.NGSU",CLAS S I7 F 15E Za. SECURITY CLASSiFICAT;ON AUTHORITY 3 DISTRiBUTiQN/ AVAILABILIT ’ OF REPORT

  15. Comparison of E-Book Acquisitions Strategies Across Disciplines Finds Differences in Cost and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrico, S.B., Cataldo, T.T., Botero, C., & Shelton, T. Objective – To compare e-book cost-usage data across different acquisitions styles and disciplines. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving an annual enrollment of over 49,000 students and employing more than 3,000 faculty members in the Southern United States. Subjects – Cost and usage data from 15,006 e-books acquired by the Library through packages, firm orders, and demand-driven acquisitions. Methods – Data was collected from publishers and vendors across the three acquisitions strategies. Usage, cost, and call number information was collected for the materials purchased via firm order or demand driven acquisitions and these were sorted into disciplines based on the call number assigned. Discipline, cost, and use were determined for each package collection as a whole because information on individual titles was not provided by the publishers. The authors then compared usage and cost across disciplines and acquisitions strategies. Main Results – Overall, e-books purchased in packages had a 50% use rate and an average cost per use of $3.39, e-books purchased through firm orders had a 52% use rate and an average cost per use of $22.21, and e-books purchased through demand driven acquisitions had an average cost per use of $8.88 and 13.9 average uses per title. Package purchasing was cost effective for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM materials and medicine (MED materials. Demand driven acquisition was a particularly good strategy for humanities and social sciences (HSS titles. Conclusion – There are differences between the acquisitions strategies and disciplines in cost and use. Firm orders had a higher cost per use than the other acquisitions strategies. Commentary This study examined cost per use across three acquisitions styles and three disciplinary groups. The results agree with studies from other institutions that have

  16. Strategy of nitrogen acquisition and utilization by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jörg; Gao, Peng; Honsel, Anne; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Burzlaff, Tim; Alfarraj, Saleh; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    Plant carnivory represents an exceptional means to acquire N. Snap traps of Dionaea muscipula serve two functions, and provide both N and photosynthate. Using (13)C/(15)N-labelled insect powder, we performed feeding experiments with Dionaea plants that differed in physiological state and N status (spring vs. autumn plants). We measured the effects of (15)N uptake on light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), dark respiration (R(D)) and growth. Depending on N status, insect capture briefly altered the dynamics of R(D)/A(max), reflecting high energy demand during insect digestion and nutrient uptake, followed by enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Organic N acquired from insect prey was immediately redistributed, in order to support swift renewal of traps and thereby enhance probability of prey capture. Respiratory costs associated with permanent maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery were thereby minimized. Dionaea's strategy of N utilization is commensurate with the random capture of large prey, occasionally transferring a high load of organic nutrients to the plant. Our results suggest that physiological adaptations to unpredictable resource availability are essential for Dionaea's success with regards to a carnivorous life style.

  17. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  20. The behaviour of Pacific metallurgical coal markets: the impact of Japan's acquisition strategy on market price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R J [Queensland University, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management, Faculty of Commerce and Economics

    1993-03-01

    This paper examines whether some elements of Japan's resource acquisition strategies might have caused price and other distortions of market behaviour in the Pacific metallurgical coal trade. The industry chosen for investigation is that of steel manufacture, and the traded resources commodity examined is coking coal, which is the primary energy input for blast furnace iron making. Regression modelling studies to determine historic acquisition value and quality relationships for US, Australian and Canadian coals sold into the Japanese coking coal market are described. Departures from normal demand response behaviour to price competitiveness are also investigated. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Littoral Combat Ship: Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies Report to...Office Highlights of GAO-16-356, a report to congressional committees June 2016 LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in...capabilities of the LCS—a small surface combatant (SSC) consisting of a ship and reconfigurable mission packages built by two shipyards as different

  2. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  3. EVALUATION OF ACQUISITION STRATEGIES FOR IMAGE-BASED CONSTRUCTION SITE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tuttas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM. The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ... of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and (iii acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane

  4. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  5. ACQUISITION AS A GENERATOR STRATEGY FROM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OF FUELS DISTRIBUITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernandes Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject from this work is about acquisitions as organizational strategies and it is guided by the general objective on identifying if the acquisition of Texaco by Ultra Group, in Brazil, could generate competitive advantages. Thus, the main aim is to characterize, specifically, the fuel distribution sector in Brazil, presenting characteristics, strategies, classification of resources and the competitive advantage’s identification in the buying process of Texaco by Ultra Group. The methodology used for this research is a case study of qualitative nature. Data collection has been performed through literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews. In the analysis of collected data, specific objectives have been met. It was clear, therefore, the presence of features such as scale earnings, brand exposure, better management practices, synergies, tangible and intangible assets and market growth. So, those resources are classified according to the competitive implications. Then, it might be concluded that Texaco´s acquisition could bring competitive advantages for Ultra / Ipiranga Group. Respondents believe the sector is growing and businesses tend to grow despite the world crisis. They also confirmed that, in a highly competitive market, strategic alliances and market growing are factors that may ensure success to each company.

  6. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  7. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weed, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    This monograph asks should the U.S. Army alter its current UAV acquisition strategy for maneuver brigades from one in which limited numbers of high capability systems are acquired, in favor of another that fields a large quantity...

  8. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C

    2018-07-30

    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of fundamentals acquisition and strategy switch on stock price dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songtao; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    An agent-based artificial stock market is developed to simulate trading behavior of investors. In the market, acquisition and employment of information about fundamentals and strategy switch are investigated to explain stock price dynamics. Investors could obtain the information from both market and neighbors resided on their social networks. Depending on information status and performances of different strategies, an informed investor may switch to the strategy of fundamentalist. This in turn affects the information acquisition process, since fundamentalists are more inclined to search and spread the information than chartists. Further investigation into price dynamics generated from three typical networks, i.e. regular lattice, small-world network and random graph, are conducted after general relation between network structures and price dynamics is revealed. In each network, integrated effects of different combinations of information efficiency and switch intensity are investigated. Results have shown that, along with increasing switch intensity, market and social information efficiency play different roles in the formation of price distortion, standard deviation and kurtosis of returns.

  10. NNSA?s Computing Strategy, Acquisition Plan, and Basis for Computing Time Allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkel, D J

    2009-07-21

    This report is in response to the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (H.R. 1105; Public Law 111-8) in its funding of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. This bill called for a report on ASC's plans for computing and platform acquisition strategy in support of stockpile stewardship. Computer simulation is essential to the stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Annual certification of the country's stockpile systems, Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs), and execution of Life Extension Programs (LEPs) are dependent on simulations employing the advanced ASC tools developed over the past decade plus; indeed, without these tools, certification would not be possible without a return to nuclear testing. ASC is an integrated program involving investments in computer hardware (platforms and computing centers), software environments, integrated design codes and physical models for these codes, and validation methodologies. The significant progress ASC has made in the past derives from its focus on mission and from its strategy of balancing support across the key investment areas necessary for success. All these investment areas must be sustained for ASC to adequately support current stockpile stewardship mission needs and to meet ever more difficult challenges as the weapons continue to age or undergo refurbishment. The appropriations bill called for this report to address three specific issues, which are responded to briefly here but are expanded upon in the subsequent document: (1) Identify how computing capability at each of the labs will specifically contribute to stockpile stewardship goals, and on what basis computing time will be allocated to achieve the goal of a balanced program among the labs. (2) Explain the NNSA's acquisition strategy for capacity and capability of machines at each of the labs and how it will fit within the existing budget constraints. (3

  11. Adaptive Optics Facility: control strategy and first on-sky results of the acquisition sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.; Kolb, J.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; La Penna, P.; Hackenberg, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Argomedo, J.; Kiekebusch, M.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Arsenault, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility is an ESO project aiming at converting Yepun, one of the four 8m telescopes in Paranal, into an adaptive telescope. This is done by replacing the current conventional secondary mirror of Yepun by a Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and attaching four Laser Guide Star (LGS) Units to its centerpiece. In the meantime, two Adaptive Optics (AO) modules have been developed incorporating each four LGS WaveFront Sensors (WFS) and one tip-tilt sensor used to control the DSM at 1 kHz frame rate. The four LGS Units and one AO module (GRAAL) have already been assembled on Yepun. Besides the technological challenge itself, one critical area of AOF is the AO control strategy and its link with the telescope control, including Active Optics used to shape M1. Another challenge is the request to minimize the overhead due to AOF during the acquisition phase of the observation. This paper presents the control strategy of the AOF. The current control of the telescope is first recalled, and then the way the AO control makes the link with the Active Optics is detailed. Lab results are used to illustrate the expected performance. Finally, the overall AOF acquisition sequence is presented as well as first results obtained on sky with GRAAL.

  12. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.

    2015-07-01

    Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher. (Author)

  13. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  14. An empirical analysis of the dynamic programming model of stockpile acquisition strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2008-01-01

    The world's future oil price is affected by many factors. The challenge, therefore, is how to select optimal stockpile acquisition strategies to minimize the cost of maintaining a reserve. This paper provides a new method for analyzing this problem using an uncertain dynamic programming model to analyze stockpile acquisition strategies for strategic petroleum reserve. Using this model, we quantify the impact of uncertain world oil price on optimal stockpile acquisition strategies of China's strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2007-2010 and 2011-2020. Our results show that the future stockpile acquisition is related to oil prices and their probability and, if not considering the occurrence of oil supply shortage, China should at least purchase 25 million barrels when world oil price is at an optimal level. The optimal price of stockpile acquisition of every year has a stronger relationship with the probability of high price; and the optimal expected price and size of stockpile acquisition is different in each year. (author)

  15. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) for both NASA's human and science exploration missions combined with the technology investment from the Space Technology Mission Directorate have enabled the development of a 50kW-class SEP mission. NASA mission concepts developed, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30kW-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100's of kg up to 10,000 kg. A xenon propellant load of 10 metric tons represents greater than 10% of the global annual production rate of xenon. A single procurement of this size with short-term delivery can disrupt the xenon market, driving up pricing, making the propellant costs for the mission prohibitive. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper discusses approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 MT of xenon propellant considering realistic programmatic constraints to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for mission campaigns utilizing multiple high-power solar electric propulsion vehicles requiring 100's of metric tons of xenon over an extended period of time where a longer term acquisition approach could be implemented.

  16. Social.Water - A crowdsourcing tool for environmental data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Lowry, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Remote telemetry has a long history of use for collection of environmental measurements. With the rise of mobile phones and SMS text-messaging capacity, many members of the general pubic carry communications equipment in their pockets at all times. Enabling the general public to provide environmental data through text messages has the potential both to provide additional data to scientific projects and also to raise awareness of the projects through participation. Hydrologic measurements – some of which can be made without training, involve a single measurement, and are often made in rural areas – are well-suited to text-message conveyance. Many other environmental measurements are similarly well-suited for this technology. Social.Water is a software package, written in Python, that collects, parses, and categorizes text messages sent to a dedicated phone number, updates a simple database, and posts both graphical results and the database on the Web. Social.Water was designed as the backend to the Crowdhydrology project and is written in an object-oriented design that makes customization and modification straightforward.

  17. Water chemistry data acquisition, processing, evaluation and diagnostic systems in Light Water Reactors: Future improvement of plant reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Takiguchi, H.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Data acquisition, processing and evaluation systems have been applied in major Japanese PWRs and BWRs to provide (1) reliable and quick data acquisition with manpower savings in plant chemical laboratories and (2) smooth and reliable information transfer among chemists, plant operators, and supervisors. Data acquisition systems in plants consist of automatic and semi-automatic instruments for chemical analyses, e. g., X-ray fluorescence analysis and ion chromatography, while data processing systems consist of PC base-sub-systems, e.g., data storage, reliability evaluation, clear display, and document preparation for understanding the plant own water chemistry trends. Precise and reliable evaluations of water chemistry data are required in order to improve plant reliability and safety. For this, quality assurance of the water chemistry data acquisition system is needed. At the same time, theoretical models are being applied to bridge the gaps between measured water chemistry data and the information desired to understand the interaction of materials and cooling water in plants. Major models which have already been applied for plant evaluation are: (1) water radiolysis models for BWRs and PWRs; (2) crevice radiolysis model for SCC in BWRs; and (3) crevice pH model for SG tubing in PWRs. High temperature water chemistry sensors and automatic plant diagnostic systems have been applied in only restricted areas. ECP sensors are gaining popularity as tools to determine the effects of hydrogen injection in BWR systems. Automatic plant diagnostic systems based on artificial intelligence will be more popular after having sufficient experience with off line diagnostic systems. (author)

  18. Foreign Agricultural Land Acquisition and the Visibility of Water Resource Impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Woodhouse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where, for savanna ecosystems that cover some two thirds of the region, rainfall uncertainty is the principal constraint to increased agricultural productivity. The paper argues that, even where land acquisition deals do not specify irrigation, choice of location and/or crop type indicates this is invariably an implicit requirement of projects. It is arguable that private investment in water infrastructure (e.g. for water storage could provide wider benefits to neighbouring small-scale producers, thus reducing the risk inherent in much of African agriculture. However, it is also possible that foreign investment may compete with existing water use, and some land deals have included provisions for priority access to water in cases of scarcity. Empirical studies are used to identify the mechanisms through which large-scale land investments influence water availability for smaller-scale land users. The paper concludes that, although effects on water resources may constitute one of the main impacts of land deals, this is likely to be obscured by the lack of transparency over water requirements of agricultural projects and the invisibility of much existing local agricultural water management to government planning agencies.

  19. Aviation Acquisition: A Comprehensive Strategy Is Needed for Cultural Change at FAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-22

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) timely acquisition of new air : traffic control equipment has become increasingly critical for aviation safety : and efficiency. However, persistent acquisition problems raise questions about : the agency's...

  20. A response strategy predicts acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James Gardner; Hawken, Emily R; Banasikowski, Tomek J; Dumont, Eric C; Beninger, Richard J

    2015-08-03

    Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is excessive, non-regulatory drinking. We aimed to identify phenotypic learning traits representative of neural circuitry that underlies SIP and hypothesized that rats that are response-learners will be more susceptible in developing compulsive water drinking. Using the Y-maze, the rats were characterized as either place- or response-learners. They were exposed to the SIP protocol for a period of 21days. Subsequent histological staining for FosB/ΔFosB examined neuronal activation associated with SIP in several brain regions. The rats with a preference for a response-learning strategy were more likely to develop SIP than the rats using a place-learning strategy. Furthermore amphetamine sensitization, observed to increase SIP, also shifted learning strategy to a response-learning strategy. No differences were observed in FosB/ΔFosB expression between SIP and non-SIP rats in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and CA1 region of the hippocampus. However, SIP rats had greater FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortex regions. The rats that develop SIP have a preference for response-learning strategies and increased neuronal activation in frontal cortical regions associated with habit formation and compulsion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation: a comparative study based on Dutch and Swiss panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, S.; Lokshin, B.; Mohnen, P.; Wörter, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that firms increasingly adopt open innovation practices. In this paper we investigate the impact of two such external knowledge acquisition strategies, ‘buy’ and ‘cooperate’, on firm’s product innovation performance. Taking a direct (productivity)approach, we test for complementarity effects in the simultaneous use of the two strategies, and in the intensity of their use. Our results based on large panels of Dutch and Swiss innovating firms, suggest that while both ‘...

  2. How Well Can Existing Software Support Processes Accomplish Sustainment of a Non-Developmental Item-Based Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    guidance to the PM regarding development and sustainment of software . The need for a strong application of software engineering principles is...on the battlefield by a government- developed network manager application . The configuration of this confluence of software will be jointly managed...How Well Can Existing Software -Support Processes Accomplish Sustainment of a Non- Developmental Item-Based Acquisition Strategy? Graciano

  3. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  4. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  5. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the

  6. Evolution Of The Operational Energy Strategy And Its Consideration In The Defense Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Figure 12. PPBE Process Flowchart . Source: AcqNotes (2016). We comment above that once a program manager has completed his major Defense...acquisition system: 1) acquisition, 2) requirements and 3) planning, programming , budgeting, and execution (PPBE). We looked at the evolution of...to gain traction or improve promulgation of key guidance and documentation for new-starts and/or upgrades to weapon system acquisition programs

  7. Market driven strategy for acquisition of waste acceptance and transportation services for commercial spent fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshewky, W.; Macaluso, C.; Smith, P.; Teer, B.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from commercial reactors to a Federal facility for storage and/or disposal. DOE has developed a strategy for a market driven approach for the acquisition of transportation services and equipment which will maximize the participation of private industry. To implement this strategy, DOE is planning to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the provision of the required services and equipment to accept SNF from the utilities and transport the SNF to a Federal facility. The paper discusses this strategy and describes the RFP

  8. WiFi Data Acquisition System Applied to a Photovoltaic Powered Water Pumping Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira JUCÁ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes how to design and assemble a low cost online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition system using free software applied to microgeneration based on renewable energy sources. The development of online monitoring systems for microgeneration plants based on renewable energy sources is becoming more important, considering that monitoring and data acquisition systems are applicable in stages of the microgeneration process. The monitoring and data acquisition WiFi system was developed using an embedded WiFi modem (Wifly coupled to a microcontrolled board based on the free tool SanUSB. This monitoring system was applied to a photovoltaic (PV water pumping plant without batteries, so as the control system and the wireless communication with the online server, which is also autonomous and powered by PV panel. The free software for online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition allows the analysis of stored data and charts through mobile devices as notebooks, tablets and smartphones.

  9. Case Study Analysis of the Impacts of Water Acquisition for Hydraulic Fracturing on Local Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is used to develop unconventional gas reserves, but the technology requires large volumes of water, placing demands on local water resources and potentially creating conflict with other users and ecosystems. This study examines the balance between water ...

  10. Optimal core acquisition and pricing strategies for hybrid manufacturing and remanufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caner Bulmus, Serra; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combine two aspects of remanufacturing, namely product acquisition management and marketing (pricing) of the remanufactured products. We consider an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) who decides on the acquisition prices offered for returns from different quality types and on

  11. Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2014-02-01

    The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials.

  12. Microevolution analysis of Bacillus coahuilensis unveils differences in phosphorus acquisition strategies and their regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema eGómez-Lunar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial genomes undergo numerous events of gene losses and gains that generate genome variability among strains of the same species (microevolution. Our aim was to compare the genomes and relevant phenotypes of three Bacillus coahuilensis strains from two oligotrophic hydrological systems in the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (México, to unveil the environmental challenges that this species cope with, and the microevolutionary differences in these genotypes. Since the strains were isolated from a low P environment, we placed emphasis on the search of different phosphorus acquisition strategies. The three B. coahuilensis strains exhibited similar numbers of coding DNA sequences, of which 82% (2, 893 constituted the core genome, and 18% corresponded to accessory genes. Most of the genes in this last group were associated with mobile genetic elements or were annotated as hypothetical proteins. Ten percent of the pangenome consisted of strain-specific genes. Alignment of the three B. coahuilensis genomes indicated a high level of synteny and revealed the presence of several genomic islands. Unexpectedly, one of these islands contained genes that encode the 2-keto-3-deoxymannooctulosonic acid (Kdo biosynthesis enzymes, a feature associated to cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. Some microevolutionary changes were clearly associated with mobile genetic elements. Our analysis revealed inconsistencies between phenotype and genotype, which we suggest result from the impossibility to map regulatory features to genome analysis. Experimental results revealed variability in the types and numbers of auxotrophies between the strains that could not consistently be explained by in silico metabolic models. Several intraspecific differences in preferences for carbohydrate and phosphorus utilization were observed. Regarding phosphorus recycling, scavenging, and storage, variations were found between the three genomes. The three strains exhibited differences regarding

  13. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been used for station-keeping of geostationary communications satellites since the 1980s. Solar electric propulsion has also benefitted from success on NASA Science Missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn. The xenon propellant loads for these applications have been in the 100s of kilograms range. Recent studies performed for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have demonstrated that SEP is critically enabling for both near-term and future exploration architectures. The high payoff for both human and science exploration missions and technology investment from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) are providing the necessary convergence and impetus for a 30-kilowatt-class SEP mission. Multiple 30-50- kilowatt Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM) concepts have been developed based on the maturing electric propulsion and solar array technologies by STMD with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). Xenon is the optimal propellant for the existing state-of-the-art electric propulsion systems considering efficiency, storability, and contamination potential. NASA mission concepts developed and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30-kilowatt-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100s of kilograms up to 10,000 kilograms. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper will provide updated information on the xenon market relative to previous papers that discussed xenon production relative to NASA mission needs. The paper will discuss the various approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 metric tons of xenon propellant to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for larger NASA missions requiring 100s of metric tons of xenon will be discussed.

  14. Sustainable Water Distribution Strategy with Smart Water Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjoon Byeon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many problems that are encountered in regards to water balance and resources management are related to challenges of economic development under limited resources and tough competition among various water uses. The development of major infrastructure like airports in remote areas that have limited water resources is becoming a common problem. In order to overcome these difficulties, water management has to articulate and combine several resources in order to respond to various demands while preserving the ecological quality of the environment. The paper discusses the interest in implementing the Smart Water Grid concept on Yeongjongdo Island, which is the location of Korea’s main airport. This new concept is based on the connection of various water resources and their optimized management with new information technology solutions. The proposed system integrates water generated through rainfall, external water resources (i.e., metropolitan water distribution system, gray water and other types of alternative water resources. The paper analyses the feasibility of this approach and explores interest in the Smart Water Grid concept.

  15. Impact of nutritional strategies on water productivity indicators for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of water is a poorly considered indicator in animal agriculture. This is because water is a resource still believed by persons in the production network to be abundant and of good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutritional strategies in water productivity indicators for growing and slaughtering pigs. Five strategies were evaluated: control diet (T1, with a reduction in the level of crude protein (T2, phytase (T3, organic minerals (T4 and the three nutritional strategies combined (T5. The water productivity indicator is defined as the quantity of product by water used. The following indicators were calculated: total weight (kg L-1, cold carcass (kg L-1 lean carcass (L kg-1, and nutrition (kcal L-1. T5 showed the best productivities for each liter of water used. The total weight productivity in this treatment was 3.0 kg L-1, while in T1 was 2.5 kg L-1. T3 had the lowest productivities. The nutritional water productivities were 2,512, 2,763, 2,657, 2,814, and 3,039 kcal L-1, respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. Nutritional strategies reduce the use of drinking water and therefore improve water productivities. The best productivities were observed when combining the strategies.

  16. Towards the Implementation of the GEOSS Water Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.; Cripe, D.

    2014-12-01

    Early in 2014, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) adopted the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) Water Strategy as a potential guide for GEO-related water activities over the next decade. The Water Strategy outlines water-related issues and opportunities that fit within the general GEOSS framework that will be developed over the next decade (2016-2025). Implementation of a water strategy within the GEOSS framework can be complex because GEO Members and Participating Organizations contribute to GEO on a voluntary basis. In spite of these limitations efforts to consolidate an implementation plan have made significant advances during the past nine months. Progress towards the final GEOSS Water Strategy Implementation Plan will be reported and gaps in the plan will be identified. Specific responses to the strategy will address the need for user engagement, the development of integrated of data products, model hierarchies and user support systems, and the research that will be needed to expand the capabilities of GEOSS and its water services. One challenge for the implementation plan involves building a framework from the diverse and wide range of activities and opportunities presented by GEO Members and Participating Organizations. The priority themes within the GEO Water Strategy are being used to provide more focus for new initiatives. New activities related to these priority areas involving projects that link water and other GEO Societal Benefit Areas, as well as initiatives related to the Water-Energy-Food nexus and the Sustainable Development Goals will be described. The presentation will also explore the needs and opportunities for new satellites and other observational and information technologies to advance the implementation of the GEOSS water strategy objectives.

  17. Exploiting water versus tolerating drought: water-use strategies of trees in a secondary successional tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Meinzer, Frederick C; Angeles, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In seasonal plant communities where water availability changes dramatically both between and within seasons, understanding the mechanisms that enable plants to exploit water pulses and to survive drought periods is crucial. By measuring rates of physiological processes, we examined the trade-off between water exploitation and drought tolerance among seedlings of trees of a tropical dry forest, and identified biophysical traits most closely associated with plant water-use strategies. We also explored whether early and late secondary successional species occupy different portions of trade-off axes. As predicted, species that maintained carbon capture, hydraulic function and leaf area at higher plant water deficits during drought had low photosynthetic rates, xylem hydraulic conductivity and growth rate under non-limiting water supply. Drought tolerance was associated with more dense leaf, stem and root tissues, whereas rapid resource acquisition was associated with greater stem water storage, larger vessel diameter and larger leaf area per mass invested. We offer evidence that the water exploitation versus drought tolerance trade-off drives species differentiation in the ability of tropical dry forest trees to deal with alternating water-drought pulses. However, we detected no evidence of strong functional differentiation between early and late successional species along the proposed trade-off axes, suggesting that the environmental gradient of water availability across secondary successional habitats in the dry tropics does not filter out physiological strategies of water use among species, at least at the seedling stage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Shifts in nitrogen acquisition strategies enable enhanced terrestrial carbon storage under elevated CO2 in a global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Brzostek, E. R.; Menge, D.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2017-12-01

    Earth System Model (ESM) projections of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake are critical to understanding the future of the global C cycle. Current ESMs include intricate representations of photosynthetic C fixation in plants, allowing them to simulate the stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels on photosynthesis. However, they lack sophisticated representations of plant nutrient acquisition, calling into question their ability to project the future land C sink. We conducted simulations using a new model of terrestrial C and nitrogen (N) cycling within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global land model LM4 that uses a return on investment framework to simulate global patterns of N acquisition via fixation of N2 from the atmosphere, scavenging of inorganic N from soil solution, and mining of organic N from soil organic matter (SOM). We show that these strategies drive divergent C cycle responses to elevated CO2 at the ecosystem scale, with the scavenging strategy leading to N limitation of plant growth and the mining strategy facilitating stimulation of plant biomass accumulation over decadal time scales. In global simulations, shifts in N acquisition from inorganic N scavenging to organic N mining along with increases in N fixation supported long-term acceleration of C uptake under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that the ability of the land C sink to mitigate atmospheric CO2 levels is tightly coupled to the functional diversity of ecosystems and their capacity to change their N acquisition strategies over time. Incorporation of these mechanisms into ESMs is necessary to improve confidence in model projections of the global C cycle.

  19. Cattle pastoralists' strategies to cope with water scarcity in climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reveal a pastoral dynamics based on the programmed distance to the best resources, ... This could also enhance adaptation to climate change within the context of the ... Water resources, Pastoralist, Animal route, Adaptation Strategy, Benin ...

  20. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for a remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoubi, A.; Mechlouch, R. F.; Brahim, A. B. [National School of Engineering of Gabes, Gabes University, Chemical and Processes Engineering Department, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system's hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS). With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet. (authors)

  1. Shoot to root communication is necessary to control the expression of iron-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Romera, Francisco J; Stacey, Minviluz G; Stacey, Gary; Villar, Eduardo; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Previous research showed that auxin, ethylene, and nitric oxide (NO) can activate the expression of iron (Fe)-acquisition genes in the roots of Strategy I plants grown with low levels of Fe, but not in plants grown with high levels of Fe. However, it is still an open question as to how Fe acts as an inhibitor and which pool of Fe (e.g., root, phloem, etc.) in the plant acts as the key regulator for gene expression control. To further clarify this, we studied the effect of the foliar application of Fe on the expression of Fe-acquisition genes in several Strategy I plants, including wild-type cultivars of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh], pea [Pisum sativum L.], tomato [Solanum lycopersicon Mill.], and cucumber [Cucumis sativus L.], as well as mutants showing constitutive expression of Fe-acquisition genes when grown under Fe-sufficient conditions [Arabidopsis opt3-2 and frd3-3, pea dgl and brz, and tomato chln (chloronerva)]. The results showed that the foliar application of Fe blocked the expression of Fe-acquisition genes in the wild-type cultivars and in the frd3-3, brz, and chln mutants, but not in the opt3-2 and dgl mutants, probably affected in the transport of a Fe-related repressive signal in the phloem. Moreover, the addition of either ACC (ethylene precursor) or GSNO (NO donor) to Fe-deficient plants up-regulated the expression of Fe-acquisition genes, but this effect did not occur in Fe-deficient plants sprayed with foliar Fe, again suggesting the existence of a Fe-related repressive signal moving from leaves to roots.

  2. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  3. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  4. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water

  5. Management strategies for sustainable western water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  6. Comparison of Print Monograph Acquisitions Strategies Finds Circulation Advantage to Firm Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Ke, I., Gao, W., & Bronicki, J. (2017. Does title-by-title selection make a difference? A usage title analysis on print monograph purchasing. Collection Management, 42(1, 34-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01462679.2016.1249040 Abstract Objective – To compare usage of print monographs acquired through firm order to those acquired through approval plans. Design – Quantitative study. Setting – A public research university serving an annual enrollment of over 43,500 students and employing more than 2,600 faculty members in the South Central United States. Subjects – Circulation and call number data from 21,356 print books acquired through approval plans, and 23,920 print books acquired through firm orders. Methods – Item records for print materials purchased between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014 were extracted from the catalog and separated by acquisitions strategy into firm order and approval plan lists. Items without call numbers and materials that had been placed on course reserves were removed from the lists. The authors examined accumulated circulation counts and conducted trend analyses to examine year-to-year usage. The authors also measured circulation performance in each Library of Congress call number class; they grouped these classes into science, social science, and humanities titles. Main Results – The authors found that 31% of approval plan books and 39% of firm order books had circulated at least once. The firm order books that had circulated were used an average of 1.87 times, compared to approval plan books which were used an average of 1.47 times. The year-to-year analysis showed that the initial circulation rate for approval plan books decreased from 42% in 2011 to 14% in 2014, and from 46% to 24% for firm order books. Subject area analysis showed that medicine and military science had the highest circulation rates at over 45%, and that agriculture and bibliography titles had the lowest circulation

  7. Some Advice about the Water Strategy of China to Keep the Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These models are as following: model of the cost of water transfer, model of the water price and the model of desalination plant construction cost. All the models are based on the forecast of the water demand and supply of China in 2025. Based on the result of these models, we propose some advice about the water strategy ...

  8. INfluence of vinasse on water movement in soil, using automatic acquisition and handling data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1986-01-01

    The vinasse, by-product of ethylic alcohol industry from the sugar cane juice or molasses yeast fermentation, has been incorporated in the soil as fertilizer, due to the its hight organic matter (2-6%), potassium and sulphate (0,1-0,5%) and other nutrient contents. By employing monoenergetic gamma-ray beam attenuation technique (241Am; 59,5 keV; 100 mCi) the influence of vinasse on the water movement in the soil was studied. For this, an automatic acquisition and handling data system was used, based in multichannel analyser, multi-scaling mode operated, coupled to a personal microcomputer and plotter. Despite the small depth studied (6 cm), it was observed that vinasse decreases the water infiltration velocity in the soil. (Author) [pt

  9. Dosimetric comparison of water phantoms, ion chambers, and data acquisition modes for LINAC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Wilbert; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study a dosimetric comparison utilizing continuous data acquisition and discrete data acquisition is examined using IBA Blue Phantom (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and PTW (PTW, Freiberg, Germany) MP3-M water tanks. The tanks were compared according to several factors including set up time, ease of use, and data acquisition times. A tertiary objective is to study the response of several ionization chambers in the two tanks examined. Methods: Measurements made using a Varian 23EX LINAC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) include PDDs and beam profiles for various field sizes with IBA CC13, PTW Semiflex 31010, PTW Pinpoint N31016, and PTW 31013 ion chambers for photons (6, 18 MV) and electrons (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV). Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depths of maximum dose, 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm using the same set of tanks and detectors for the photon beams. Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depth of maximum dose for the electron beams on the same tanks and chambers. Data processing and analysis was performed using PTW's MEPHYSTO Navigator software and IBA's OmniPro Accept version 6.6 for the respective water tank systems. Results: PDD values agree to within 1% and dmax to within 1 mm for the PTW MP3-M tank using PTW 31010 and Blue Phantom using IBA CC13 chamber, respectively and larger discrepancy with the PTW PinPoint N31016 chamber at 6 MV. With respect to setup time the PTW MP3-M and IBA Blue phantom tank took about 20 and 40 min, respectively. Scan times were longer by 5–15 min per field size in the PTW MP3-M tank for the square field sizes from 1 cm to 40 cm as compared to the IBA Blue phantom. However, data processing times were higher by 7 min per field size with the IBA system. Conclusions: Tank measurements showed little deviation with the higher energy photons as compared to the lower energy photons with regards to the PDD measurements. Chamber construction as well as tank

  10. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 μmol quanta/m 2 /s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO 2 uptake is reduced by about 70%. After 14 CO 2 gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO 2 -recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions

  11. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  12. Hybrid data acquisition and processing strategies with increased throughput and selectivity: pSMART analysis for global qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Amol; Peterman, Scott; Ahmad, Shadab; Sarracino, David; Frewen, Barbara; Vogelsang, Maryann; Byram, Gregory; Krastins, Bryan; Vadali, Gouri; Lopez, Mary

    2014-12-05

    Data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition strategies (DIA) have both resulted in improved understanding of proteomics samples. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages that are well-published, where DDA is typically applied for deep discovery and DIA may be used to create sample records. In this paper, we present a hybrid data acquisition and processing strategy (pSMART) that combines the strengths of both techniques and provides significant benefits for qualitative and quantitative peptide analysis. The performance of pSMART is compared to published DIA strategies in an experiment that allows the objective assessment of DIA performance with respect to interrogation of previously acquired MS data. The results of this experiment demonstrate that pSMART creates fewer decoy hits than a standard DIA strategy. Moreover, we show that pSMART is more selective, sensitive, and reproducible than either standard DIA or DDA strategies alone.

  13. Technical Note: Interleaved Bipolar Acquisition and Low-rank Reconstruction for Water-Fat Separation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, JaeJin; Park, HyunWook

    2018-05-17

    To acquire interleaved bipolar data and reconstruct the full data using low-rank property for water fat separation. Bipolar acquisition suffers from issues related to gradient switching, the opposite gradient polarities, and other system imperfections, which prevent accurate water-fat separation. In this study, an interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme and a low-rank reconstruction method were proposed to reduce issues from the bipolar gradients while achieving a short imaging time. The proposed interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme collects echo-time signals from both gradient polarities; however, the sequence increases the imaging time. To reduce the imaging time, the signals were subsampled at every dimension of k-space. The low-rank property of the bipolar acquisition was defined and exploited to estimate the full data from the acquired subsampled data. To eliminate the bipolar issues, in the proposed method, the water-fat separation was performed separately for each gradient polarity, and the results for the positive and negative gradient polarities were combined after the water-fat separation. A phantom study and in-vivo experiments were conducted on a 3T Siemens Verio system. The results for the proposed method were compared with the results of the fully sampled interleaved bipolar acquisition and Soliman's method, which was the previous water-fat separation approach for reducing the issues of bipolar gradients and accelerating the interleaved bipolar acquisition. The proposed method provided accurate water and fat images without the issues of bipolar gradients and demonstrated a better performance compared with the results of the previous methods. The water-fat separation using the bipolar acquisition has several benefits including a short echo-spacing time. However, it suffers from bipolar-gradient issues such as strong gradient switching, system imperfection, and eddy current effects. This study demonstrated that accurate water-fat separated images can

  14. Data acquisition and control system in a heavy water detritiation installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Retevoi, Carmen; Stefan, Liviu

    2002-01-01

    The experimental installation for extracting tritium and deuterium from the tritiated heavy water used as moderator in CANDU type nuclear reactors is described. The separated tritium of high purity can be used in the fusion reactors of the future or in various laboratory researches. The fluids implied in operating this installation require special safety measures to be taken to protect both the operational personnel and the environment. Accordingly, in the technologic room no personnel is allowed and hence parameter monitoring, analyses and the testing must be done by remote control equipment. The computers for monitoring, warning and testing, as well as the sensors are housed in the data acquisition room, separated from the control room. The values generated by the process variables are converted in electrical or pneumatic signals and subsequently transmitted to the subsystems of monitoring, control and protection. Data acquisition in the control room is ensured by a computer provided with a FieldPoint interface. So, the connection between I/O modules from the data acquisition room and the computer ensures a 115.2 kb/s speed. Measured values of the parameters are recorded and displayed in the control room. Here these are compared with preset limits of the process parameters and in case of abnormal behavior, an alarm is triggered both optically and acoustically. At the same time, the program which controls the inputs and the outputs makes decisions and issues corrective or preventive commands for the technological process or installation protection, respectively. A diagram illustrating the monitoring, using a LabView platform is presented

  15. Locus of legitimacy and startup resource acquisition strategies: Evidence from social enterprises in South Korea and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Theoretically, the paper aims to provide locus of legitimacy as a framework to not only introduce a multidimensional perspective on legitimacy but also expand the understanding about resource acquisition strategies of social enterprises. Empirically, the authors test the theoretical predictions by using cases from South Korea and Taiwan. Practically, the authors intend to assist chief executive officers (CEOs of social enterprises in their effort to secure valuable resources and provide policy implications so that both South Korea and Taiwan learn from each other. Design/methodology/approach - The authors use case methods to find evidence of the proposed theoretical framework. The initial search for target companies showed that social enterprises in South Korea and Taiwan were ideal samples. In-person, email and phone interviews were conducted on CEOs, and archival data on institutional environments and various aspects of social enterprises were collected. Collected data were analyzed using the locus of legitimacy framework to find out how different emphasis on locus of legitimacy impacted critical decisions of social enterprise, such as human, financial and network resources. Findings - As predicted in the locus of the legitimacy framework, the analyses confirmed that locus of legitimacy did explain critical decisions of social enterprises in South Korea and Taiwan. First, significant institutional forces existed, shaping social enterprises behavior. For example, Taiwanese Jinu showed that greater emphasis was given to internal legitimacy, while South Korean Sohwa was higher in external locus of legitimacy. Such differences systematically impacted choices made on resource acquisition strategies. Jinu showed a greater similarity to those of for-profit companies, aligning key decisions of resource acquisition strategies to achieve financial viability as a top priority. However, Sohwa, though financial performance was still important

  16. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  17. Evaluation of Parallel and Fan-Beam Data Acquisition Geometries and Strategies for Myocardial SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yujin; Tsui, B. M. W.; Gilland, K. L.; Frey, E. C.; Gullberg, G. T.

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluates myocardial SPECT images obtained from parallel-hole (PH) and fan-beam (FB) collimator geometries using both circular-orbit (CO) and noncircular-orbit (NCO) acquisitions. A newly developed 4-D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom was used to simulate the /sup 99m/Tc-sestamibi uptakes in human torso with myocardial defects in the left ventricular (LV) wall. Two phantoms were generated to simulate patients with thick and thin body builds. Projection data including the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response and scatter were generated using SIMSET Monte Carlo simulations. A large number of photon histories were generated such that the projection data were close to noise free. Poisson noise fluctuations were then added to simulate the count densities found in clinical data. Noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the iterative OS-EM reconstruction algorithm with attenuation compensation. The reconstructed images from noisy projection data show that the noise levels are lower for the FB as compared to the PH collimator due to increase in detected counts. The NCO acquisition method provides slightly better resolution and small improvement in defect contrast as compared to the CO acquisition method in noise-free reconstructed images. Despite lower projection counts the NCO shows the same noise level as the CO in the attenuation corrected reconstruction images. The results from the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) study show that FB collimator is superior to PH collimator in myocardial defect detection, but the NCO shows no statistical significant difference from the CO for either PH or FB collimator. In conclusion, our results indicate that data acquisition using NCO makes a very small improvement in the resolution over CO for myocardial SPECT imaging. This small improvement does not make a significant difference on myocardial defect detection. However, an FB collimator provides better defect detection than a

  18. The Lean Acquisition Strategy Behind the DOD’s 2015 Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    the acquisition of CHCS, numerous errors caused delays in system development contracting. First, the DOD miscommunicated with some vendors and...Unsolidified program milestones Manager Lack of commitment Program focus on home-grown solutions 3. Question 2: What Were the Key Obstacles and Risks...differences in a way … solutions are presented” (personal communication, June 10, 2016). Program manager 1 echoes the findings from the survey that the

  19. Engineering and Humanities Students' Strategies for Vocabulary Acquisition: An Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soodmand Afshar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the differences between EAP (English for Academic Purposes students of Humanities and Engineering in terms of vocabulary strategy choice and use. One hundred and five undergraduate Iranian students (39 students from Engineering Faculty and 66 from Humanities Faculty studying at Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan, during the academic year of 2011–2012 participated in this study. For data collection purposes, a pilot-tested factor-analyzed five-point Likert-scale vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire (VLSQ containing 45 statements was adopted. The results of independent samples t-test indicated that, overall, the two groups were not significantly different in the choice and use of vocabulary learning strategies. However, running Chi square analyses, significant differences were found in individual strategy use in 6 out of 45 strategies. That is, while Humanities students used more superficial and straightforward strategies like repetition strategy and seeking help from others, the Engineering students preferred much deeper, thought-provoking and sophisticated strategies like using a monolingual dictionary and learning vocabulary through collocations and coordinates. Further, the most and the least frequently used vocabulary learning strategies by the two groups were specified, out of which only two strategies in each category were commonly shared by both groups. The possible reasons why the results have turned out to be so as well as the implications of the study are discussed in details in the paper.

  20. Market driven strategy for acquisition of waste acceptance and transportation services for commercial spent fuel in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshewsky, W.; Macaluso, C.; Smith, P.; Teer, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act) for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from commercial reactors to a Federal facility for storage and/or disposal. The Act requires the use of private industry to the 'fullest extent possible' in the transportation of spent fuels. An OCRWM goal is to develop a safe, efficient and effective transportation system while meeting the mandate of the Act. OCRWM has then develop a strategy for a market driven approach for the acquisition of transportation services and equipment. To implement this strategy, OCRWM is planning to issue a Request for Proposal (RPF) for the provision of the required services and equipment to accept SNF from the utilities and transport the SNF to a Federal facility. Two draft RPFs have been issued with the second draft incorporating comments on the first draft from potential contractors and other interested parties. The overall strategy as outlined in the draft RPF relies on private industry to use the innovative powers of the marketplace to help DOE accomplish its mission objectives. DOE intends to pursue this procurement strategy whether or not the OCRWM program includes interim storage. The concept described in the draft RPF provides for DOE to purchase services and equipment from a contractor-operated waste acceptance and transportation organization. The contractor is expected to provide initial financing for the project including that necessary for initial acquisition of operational equipment, establish the necessary management organization, and mobilize the necessary resources and capabilities to provide the SNF delivery services at a fixed rate. DOE will retain final approval on all routes and maintain primary responsibility to the States, tribes, and local units of government for assuring appropriate interaction and consideration of their input on

  1. Water resources protection strategy: Revision 1, Attachment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) must provide a demonstration of compliance with the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards for inactive mill sites pursuant to 40 CFR Part 192. This plan outlines the proposed strategy to demonstrate compliance with the ground water standards at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This demonstration consists of (1) the ground water protection standard, (2) a performance assessment, (3) a closure performance demonstration, and (4) a performance monitoring and corrective action program

  2. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  3. Dietary strategies for reduced phosphorus excretion and improved water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, R.O.; Dou, Z.; Sims, J.T.; Brake, J.; Joern, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication October 29, 2004. Cost effective feeding strategies are essential to deal with P surpluses associated with intensive animal agriculture and the consequent impact on water quality. Reduction of P overfeeding, use of feed additives to enhance dietary P utilization, and

  4. Water-safety strategies and local-scale spatial quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Delta regions throughout the world are subject to increasing flood risks. For protection, regional water safety strategies are being developed. Local-scale spatial qualities should be included in their evaluation. An experimental methodology has been developed for this purpose. This paper

  5. Commercial farmers’ strategies to control water resources in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez-Barrientos, Linda Estelí; Kemerink, Jeltsje Sanne; Wester, Flip; Molle, François

    2018-01-01

    This article shows how large-scale commercial farmers, individually and collectively, are responding to land and water reform processes in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. With a high degree of innovative agency, commercial farmers have effectively executed four strategies,

  6. A Candidate Army Energy and Water Management Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Donald F; Westervelt, Eileen T

    2004-01-01

    .... This work augments on-going energy and water management initiatives within the Army by developing a new candidate Army level strategy that responds to anticipated legislation; reflects current DOD and DA requirements, vision, and values in light of the current world situation; incorporates sound science and management principles; and organizes and focuses efforts into an integrated program.

  7. DOD/COCOM Water Security Program Strategy Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    treatment and disposal. DOD/COCOM Water Security Program Strategy 22 18. Toxic Minerals In regions where there are naturally occurring unsafe...surface hydrologic observations using remote sensing to provide data on precipitation, radiation, temperature, soil moisture, groundwater, snowcover...habitat alteration and aquaculture . 13. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Works with partners throughout the nation and the world to monitor health

  8. Prioritization of the hemodialysis patients' preferences in acquisition of health information: A strategy for patient education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Babamohamadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Full training according to the information needs of patients reduces health care costs and increases the quality of care. The present study was conducted aims to prioritize the preferences of hemodialysis patients in acquisition of health information to be able to provide training according to these preferences and their prioritization after achieving them. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional one which was conducted on all hemodialysis patients who visited Kowsar Hospital in Semnan within the year 2014-2015. Data collecting tool was researcher-made questionnaire which assessed physical information needs of patients in four areas of nutrition, energy, pain and discomfort, sleep and rest. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using the descriptive statistics.71 hemodialysis patients participated in this study. 68.6%, 50.7%, 42.6% and 46.7% of patients expressed acquisition information regarding hematopoietic foods, how to increase mobility, how to relieve itching during dialysis and mental activities before sleep as their first priorities, respectively. The results of this study showed that hemodialysis patients need to know what kinds of information in the field of physical problems. To facilitate adaptation and selfcare of patients, providing information and training based on the real needs of patients will be helpful.

  9. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  10. Preliminary physico-chemical results obtained on water using new data acquisition systems for deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.M.; Peyrus, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Data acquisition systems recently developed in the context of research on deep storage facilities have provided with an initial set of interesting observations for the physico-chemical study of boreholes. It is possible to make correlations between the chemical compositions of water, pH and the nature of the substrate. The sampling done at Auriat with a Gerhardt-Owen probe shows the variability in the composition of water as a function of depth. The variation in calcium content, following that of pH, is particularly notable. Examination of pH measurements is of particular interest. A general gradient correlates exactly with the nature of the substrate. Whereas steel piping has a very alkaline pH, distinct pH values correspond to the two types of granite substrate. In this general gradient, series of disturbances can be seen which correspond perfectly to fracturation zones or large fractures. These most promising preliminary results lead to believe that in situ physico-chemical measurements should be continued and developed with a view to improved evaluation of the safety of deep storage facilities

  11. Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runnan; Liu, Yanan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Zhao, Xueting; Elimelech, Menachem; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-10-24

    One of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of modern society is an inadequate supply of clean water. Due to its energy-saving and cost-effective features, membrane technology has become an indispensable platform technology for water purification, including seawater and brackish water desalination as well as municipal or industrial wastewater treatment. However, membrane fouling, which arises from the nonspecific interaction between membrane surface and foulants, significantly impedes the efficient application of membrane technology. Preparing antifouling membranes is a fundamental strategy to deal with pervasive fouling problems from a variety of foulants. In recent years, major advancements have been made in membrane preparation techniques and in elucidating the antifouling mechanisms of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis. This review will first introduce the major foulants and the principal mechanisms of membrane fouling, and then highlight the development, current status and future prospects of antifouling membranes, including antifouling strategies, preparation techniques and practical applications. In particular, the strategies and mechanisms for antifouling membranes, including passive fouling resistance and fouling release, active off-surface and on-surface strategies, will be proposed and discussed extensively.

  12. Good year, bad year: changing strategies, changing networks? A two-year study on seed acquisition in northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Violon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.

  13. Effects of two retraining strategies on nursing students' acquisition and retention of BLS/AED skills: A cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Suthers, Fiona; Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-08-01

    To determine and compare the effects of two different retraining strategies on nursing students' acquisition and retention of BLS/AED skills. Nursing students (N = 177) from two European universities were randomly assigned to either an instructor-directed (IDG) or a student-directed (SDG) 4-h retraining session in BLS/AED. A multiple-choice questionnaire, the Cardiff Test, Laerdal SkillReporter(®) software and a self-efficacy scale were used to assess students' overall competency (knowledge, psychomotor skills and self-efficacy) in BLS/AED at pre-test, post-test and 3-month retention-test. GEE, chi-squared and McNemar tests were performed to examine statistical differences amongst groups across time. There was a significant increase in the proportion of students who achieved competency for all variables measuring knowledge, psychomotor skills and self-efficacy between pre-test and post-test in both groups (all p-valuesstudy demonstrated that using a student-directed strategy to retrain BLS/AED skills has resulted in a higher proportion of nursing students achieving and retaining competency in BLS/AED at three months when compared to an instructor-directed strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of acquisition moves on income, pre-tax profits and future strategy of logistics firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a comprehensive study of the management success factors of logistics service providers using a new approach, and examines the life of logistics service companies. The data were collected from 51 logistics service providers in Hungary. We searched for the proper enterprise scale – acquisitionsstrategies (including the method of looking for the economies of scale in the LSP segment to be examined, and the role of strategy choice. Our research has found that among logistics companies those firms which followed the growth pattern has significantly higher sales revenue than the companies growing organically. Additionally, logistics companies – considering their pre-tax profits - work more efficiently when they have a growth strategy (regardless of its time lag. However, this claim is true only for those companies that did not have any (revenue growth over the previous period. The results of our research can effectively help logistics service providers find their business success factors, which will enable them fulfil the expectations of their customers in the supply chain better.

  15. Mobilization strategy to overcome global crisis of water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzdaleva, Antonina; Goryunova, Svetlana; Marchuk, Aleksey; Borovkov, Valery

    2017-10-01

    Today, the global water consumption crisis is one of the main threats that can disrupt socio-economic and environmental conditions of life of the majority of the world’s population. The water consumption mobilization strategy is based on the idea of increasing the available water resources. The main direction for the implementation of this strategy is the construction of anti-rivers - the systems for inter-basin (interregional) water resources redistribution. Antirivers are intended for controlled redistribution of water resources from regions with their catastrophic excess to regions with their critical shortage. The creation of anti-rivers, taking into account the requirements of environmental safety, will form large-scale managed natural- engineering systems and implement the principle of sustainable development adopted by the United Nations. The aim of the article is to substantiate a new methodological approach to address the problem, where the implementation of this approach can prevent large-scale humanitarian and environmental disasters expected in the coming years.

  16. Categorizing words using 'frequent frames': what cross-linguistic analyses reveal about distributional acquisition strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Emmanuel; Mintz, Toben H; Bernal, Savita; Christophe, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Mintz (2003) described a distributional environment called a frame, defined as the co-occurrence of two context words with one intervening target word. Analyses of English child-directed speech showed that words that fell within any frequently occurring frame consistently belonged to the same grammatical category (e.g. noun, verb, adjective, etc.). In this paper, we first generalize this result to French, a language in which the function word system allows patterns that are potentially detrimental to a frame-based analysis procedure. Second, we show that the discontinuity of the chosen environments (i.e. the fact that target words are framed by the context words) is crucial for the mechanism to be efficient. This property might be relevant for any computational approach to grammatical categorization. Finally, we investigate a recursive application of the procedure and observe that the categorization is paradoxically worse when context elements are categories rather than actual lexical items. Item-specificity is thus also a core computational principle for this type of algorithm. Our analysis, along with results from behavioural studies (Gómez, 2002; Gómez and Maye, 2005; Mintz, 2006), provides strong support for frames as a basis for the acquisition of grammatical categories by infants. Discontinuity and item-specificity appear to be crucial features.

  17. The movement kinematics and learning strategies associated with adopting different foci of attention during both acquisition and anxious performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Peter Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that implicit strategies adopted during learning help prevent breakdown of automatic processes and subsequent performance decrements associated with the presence of pressure. According to the Constrained Action Hypothesis, automaticity of movement is promoted when adopting an external focus of attention. The purpose of the current experiment was to investigate if learning with an external focus of attention can enhance performance under subsequent pressure situations through promoting implicit learning and automaticity. Since previous research has generally used outcome measures of performance, the current study adopted measures of movement production. Specifically, we calculated within subject variability in trajectory velocity and distance travelled every 10% of movement time. This detailed kinematic analysis allowed investigation into some of the previously unexplored mechanisms responsible for the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention. Novice participants performed a 2.5m golf putt. Following a pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three focus groups (internal, external, control. Participants then completed 400 acquisition trials over two consecutive days before being subjected to both a low-anxiety and high-anxiety transfer test. Dependent variables included variability, number of successful putts and mean radial error. Results revealed that variability was greater in the internal compared to the external and control groups. Putting performance revealed that all groups increased performance following acquisition. However, only the control group demonstrated a decrement in performance in the high-anxiety transfer test. These findings suggest that adopting an appropriate focus of attention during learning can prevent choking; with an external focus inhibiting the breakdown of automatic processes and an internal focus acting as a self-focus learning strategy and thus desensitizing individuals

  18. Facility location, capacity acquisition and technology selection models for manufacturing strategy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Verter, Vedat

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Engineering and Science, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-141. The primary aim of this dissertation research is to contribute to the manufacturing strategy planning process. The firm is perceived as a value chain which can be represented by a production-distribution network. Structural decisions regarding the value chain of a firm are the means to implement the firm’s manufacturin...

  19. The Effect of Various Strategies on the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Serial Positioning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    child development and behavior. N. Y.: Academic Press, 1974. Craik , F. I.M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research...F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing and theories of memory. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1978. Bruner, J. S. The act of discovery... Lockhart , 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975). Although the dependent measures differ, the conclusions drawn remain similar. Strategy usage has a facilitatory

  20. The Influence of Learning Strategies in the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Visual Tracking Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurology X. N. Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for...Morris, C. D., & Stein, B. S. Some general constraints oil learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing ... Craik & Lockhart , 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975). Although the dependent measures differ, the conclusions drawn remain similar. Strategy usage has a

  1. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  2. Participatory Water Management Strategies: Contributions for Canada from Brazil’s National Water Resources Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderson Alberto Medeiros Leitao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian decision-makers are encountering escalating socio-ecological pressures to introduce a national water strategy. Canada lags behind other countries such as Brazil which has had a comprehensive, participatory, watershed-based national strategy for over a decade. Similar to Canada, Brazil is a complex, federal, resource-based economy. These two states are world leaders in terms of possessing the vast quantities of the world’s fresh water supplies and in hydro-electric power production. In both cases, however, water abundance is predominantly concentrated in their northern territories with low population density, whereas in other geographical regions, the water demand associated with high population density lead to drought, shortages and social and economic inequalities. Despite these similarities, there are a number of differences particularly with respect to socio-economic and political structures. An examination ofthe Brazilian national water strategy offers some explanations as to why that federation has been able to develop innovative legislation as an important first step towards water security – a step that Canadahas yet to take. It also offers some very useful examples and lessons about how a federal state such as Canada might introduce and implement its own integrative national water strategy.

  3. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  4. Effect of different water management strategies on water and contaminant fluxes in Doncaster, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueedi, J; Cronin, A A; Moon, B; Wolf, L; Hoetzl, H

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, large volumes of public water supply come from urban aquifers and so efficient urban water management and decision tools are essential to maintain quality of life both in terms of health, personal freedom and environment. In the United Kingdom, this issue gained increased importance with the last year's low volumes of groundwater replenishment that resulted in increased water shortages all over the country. An urban water volume and quality model (UVQ) was applied to a suburb of Doncaster (United Kingdom) to assess the current water supply system and to compare it with new potential scenarios of water management. The initial results show considerable changes in both water and solute fluxes for some scenarios and rather limited changes for others. Changing impermeable roads and paved areas to permeable areas, for example, would lead to higher infiltration rates that may be welcome from a water resources viewpoint but less so from a water quality point of view due to high concentrations of heavy metals. The biggest impact on water quality and quantity leaving the system through sewer, storm water and infiltration system was clearly obtained by re-using grey water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry for irrigation and toilet flush. The testing of this strategy led to lower volumes and higher concentrations of sewerage, a considerable decrease in water consumption and an increase in groundwater recharge. The scenarios were tested neither in terms of costs nor social acceptance for either water supplier or user.

  5. The selection of acquisition strategy and solving trade surpluses of food products by using the simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Neven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real business environment opens up many possibilities of business conduct, so that appropriate strategies, compatible with multicriteria requirements of the environment, potentially lead to the realization of the set goal. Adequate schedule and the optimal combination of available resources are possible to establish by a mathematical formalization in terms of the theoretical model that connects business outcomes with a cause or a probability of their occurrence. Exactly research of the possibility of using and applying the results of theoretical models in solving the specific tasks in regard to expressing relations of initial assumptions related to selection of the optimal operating strategy, is the initial motive of this paper. The theoretical models, which describe the real problem, can be analysed analytically or by simulation, depending on its complexity and the variables type, which describe it. The model should provide achieving the managing balance through the model correction of the available operational resources, increasing in that way also the capacity of decision-making system in terms of futuristic knowledge insufficiency. The research results should show that the simulation model apply, in this particular example, enables to a company significant increase of business efficiency level, more complex utilization of the capacities, increase of the competitiveness, etc.

  6. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  7. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass spectrometry in plant metabolomics strategies: from analytical platforms to data acquisition and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Silva, Denise Brentan; Silva, Ricardo Roberto; Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-06-01

    Covering: up to 2013. Plant metabolomics is a relatively recent research field that has gained increasing interest in the past few years. Up to the present day numerous review articles and guide books on the subject have been published. This review article focuses on the current applications and limitations of the modern mass spectrometry techniques, especially in combination with electrospray ionisation (ESI), an ionisation method which is most commonly applied in metabolomics studies. As a possible alternative to ESI, perspectives on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in metabolomics studies are introduced, a method which still is not widespread in the field. In metabolomics studies the results must always be interpreted in the context of the applied sampling procedures as well as data analysis. Different sampling strategies are introduced and the importance of data analysis is illustrated in the example of metabolic network modelling.

  9. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  10. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  11. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  12. Climate change and large-scale land acquisitions in Africa: Quantifying the future impact on acquired water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Davide Danilo; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Pressure on agricultural land has markedly increased since the start of the century, driven by demographic growth, changes in diet, increasing biofuel demand, and globalization. To better ensure access to adequate land and water resources, many investors and countries began leasing large areas of agricultural land in the global South, a phenomenon often termed "large-scale land acquisition" (LSLA). To date, this global land rush has resulted in the appropriation of 41million hectares and about 490 km3 of freshwater resources, affecting rural livelihoods and local environments. It remains unclear to what extent land and water acquisitions contribute to the emergence of water-stress conditions in acquired areas, and how these demands for water may be impacted by climate change. Here we analyze 18 African countries - 20 Mha (or 80%) of LSLA for the continent - and estimate that under present climate 210 km3 year-1of water would be appropriated if all acquired areas were actively under production. We also find that consumptive use of irrigation water is disproportionately contributed by water-intensive biofuel crops. Using the IPCCA1B scenario, we find only small changes in green (-1.6%) and blue (+2.0%) water demand in targeted areas. With a 3 °C temperature increase, crop yields are expected to decrease up to 20% with a consequent increase in the water footprint. When the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2concentrations is accounted for, crop yields increase by as much as 40% with a decrease in water footprint up to 29%. The relative importance of CO2 fertilization and warming will therefore determine water appropriations and changes in water footprint under climate change scenarios.

  13. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  14. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  15. Assisting at-risk community college students' acquisition of critical thinking learning strategies in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arburn, Theresa Morkovsky

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning thinking strategies within the context of a community college course in Human Anatomy and Physiology would result in increased academic performance and the incidence of critical thinking skills. Included in the study sample were 68 community college students, many of whom would be categorized as "at-risk," who were enrolled in four sections of a Human Anatomy and Physiology class. Two of the class sections served as the experimental group and two sections served as the control group. During the course of one semester, members of the experimental group participated in the use of a student-generated questioning technique in conjunction with lecture presentations, while members of the control group did not. All students were pretested using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Posttesting was completed using these same instruments and an end-of-course comprehensive examination. Analysis of data revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to their overall achievement, their ability to process information, or their demonstration of critical thinking. It was interesting to note, however, that members of the experimental group did exhibit a change in their ability to select main ideas, apply deductive reasoning, and use inference. While the use of thinking strategies within the context of the course did not effect a significant change in academic achievement or critical thinking among at-risk community college students, it should be noted that application of a non-lecture method of class participation had no negative impact on student performance. Whether more abstruse changes have occurred with regard to the acquisition of cognitive skills remains to be elucidated.

  16. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  17. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  18. The Effect of Using Jigsaw Strategy in Teaching Science on the Acquisition of Scientific Concepts among the Fourth Graders of Bani Kinana Directorate of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad Salim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the effect of using Jigsaw strategy in teaching science on the acquisition of scientific concepts among the fourth graders of Bani Kinana Directorate of Education compared to the traditional way. The study sample consisted of 70 male and female students, divided into two groups: experimental and control where the…

  19. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    When selecting a pH control strategy, plant design and operation characteristics have to be carefully considered. The strategy should be tailored to the plant-specific needs and requirements. Owing to the complexity of the interrelated variables, the best way is to perform a modeling with a suitable computer code. This work investigated the possibility of complementing the classic high pH all-volatile treatment (H-AVT) by addition of an organic amine at low concentrations complementarily to ammonia dosing to locally increase the pH in the water phase of the wet steam areas to counteract flow-assisted corrosion (FAC). Alternative conditioning scenarios were considered and calculated for comparative analysis using a computer code. The results obtained argue for the convenience of using ammonia as the main alkalizing agent whenever possible, avoiding multiple amine concepts and their associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  20. Plant nutrient acquisition strategies in tundra species: at which soil depth do species take up their nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique; Nauta, Ake; van Huissteden, Corine; van Rijssel, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is warming at unprecedented rates. Increased thawing of permafrost releases nutrients locked up in the previously frozen soils layers, which may initiate shifts in vegetation composition. The direction in which the vegetation shifts will co-determine whether Arctic warming is mitigated or accelerated, making understanding successional trajectories urgent. One of the key factors influencing the competitive relationships between plant species is their access to nutrients, in particularly nitrogen (N). We assessed the depth at which plant species took up N by performing a 15N tracer study, injecting 15(NH4)2SO4 at three depths (5, 15, 20 cm) into the soil in arctic tundra in north-eastern Siberia in July. In addition we explored plant nutrient acquisition strategy by analyzing natural abundances of 15N in leaves. We found that vascular plants took up 15N at all injection depths, irrespective of species, but also that species showed a clear preference for specific soil layers that coincided with their functional group (graminoids, dwarf shrubs, cryptogams). Graminoids took up most 15N at 20 cm depth nearest to the thaw front, with grasses showing a more pronounced preference than sedges. Dwarf shrubs took up most 15N at 5 cm depth, with deciduous shrubs displaying more preference than evergreens. Cryptogams did not take up any of the supplied 15N . The natural 15N abundances confirmed the pattern of nutrient acquisition from deeper soil layers in graminoids and from shallow soil layers in both deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs. Our results prove that graminoids and shrubs differ in their N uptake strategies, with graminoids profiting from nutrients released at the thaw front, whereas shrubs forage in the upper soil layers. The above implies that graminoids, grasses in particular, will have a competitive advantage over shrubs as the thaw front proceeds and/or superficial soil layers dry out. Our results suggest that the vertical distribution of nutrients

  1. Nanonization strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Yang, Xiangliang; Chang, Xueling; Gao, Jinming

    2011-04-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor(®) EL). In this review, several major nanonization techniques that seek to overcome these limitations for drug solubilization are presented. Strategies including drug nanocrystals, nanoemulsions and polymeric micelles are reviewed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and future opportunities are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biostimulation strategies to enhance manganese removal in drinking water biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro; Ramsay, Loren; Søborg, Ditte

    to national drinking water criteria. The period during which virgin filter media matures into a fully functional biofilter is designated as the start-up period. The duration of a start-up for efficient manganese removal varies from weeks to more than a year. The aim of this study was to investigate...... growth and activity of specific bacteria. Biostimulation of virgin media to enhance initial manganese removal using different amendments strategies is possible especially in the early stages of filter development whereas autocatalytic processes appear to become dominant with time. The complex...

  3. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  4. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  5. Strategies to water pollution control in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGWenchao; CHENGJijian; LONGTengrui; HEQiang

    2003-01-01

    Problems of and main limiting factors to Chinese western eco-environment are analyzea firstly and principles of integrating water pollution control with water resources planning and management, with ecological construction and with economic development planning and setting control priorities according to local conditions are proposed. Following strategies for water pollution control are suggested: 1) a master plan for western area need to be established as soon as possible; 2) total emission control should be regarded as the basic policy and measures such as clean production, charging and subsidy need to be implemented; 3) point sources pollution control should be considered the main task in short term and centralized wasteweter treatment plants by using sustainable processes should be constructed primarily for large and medium-size cities with heavier pollution; 4) sound institutional and regulation systems need to be established to create an enabling environment; 5) multiple investment system should be established; and 6) studies of pragmatic theories and methodologies for water pollution control and cost-effective technologies appropriate to western area, and training of local technicians need to be enhanced as well.

  6. ICT Solutions for Highly-Customized Water Demand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Cominola, A.; Castelletti, A.; Fraternali, P.; Guardiola, J.; Barba, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent deployment of smart metering networks is opening new opportunities for advancing the design of residential water demand management strategies (WDMS) relying on improved understanding of water consumers' behaviors. Recent applications showed that retrieving information on users' consumption behaviors, along with their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas where targeting water saving efforts, and to design user-tailored WDMS. In this study, we explore the potential of ICT-based solutions in supporting the design and implementation of highly customized WDMS. On one side, the collection of consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires big data analytics and machine learning techniques to extract typical consumption features from the metered population of water users. On the other side, ICT solutions and gamifications can be used as effective means for facilitating both users' engagement and the collection of socio-psychographic users' information. This latter allows interpreting and improving the extracted profiles, ultimately supporting the customization of WDMS, such as awareness campaigns or personalized recommendations. Our approach is implemented in the SmartH2O platform and demonstrated in a pilot application in Valencia, Spain. Results show how the analysis of the smart metered consumption data, combined with the information retrieved from an ICT gamified web user portal, successfully identify the typical consumption profiles of the metered users and supports the design of alternative WDMS targeting the different users' profiles.

  7. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.

  8. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Breu

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.

  9. Water quality monitoring strategies - A review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmel, S; Damour, M; Ludwig, R; Rodriguez, M J

    2016-11-15

    The reliable assessment of water quality through water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) is crucial in order for decision-makers to understand, interpret and use this information in support of their management activities aiming at protecting the resource. The challenge of water quality monitoring has been widely addressed in the literature since the 1940s. However, there is still no generally accepted, holistic and practical strategy to support all phases of WQMPs. The purpose of this paper is to report on the use cases a watershed manager has to address to plan or optimize a WQMP from the challenge of identifying monitoring objectives; selecting sampling sites and water quality parameters; identifying sampling frequencies; considering logistics and resources to the implementation of actions based on information acquired through the WQMP. An inventory and critique of the information, approaches and tools placed at the disposal of watershed managers was proposed to evaluate how the existing information could be integrated in a holistic, user-friendly and evolvable solution. Given the differences in regulatory requirements, water quality standards, geographical and geological differences, land-use variations, and other site specificities, a one-in-all solution is not possible. However, we advance that an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) based on expert knowledge that integrates existing approaches and past research can guide a watershed manager through the process according to his/her site-specific requirements. It is also necessary to tap into local knowledge and to identify the knowledge needs of all the stakeholders through participative approaches based on geographical information systems and adaptive survey-based questionnaires. We believe that future research should focus on developing such participative approaches and further investigate the benefits of IDSS's that can be updated quickly and make it possible for a watershed manager to obtain a

  10. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  11. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  12. Nicotine intake and problem solving strategies are modified during a cognitively demanding water maze task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Pogun, Sakire

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is the major addictive component in tobacco, and despite well-established adverse health effects of tobacco addiction, some smokers have difficulty quitting. The acute cognitive enhancement and/or the amelioration of the cognitive disruption during withdrawal that some smokers experience after smoking are among important factors that hinder quit attempts. The animal model presented in the current study is comparable to the human smoking condition although nicotine intake routes are different. Rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine starting at adolescence, and given a water maze (WM) task as adults. This design allowed us to see if rats alter their nicotine intake during the WM task and if nicotine preference and intake modify abilities and strategies rats use for problem solving. Male and female rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine/water for 24weeks, starting at five weeks of age. After this period, they were selected based on their nicotine intake and, together with control animals that received only water, were subjected to a place-learning task in the WM. Free-choice nicotine exposure continued during WM testing. Following acquisition, the probe trial presented the rats with a choice between using two different strategies for problem solving. Nicotine supported acquisition and rats increased their nicotine intake during WM testing; this effect was more pronounced in male rats with minimum nicotine preference and intake. Furthermore, nicotine modified the "female type" strategy in solving the place-learning task and nicotine treated female rats, unlike control females, behaved like males. The increase in nicotine intake during mental engagement, and the sexually dimorphic effect of nicotine on problem solving strategies that we have observed in rats, may suggest that implementing sex-specific smoking cessation approaches, especially under stressful and cognitively demanding conditions, may be useful in helping smokers quit

  13. Impacts of water quality on the corrosion of cast iron pipes for water distribution and proposed source water switch strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Dong, Huiyu; Xu, Qiang; Ling, Wencui; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2018-02-01

    Switch of source water may induce "red water" episodes. This study investigated the impacts of water quality on iron release, dissolved oxygen consumption (ΔDO), corrosion scale evolution and bacterial community succession in cast iron pipes used for drinking water distribution at pilot scale, and proposed a source water switch strategy accordingly. Three sets of old cast iron pipe section (named BP, SP and GP) were excavated on site and assembled in a test base, which had historically transported blended water, surface water and groundwater, respectively. Results indicate that an increasing Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration accelerated iron release, but alkalinity and calcium hardness exhibited an opposite tendency. Disinfectant shift from free chlorine to monochloramine slightly inhibited iron release, while the impact of peroxymonosulfate depended on the source water historically transported in the test pipes. The ΔDO was highly consistent with iron release in all three pipe systems. The mass ratio of magnetite to goethite in the corrosion scales of SP was higher than those of BP and GP and kept almost unchanged over the whole operation period. Siderite and calcite formation confirmed that an increasing alkalinity and hardness inhibited iron release. Iron-reducing bacteria decreased in the BP but increased in the SP and GP; meanwhile, sulfur-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria increased in all three pipe systems. To avoid the occurrence of "red water", a source water switch strategy was proposed based on the difference between local and foreign water qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  15. Hypoxia and bicarbonate could limit the expression of iron acquisition genes in Strategy I plants by affecting ethylene synthesis and signaling in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; García-Mateo, María J; Lucena, Carlos; Romera, Francisco J; Rojas, Carmen L; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that bicarbonate (one of the most important factors causing Fe chlorosis in Strategy I plants) can limit the expression of several genes involved in Fe acquisition. Hypoxia is considered another important factor causing Fe chlorosis, mainly on calcareous soils. However, to date it is not known whether hypoxia aggravates Fe chlorosis by affecting bicarbonate concentration or by specific negative effects on Fe acquisition. Results found in this work show that hypoxia, generated by eliminating the aeration of the nutrient solution, can limit the expression of several Fe acquisition genes in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis, cucumber and pea plants, like the genes for ferric reductases AtFRO2, PsFRO1 and CsFRO1; iron transporters AtIRT1, PsRIT1 and CsIRT1; H(+) -ATPase CsHA1; and transcription factors AtFIT, AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39. Interestingly, the limitation of the expression of Fe-acquisition genes by hypoxia did not occur in the Arabidopsis ethylene constitutive mutant ctr1, which suggests that the negative effect of hypoxia is related to ethylene, an hormone involved in the upregulation of Fe acquisition genes. As for hypoxia, results obtained by applying bicarbonate to the nutrient solution suggests that ethylene is also involved in its negative effect, since ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; ethylene precursor) partially reversed the negative effect of bicarbonate on the expression of Fe acquisition genes. Taken together, the results obtained show that hypoxia and bicarbonate could induce Fe chlorosis by limiting the expression of Fe acquisition genes, probably because each factor negatively affects different steps of ethylene synthesis and/or signaling. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Frasch, Manfred; Leptin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are booming a strategy of choice for organizations attempting to maintain a competitive advantage. Previous research on mergers and acquisitions declares that acquirers do not normally benefit from acquisitions. Targets, on the other hand, have a tendency of gaining positive returns in the few days surrounding merger announcements due to several characteristic on the acquisitions deal. The announcement period wealth effect on acquiring firms, however, is as cle...

  17. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  18. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  19. 75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9175-1] RIN 2040-AD94 Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as... Drinking Water Strategy includes the following four principles: Addressing some contaminants as group(s... array of contaminants; using the authority of multiple statutes to help protect drinking water; and...

  20. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  1. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Benefit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    of Dadi Beach has karsts, which are underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. The risk with such geography is the drilling rig could fall...into a sinkhole and be lost while tunneling beneath the surf zone, which according to NB Guam authorities has already occurred.  Orote Landfill

  2. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Beneit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    vicinity of Dadi Beach has karsts, which are underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. The risk with such geography is the drilling rig...could fall into a sinkhole and be lost while tunneling beneath the surf zone, which according to NB Guam authorities has already occurred.  Orote

  3. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012 Strategy). The Strategy describes a set of long-term visions and goals for the management of water resources in light of climate change and charts key...

  4. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Over the years the PWR plant operators were aware of the need of optimizing the pH control strategy in the water-steam cycle with the focus on improvement of steam generator performance with the main goal of reducing the corrosion product ingress into the steam generators and their consequences: SG fouling, SG tube corrosion beneath deposits. To achieve this goal, it becomes necessary to harmonize three requirements: a. High overall pH along the circuit for suppression of general corrosion, requiring a volatile amine to ensure a suitable distribution in steam areas and condenser, and b. High local pH at the water phase of two-phase flow areas, requiring an either rather low volatile amine to ensure high pH in the wet steam water film, or larger amounts of a volatile amine. c. Sufficient amount of hydrazine to ensure reducing conditions in the steam generators. The basic strategy of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly KWU), successfully applied in German nuclear power plants since the late seventies consisted on the achievement of the necessary pH by means of ammonia, as generated by thermal decomposition of hydrazine. By dosing of hydrazine at the necessary amounts to ensure reducing conditions, also sufficient ammonia is generated to achieve a high overall pH along the cycle, being the target pH (25 deg. C) ≥ 9.8 resulting in < 1 ppb Fe in final feed water. This treatment is known as H-AVT (High pH - All Volatile Treatment). Main prerequisite for its application is to have a copper-free system. Eventually, H-AVT started to be applied later at some other western nuclear power plants. In some units, the high condenser exhaust flow rate applied caused a considerable amount of ammonia being removed from the cycle, resulting in too low ammonia concentrations to maintain a sufficiently high pH, making the addition of ammonia necessary. AREVA NP GmbH together with plant operators investigated the possibility of complementing the applied classical H-AVT by addition of an advanced

  5. Understanding the acquisition and regulation mechanisms of the water chemistry in a clay formation: the CEC/ANDRA Archimede-argile project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceron, T.; Mossmann, J.R.; Neerdael, B.; Canniere, P. de; Beaucaire, C.; Toulhoat, P.; Daumas, S.; Bianchi, A.; Christen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Clay formations are candidate host environments to high level radioactive waste repository. The radioelements could be partially released from the waste into the host geological formation after a very long time. Understanding behaviour of the natural chemical species is considered as a fundamental prerequisite before the disturbed system will be studied. Additional laboratory studies are also essential in order to forecast, by analogy, the behaviour of radioelements released from the radioactive waste repository. The ARCHIMEDE-ARGILE project has two main goals. The first is to gain an understanding of the mechanisms of acquisition and regulation of the water chemistry in a clay environment. This step is essential to predict both the behaviour and the migration in solution of artificial elements which are initially absent in the clay formation. The second is to test and validate in clay the measured physico chemical parameters which are the basis for the geochemical modelling of the behaviour of the natural and artificial radioelements. The paper presents the main results previously obtained on granitic waters and the research strategy established for the ARCHIMEDE project. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  6. Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment was published in 2010, and a Strawman Proposal was developed in 2012 by the Coalition for Urban/Rural Environmental Stewardship, California Water Resources Board, EPA.

  7. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  8. Research on IoT-based water environment benchmark data acquisition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bai; Xue, Bai; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Ren, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Over the past more than 30 years of reform and opening up, China’s economy has developed at a full speed. However, this rapid growth is under restrictions of resource exhaustion and environmental pollution. Green sustainable development has become a common goal of all humans. As part of environmental resources, water resources are faced with such problems as pollution and shortage, thus hindering sustainable development. The top priority in water resources protection and research is to manage the basic data on water resources, and determine what is the footstone and scientific foundation of water environment management. By studying the aquatic organisms in the Yangtze River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, the Liaohe River Basin and the 5 lake areas, this paper puts forward an IoT-based water environment benchmark data management platform which can transform parameters measured to electric signals by way of chemical probe identification, and then send the benchmark test data of the water environment to node servers. The management platform will provide data and theoretical support for environmental chemistry, toxicology, ecology, etc., promote researches on environmental sciences, lay a solid foundation for comprehensive and systematic research on China’s regional environment characteristics, biotoxicity effects and environment criteria, and provide objective data for compiling standards of the water environment benchmark data.

  9. A practical strategy for the characterization of ponicidin metabolites in vivo and in vitro by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS based on nontargeted SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiwei; Jin, Yiran; Hou, Ludan; Ma, Yinghua; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Kerong; Zhang, Lantong; Du, Yingfeng

    2017-10-25

    Ponicidin is an active natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid ingredient originating from many Isondon herbs and is expected to become a new anticancer agent. In this study, a practical strategy was developed for the identification of ponicidin metabolites in vivo and in vitro utilizing ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The analytical strategy was as follows: potential ponicidin metabolites were detected by a novel on-line data acquisition approach, i.e., sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH™). Compared to the traditional information-dependent acquisition (IDA) method, SWATH™ significantly improved the hit rate of low-level or trace metabolites because it could obtain all MS/MS spectra. Moreover, many data post-processing methods were used to deduce the metabolites structures. As a result, a total of 20 metabolites were characterized in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that ponicidin could undergo general metabolic reactions, such as oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, methylation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, there was an obvious difference in the ponicidin metabolites among four species in vitro. This is the first time that the SWATH™ data acquisition mode has been used to characterize ponicidin metabolites in trace amounts or in a biological matrix. These results not only provided a better understanding of the safety and efficacy of ponicidin but also showed a valuable methodology for the identification of other ent-kaurane diterpenoid metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Handwriting Skills in Pre-Schoolers: The Acquisition of Syllable Oriented Programming Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…

  11. Retention strategies and factors associated with missed visits among low income women at increased risk of HIV acquisition in the US (HPTN 064).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Lucas, Jonathan; Golin, Carol E; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Frew, Paula M; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Mannheimer, Sharon; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Tims-Cook, Zandraetta; Carter, Yvonne; Hodder, Sally L

    2014-04-01

    Women at high-risk for HIV acquisition often face challenges that hinder their retention in HIV prevention trials. These same challenges may contribute to missed clinical care visits among HIV-infected women. This article, informed by the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, identifies factors associated with missed study visits and describes the multifaceted retention strategies used by study sites. HPTN 064 was a multisite, longitudinal HIV seroincidence study in 10 US communities. Eligible women were aged 18-44 years, resided in a census tract/zipcode with high poverty and HIV prevalence, and self-reported ≥1 personal or sex partner behavior related to HIV acquisition. Multivariate analyses of predisposing (e.g., substance use) and enabling (e.g., unmet health care needs) characteristics, and study attributes (i.e., recruitment venue, time of enrollment) identified factors associated with missed study visits. Retention strategies included: community engagement; interpersonal relationship building; reduction of external barriers; staff capacity building; and external tracing. Visit completion was 93% and 94% at 6 and 12 months. Unstable housing and later date of enrollment were associated with increased likelihood of missed study visits. Black race, recruitment from an outdoor venue, and financial responsibility for children were associated with greater likelihood of attendance. Multifaceted retention strategies may reduce missed study visits. Knowledge of factors associated with missed visits may help to focus efforts.

  12. Strategies for Improving Access to Drinking Water in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Water consumption is important for students' cognition, dental health, and physical health. The availability and promotion of free water during the school day has been shown to increase water consumption and may prevent school children from being overweight. This brief highlights areas where local school wellness policies (i.e., wellness…

  13. A full value-chain Water Footprint Assessment to help informed decision in corporate sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping; Chico Zamanilo, Daniel; Bai, Xue; Ren, Xiajing; Chen, Rong; Qin, Jun

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the water footprint (WF) of five production facilities along Muyuan Foodstuff Co. Ltd's (Muyuan) value chain, and assessed the sustainability and impact of their water footprints at the river catchment level. Muyuan, a large-scale, integrated pig breeder and producer in China, is keen to fulfil its corporate social responsibilities and committed to ensuring food quality and security, promoting environmental protection, and participating in catchment water resources management. Formulating corporate water related sustainability strategies, however, has been challenging. This study carried out a comprehensive Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for Muyuan's full value chain to assist in formulating such strategies and setting up action plans with water footprint reduction targets. The study showed that that the water footprint of the supply chain, resulting from crops and crop products used in Muyuan's feed production facility is a major contributor to Muyuan's facilities' water footprint. From the perspective of the direct WF at the facilities, addressing the impact on water quality from effluents (i.e. the grey water footprint) at hog farms is a critical component of any water sustainability strategy. From the blue WF perspective, there are opportunities to reduce blue water consumption at hog farms through improved technology and implementation of best practices. The water footprint sustainability assessment in this study indicated that Muyuan operates in a catchment which is already under water stress and is a hotspot in terms of both blue water scarcity and water pollution level. The study helped identify potential water-related risks and opportunities for improving Muyuan's water use efficiency as well as ways Muyuan could contribute to sustainable water resources management in the catchment within which it operates. This is an innovative application of WFA in the livestock sector and supports the development of Muyuan's corporate water

  14. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  15. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  16. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Bram, Mads Valentin

    2017-01-01

    This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW) monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic...

  17. Water Authorities’ Pricing Strategies to Recover Supply Costs in the Absence of Water Metering for Irrigated Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lika

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the irrigated agricultural regions in Europe are supplied by surface irrigation networks managed by local water authorities (WAs. Under such conditions, WAs are not able to fully monitor water usage and farmers have an information advantage vis-a-vis the WA. This results in the water authority suffering ‘pricing failure’ if it decides to apply an incentive pricing strategy (tariffs proportional to the alleged water uses. Indeed, farmers could exploit their information advantage by behaving in an opportunistic manner, withdrawing more water than declared, and ultimately paying less than they should. This situation could also undermine the efficacy and the efficiency of the WA incentive pricing strategies. This paper analyses incentive water pricing schemes under asymmetric information by the means of a Principal-Agent model. The Agency problem between the WA and farmers is addressed by introducing a monitoring strategy that would enable the WA to detect farms action. In doing so, we compare incentive strategies with flat rate water pricing and investigate under what conditions the WA might provide/not provide incentive water pricing in the absence of water metering.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Water science strategy--observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science to the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Eric J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Blome, Charles D.; Böhlke, John Karl; Hershberger, Paul K.; Langenheim, V.E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morlock, Scott E.; Reeves, Howard W.; Verdin, James P.; Weyers, Holly S.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    This report expands the Water Science Strategy that began with the USGS Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges—U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007–2017” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). This report looks at the relevant issues facing society and develops a strategy built around observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science for the next 5 to 10 years by building new capabilities, tools, and delivery systems to meet the Nation’s water-resource needs. This report begins by presenting the vision of water science for the USGS and the societal issues that are influenced by, and in turn influence, the water resources of our Nation. The essence of the Water Science Strategy is built on the concept of “water availability,” defined as spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and quality, as related to human and ecosystem needs, as affected by human and natural influences. The report also describes the core capabilities of the USGS in water science—the strengths, partnerships, and science integrity that the USGS has built over its 134-year history. Nine priority actions are presented in the report, which combine and elevate the numerous specific strategic actions listed throughout the report. Priority actions were developed as a means of providing the audience of this report with a list for focused attention, even if resources and time limit the ability of managers to address all of the strategic actions in the report.

  19. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

  20. The acquisition of aquatic skills in preschool children: deep versus shallow water swimming lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Rocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors in the swimming teaching-learning process seems to be the variation of water’s depth.However, there are almost no studies about this topic and the existing ones usually follow a basic approach and with no control of the educational program used. It was our purpose to determine the effect of deep versus shallow water differences on developing pre-schoolers’ aquatic skills after 6 months of practice. Twenty-one Portuguese school-aged children of both genders (4.70 ± 0.51 yrs., inexperienced in aquatic programs, participated in this study. The children were divided into two groups performing a similar aquatic program but in a different water depth: shallow water (n=10 and deep water (n=11. Each participant was evaluated twice for their aquatic readiness using an observation check list of 17 aquatic motor skills: during the first session (T0 and after six months of practice (two sessions per week with a total of 48 sessions (T1. The aquatic proficiency on each skill was compared between the groups and a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to predict the conditions with higher or lower aquatic competence. Results suggested that swimming practice contributed positively to improvements on several basic aquatic skills, in both groups. The results showed that shallow water group managed to acquire a higher degree of aquatic competence particularly in five basic aquatic skills (p< .05: breath control combined with face immersion and eye opening; horizontal buoyancy; body position at ventral gliding; body position at dorsal gliding; leg kick with breath control at ventral body position, without any flutter device. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between both groups and four included factors (aquatic skills (p< .001, accounting for 88% between group variability. The body position at ventral gliding was the main relevant predictor (r=0.535. Shallow water swimming lessons generated greater

  1. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  3. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  4. IAM strategy to keep our water services clean and fresh and reliable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manus, N

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steady progress that the South African department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has been making with formulating a national water services infrastructure asset management (IAM) strategy. A "scan" of the state of water...

  5. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  6. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  7. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ...

  8. The Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment Science Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of water in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth is the most influential factor regulating our environment, not only because water is essential for life but also because through phase transitions it is the main energy source that control clouds and radiation and drives the global circulation of the atmosphere.

  9. Low cost strategies for microbiological purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of sunlight intensities and freezing on prevalence of coliform bacteria in water were assessed in this study. Fish pond water indicated 1100 figure of most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, while on MacConkey agar they appeared uncountable. When this water was exposed to sunlight it was found that a exposure of 1.5 hours in ceramic containers covered by petri plates and those with magnifying lenses of 3X powers indicated 58 and 78% reduction in the coliforms, respectively. Corresponding figures for 3 hours exposure were found to be 100 percent less than the control MPN value. Freezing with subsequent thawing also reduced the microbial population. The experiments reported here are suggestive to construct simple low cost water treatment plants to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. Antibiotics sensitivity and resistant patterns of coliforms for tetracycline, piperacillin, streptomycin, metronidazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol in connection to pre- and post treatments are indicated. (author)

  10. Effects of Water Management Strategies on Water Balance in a Water Scarce Region: A Case Study in Beijing by a Holistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigong Peng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE, irrigation water use decreased significantly, leading to reduced agriculture water consumption, and sustained ground water levels. Compared with the increase of WUE, the decrease of IWSR contributes more to reducing irrigation water consumption and protecting groundwater. Sensitivity tests show that among various water cycle components, irrigation water use is most sensitive to changes, followed by agriculture water consumption, and then groundwater level. Reducing IWSR is an effective strategy to reduce irrigation water consumption and promote sustainable water resources management, which could be the support of basic data and theory for regional water resources planning.

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Water Use Strategy of Two Salix Shrubs in Alpine Sandy Land, Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Guojie; Li, Renqiang

    2016-01-01

    Water is a limiting factor for plant growth and vegetation dynamics in alpine sandy land of the Tibetan Plateau, especially with the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation events and drought caused by climate change. Therefore, a relatively stable water source from either deeper soil profiles or ground water is necessary for plant growth. Understanding the water use strategy of dominant species in the alpine sandy land ecosystem is important for vegetative rehabilitation and ecological restoration. The stable isotope methodology of δD, δ18O, and δ13C was used to determine main water source and long-term water use efficiency of Salix psammophila and S. cheilophila, two dominant shrubs on interdune of alpine sandy land in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The root systems of two Salix shrubs were investigated to determine their distribution pattern. The results showed that S. psammophila and S. cheilophila absorbed soil water at different soil depths or ground water in different seasons, depending on water availability and water use strategy. Salix psammophila used ground water during the growing season and relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in summer. Salix cheilophila used ground water in spring and summer, but relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in spring and deep soil water recharged by ground water in fall. The two shrubs had dimorphic root systems, which is coincident with their water use strategy. Higher biomass of fine roots in S. psammophila and longer fine roots in S. cheilophila facilitated to absorb water in deeper soil layers. The long-term water use efficiency of two Salix shrubs increased during the dry season in spring. The long-term water use efficiency was higher in S. psammophila than in S. cheilophila, as the former species is better adapted to semiarid climate of alpine sandy land.

  12. Strategies for stable water splitting via protected photoelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Seger, Brian; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2017-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers...... photocathodes. In addition, we review protection layer approaches and their stabilities for a wide variety of experimental photoelectrodes for water reduction. Finally, we discuss key aspects which should be addressed in continued work on realizing stable and practical PEC solar water splitting systems....

  13. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO

  14. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  15. A cluster-based strategy for assessing the overlap between large chemical libraries and its application to a recent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Michael F M; Gibbs, Alan C; Jaeger, Edward P; Verbinnen, Danny; Lobanov, Victor S; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K

    2006-01-01

    We report on the structural comparison of the corporate collections of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (JNJPRD) and 3-Dimensional Pharmaceuticals (3DP), performed in the context of the recent acquisition of 3DP by JNJPRD. The main objective of the study was to assess the druglikeness of the 3DP library and the extent to which it enriched the chemical diversity of the JNJPRD corporate collection. The two databases, at the time of acquisition, collectively contained more than 1.1 million compounds with a clearly defined structural description. The analysis was based on a clustering approach and aimed at providing an intuitive quantitative estimate and visual representation of this enrichment. A novel hierarchical clustering algorithm called divisive k-means was employed in combination with Kelley's cluster-level selection method to partition the combined data set into clusters, and the diversity contribution of each library was evaluated as a function of the relative occupancy of these clusters. Typical 3DP chemotypes enriching the diversity of the JNJPRD collection were catalogued and visualized using a modified maximum common substructure algorithm. The joint collection of JNJPRD and 3DP compounds was also compared to other databases of known medicinally active or druglike compounds. The potential of the methodology for the analysis of very large chemical databases is discussed.

  16. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three approaches which anurans have adopted in response to water ... seen migrating along a path towards the dam, the weather being overcast after light rain .... (1967) has shown that Bufo regularis has an endogenous activity rhythm.

  17. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  18. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  19. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  20. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  1. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Durdevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR, inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone’s efficiency ( ϵ response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  2. Shodagor Family Strategies : Balancing Work and Family on the Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Kathrine E

    2017-06-01

    The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents. Results show that although each factor has an impact on the division of labor individually, a confluence of these factors best explains within-group, between-family differences in how mothers and fathers divide subsistence and childcare labor. These factors also interact in particular ways for Shodagor families, and it appears that families choose their economic strategies based on the constellation of constraints that they face. The results of these analyses have implications for theory regarding the sexual division of labor across cultures and inform how Shodagor family economic and parenting strategies should be contextualized in future studies.

  3. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  4. Evaluation of a Mixing versus a Cycling Strategy of Antibiotic Use in Critically-Ill Medical Patients: Impact on Acquisition of Resistant Microorganisms and Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes.Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters.A total of 409 (42% patients were included in mixing and 560 (58% in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not significantly different (37.5/100 patient-days vs. 38.1/100 patient-days. There was a barely higher acquisition rate of microorganisms during mixing, but this difference lost its significance when the cases due to an exogenous Burkholderia cepacia outbreak were excluded (19.3% vs. 15.4%, OR 0.8, CI 0.5-1.1. Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the intervention antibiotics or with multiple-drug resistance was similar. There were no significant differences between mixing and cycling in the proportion of patients acquiring any infection (16.6% vs. 14.5%, OR 0.9, CI 0.6-1.2, any infection due to target microorganisms (5.9% vs. 5.2%, OR 0.9, CI 0.5-1.5, length of stay (median 5 d for both groups or mortality (13.9 vs. 14.3%, OR 1.03, CI 0.7-1.3.A cycling strategy of antibiotic use with a 6-week cycle duration is similar to mixing in terms of acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections, length of stay and mortality.

  5. Data acquisition testing in supercritical water oxidation using machine cutting oils and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Navy, and SERDP provided funding for an extensive series of testing of a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) system. The goal of the testing was to create performance data on the process when dealing with highly chlorinated wastes containing heavy metals, and radionuclides. The testing was performed in a MODAR vessel oxidizer. Performance was measured by the ability of the process to achieve greater than 99.99% destruction of the organic content, to partition the metals and radionuclide surrogates for mass balance, and survive the highly corrosive species in the effluent. The test data has shown that these goals were accomplished. 30 gal/day of highly chlorinated machine cutting oil was treated for 130 hrs. There were no significant corrosion or solids handling problems. This machine cutting oil, TRIM reg-sign SOL was chosen by DOE for its complex nature and has proven to be one of the more refractory organic feeds encountered by MODAR. The Navy provided 8 waste streams collected from their shore facilities operation. These paints varied in solids content with wastes such as paint chips, and adhesives. The ninth test run was with all 8 series of wastes combined. The MODAR system successfully treated all of these waste streams providing performance data on the ability of SCWO to treat difficult sludges

  6. Heme acquisition mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis - strategies used in a polymicrobial community in a heme-limited host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, J W; Olczak, T

    2017-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a main etiologic agent and key pathogen responsible for initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis requires heme as a source of iron and protoporphyrin IX for its survival and the ability to establish an infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to accumulate a defensive cell-surface heme-containing pigment in the form of μ-oxo bisheme. The main sources of heme for P. gingivalis in vivo are hemoproteins present in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and erythrocytes. To acquire heme, P. gingivalis uses several mechanisms. Among them, the best characterized are those employing hemagglutinins, hemolysins, and gingipains (Kgp, RgpA, RgpB), TonB-dependent outer-membrane receptors (HmuR, HusB, IhtA), and hemophore-like proteins (HmuY, HusA). Proteins involved in intracellular heme transport, storage, and processing are less well characterized (e.g. PgDps). Importantly, P. gingivalis may also use the heme acquisition systems of other bacteria to fulfill its own heme requirements. Porphyromonas gingivalis displays a novel paradigm for heme acquisition from hemoglobin, whereby the Fe(II)-containing oxyhemoglobin molecule must first be oxidized to methemoglobin to facilitate heme release. This process not only involves P. gingivalis arginine- and lysine-specific gingipains, but other proteases (e.g. interpain A from Prevotella intermedia) or pyocyanin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Porphyromonas gingivalis is then able to fully proteolyze the more susceptible methemoglobin substrate to release free heme or to wrest heme from it directly through the use of the HmuY hemophore. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Strategies for implementing a mitigation policy for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Hammond, R.P.; Catton, I.; Dooley, J.L.; Castle, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Possible strategies are considered for implementing a regulatory policy requiring that power reactor containment enclosures be modified to resist severe core-melt accidents without release of radioactive materials. Such modification was found to be feasible, reliable and cost effective in the work reported in previous studies in this NRC series. Incentives, goals, costs and sources of funding are discussed, and a series of possible implementation steps are presented. 11 refs

  8. A Multiscale Surface Water Temperature Data Acquisition Platform: Tests on Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of surface transport processes is necessary to predict sediment, pollutant and phytoplankton patterns in large lakes. Lake surface water temperature (LSWT), which varies in space and time, reflects meteorological and climatological forcing more than any other physical lake parameter. There are different data sources for LSWT mapping, including remote sensing and in situ measurements. Satellite data can be suitable for detecting large-scale thermal patterns, but not meso- or small scale processes. Lake surface thermography, investigated in this study, has finer resolution compared to satellite images. Thermography at the meso-scale provides the ability to ground-truth satellite imagery over scales of one to several satellite image pixels. On the other hand, thermography data can be used as a control in schemes to upscale local measurements that account for surface energy fluxes and the vertical energy budget. Independently, since such data can be collected at high frequency, they can be also useful in capturing changes in the surface signatures of meso-scale eddies and thus to quantify mixing processes. In the present study, we report results from a Balloon Launched Imaging and Monitoring Platform (BLIMP), which was developed in order to measure the LSWT at meso-scale. The BLIMP consists of a small balloon that is tethered to a boat and equipped with thermal and RGB cameras, as well as other instrumentation for location and communication. Several deployments were carried out on Lake Geneva. In a typical deployment, the BLIMP is towed by a boat, and collects high frequency data from different heights (i.e., spatial resolutions) and locations. Simultaneous ground-truthing of the BLIMP data is achieved using an autonomous craft that collects a variety of data, including in situ surface/near surface temperatures, radiation and meteorological data in the area covered by the BLIMP images. With suitable scaling, our results show good consistency

  9. socio-cultural strategies in mitigating drought impacts and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and hydroelectric energy production (Engelman & LeRoy, 1993). Signs that we ... India, Mexico, the Middle East and parts of western North America. In 88 ... people that experience a shortage of renewable water is putting a serious constraint ..... Asia -excluding some countries in South Central Asia - the Americas, and the.

  10. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-29

    Dec 29, 2011 ... integration of theory and practice peculiar to our communities in .... (ii) UNICEF Assisted State Water and Sanitation Projects. (1981 to 2010); ... communities to take greater responsibility in the financial outlay for the ... for managing the project; ... public/private institutions in the rural areas of Nigeria. This is in ...

  11. Thermal strategies of king penguins during prolonged fasting in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Bonnet, Batshéva; Bost, Caroline; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2017-12-15

    Most animals experience periods of unfavourable conditions, challenging their daily energy balance. During breeding, king penguins fast voluntarily for up to 1.5 months in the colony, after which they replenish their energy stores at sea. However, at sea, birds might encounter periods of low foraging profitability, forcing them to draw from previously stored energy (e.g. subcutaneous fat). Accessing peripheral fat stores requires perfusion, increasing heat loss and thermoregulatory costs. Hence, how these birds balance the conflicting demands of nutritional needs and thermoregulation is unclear. We investigated the physiological responses of king penguins to fasting in cold water by: (1) monitoring tissue temperatures, as a proxy of tissue perfusion, at four distinct sites (deep and peripheral); and (2) recording their oxygen consumption rate while birds floated inside a water tank. Despite frequent oscillations, temperatures of all tissues often reached near-normothermic levels, indicating that birds maintained perfusion to peripheral tissues throughout their fasting period in water. The oxygen consumption rate of birds increased with fasting duration in water, while it was also higher when the flank tissue was warmer, indicating greater perfusion. Hence, fasting king penguins in water maintained peripheral perfusion, despite the associated greater heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs, probably to access subcutaneous fat stores. Hence, the observed normothermia in peripheral tissues of king penguins at sea, upon completion of a foraging bout, is likely explained by their nutritional needs: depositing free fatty acids (FFA) in subcutaneous tissues after profitable foraging or mobilizing FFA to fuel metabolism when foraging success was insufficient. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Using a Proposed Teaching Strategy Based on the Selective Thinking on Students' Acquisition Concepts in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identify the effect of using a proposed teaching strategy based on the selective thinking in acquire mathematical concepts by Classroom Teacher Students at Al- al- Bayt University, The sample of the study consisted of (74) students, equally distributed into a control group and an experimental group. The selective thinking…

  13. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  14. Reported care giver strategies for improving drinking water for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Farrelly, Ashley

    2010-11-01

    Care givers may engage in a variety of strategies to try and improve drinking water for children. However, the pattern of these efforts is not well known, particularly for young children in high-risk situations. The objective of this study was to determine care giver-reported strategies for young children with (1) undernutrition and (2) living in an unplanned poor peri-urban community in the Dominican Republic. Practices reported by care givers of young children from a community and clinic group were extracted from interviews conducted between 2004 and 2008 (n = 563). These results were compared to two previous similar samples interviewed in 1997 (n = 341). Bottled water is currently the most prevalent reported strategy for improving drinking water for young children. Its use increased from 6% to 69% in the community samples over the last decade and from 13% to 79% in the clinic samples. Boiling water continues to be a common strategy, particularly for the youngest children, though its overall use has decreased over time. Household-level chlorination is infrequently used and has dropped over time. Care givers are increasingly turning to bottled water in an attempt to provide safe drinking water for their children. While this may represent a positive trend for protecting children from water-transmitted diseases, it may represent an inefficient approach to safe drinking water provision that may place a financial burden on low-income families.

  15. The best farm-level irrigation strategy changes seasonally with fluctuating water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Meinke, H.B.; Rodriguez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Around the globe farmers managing irrigated crops face a future with a decreased and more variable water supply. To investigate generic adaptation issues, a range of on-farm strategies were evaluated for apportioning limited water between fields and enterprises using a typical case-study farm from

  16. Combining backcasting and exploratory scenarios to develop robust water strategies in face of uncertain futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Kok, K.

    2015-01-01

    Water management strategies in times of global change need to be developed within a complex and uncertain environment. Scenarios are often used to deal with uncertainty. A novel backcasting methodology has been tested in which a normative objective (e.g. adaptive water management) is backcasted

  17. Policy Entrepreneurs and Change Strategies: Lessons from Sixteen Case Studies of Water Transitions around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Meijerink

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring about change? The policy science literature suggests that policy entrepreneurs have an "arsenal" of possible strategies for achieving change. Based on a comparative analysis of water policy changes in 15 countries around the globe and the European Union, we investigate which strategies have in practice been used by policy entrepreneurs, to what effect, and which lessons for managing water transitions we can draw from this. The comparative case analysis shows that individuals play complementary roles; hence, entrepreneurship in water management is often collective entrepreneurship. Strategies of coalition building, the manipulation of decision making forums, and the strategic framing of issues and windows are crucial to understanding water policy change, which suggests that the management of water policy transitions is a highly political game. We conclude by listing recommendations for those who would like to direct water policy change.

  18. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  20. Contrasting water strategies of two Mediterranean shrubs of limited distribution: uncertain future under a drier climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Forner, Alicia; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Plants have evolved different strategies to cope with drought, involving alternative ecophysiologies and different levels of plasticity. These strategies are critical for species of limited distribution, which are especially vulnerable to the current rates of rapid environmental change. The aim of this study was to assess the water strategy of two species with limited distribution, Cneorum tricoccon L. and Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris Chodat., and evaluate their interpopulation variability along an aridity gradient to estimate their vulnerability to a drier climate. We measured different ecophysiological traits influenced by drought--stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosynthesis II, carbon isotope ratio and chlorophyll concentration--in two climatically contrasting years, before and during summer drought. Both species were vulnerable to drought at the aridity limit of the gradient, but showed contrasting water strategies: while C. tricoccon was consistent in its water conservation strategy across the aridity gradient, R. ludovici-salvatoris was not, displaying higher and more variable stomatal conductances and being able to increase water-use efficiency at the most xeric sites. Changes in length and intensity of drought events may favor one species' strategy to the detriment of the other: C. tricoccon is more vulnerable to chronic and prolonged droughts, whereas short but acute droughts might have a stronger effect on R. ludovici-salvatoris. In those communities where these two species coexist, such different strategies might lead to changes in community structure under climate change scenarios, with unknown cascade effects on ecosystem functioning.

  1. Water resources management strategy for Pakistan in case of nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In Pakistan, no management strategy existed for combating major disasters. A nuclear disaster involves the emission of insidious radiations which can cause different cancers if ingested with water. The water supplies in Pakistan are managed by local water boards or Water and Power Development Authority. A plant called Karachi Emergency Relief Plant (KERP) has been formulated for overcoming natural and nuclear disasters in Karachi. This plan does not consider the radioactive pollution of water supplies separately. It can be made more effective with certain improvements and used as a model for managing nuclear disasters in other cities of Pakistan. (author)

  2. Strategy of water resource protection and indicators: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Pace, G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental integrated assessment of territorial areas allows to describe the actual status of pollution and ecosystem quality. This information can be considered as a starting point for an appropriate planning of territorial management. Integrated approach strategies will provide the possibility to obtain a sustainable balance among human social and economical needs and natural ecosystem conservation actions, extremely important for people wellness. Despite the national and regional value of these considerations, the Tiber river basin has been chosen as a case study, due to the presence of a complete spectrum of conditions and human pressures in its area. This research can be considered as one of the first studies correlating functional and structural degradation of ecosystems with human health in Italy [it

  3. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  4. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves).

  5. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  6. Passive depressurization accident management strategy for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Maolong; Erkan, Nejdet; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Okamoto, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed two passive depressurization systems for BWR severe accident management. • Sensitivity analysis of the passive depressurization systems with different leakage area. • Passive depressurization strategies can prevent direct containment heating. - Abstract: According to the current severe accident management guidance, operators are required to depressurize the reactor coolant system to prevent or mitigate the effects of direct containment heating using the safety/relief valves. During the course of a severe accident, the pressure boundary might fail prematurely, resulting in a rapid depressurization of the reactor cooling system before the startup of SRV operation. In this study, we demonstrated that a passive depressurization system could be used as a severe accident management tool under the severe accident conditions to depressurize the reactor coolant system and to prevent an additional devastating sequence of events and direct containment heating. The sensitivity analysis performed with SAMPSON code also demonstrated that the passive depressurization system with an optimized leakage area and failure condition is more efficient in managing a severe accident

  7. Passive depressurization accident management strategy for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maolong, E-mail: liuml@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwatari, Yuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan); Okamoto, Koji [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We proposed two passive depressurization systems for BWR severe accident management. • Sensitivity analysis of the passive depressurization systems with different leakage area. • Passive depressurization strategies can prevent direct containment heating. - Abstract: According to the current severe accident management guidance, operators are required to depressurize the reactor coolant system to prevent or mitigate the effects of direct containment heating using the safety/relief valves. During the course of a severe accident, the pressure boundary might fail prematurely, resulting in a rapid depressurization of the reactor cooling system before the startup of SRV operation. In this study, we demonstrated that a passive depressurization system could be used as a severe accident management tool under the severe accident conditions to depressurize the reactor coolant system and to prevent an additional devastating sequence of events and direct containment heating. The sensitivity analysis performed with SAMPSON code also demonstrated that the passive depressurization system with an optimized leakage area and failure condition is more efficient in managing a severe accident.

  8. Methodology to explore interactions between the water system and society in order to identify adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermans, A. G. E.; Haasnoot, M.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of the water systems in one or two future situations with the current situation. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Water management faces major challenges to cope with future uncertainties in both the water system as well as the social system. Uncertainties in our water system relate to (changes in) drivers and pressures and their effects on the state, like the effects of climate change on discharges. Uncertainties in the social world relate to changing of perceptions, objectives and demands concerning water (management), which are often related with the aforementioned changes in the physical environment. The methodology presented here comprises the 'Perspectives method', derived from the Cultural Theory, a method on analyzing and classifying social response to social and natural states and pressures. The method will be used for scenario analysis and to identify social responses including changes in perspectives and management strategies. The scenarios and responses will be integrated within a rapid assessment tool. The purpose of the tool is to provide users with insight about the interaction of the social and physical system and to identify robust water management strategies by analysing the effectiveness under different possible futures on the physical, social and socio-economic system. This method allows for a mutual interaction between the physical and social system. We will present the theoretical background of the perspectives method as well as a historical overview of perspective changes in the Dutch Meuse area to show how social and physical systems interrelate. We

  9. Can pictures promote the acquisition of sight-word reading? An evaluation of two potential instructional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amy R; Lerman, Dorothea C; Nissen, Melissa A; Luck, Kally M; Neal, Ashley E; Bao, Shimin; Tsami, Loukia

    2017-01-01

    Sight-word instruction can be a useful supplement to phonics-based methods under some circumstances. Nonetheless, few studies have evaluated the conditions under which pictures may be used successfully to teach sight-word reading. In this study, we extended prior research by examining two potential strategies for reducing the effects of overshadowing when using picture prompts. Five children with developmental disabilities and two typically developing children participated. In the first experiment, the therapist embedded sight words within pictures but gradually faded in the pictures as needed using a least-to-most prompting hierarchy. In the second experiment, the therapist embedded text-to-picture matching within the sight-word reading sessions. Results suggested that these strategies reduced the interference typically observed with picture prompts and enhanced performance during teaching sessions for the majority of participants. Text-to-picture matching also accelerated mastery of the sight words relative to a condition under which the therapist presented text without pictures. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Water deprivation induces appetite and alters metabolic strategy in Notomys alexis: unique mechanisms for water production in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; Bartolo, Ray C; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Donald, John A

    2012-07-07

    Like many desert animals, the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, can maintain water balance without drinking water. The role of the kidney in producing a small volume of highly concentrated urine has been well-documented, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms underpinning the metabolic production of water to offset obligatory water loss. In Notomys, we found that water deprivation (WD) induced a sustained high food intake that exceeded the pre-deprivation level, which was driven by parallel changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin and the expression of orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptide genes in the hypothalamus; these changed in a direction that would stimulate appetite. As the period of WD was prolonged, body fat disappeared but body mass increased gradually, which was attributed to hepatic glycogen storage. Switching metabolic strategy from lipids to carbohydrates would enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule, thus providing a mechanism to minimize respiratory water loss. The changes observed in appetite control and metabolic strategy in Notomys were absent or less prominent in laboratory mice. This study reveals novel mechanisms for appetite regulation and energy metabolism that could be essential for desert rodents to survive in xeric environments.

  11. Evaluatiopn of Strategies for Modifying Urban Storm Water Drainage System Using Risk-based Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate modification of existing urban storm water drainage networks may help reduce network inundation and flood-borne pollution risks. It will, therefore, be necessary to analyze the risks associated with water quantity and quality during urban flooding before any reconstruction strategies can be identified that are adaptable to, or compatible with, urban sustainable development strategies. In this paper, three network modification strategies are evaluated against the three criteria of network inundation at different sections, flood pollution risks, and modification plan costs. The modification strategies evaluated include the conventional approach of increasing conduit dimensions as well as the two novels swale and bio-retention systems. The strategies are then prioritised using a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case study of urban storm water drainage systems in the Golestan City in Tehran Province for which a hydrological and hydraulic simulation model has been developed using the SWMM software. The results show that the swale system is the best strategy with an approximate cost of 20 billion Rials (almost US$ 6 million. Compared to the existing system in operation, the proposed system will be capable of reducing 59% of the quantitative risk of flooding (inundation and 26% of the water quality risk (pollution loads.

  12. Blue Planet dialysis: novel water-sparing strategies for reducing dialysate flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano-Triviño, Alejandra; Wancjer, Benjamin; Neri, Mauro M; Karopadi, Akash N; Rosner, Mitchell; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-08

    Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow. We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux. We performed a search in Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, OVID and Biblioteca Redentor, using key words: Dialysate flow rate, Dialysate flux, and decrease; excluding: online, peritoneal, continuous, blood access, needle, hemodiafiltration, acute, pharmacokinetics, increase. We limited our search to adult humans or in vitro trials in English, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, between January 1980 and June 2017. We found 816 trials. 37 articles were retrieved for review, and 11 articles were analyzed. Conservation of water in chronic HD should be considered an important responsibility of healthcare practitioners all over the world. We present a wider usage of dialysate flow rates, considering that it would lead to significant water conservation without much compromise on dialysis efficacy in small patients. We believe that further investigation into the utility of reduced dialysate flux in different populations is needed to broaden our understanding of how we can use these techniques in order to significantly reduce water consumption during chronic HD while still ensuring optimum efficacy and efficiency of the therapy.

  13. Software to study the control strategy of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Ricardo de

    2002-01-01

    The computational program, result of this work, is a tool developed for the study of the control of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) constituted by only one coolant loop. The implementation of a user friendly interface for input/output data, makes the program also suitable for training and teaching applications. As design premise, it was considered enough just the modeling of the primary circuit, using as interface with the secondary circuit, a simplified differential equation of the temperature associated with the secondary power. All the incorporated dynamic equations to the model were developed using basic laws of conservation, boundary conditions and hypotheses appropriated to the control study. To arrive to the final model, core thermal and hydraulic characteristics and design data were obtained from of the available bibliography and adapted for a conceptual peculiar design of a small PWR. The whole program and all input/output interfaces were developed using the software Matlab, version 5.L Sub-routines of numeric integration based on the Runge-Kutta 4 method were applied, to solve the set of ordinary differential equations. (author)

  14. Coastdown in light water reactors as a fuel management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.G.

    1980-12-01

    Improved uranium utilization by means of extended burnup via routine end-of-cycle coastdown has been analyzed, with a specific focus on pressurided water reactors. Both computer and simple analytic models have been developed to determine the optimal coastdown length. Coastdown has been compared with the use of higher fuel-enrichment to achieve comparable burnup values. Temperature and Power coastdown modes were analyzed and changes in the plant thermodynamic efficiency determined. Effects on fuel integrity due to coastdown were examined using a fuel reliability code (SPEAR). Finally the effects on coastdown duration of major parameters involved in charaterizing reactor operation and the economic enviroment were examined. It was found that natural uranium savings up to 7% could be achieved in a typical application by the use of routine pre-planned coast down up to the economic optimun. If coastdown is carried out all the way up to the economic breakeven point yellowcake savings sum up to 16%. Coastdown is substantially more effective than increasing enrichment to extend cycle length without coastdown. Thermodynamic efficiency does not change appreciably during coastdown, a circumstance which greatly simplifies modeling. Coastdown was found to have no statistically significant effect on predicted fuel failure rates. Finally, simple back-of-the evenlope analytic models were found to give an excellent estimate of coastdown duration to both the optimum and breakeven points, and to correctly track the functional behavior induced by all major variables

  15. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  16. Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill.

  17. A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student's performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifsanaiey, Nahid; Amini, Mitra; Saadat, Farideh

    2016-11-16

    There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies) and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20) and experimental (n = 20) groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies), the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST) and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case B.to be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations), the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P critical thinking did not increase before and after the

  18. Selective lesion of septal cholinergic neurons in rats impairs acquisition of a delayed matching to position T-maze task by delaying the shift from a response to a place strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Nicholas F; Gibbs, Robert B; Johnson, David A

    2008-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that septal cholinergic lesions impair acquisition of a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task in male rats by affecting learning strategy. Rats received either the selective cholinergic immunotoxin, 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid directly into the medial septum. Two weeks later, animals were trained to acquire the DMP task. SAP-treated rats took significantly longer to acquire the task than corresponding controls. Both SAP-treated and control rats adopted a persistent turn and utilized a response strategy during early periods of training. By the time rats reached criterion the persistent turn was no longer evident, and all rats had shifted to an allocentric strategy, i.e., were relying on extramaze cues to a significant degree. During the acquisition period, SAP-treated rats spent significantly more days showing a persistent turn and using a response strategy than corresponding controls. The added time spent using a response strategy accounted entirely for the added days required to reach criterion among the SAP-treated rats. This suggests that the principal mechanism by which septal cholinergic lesions impair DMP acquisition in male rats is by increasing the predisposition to use a response vs. a place strategy, thereby affecting the ability to switch from one strategy to another.

  19. Toward sustainable water use in North China Plain - Scenario analysis of water conservation strategies in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Qin, H.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    North China Plain (NCP), situated in the continental semi-arid climate region, is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, and contributes to over 1/10 of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in China. NCP is traditionally a water scarce area where precipitation equals to or less than ET. In recent years, due to rapid population and economic growth, and subsequently significantly larger water demand, the water crisis in this region has deepened. The surface water resources has run dry except for a few canals and reservoirs, and thus the water consumption of NCP is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. It is estimated that the groundwater table has declined at the rate of about 1 m/year in the past decades; therefore, sustainable water use in the NCP is of critical importance. In the present study, we explore the scale of the water scarcity problem in NCP as well as the possible water saving strategies to alleviate the crisis from a modeling approach. Water demand is extremely difficult to estimate due to the lack of actual data. To solve this problem, we use a System Dynamic model, where the resulted data are then used as groundwater pumping in a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. Five scenarios are developed to analyze different water management perspectives: 1) Business as usual, 2) Agricultural water saving, 3) Domestic and industrial water saving, 4) Managed aquifer recharge using water leftover from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and 5) a combination of the above mentioned measures. The hydrological model will predict the overall water balance and water at different hydrological components for the period 2020-2050. Under each scenario, our study also accounts for dry, medium, and wet climate conditions. The results indicate if the current tendency continues, groundwater table will keep declining at the rate of about 1 m/year. Each single conservation measure will not be able to solve the water crisis on

  20. Strategies for ensuring global consistency/comparability of water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years the water quality of the United States has improved remarkably-the waters are safer for drinking, swimming, and fishing. However, despite many accomplishments, it is still difficult to answer such basic questions as: 'How clean is the water?' and 'How is it changing over time?' These same questions exist on a global scale as well. In order to focus water-data issues in the United States, a national Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) was initiated for public and private organizations, whereby key elements involved in data collection, analysis, storage, and management could be made consistent and comparable. The ITFM recommended and its members are implementing a nationwide strategy to improve water-quality monitoring, assessment, and reporting activities. The intent of this paper is to suggest that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. Consistent, long-term data sets that are comparable are necessary in order to formulate ideas regarding regional and global trends in water quantity and quality. The author recommends that a voluntary effort similar to the ITFM effort be utilized. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations (e.g. World Health Organization) involved in drinking-water assessments and/or ambient water-quality monitoring. Voluntary partnerships such as this will improve curability to reduce health risks and achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resource management, and result in a collaborative process that will save millions of dollars.In this work it is suggested that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations involved in

  1. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  2. Developing America's Shale Reserves - Water Strategies For A Sustainable Future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, L. E.; Oshikanlu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The development of shale oil and gas reserves over the last several years has had a significant impact on securing America's energy future while making substantial contributions to our nation's economic prosperity. These developments have also raised serious concerns about potential detrimental impacts to our environment (i.e., land, air and water) with much media attention focused on the impacts to our nation's fresh water supply. These concerns are being discussed across the nation often with little or no distinction that the nature of the water issues vary depending on local circumstances (e.g., depth of aquifer and reservoir zone, water demand and availability, availability of discharge wells, regulatory framework, etc.) and regional shale reservoir development strategies (depth of wells, length of laterals, fluid-type used for fracturing, etc.). Growing concerns over long standing drought conditions in some areas and competing demands for water from other sectors (e.g., agriculture, domestic, etc.) add even greater uncertainty relative to fresh water. Water demands for gas and oil wells vary from region to region but nominally range from 10 to 15 acre feet of water (4 to 6 million gallons) for drilling and hydraulic fracturing applications. Flowback water from the hydraulic fracturing process varies and can range from 5 to 40 % of the water used for drilling and 'fracing'. Produced water can be substantial, leading to significant volumes of 'disposed water' where injection wells are available. A science-based systems approach to water lifecycle management that incorporates leading-edge technology development and considers economic and social impacts is critical for the long-term sustainable development of shale reserves. Various water recycling and reuse technologies are being deployed within select regions across the nation with each having limited success depending on region. The efficacy of reuse technology will vary based on produced water quantity and

  3. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yong Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  4. A water management strategy for balancing water uses in the Rideau Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.; Rae, P.; McGonegal, K.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative water management policies for the Rideau Canal system in eastern Ontario were examined. The methodology of analysis and the impact of policy changes on hydro power production were also focussed on. A historical account of the construction and background of the canal system was providid. Water uses such as navigation, hydroelectric power generation, natural environment, flood abatement, recreation, and water supply were described. Current water management practice was outlined. Various single purpose water management policies were investigated. The impact of the most significant policies on hydroelectric power production were discussed. Integrated policy alternatives were presented and their general effects were described. No long term policy was finalized at the time of writing, but a number of short term operating practices were considered, among them to adjust spring flows for walleye, store flows in the Big Rideau for ice flushings, balance drawdown among reservoirs and raise navigation levels in certain lakes

  5. A distributed command governor strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Francesco; Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Casavola, Alessandro; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of a distributed command governor (DCG) strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks (DWN). This approach is very suitable to this kind of management problems given the large-scale and complex nature of DWNs, the relevant effect of persistent disturbances (water demands) over the network evolutions and their marginal stability feature. The performance improvement offered by DCG is compared with the consideration of two non-centralized mod...

  6. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  7. Increasing water availability during afterschool snack: evidence, strategies, and partnerships from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Catherine M; Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Lee, Rebekka M; Thayer, Julie C; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Cradock, Angie L

    2012-09-01

    Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack

  8. 48 CFR 7.107 - Additional requirements for acquisitions involving bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; and (2) The acquisition strategy provides for maximum practicable participation by small business... the Government. However, because of the potential impact on small business participation, the head of... acquisition strategy involves substantial bundling, the acquisition strategy must additionally— (1) Identify...

  9. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.

  10. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar (“Elberta” under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on

  11. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Mirás-Avalos, José M; Valsesia, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel; Davarynejad, Gholam H; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree) was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar ("Elberta") under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on its sink strength

  12. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Boyd Kramer; Stephen Polasky; Anthony Starfield; Brian Palik; Lynn Westphal; Stephanie Snyder; Pamela Jakes; Rachel Hudson; Eric Gustafson

    2006-01-01

    Roughly 45% of the assessed lakes in the United States are impaired for one or more reasons. Eutrophication due to excess phosphorus loading is common in many impaired lakes. Various strategies are available to lake residents for addressing declining lake water quality, including septic system upgrades and establishing riparian buffers. This study examines 25 lakes to...

  13. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... change challenges to its mission of protecting human health and the environment. Climate change alters... even temporal nature of effects, climate change will pose challenges to various aspects of water...

  14. Strategies for plutonium recycle in a system of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, D.E.W.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is developed to allow a utility fuel manager to determine economic strategies for recycling plutonium in a system of light water reactors. One possible plutonium recycle strategy would be self-generated recycle, in which plutonium discharged from a reactor is recycled back to that same reactor as soon as possible. Another possible strategy is to recycle all the plutonium discharged from several reactors into one reactor. Such a strategy might be advantageous if the reactor receiving the plutonium were of a type that utilized plutonium more effectively than other reactors in the system. There are several considerations which affect the economics of recycling a batch of plutonium to one reactor or cycle vs. another, or which would favor a special recycling strategy. Among these are cycle energy, length of time that plutonium is stored prior to recycle, and isotopes of the plutonium. The methodology developed is used to quantitatively illustrate the effect on recycle strategy of these parameters. The problem of choosing the plutonium recycle strategy which results in the minimum fuel cost is formulated as a mathematical programming problem. The objective function for this problem is the total discounted fuel cost for the reactor system over a specified planning period. The savings of an optimal recycle strategy over self-generated recycle would be typically one million dollars per year for a utility with several large PWRs

  15. Europeanisation and the Rescaling of Water Services: Agency and State Spatial Strategies in the Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Thiel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Institutional arrangements to provide water services have been reshaped extensively worldwide. This paper provides a theory-informed account of the way in which water service provision has been physically and institutionally restructured in the Algarve, Portugal over the years. Ever-expanding demands for water services by the tourism sector, along with European Union (EU regulations and money, made the local people dependent on national policy for water service provision. Parts of the Portuguese national elite, favouring the construction of water resources as 'strategic’ and 'social' goods, rather than 'economic' and 'scarce' goods, worked towards establishing national level control over water services. They became part of the state’s decentralised hegemonic spatial strategy for expansion of tourism in the Algarve. The district level was constituted as a decentralised level of national resource governance. The case study shows the role of European policies in restructuring the spatio-temporal order in the Algarve and strengthening the influence of the national state within the region. The reconfiguration of the water sector in Portugal illustrates 'spatial Keynesianism' with half-hearted mercantilisación of water services as an outcome of the juxtaposition of a nationally rooted state-led water service provision with more flexible approaches originating at the European level. A consequential outcome has been that water quality, sewage treatment, and reliability of services, have significantly improved in line with European requirements.

  16. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  17. Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China.

  18. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  19. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  20. Improving Water Resources Management on Global and Region Scales - Evaluating Strategies for Water Futures with the IIASA's Community Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, P.; Kahil, T.; Satoh, Y.; Greve, P.; Byers, E.; Langan, S.; Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Half of the planet's population is severely impacted by severe water issues including absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation, poor water quality, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments. In recent years, global water security has been highlighted not only by the science community but also by business leaders as one of the greatest threats to sustainable human development for different generations. How can we ensure the well-being of people and ecosystems with limited water, technology and financial resources? To evaluate this, IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS) is identifying a portfolios of robust and cost-effective options across different economic sectors including agriculture, energy, manufacturing, households, and environment and ecosystems. Options to increase water supply and accessibility are evaluated together with water demand management and water governance options. To test these solution-portfolios in order to obtain a clear picture of the opportunities but also of the risks and the trade-offs we have developed the Community Water Model (CWATM) which joins IIASA's integrated assessment modeling framework, coupling hydrology with hydro-economics (ECHO model), energy (MESSAGE model) and land use (GLOBIOM model). CWATM has been developed to work flexibly with varying spatial resolutions from global to regional levels. The model is open source and community-driven to promote our work amongst the wider water and other science community worldwide, with flexibility to link to other models and integrate newly developed modules such as water quality. In order to identify the solution portfolios, we present a global hotspots assessment of water-related risks with the ability to zoom in at regional scale using the example of the Lake Victoria basin in E. Africa. We show how socio-economic and climate change will alter spatial patterns of the hydrological cycle and have regional impacts on water availability. At

  1. Influence of the management strategy model on estimating water system performance under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Hendrickx, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The performance of water systems used worldwide for the management of water resources is expected to be influenced by future changes in regional climates and water uses. Anticipating possible performance changes of a given system requires a modeling chain simulating its management. Operational management is usually not trivial especially when several conflicting objectives have to be accounted for. Management models are therefore often a crude representation of the real system and they only approximate its performance. Estimated performance changes are expected to depend on the management model used, but this is often not assessed. This communication analyzes the influence of the management strategy representation on the performance of an Alpine reservoir (Serre-Ponçon, South-East of France) for which irrigation supply, hydropower generation and recreational activities are the main objectives. We consider three ways to construct the strategy named as clear-, short- and far-sighted management. They are based on different forecastability degrees of seasonal inflows into the reservoir. The strategies are optimized using a Dynamic Programming algorithm (deterministic for clear-sighted and implicit stochastic for short- and far-sighted). System performance is estimated for an ensemble of future hydro-meteorological projections obtained in the RIWER2030 research project (http://www.lthe.fr/RIWER2030/) from a suite of climate experiments from the EU - ENSEMBLES research project. Our results show that changes in system performance is much more influenced by changes in hydro-meteorological variables than by the choice of strategy modeling. They also show that a simple strategy representation (i.e. clear-sighted management) leads to similar estimates of performance modifications than those obtained with a representation supposedly closer to real world (i.e. the far-sighted management). The Short-Sighted management approach lead to significantly different results, especially

  2. Strategies for low-cost water defluoridation of drinking water - a review of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.; Nasreen, S.; Mahmood, Q.; Khan, Z.M.; Sarwar, R.; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of 21 century is to ensure safe drinking water-supplies and environmental sanitation which are vital for protecting the environment, improving health and alleviating poverty. Natural contamination of groundwater sources by fluoride, arsenic and dissolved salts is the main health menace at present in many parts of Pakistan and other countries. Most of the fluoride in drinking water, either occurring naturally or added will be in the form of the free fluoride ion. It is a big challenge to investigate appropriate, low cost methods and technologies to be applied in developing countries to make fluoride contaminated water drinkable. In this paper low cost fluoride removal methods have been discussed and compared for application in developing countries. (author)

  3. Optimization strategies for improving irrigation water management of lower jhelum canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes computing crop water requirement, identification of problems and optimization strategies for improved irrigation water management of a canal command. Lower Jhelum Canal (LJC) System was selected as a case study. Possible strategies for optimization are enhancing irrigation water productivity by high value and high yield crops, adoption of resource conservation interventions (RCIs) at the farm level, improving irrigation system efficiency and its management. Estimation of daily reference evapotranspiration of LJC command was carried out by Penman Montieth -2000 method and metrological data of Sargodha for the period 1999 to 2010 was used. Crop water requirements were computed from reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and periods of crops for existing cropping pattern. The comparison of the crop water requirements and available water supplies indicated shortage of more than 51% in Kharif and 54% in Rabi seasons. The gap between requirements and supplies is fulfilled by groundwater in the command. The structural measures identified in the present study for improving canal management include rationalization of canal capacities in keeping with the current water requirements and availability, rehabilitation and remodeling of canal network and lining of distributaries and minors in saline groundwater areas. An array of measures and practices identified for improved water management at the farm level include: improvement and lining of watercourses, proper farm design and layout, adoption of resource conservation technologies involving laser land leveling, zero tillage, and bed-furrow irrigation method. Adopting proper cropping systems considering land suitability and capacity building of farming community in improved soil, crop and water management technologies would enhance the water productivity in an effective and sustainable manner. (author)

  4. The Strategy of Water Resources Conservation in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puatin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water resource conservation is a required activity to do in in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District because this area is potentially dried and has often experienced the lack of clean water even though the water resource conservation is vegetatively conducted. The resecarh is conducted from June to August 2014. The purpose of this research is to analyze the strategy of water resource conservation in Regunung Village by analyze the social-economy condition and physical condition. The method used to gain data is obeservation and direct measuring including vegetation analysis, the data analysis of the citra condition of the changing of the land; the crossed tabulation analysis and Marcov Chain for the projection of the cahinging of the land use; the technique of interview using questioners to know the participation of community; the secondary data analysis, FGD to determine the strategy of water resource conservation with SWOT analysis. The population of this research is the people of Regunung Village. Respondent is purposively determined by the number of respondent based on Slovin formula, while the FGD informant is purposively determined. The result of the research shows that the condition of Regunung Village is located at discharged area CAT Salatiga with the various level of elevation and the type of soil is latosol. The changing of the use of land happening since 1991 - 2014. The vegetation condition shows that the planting method used in Regunung Village is Agroforestry. The index of diversity for three in Regunung Village is at the low level (0,8. The result of the social-economy condition research shows that the majority people's income is less than Rp. 1.000.000,00 and the level of participation is on placation level. The Water Resource Conservation Strategy suggested is the diversification strategy.

  5. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Polasky, Stephen; Starfield, Anthony; Palik, Brian; Westphal, Lynne; Snyder, Stephanie; Jakes, Pamela; Hudson, Rachel; Gustafson, Eric

    2006-09-01

    Roughly 45% of the assessed lakes in the United States are impaired for one or more reasons. Eutrophication due to excess phosphorus loading is common in many impaired lakes. Various strategies are available to lake residents for addressing declining lake water quality, including septic system upgrades and establishing riparian buffers. This study examines 25 lakes to determine whether septic upgrades or riparian buffers are a more cost-effective strategy to meet a phosphorus reduction target. We find that riparian buffers are the more cost-effective strategy in every case but one. Large transaction costs associated with the negotiation and monitoring of riparian buffers, however, may be prohibiting lake residents from implementing the most cost-effective strategy.

  6. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  7. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  8. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  9. Effect of irrigation techniques and strategies on water footprint of growing crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of growing crops, the largest water user and a significant contributor to the WF of many consumer products, plays a significant role in integrated and sustainable water management. The water footprint for growing crop is accounted by relating the crop yield with the corresponding consumptive water use (CWU), which both can be adjusted by measures that affect the crop growth and root-zone soil water balance. This study explored the scope for reducing the water footprint of irrigated crops by experimenting set of field level technical and managerial measures: (i) irrigation technologies (Furrow, sprinkler, drip and sub-surface drip), (ii) irrigation strategies (full and a range of sustained and controlled deficit) and (iii) field management options (zero, organic and synthetic mulching). Ranges of cases were also considered: (a) Arid and semi-arid environment (b) Loam and Sandy-loam soil types and (c) for Potato, Wheat and Maize crops; under (c) wet, normal and dry years. AquaCrop, the water driven crop growth and soil water balance model, offered the opportunity to systematically experiment these measures on water consumption and yield. Further, the green and blue water footprints of growing crop corresponding to each measure were computed by separating the root zone fluxes of the AquaCrop output into the green and blue soil water stocks and their corresponding fluxes. Results showed that in arid environment reduction in irrigation supply, CWU and WF up to 300 mm, 80 mm and 75 m3/tonne respectively can be achieved for Maize by a combination of organic mulching and drip technology with controlled deficit irrigation strategies (10-20-30-40% deficit with reference to the full irrigation requirement). These reductions come with a yield drop of 0.54 tonne/ha. In the same environment under the absence of mulching practice, the sub-surface drip perform better in reducing CWU and WF of irrigated crops followed by drip and furrow irrigation

  10. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition systems are discussed for molecular biology experiments using synchrotron radiation sources. The data acquisition system requirements are considered. The components of the solution are described including hardwired solutions and computer-based solutions. Finally, the considerations for the choice of the computer-based solution are outlined. (U.K.)

  11. Development of a resource protection and waste strategy for water use by the agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthelm, M E; Ranwedzi, R; Morokane, M; Senne, M

    2007-01-01

    The South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has started developing a strategy to regulate activities and water uses by the agricultural sector that could impact on the water resource quality. The aim would not be to over-regulate the sector, but to protect the water resource where necessary. Most of these activities constitute diffuse sources of potential pollution. The strategic process will start with investigative discussions with major stakeholders and determining the strategic context and current situation. The latter will consist of a detailed literature and stakeholder survey, and an evaluation of existing agricultural activities. The next steps of determining a vision and the setting of strategic objectives will be done with active participation by the major players. An action plan will be developed to achieve the set objectives. Important components of the strategy will be to: classify activities according to their risk to the water resource, taking into account the sensitivity of the water resource; set regulatory measures in accordance with the risk posed by the activity (measures could include the promulgation of regulations, general authorisations and/or issuing of licenses); harmonise and link the process with existing relevant processes and guidelines within DWAF and other government departments; review existing guidelines; sign agreements with relevant government departments and the agricultural sector; and provide training, built capacity and raise awareness during and after the process.

  12. Acquisition of electrical signals using commercial electronic components for detection system of Lead ion in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiyanto; Yasin, M.; Rusydi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Development of lead ion detection systems is expected to have an advantage in terms of simplicity of the device and easy for concentration analysis of a lead ion with very high performance. One important part of lead ion detection systems are electrical signal acquisition parts. The electrical signal acquisition part uses the main electronic components: non inverting op-amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, multiplier circuit and logarithmic amplifier. Here will be shown the performance of lead ion detection systems when the existing electrical signal processors use commercial electronic components. The results that can be drawn from this experimental were the lead ion sensor that has been developed can be used to detect lead ions with a sensitivity of 10.48 mV/ppm with the linearity 97.11% and had a measurement range of 0.1 ppm to 80 ppm.

  13. From Risks to Shared Value? Corporate Strategies in Building a Global Water Accounting and Disclosure Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on water accounting and accountability among transnational actors such as corporations and NGOs is likely to contribute to the emergence of a global water governance regime. Corporations within the food and beverage sector (F-B are especially vulnerable to water risks; therefore, in this article we analyse motivations and strategies of the major F-B corporations participating in the debate and developing different water accounting, disclosure and risk-assessment tools. Neo-institutionalism and neo-Gramscian regime theory provide the basis for our framework to analyse the discursive, material and organisational corporate water strategies. Findings based on an analysis of the chosen F-B corporations’ sustainability reports and interviews with key informants suggest that the corporations share similar goals and values with regard to the emerging regime. They seek a standardisation that is practical and supportive in improving their water efficiency and communication with stakeholders. This indicates that some harmonisation has taken place over time and new actors have been pursuing the path of the pioneering companies, but the lead corporations are also differentiating their strategies, thus engaging in hegemonic positioning. However, so far the plethora of NGO-driven accountability initiatives and tools has fragmented the field more than 'war of position' amongst the corporations. Furthermore, several companies claim to have proceeded from internal water-risk management to reducing risks throughout their value chains and watersheds. As a result they are 'creating shared value' with stakeholders, and potentially manifesting an emergent paradigm that goes beyond a private regime framework. Nevertheless, in the absence of verification schemes, questions of sustainability and legitimacy of such actions on the ground prevail and remain a topic for further research.

  14. Modeling Human Information Acquisition Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, Annerieke; Klein, Michel C. A.; van Lambalgen, Rianne; Taatgen, Niels A.; Rijn, Hedderik van

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development of a computational model for intelligent agents that decides on whether to acquire required information by retrieving it from memory or by interacting with the world. First, we present a task for which such decisions have to be made. Next, we discuss an

  15. Discrete event simulation for exploring strategies: an urban water management case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Bin; Scholz, Roland W; Gujer, Willi; Chitwood, Derek E; Loukopoulos, Peter; Schertenleib, Roland; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake.

  16. Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water emission trading (WET is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit or D strategy (not bidding. External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1 to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2 an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D to (H,H by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3 the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4 if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.

  17. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  18. Comparison of Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation of Water Supply and Flood Control Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. L.; Yang, P.; Bhushan, R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, streamflows are expected to become more fluctuating, with more frequent and intense floods and droughts. This complicates reservoir operation, which is highly sensitive to inflow variability. We make a comparative evaluation of three strategies for adapting reservoirs to climate-induced shifts in streamflow patterns. Specifically, we examine the effectiveness of (i) expanding the capacities of reservoirs by way of new off-stream reservoirs, (ii) introducing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies, and (iii) improving real-time streamflow forecasts for more optimal decision-making. The first two are hard strategies involving major infrastructure modifications, while the third a soft strategy entailing adjusting the system operation. A comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the three strategies is as yet lacking in the literature despite the many past studies investigating the strategies individually. To this end, we developed an adaptive forward-looking linear program that solves to yield the optimal decisions for the current time as a function of an ensemble forecast of future streamflows. Solving the model repeatedly on a rolling basis with regular updating of the streamflow forecast simulates the system behavior over the entire operating horizon. Results are generated for two hypothetical water supply and flood control reservoirs of differing inflows and demands. Preliminary findings suggest that of the three strategies, improving streamflow forecasts to be most effective in mitigating the effects of climate change. We also found that, in average terms, both additional reservoir capacity and wastewater reclamation have potential to reduce water shortage and downstream flooding. However, in the worst case, the potential of the former to reduce water shortage is limited, and similarly so the potential of the latter to reduce downstream flooding.

  19. Acquisition and tracking for underwater optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew J.; Laycock, Leslie L.; Griffith, Michael S.; McCarthy, Andrew G.; Rowe, Duncan P.

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing requirement to transfer large volumes of data between underwater platforms. As seawater is transmissive in the visible band, underwater optical communications is an active area of interest since it offers the potential for power efficient, covert and high bandwidth datalinks at short to medium ranges. Short range systems have been successfully demonstrated using sources with low directionality. To realise higher data rates and/or longer ranges, the use of more efficient directional beams is required; by necessity, these must be sufficiently aligned to achieve the required link margin. For mobile platforms, the acquisition and tracking of each node is therefore critical in order to establish and maintain an optical datalink. This paper describes work undertaken to demonstrate acquisition and tracking in a 3D underwater environment. A range of optical sources, beam steering technologies, and tracking sensors have been assessed for suitability. A novel scanning strategy exploiting variable beam divergence was developed to provide robust acquisition whilst minimising acquisition time. A prototype system was assembled and demonstrated in a large water tank. This utilised custom quadrant detectors based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) arrays for fine tracking, and a Wide Field of View (WFoV) sCMOS camera for link acquisition. Fluidic lenses provided dynamic control of beam divergence, and AC modulation/filtering enabled background rejection. The system successfully demonstrated robust optical acquisition and tracking between two nodes with only nanowatt received optical powers. The acquisition time was shown to be dependent on the initial conditions and the transmitted optical power.

  20. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  1. A Fast GPU-accelerated Mixed-precision Strategy for Fully NonlinearWater Wave Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Morten G.

    2011-01-01

    We present performance results of a mixed-precision strategy developed to improve a recently developed massively parallel GPU-accelerated tool for fast and scalable simulation of unsteady fully nonlinear free surface water waves over uneven depths (Engsig-Karup et.al. 2011). The underlying wave......-preconditioned defect correction method. The improved strategy improves the performance by exploiting architectural features of modern GPUs for mixed precision computations and is tested in a recently developed generic library for fast prototyping of PDE solvers. The new wave tool is applicable to solve and analyze...

  2. Season-ahead streamflow forecast informed tax strategies for semi-arid water rights markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many semi-arid regions multisectoral demands stress available water supplies. The Elqui River valley of north central Chile, which draws on limited capacity reservoirs supplied largely by annually variable snowmelt, is one of these cases. This variability forces water managers to develop demand-based allocation strategies which have typically resulted in water right volume reductions, applied equally per right. Compounding this issue is often deferred or delayed infrastructure investments, which has been linked Chile's Coasian approach to water markets, under which rights holders do not pay direct procurement costs, non-use fees, nor taxes. Here we build upon our previous research using forecasts of likely water rights reductions, informed by season-ahead prediction models of October-January (austral growing season) streamflow, to construct annual, forecast-sensitive, per right tax. We believe this tax, to be borne by right holders, will improve the beneficial use of water resources by stimulating water rights trading and improving system efficiency by generating funds for infrastructure investment, thereby reducing free-ridership and conflict between rights holders. Research outputs will include sectoral per right tax assessments, tax revenue generation, Elqui River valley economic output, and water rights trading activity.

  3. Development of Optimal Water-Resources Management Strategies for Kaidu-Kongque Watershed under Multiple Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an interval-stochastic fractile optimization (ISFO model is advanced for developing optimal water-resources management strategies under multiple uncertainties. The ISFO model can not only handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability distributions and intervals with possibility distribution boundary, but also quantify subjective information (i.e., expected system benefit preference and risk-averse attitude from different decision makers. The ISFO model is then applied to a real case of water-resources systems planning in Kaidu-kongque watershed, China, and a number of scenarios with different ecological water-allocation policies under varied p-necessity fractiles are analyzed. Results indicate that different policies for ecological water allocation can lead to varied water supplies, economic penalties, and system benefits. The solutions obtained can help decision makers identify optimized water-allocation alternatives, alleviate the water supply-demand conflict, and achieve socioeconomic and ecological sustainability, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple competing users.

  4. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  5. Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Brouwer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more important. This article analyzes policy making at the micro level, focusing on the behavior of policy entrepreneurs, which we understand here as risk-taking bureaucrats who seek to change policy and are involved throughout the policy-change process. Policy entrepreneurs have received a certain level of attention in the adaptive co-management literature and the policy sciences in past decades. Yet, the understanding of the actions they can take to facilitate policy change remains limited. This study addresses this gap in focusing on the strategies that policy entrepreneurs employ in their efforts to effect policy change. The article draws on both theoretical exploration and in-depth field research on water management in the Netherlands, which included a series of semi-structured interviews and a focus group with policy entrepreneurs. We conclude that policy entrepreneurs employ four types of strategies: (1 attention and support-seeking strategies, to demonstrate the significance of a problem and to convince a wide range of participants about their preferred policy; (2 linking strategies, to link with other parties, projects, ideas, and policy games; (3 relational management strategies, to manage the relational factor in policy-change trajectories; and finally, (4 arena strategies, to influence the time and place wherein decisions are made. Our study suggests that by employing these strategies when the "time is right," the development of policy streams and consequently their coupling can, to some extent, be influenced and steered. In other words, policy entrepreneurs can, to a degree, prepare for a window of opportunity and hence direct policy change.

  6. Tracking and forecasting the Nation’s water quality - Priorities and strategies for 2013-2023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Water-quality issues facing the Nation are growing in number and complexity, and solutions are becoming more challenging and costly. Key factors that affect the quality of our drinking water supplies and ecosystem health include contaminants of human and natural origin in streams and groundwater; excess nutrients and sediment; alteration of natural streamflow; eutrophication of lakes, reservoirs, and coastal estuaries; and changes in surface and groundwater quality associated with changes in climate, land and water use, and management practices. Tracking and forecasting the Nation's water quality in the face of these and other pressing water-quality issues are important goals for 2013-2023, the third decade of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. In consultation with stakeholders and the National Research Council, a new strategic Science Plan has been developed that describes a strategy for building upon and enhancing assessment of the Nation's freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystems. The plan continues strategies that have been central to the NAWQA program's long-term success, but it also makes adjustments to the monitoring and modeling approaches NAWQA will use to address critical data and science information needs identified by stakeholders. This fact sheet describes surface-water and groundwater monitoring and modeling activities that will start in fiscal year 2013. It also provides examples of the types of data and information products planned for the next decade, including (1) restored monitoring for reliable and timely status and trend assessments, (2) maps and models that show the distribution of selected contaminants (such as atrazine, nitrate, and arsenic) in streams and aquifers, and (3) Web-based modeling tools that allow managers to evaluate how water quality may change in response to different scenarios of population growth, climate change, or land-use management.

  7. Modeling seasonal water balance based on catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Zhao, J.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper develops a seasonal water balance model based on the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality. According to the monthly aridity index, one year is split into wet season and dry season. A seasonal water balance model is developed by analogy to a two-stage reservoir operation model, in which seasonal rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration and saturation-excess runoff is corresponding to the inflow, release and surplus of the catchment system. Then the optimal hedging between wet season and dry season evapotranspiration is analytically derived with marginal benefit principle. Water budget data sets of 320 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1980 to 2010 are used to evaluate the performance of this model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient for evapotranspiration is higher than 0.5 in 84% of the study catchments; while the runoff is 87%. This paper validates catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality and shows its potential application for seasonal water balance, which is valuable for water resources planning and management.

  8. Management strategies for trace organic chemicals in water - A review of international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Stefan; Snyder, Shane A; Dagnino, Sonia; Rauch-Williams, Tanja; Drewes, Jörg E

    2018-03-01

    To ensure an appropriate management of potential health risks and uncertainties from the release of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) into the aqueous environment, many countries have evaluated and implemented strategies to manage TOrCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing management strategies for TOrCs in different countries to derive and compare underlying core principles and paradigms and to develop suggestions for more holistic management strategies to protect the environment and drinking water supplies from the discharge of undesired TOrCs. The strategies in different industrial countries were summarized and subsequently compared with regards to three particular questions: 1) Do the approaches different countries have implemented manage all or only specific portions of the universe of chemicals; 2) What implementation and compliance strategies are used to manage aquatic and human health risk and what are their pros and cons; and 3) How are site-specific watershed differences being addressed? While management strategies of the different countries target similar TOrCs, the programs differ in several important aspects, including underlying principles, the balance between aquatic or human health protection, implementation methods, and financing mechanisms used to fund regulatory programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis on degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Liu, Gaoyang; Wei, Bing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang

    2017-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) is an advanced and effective solution to the primary energy storage technologies. A better understanding of performance and durability of PEMWE is critical for the engineers and researchers to further advance this technology for its market penetration, and for the manufacturers of PEM water electrolyzers to implement quality control procedures for the production line or on-site process monitoring/diagnosis. This paper reviews the published works on performance degradations and mitigation strategies for PEMWE. Sources of degradation for individual components are introduced. With degradation causes discussed and degradation mechanisms examined, the review emphasizes on feasible strategies to mitigate the components degradation. To avoid lengthy real lifetime degradation tests and their high costs, the importance of accelerated stress tests and protocols is highlighted for various components. In the end, R&D directions are proposed to move the PEMWE technology forward to become a key element in future energy scenarios.

  10. The nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is being studied. The principal idea of this strategy is that the discharged plutonium from light water reactors (LWRs) provides the inventories of the FBRs and the high-converter APWRs, whereby the LWRs are installed according to the derivative of a logistical S curve. Special emphasis is given to the dynamics of reaching an asymptotic symbiosis between FBRs and APWRs. The main conclusion is that if a symbiotic APWR-FBR family with an asymptotic total power level in the terawatt range is to exist in about half a century from now, we need a large number of FBRs already in an early phase

  11. A strategy for modeling ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R; Younger, P L

    2001-01-01

    Discharges of polluted water from abandoned mines are a major cause of degradation of water resources worldwide. Pollution arises after abandoned workings flood up to surface level, by the process termed ground water rebound. As flow in large, open mine voids is often turbulent, standard techniques for modeling ground water flow (which assume laminar flow) are inappropriate for predicting ground water rebound. More physically realistic models are therefore desirable, yet these are often expensive to apply to all but the smallest of systems. An overall strategy for ground water rebound modeling is proposed, with models of decreasing complexity applied as the temporal and spatial scales of the systems under analysis increase. For relatively modest systems (area modeling approach has been developed, in which 3-D pipe networks (representing major mine roadways, etc.) are routed through a variably saturated, 3-D porous medium (representing the country rock). For systems extending more than 100 to 3000 km2, a semidistributed model (GRAM) has been developed, which conceptualizes extensively interconnected volumes of workings as ponds, which are connected to other ponds only at discrete overflow points, such as major inter-mine roadways, through which flow can be efficiently modeled using the Prandtl-Nikuradse pipe-flow formulation. At the very largest scales, simple water-balance calculations are probably as useful as any other approach, and a variety of proprietary codes may be used for the purpose.

  12. Effects Comparison of Different Resilience Enhancing Strategies for Municipal Water Distribution Network: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution network (WDN is critical to the city service, economic rehabilitation, public health, and safety. Reconstructing the WDN to improve its resilience in seismic disaster is an important and ongoing issue. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of different reconstruction strategies on seismic resistance, it is still hard for decision-makers to choose optimal resilience enhancing strategy. Taking the pipeline ductile retrofitting and network meshed expansion as demonstration, we proposed a feasible framework to contrast the resilience enhancing effects of two reconstruction strategies—units retrofitting strategy and network optimization strategy—in technical and organizational dimension. We also developed a new performance response function (PRF which is based on network equilibrium theory to conduct the effects comparison in integrated technical and organizational dimension. Through the case study of municipal WDN in Lianyungang, China, the comparison results were thoroughly shown and the holistic decision-making support was provided.

  13. A systematic data acquisition and mining strategy for chemical profiling of Aster tataricus rhizoma (Ziwan) by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and the corresponding anti-depressive activity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yupeng; Li, Li; Liao, Man; Su, Min; Wan, Changchen; Zhang, Lantong; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-05-30

    In this study, a systematic data acquisition and mining strategy aimed at the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) complex system based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was reported. The workflow of this strategy is as follows: First, the high resolution mass data are acquired by both data-dependent acquisition mode (DDA) and data-independent acquisition mode (DIA). Then a global data mining that combined targeted and non-targeted compound finding is applied to analyze mass spectral data. Furthermore, some assistant tools, such as key product ions (KPIs), are employed for compound hunting and identification. The TCM Ziwan (ZW, Aster tataricus rhizoma) was used to illustrate this strategy for the first time. In this research, total 131 compounds including organic acids, peptides, terpenes, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, anthraquinones and aldehydes were identified or tentatively characterized in ZW based on accurate mass measurements within ±5 ppm error, and 50 of them were unambiguously confirmed by comparing standard compounds. Afterwards, based on the traditional Chinese medical theory and the key determinants of firing patterns of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons in the development of depression, the confirmed compounds were subsequently evaluated the pharmacological effect of activity of VTA DA neurons and anti-depressive efficacy. This research provided not only a chemical profiling for further in vivo study of ZW, but also an efficient data acquisition and mining strategy to profile the chemical constituents and find new bioactive substances for other TCM complex system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  15. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Ishida, Françoise Y.; Tng, David Y. P.; Laidlaw, Melinda J.; Santos, Rubens M.; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species’ hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios. PMID:26087009

  16. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M G Apgaua

    Full Text Available Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees. We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  17. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M G; Ishida, Françoise Y; Tng, David Y P; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Santos, Rubens M; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A M; Laurance, Susan G W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  18. Physiological Responses of Water-Polo Players Under Different Tactical Strategie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7 and offending (n = 7 groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats.min-1 than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats.min-1 and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats.min-1, p 0.05. Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders.

  19. Impact of the future water value on wind-reversible hydro offering strategies in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez de la Nieta, A.A.; Contreras, J.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value. • Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) is used for risk-hedging. • The offer strategies analyzed are single and separate, with and without a physical connection. • The effect of considering the future water value of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons. - Abstract: A coordinated offering strategy between a wind farm and a reversible hydro plant can reduce wind power imbalances, improving the system efficiency whilst decreasing the total imbalances. A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value FWV of the system using Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) for risk-hedging. The offer strategies analyzed are: (i) single wind-reversible hydro offer with a physical connection between wind and hydro units to store spare wind energy, and (ii) separate wind and reversible hydro offers without a physical connection between them. The effect of considering the FWV of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons: one week (168 h) and one month (720 h) using an illustrative case study. Conclusions are duly drawn from the case study to show the impact of FWV in the results.

  20. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

    2017-10-01

    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  1. A treatment strategy for waste waters resulting from uranium mine decommissioning in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.P.; Vacariu, V.T.; Popa, N.

    2000-01-01

    The exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas in Romania are foreseen to be closed down in correlation with the national energy policy and nuclear strategy. This close down activity involves a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reducing the contamination due to radioactive water of these areas, during the operation period and after the close down period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper, the current situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the S-W of Romania are presented. This program was established on the base of the results of our research carried out in order to decrease the content of radioactive elements. After closing down the mining facility, naturally flooding waters should be evacuated at the surface by a pump system and properly treated. A station for water decontamination is under construction. The underground water decontamination is based on two methods: ion exchange for uranium and adsorption on active coal for Ra-226. The technological flow chart of the treatment installation is realized on the basis of laboratory and industrial research and it will output treated water with less than 60 mg solid/l, 0.021 mg U/l and 0.088 Bq Ra-226/l. The installation is able to treat contaminated water flow rates between 10 and 30 l/s at a cost of about 0.1 USD/m 3 . The total investment cost is estimated to be 9.7 - 12.6 billions RO Lei (USD 500.000 - 650.000), depending of the treatment capacity. (authors)

  2. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  3. Post-acquisition data processing for the screening of transformation products of different organic contaminants. Two-year monitoring of river water using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Herrera; Ulaszewska, M M; Hernando, M D; Martínez Bueno, M J; Gómez, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a comprehensive strategy for detecting and elucidating the chemical structures of expected and unexpected transformation products (TPs) from chemicals found in river water and effluent wastewater samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), with post-acquisition data processing and an automated search using an in-house database. The efficacy of the mass defect filtering (MDF) approach to screen metabolites from common biotransformation pathways was tested, and it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive and applicable for detecting metabolites in environmental samples. Four omeprazole metabolites and two venlafaxine metabolites were identified in river water samples. This paper reports the analytical results obtained during 2 years of monitoring, carried out at eight sampling points along the Henares River (Spain). Multiresidue monitoring, for targeted analysis, includes a group of 122 chemicals, amongst which are pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and PAHs. For this purpose, two analytical methods were used based on direct injection with a LC-ESI-QTOF-MS system and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with bi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight spectrometer (GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS).

  4. Strategies to Reduce Water Footprint in Palm Oil Production: A Case of PTP Mitra Ogan, Baturaja, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Kospa Herda Sabriyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive expansion of palm oil industry in Indonesia has triggered environmental issues including water-related problems which have become an important concern. Regarding the issues, sustainable practice standard has been set up as a requirement for palm oil to enter global market. Inevitably, water consumption in this sector is very crucial to be analyzed. One of the methods that can be used as a tool for sustainable appropriation of fresh water resources is water footprint analysis. The primary aim of this study was to formulate the strategies to reduce the water footprint in the palm oil production based on the best practice criteria. Both quantitative and qualitative research was conducted to get the value blue water (volume of surface or groundwater evaporated and grey water (dilution volume to dilute pollutants according to agreed water quality standards. The values of water footprint in palm oil production obtained were used to represent the existing water use and were utilized as the basis for formulating strategies in reducing water use in the palm oil milling processes which was compared with the best practice criteria. The result showed that the blue water of CPO was 109.6 m3/ton and the grey water was 537.7 m3/ton, while the blue water of palm kernel was 62,4 m3/ton and grey water was 306,2 m3/ton. The value indicated that there was an inefficient use of water in the production of palm oil. The use of steam accumulator has been proposed to reduce the use of blue water by optimizing the steam supply. Besides, the reuse of water from fat-pit pond for pressing purposes, or recovery of condensate water as dilution water in the press unit which will affect the amount of wastewater discharged can be done as the strategies in reducing both blue and grey water, as well as reuse of cooling water turbines.

  5. PAT Design Strategy for Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks by Electrical Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic convenience are still required. In water distribution networks, an additional design problem comes out from the necessity of ensuring a required head drop under variable operating conditions, i.e., head and discharge variations. Both a hydraulic regulation (HR—via a series-parallel hydraulic circuit- and an electrical regulation (ER—via inverter- are feasible solutions. A design procedure for the selection of a production device in a series-parallel hydraulic circuit has been recently proposed. The procedure, named VOS (Variable Operating Strategy, is based on the overall plant efficiency criteria and is applied to a water distribution network where a PAT (pump as a turbine is used in order to produce energy. In the present paper the VOS design procedure has been extended to the electrical regulation and a comparison between HR and ER efficiency and flexibility within a water distribution network is shown: HR was found more flexible than ER and more efficient. Finally a preliminary economic study has been carried out in order to show the viability of both systems, and a shorter payback period of the electromechanical equipment was found for HR mode.

  6. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock

  7. Rates of nocturnal transpiration in two evergreen temperate woodland species with differing water-use strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, Melanie; Tissue, David; Taylor, Daniel; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona; Eamus, Derek

    2010-08-01

    Nocturnal fluxes may be a significant factor in the annual water budget of forested ecosystems. Here, we assessed sap flow in two co-occurring evergreen species (Eucalyptus parramattensis and Angophora bakeri) in a temperate woodland for 2 years in order to quantify the magnitude of seasonal nocturnal sap flow (E(n)) under different environmental conditions. The two species showed different diurnal water relations, demonstrated by different diurnal curves of stomatal conductance, sap flow and leaf water potential. The relative influence of several microclimatic variables, including wind speed (U), vapour pressure deficit (D), the product of U and D (UD) and soil moisture content, were quantified. D exerted the strongest influence on E(n) (r² = 0.59-0.86), soil moisture content influenced E(n) when D was constant, but U and UD did not generally influence E(n). In both species, cuticular conductance (G(c)) was a small proportion of total leaf conductance (G(s)) and was not a major pathway for E(n). We found that E(n) was primarily a function of transpiration from the canopy rather than refilling of stem storage, with canopy transpiration accounting for 50-70% of nocturnal flows. Mean E(n) was 6-8% of the 24-h flux across seasons (spring, summer and winter), but was up to 19% of the 24-h flux on some days in both species. Despite different daytime strategies in water use of the two species, both species demonstrated low night-time water loss, suggesting similar controls on water loss at night. In order to account for the impact of E(n) on pre-dawn leaf water potential arising from the influence of disequilibria between root zone and leaf water potential, we also developed a simple model to more accurately predict soil water potential (ψ(s)).

  8. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  9. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Pesticide use in agriculture is one of the main sources of groundwater contamination and poses an important threat to groundwater abstraction. Pesticides have been detected in 37% of Danish monitoring wells sampled, with 12 % exceeding drinking water guidelines. Field data captured in monitoring...... and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in drinking water wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer...... in a pumping well capture zone were constructed using COMSOL Multiphysics. A series of simulations were conducted to examine the effect of pumping strategies (constant versus varying pumping rate), pesticide properties and aquifer hydrogeology on the concentration in drinking water wells. The results...

  10. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  11. Effect of Saline Water on Yield and Nitrogen Acquisition by Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Hamdy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet growth response to the interactive effects of salinity and N-fertilization was investigated using 15N tracer technique under greenhouse condition. Data showed that dry matter yield of sugar beet shoots and roots were frequently affected by N and water regime. Total N uptake by leaves was increased under almost water salinity treatments in spite of increasing salinity levels. It appears that in case of W I , N I I the N-uptake by roots was significantly decreased along with raising salinity levels from 4 to 8 dS/m. The portions of N derived from fertilizer (whole plant) showed that the trend was affected by salinity level of irrigation water, and fertilization treatments. The highest amount of N derived from fertilizer was obtained with the 4 dS/m level under N I I with the two water regimes. The efficient use of fertilizer-N was slightly but positively affected by raising salinity levels of irrigation water. Sugar percent was increased with increasing salinity levels of irrigation water under both N I and N I I treatments, but it was higher in case of N I than NII under different salinity levels. Generally, Irrigation with saline water in combination with water regime of 75-80% of field capacity and splitting nitrogen technique are better for enhancement of sugar beet production grown under such adverse conditions

  12. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods. Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  13. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  14. A multi-criteria decision making approach to balance water supply-demand strategies in water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géssica Maria Cambrainha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims this paper proposes a model to aid a group of decision makers to establish a portfolio of feasible actions (alternatives that are able to balance water supply-demand strategies. Originality Long periods of water shortages cause problems in semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, which affects different sectors such as food, public health, among others. This problem situation is intensified by population growth. Therefore, this type of decision making is complex, and it needs to be solving by a structured model. Research method The model is based on a problem structuring method (PSM and a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. Main findings Due to society and government influences, the proposed model showed appropriate to conduct a robust and well-structured decision making. Implications for theory and practice The main contributions were the study in regions suffering from drought and water scarcity, as well as the combination of PSM and MCDM methods to aid in this problem.

  15. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Banksia woodlands (BW) are iconic ecosystems of Western Australia (WA) composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae, e.g. Banksia menziesii and Banksia attenuata, in combination with other species, such as Eucalyptus spp., Verticordia spp. or Melaleuca spp. Although located in very poor dune soils, BW provide numerous ecosystem services and sustain a high biodiversity. In this area, annual rainfall is relatively high (about 800 mm) but permeability of the sandy substrate leads to a functionally arid ecosystem. Currently, BW are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion; therefore conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical. Despite numerous efforts, the success of restoration plans is usually poor mostly due to the high sensitivity to drought stress and poor seedling survival rates (5-30%) (Benigno et al., 2014). A characteristic feature of BW is their root architecture, formed by a proteoid (cluster) system that spreads to form thick mats below the soil surface, favouring the uptake of nutrients (especially, P), and preventing soil erosion. Root exudates are related to numerous plant functions, as they facilitate penetration of roots in soil and enhance the extraction of scarce mineral nutrients and its further assimilation. Exudates may also interact directly with soil or indirectly through microbial mediated events being also related to soil water repellency (SWR; Lozano et al, 2014). Knowledge about the specific compounds able to induce SWR is limited (Doerr et al., 2000), but it is generally accepted that is caused by organic molecules coating the surface of soil mineral particles and aggregates (Jordán et al., 2013). Proteaceae release short-chained organic acids to enhance phosphate acquisition, which have been also reported to be related with SWR (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). It is hypothesized that disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils is underlying the failure of restoration plans. This

  16. Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also

  17. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  18. Effect of the Pacing Strategies on the Open Water 10km World Swimming Championships Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis; Veiga, Santiago

    2017-10-16

    The aim of the present research was 1) to compare the pacing strategies of different level open water swimmers during the 10km race of the FINA 2015 World Swimming Championships (WCH), and 2) to relate these pacing strategies to the race performance. Final and intermediate split times as well as intermediate race positions from the 10-kilometer race participants (69 men and 51 women) were collected from the public domain and were divided into five groups (G1 to G5) depending on their finishing positions. Medalists and finalists (G1 and G2, respectively) presented an even pacing profile with similar swimming velocities to the less successful swimmers (G3 to G5) on the initial and mid stages of the race but a 1.5-3% increase in swimming velocity in the last quarter of the race. This fast end spurt was largely related to the race performance and was not observed in the G3 and G4 (even-paced profile) or in the G5 (positive pacing profile) groups. Intermediate race positions and lap rankings were negatively related to finishing position indicating a delayed positioning of the most successful swimmers at 25%, 50% and 75% of race distance. The adoption of a conservative starting strategy by open water swimmers with a negative pacing profile and delayed partial positioning seems to increase the chances of overall race success as it allows a fast end spurt that is highly related to successful finishing race positions.

  19. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  20. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  1. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior.

  2. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, Jack [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Merkel, David [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-31

    tends to decline hyperbolically. Hyperbolic decline indicates that water volume is of greatest concern early in the life of a coalbed methane project. Regional mapping indicates that gas production is controlled primarily by the ability to depressurize permeable coal seams that are natively within the steep part of the adsorption isotherm. Water production is greatest within the freshwater intrusion and below thick Cretaceous cover strata and is least in areas of underpressure. Water management strategies include instream disposal, which can be applied effectively in most parts of the basin. Deep disposal may be applicable locally, particularly where high salinity limits the ability to dispose into streams. Artificial wetlands show promise for the management of saline water, especially where the reservoir yield is limited. Beneficial use options include municipal water supply, agricultural use, and industrial use. The water may be of use to an inland shrimp farming industry, which is active around the southwestern coalbed methane fields. The best opportunities for beneficial use are reuse of water by the coalbed methane industry for drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This research has further highlighted opportunities for additional research on treatment efficiency, the origin of nitrogen compounds, organic geochemistry, biogenic gas generation, flow modeling, and computer simulation. Results of this study are being disseminated through a vigorous technology transfer program that includes web resources, numerous presentations to stakeholders, and a variety of technical publications.

  3. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  4. Oral formulation strategies to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-10-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a spiraling increase in the complexity and specificity of drug-receptor targets. It is possible to design drugs for these diverse targets with advances in combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening. Unfortunately, but not entirely unexpectedly, these advances have been accompanied by an increase in the structural complexity and a decrease in the solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, the importance of formulation strategies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs is inevitable, thus making it crucial to understand and explore the recent trends. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as solid dispersions, soluble complexes, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), nanocrystals and mesoporous inorganic carriers, are discussed briefly in this review, along with examples of marketed products. This article provides the reader with a concise overview of currently relevant formulation strategies and proposes anticipated future trends. Today, the pharmaceutical industry has at its disposal a series of reliable and scalable formulation strategies for poorly soluble drugs. However, due to a lack of understanding of the basic physical chemistry behind these strategies, formulation development is still driven by trial and error.

  5. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake.

  7. A proposed strategy for the validation of ground-water flow and solute transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs

  8. Time-resolved 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI: comparison of different k-space acquisition strategies at 1.5 and 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Ingrisch, Michael; Dietrich, Olaf; Herrmann, Karin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Schönberg, Stefan O; Fink, Christian

    2009-09-01

    Time-resolved pulmonary perfusion MRI requires both high temporal and spatial resolution, which can be achieved by using several nonconventional k-space acquisition techniques. The aim of this study is to compare the image quality of time-resolved 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI with different k-space acquisition techniques in healthy volunteers at 1.5 and 3 T. Ten healthy volunteers underwent contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3D pulmonary MRI on 1.5 and 3 T using the following k-space acquisition techniques: (a) generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) with an internal acquisition of reference lines (IRS), (b) GRAPPA with a single "external" acquisition of reference lines (ERS) before the measurement, and (c) a combination of GRAPPA with an internal acquisition of reference lines and view sharing (VS). The spatial resolution was kept constant at both field strengths to exclusively evaluate the influences of the temporal resolution achieved with the different k-space sampling techniques on image quality. The temporal resolutions were 2.11 seconds IRS, 1.31 seconds ERS, and 1.07 VS at 1.5 T and 2.04 seconds IRS, 1.30 seconds ERS, and 1.19 seconds VS at 3 T.Image quality was rated by 2 independent radiologists with regard to signal intensity, perfusion homogeneity, artifacts (eg, wrap around, noise), and visualization of pulmonary vessels using a 3 point scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 2 = moderate, 3 = good). Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio in the lungs was assessed. At 1.5 T the lowest image quality (sum score: 154) was observed for the ERS technique and the highest quality for the VS technique (sum score: 201). In contrast, at 3 T images acquired with VS were hampered by strong artifacts and image quality was rated significantly inferior (sum score: 137) compared with IRS (sum score: 180) and ERS (sum score: 174). Comparing 1.5 and 3 T, in particular the overall rating of the IRS technique (sum score: 180) was very similar at both field

  9. A study of implementing In-Cycle-Shuffle strategy to a decommissioning boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chung-Yuan, E-mail: tuckjason@iner.gov.tw; Tung, Wu-Hsiung; Yaur, Shyun-Jung

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A loading pattern strategy ICS (In-Cycle-Shuffle) was implemented to the last cycle of the boiling water reactor. • The best power sharing distribution and ICS timing was found. • A new parameter “Burnup sharing” is presented to evaluate ICS strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, a loading pattern strategy In-Cycle-Shuffle (ICS) is implemented to the last cycle of the boiling water reactor (BWR) before decommissioning to save the fuel cycle cost. This method needs a core shutdown during the operation of a cycle to change the loading pattern to gain more reactivity. The reactivity model is used to model the ICS strategy in order to find out the best ICS timing and the optimum power sharing distribution before ICS and after ICS. Several parameters of reactivity model are modified and the effect of burnable poison, gadolinium (Gd), is considered in this research. Three cases are presented and it is found that the best ICS timing is at about two-thirds of total cycle length no matter the poisoning effect of Gd is considered or not. According to the optimum power sharing distribution result, it is suggested to decrease the once burnt power and increase the thrice burnt fuel power as much as possible before ICS. After ICS, it is suggested to increase the positive reactivity fuel power and decrease the thrice burnt fuel power as much as possible. A new parameter “Burnup sharing” is presented to evaluate the special case whose EOC power weighting factor and the burnup accumulation factor in the reactivity model are quite different.

  10. A study of implementing In-Cycle-Shuffle strategy to a decommissioning boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung-Yuan; Tung, Wu-Hsiung; Yaur, Shyun-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A loading pattern strategy ICS (In-Cycle-Shuffle) was implemented to the last cycle of the boiling water reactor. • The best power sharing distribution and ICS timing was found. • A new parameter “Burnup sharing” is presented to evaluate ICS strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, a loading pattern strategy In-Cycle-Shuffle (ICS) is implemented to the last cycle of the boiling water reactor (BWR) before decommissioning to save the fuel cycle cost. This method needs a core shutdown during the operation of a cycle to change the loading pattern to gain more reactivity. The reactivity model is used to model the ICS strategy in order to find out the best ICS timing and the optimum power sharing distribution before ICS and after ICS. Several parameters of reactivity model are modified and the effect of burnable poison, gadolinium (Gd), is considered in this research. Three cases are presented and it is found that the best ICS timing is at about two-thirds of total cycle length no matter the poisoning effect of Gd is considered or not. According to the optimum power sharing distribution result, it is suggested to decrease the once burnt power and increase the thrice burnt fuel power as much as possible before ICS. After ICS, it is suggested to increase the positive reactivity fuel power and decrease the thrice burnt fuel power as much as possible. A new parameter “Burnup sharing” is presented to evaluate the special case whose EOC power weighting factor and the burnup accumulation factor in the reactivity model are quite different.

  11. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  12. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  13. DWAF water services IAM strategy positioned within the context of other major national IAM initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available STRATEGY POSITIONED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER MAJOR NATIONAL IAM INITIATIVES Nino Manus, Kribbs Moodley, Kevin Wall, Louis Boshoff and Arno Ottermann Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Private Bag X313, Pretoria 0001. ManusA@dwaf.gov.za P D... into one or other of 9 “solution types”, viz: • Awareness • Finance • Guidelines • HR (i.e. including ski l ls and appointments) • Legal and procurement • Monitoring and evaluation • Management and leadership • Operation and maintenance...

  14. Impact of the water symmetry factor on humidification and cooling strategies for PEM fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, D; Metkemeijer, R; Bezian, J J; Rouveyre, L [Centre d` Energetique, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, experimental water and thermal balances with three proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are proposed. On the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris, three De Nora SPA fuel cell stacks have been successfully studied: An 1 kW{sub e} prototype using Nafion {sup trademark} 117, a 5 and 10 kW{sub e} module using Nafion {sup trademark} 115. The averaged water symmetry factor determines strategies to avoid drying membrane. So, we propose analytical solutions to find compromises between humidification and cooling conditions, which determines outlet temperatures of gases. For transport applications, the space occupied by the power module must be reduced. One of the main efforts consists in decreasing the operative pressure. Thus, if adequate cooling power is applied, we show experimentally and theoretically the possibility to use De Nora PEM fuel cells with low pressure, without specific external humidification. (orig.)

  15. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  16. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Tommy K.K. Ngai; Richard A. Fenner

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under s...

  17. Analysis of psychoactive substances in water by information dependent acquisition on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-08-26

    Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of "legal" highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategies for monitoring the emerging polar organic contaminants in water with emphasis on integrative passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker

    2009-01-16

    Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.

  19. Knowledge Co-production Strategies for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.

    2016-12-01

    The limited impact of scientific information on policy making and climate adaptation in North America has raised awareness of the need for new modeling strategies and knowledge transfer processes. This paper outlines the rationale for a new paradigm in water resources modeling and management, using examples from the USA and Canada. Principles include anticipatory modeling, complex system dynamics, decision making under uncertainty, visualization, capacity to represent and manipulate critical trade-offs, stakeholder engagement, local knowledge, context-specific activities, social learning, vulnerability analysis, iterative and collaborative modeling, and the concept of a boundary organization. In this framework, scientists and stakeholders are partners in the production and dissemination of knowledge for decision making, and local knowledge is fused with scientific observation and methodology. Discussion draws from experience in building long-term collaborative boundary organizations in Phoenix, Arizona in the USA and the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Canada. Examples of boundary spanning activities include the use of visualization, the concept of a decision theater, infrastructure to support social learning, social networks, and reciprocity, simulation modeling to explore "what if" scenarios of the future, surveys to elicit how water problems are framed by scientists and stakeholders, and humanistic activities (theatrical performances, art exhibitions, etc.) to draw attention to local water issues. The social processes surrounding model development and dissemination are at least as important as modeling assumptions, procedures, and results in determining whether scientific knowledge will be used effectively for water resources decision making.

  20. Evolutionary Agent-based Models to design distributed water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a

  1. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  2. Evaluation of a severe accident management strategy for boiling water reactors -- Drywell flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, D.; Xing, L.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.

    1994-01-01

    Flooding of the drywell has been suggested as a strategy to prevent reactor vessel and containment failure in boiling water reactors. To evaluate the candidate strategy, this study considers accident management as a decision problem (''drywell flooding'' versus ''do nothing'') and develops a decision-oriented framework, namely, the influence diagram approach. This analysis chooses the long-term station blackout sequence for a Mark 1 nuclear power plant (Peach Bottom), and an influence diagram with a single decision node is constructed. The node probabilities in the influence diagram are obtained from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reports or estimated by probabilistic risk assessment methodology. In assessing potential benefits compared with adverse effects, this analysis uses two consequence measures, i.e., early and late fatalities, as decision criteria. The analysis concludes that even though potential adverse effects exist, such as ex-vessel steam explosions and containment isolation failure, the drywell flooding strategy is preferred to ''do nothing'' when evaluated in terms of these consequence measures

  3. Unraveling cognitive traits using the Morris water maze unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Louzon, Yoram; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Okun, Eitan

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of spatial cognitive learning in rodents is a central approach in neuroscience, as it enables one to assess and quantify the effects of treatments and genetic manipulations from a broad perspective. Although the Morris water maze (MWM) is a well-validated paradigm for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance in the MWM into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to biases. Here we offer a support vector machine (SVM) - based, automated, MWM unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale. This model was examined and validated by analyzing data obtained from five MWM experiments with changing platform sizes, revealing a limitation in the spatial capacity of the hippocampus. We have further employed this algorithm to extract novel mechanistic insights on the impact of members of the Toll-like receptor pathway on cognitive spatial learning and memory. The MUST-C algorithm can greatly benefit MWM users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification as well as a cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical analysis of MWM data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  5. Different water use strategies of juvenile and adult Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Jia

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE, plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation.Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0-30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0-50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0-50 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations.The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE.

  6. A growing thirst: what the new Water for Life Strategy means to the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, P.

    2004-01-01

    Essential characteristics of the Water for Life Strategy, the product of 18 months of intensive province-wide consultation with industry, ranchers and communities, are described. The Strategy is said to be the most comprehensive water strategy in the world because it covers both water quantity and water quality, according to a spokesperson for the Alberta Ministry for the Environment. Its primary goals are to ensure a safe, secure supply of drinking water, to maintain a healthy aquatic environment, and to provide a reliable, quality water supply for Alberta's industries. These goals are to be achieved through increased knowledge of water technologies, of aquatic ecosystems and of water and groundwater supplies available in the province, supported by partnership between government and industries and intensified efforts at water conservation. While the Strategy presupposes the cooperation of all industries in reaching the targets, this article highlights the special problems of the oil sands industry and the efforts made by the industry to reduce, recycle and conserve water in its operations. Special attention is paid to the reduction of water per barrel of oil produced (down from 7.66 cu. m for every cu. m of oil production in 2001 to 5.52 cu. m in 2002) and the use of recycled process water for generating steam. Other technologies under development are carbon dioxide flooding and the use of various solvents such as VAPEX, and other methods of in-situ oil extraction that involve the application of heat and solvent in a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. One of the objectives of all these technologies is to lower the amount of water used while maintaining the amount of oil produced

  7. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  8. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  9. Republic of India : Service Level Benchmarking, Citizen Voice and Performance Improvement Strategies in Urban Water Supply and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This synthesis report details the process, outputs and intermediate outcomes of the Water and Sanitation Program - World Bank (WSP) Technical Assistance (TA) to Service Level Benchmarking, Citizen Voice and Performance Improvement Strategies in Urban Water Supply and Sanitation (UWSS) in India. This technical assistance (TA) sought to strengthen accountability for service outcomes in urban...

  10. A new direction for water management? Indigenous nation building as a strategy for river health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hemming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous involvement in Australian water management is conventionally driven by a top-down approach by nonIndigenous government agencies, that asks "how do we engage Indigenous people?" and has culminated in the ineffective "consult" and "service delivery" processes evident in mainstream water management planning. This is a hopeful paper that identifies the critical importance of a "nation-based" approach for effective Indigenous engagement in water planning and policy through the work undertaken by the Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority (NRA in the Murray Futures program. The NRA is an Indigenous government in the "settled-south" of Australia. Over past decades, the NRA has developed a range of political technologies that act as tools for redeveloping Ngarrindjeri Nationhood after colonial disempowerment and dispossession. These tools enable better collaboration with nonIndigenous governments, especially in natural resource management policy and practice. In turn, this has better enabled the NRA to exercise a decision-making and planning authority over the lands and waters in its jurisdiction, therefore, more effectively exercising its ongoing duty of care as Country. This paper presents a case study of the Sugar Shack Complex Management Plan, codeveloped by the NRA and the South Australian Government in 2015, to demonstrate the benefits that accrue when Indigenous nations are resourced as authorities responsible for reframing water management and planning approaches to facilitate the equitable collaboration of Indigenous and nonIndigenous worldviews. As a marker of the success of this strategy, the Ngarrindjeri Yarluwar-Ruwe Program, in partnership with the South Australian government, recently won the Australian Riverprize 2015 for delivering excellence in Australian river management.

  11. VersaCold: Analysis of Change Management in Mergers & Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Many firms use mergers and acquisitions as a corporate strategy to increase shareholder value. Therefore, understanding such a widely exercised strategy and its implications on corporate change would be critical for organizations that wish to pursue this strategy. This study provides an in depth review of mergers and acquisitions and introduces best practices for managing changes that result from mergers and acquisitions. Next, the concepts are applied to two cases of acquisitions in VersaCol...

  12. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... and fiscal neutrality, group-related issues, holding-structure issues, employees, stock exchange listing issues, and corporate nationality....

  13. Development and Deployment Strategy for a Small Advanced Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S. Michael; Reith, Raymond; Babka, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses development and deployment strategies for the modular Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR). Modularity, small size, capability to transport whole modules including containment on road or by rail, simplicity and safety of this reactor allows innovative deployment strategies for a variety of applications. A larger plant may be constructed of many independent power generation units. The multi-module plant is intended to be operated as a base-load plant. Each reactor is to be operated at full load. However, in response to changes in power demand individual units can brought on line or shut down. A larger plant can be built in small increments to match the power demand balancing capital commitments with revenues from sales of electricity. Also, an unplanned shutdown of a reactor only affects a relatively small portion of the total plant capacity. Simplification of MASLWR design and extensive use of modularization coupled with factory fabrication will result in improved productivity of fieldwork and improved quality achieved in a factory environment. The initial MASLWR design concept development has been completed under the U.S. DOE (Department of Energy) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project. This paper discusses a strategy for developing and deploying a MASLWR plant by 2015. This schedule is realistic because the plant design relies on existing industrial experience and manufacturing capabilities. The development strategy consists of the following elements: concept confirmation through testing (under the NERI program a scaled integral test facility has been constructed and initial testing performed), design concept optimization, and design certification based on prototype testing. (authors)

  14. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  15. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  16. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  17. The Acquisition Experiences of Kazoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2016-01-01

    This case describes two diverging post-acquisition experiences of KazOil, an oil drilling company in Kazakhstan, in the years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. When the company was bought by the Canadian corporation Hydrocarbons Ltd in 1996, exposed to new human resource strategies...... among students that cultural distance is not the main determinant for the success of social integration mechanisms in post-acquisition situations. On the contrary, the relationship between integration instrument and integration success is also governed by contextual factors such as the attractiveness...... of the acquisition target or state of development of HRM in the target country....

  18. Effects of laterality and sex on cognitive strategy in a water maze place learning task and modification by nicotine and nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanit, L; Koylu, E O; Erdogan, O; Pogun, S

    2005-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in learning strategies and to elucidate the mechanisms, which may underlie these differences. In two separate experiments, rats were presented with different strategies that could be employed to learn the position of a platform in a water maze (WM); furthermore, rats received treatments that could influence these strategies. In the first experiment, we demonstrated that the response-learning paradigm can be applied to the WM and can be compared with visually cued learning and reversal learning. Naïve rats of either sex could acquire this protocol relatively easily. On the probe trial, where the rats are presented with a choice between using response versus visually cued learning, initially response learning was preferred, however, during these experiments, laterality emerged as a significant factor and rats trained to turn right had difficulty in reversing the learned pattern to find the platform. The second part of our study evaluated the effects of nicotine and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the aforementioned parameters. Drug treatments impaired acquisition compared to saline treatments and the effect was more pronounced with NOS inhibition. During the probe trial, while NOS inhibition enhanced the right-side bias in both sexes, nicotine treatment had the same effect only in males. In conclusion, naïve rats can acquire place learning using visible cues or response learning; however, there is a right side bias in both sexes and the laterality effect is more pronounced in male rats. In drug-treated animals, while NOS inhibition enhances laterality (right bias) in both sexes similarly, nicotine modifies the cognitive strategy in a sexually dimorphic manner by augmenting the right bias only in male rats.

  19. More Water Resources but Less for Irrigation: Adaptation Strategy of the Yellow River in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow River is the primary source of freshwater to the northern China. Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the river basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Development of adaptation strategies would have significant implications for water and food security of this region. In this study, the outputs of multiple hydrological models forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from multiple global climate models were used to assess the change in renewable water resources of the river basin in the 21st century. The outputs of multiple crop models were used to assess the change in agricultural water demand. The domestic and industrial water demands were estimated based on the future socio-economic conditions under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Besides basic ecosystem needs for water which must be met, the water use in domestic and industrial sectors is considered to have a higher priority than the agricultural water use when water is insufficient. The results show that the renewable water resources of the basin would increase as global mean temperature increases while the water demand would grow much more rapidly, largely due to water demand increase in domestic and industrial sectors. In most of the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin, the available water resources can not sustain all the water use sectors starting from the next a few decades. As more water resources would be appropriated by domestic and industrial sectors, a part of irrigated area had to be converted to rainfed agriculture which led to a large reduction in food production. This study highlights the linked water and food security in a changing environment and suggests that the trade-off should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  20. Exploring Northwest China's agricultural water-saving strategy: analysis of water use efficiency based on an SE-DEA model conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L; Fang, L; Wang, H; Chen, L; Yang, Y; Qu, X J; Wang, C Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, S B; Wang, Y N

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is often recommended to reduce water demand, especially in water-scarce areas. In this paper, agricultural water use efficiency (AWUE) is examined using the super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in Xi'an in Northwest China at a temporal and spatial level. The grey systems analysis technique was then adopted to identify the factors that influenced the efficiency differentials under the shortage of water resources. From the perspective of temporal scales, the AWUE increased year by year during 2004-2012, and the highest (2.05) was obtained in 2009. Additionally, the AWUE was the best in the urban area at the spatial scale. Moreover, the key influencing factors of the AWUE are the financial situations and agricultural water-saving technology. Finally, we identified several knowledge gaps and proposed water-saving strategies for increasing AWUE and reducing its water demand by: (1) improving irrigation practices (timing and amounts) based on compatible water-saving techniques; (2) maximizing regional WUE by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales as well as enhancing coordination among Chinese water governance institutes.

  1. IT-based Value Creation in Serial Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we integrate and model the findings on individual acquisitions from the extant literature, and extend that model to explain the effects of sequential acquisitions in a growth-by-acquisition strategy. This extended model, drawing on the Resource-Based Theory......The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...

  2. Quantification of the least limiting water range in an oxisol using two methodological strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrique Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR has been used as an indicator of soil physical quality as it represents, in a single parameter, the soil physical properties directly linked to plant growth, with the exception of temperature. The usual procedure for obtaining the LLWR involves determination of the water retention curve (WRC and the soil resistance to penetration curve (SRC in soil samples with undisturbed structure in the laboratory. Determination of the WRC and SRC using field measurements (in situ is preferable, but requires appropriate instrumentation. The objective of this study was to determine the LLWR from the data collected for determination of WRC and SRC in situ using portable electronic instruments, and to compare those determinations with the ones made in the laboratory. Samples were taken from the 0.0-0.1 m layer of a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Oxisol. Two methods were used for quantification of the LLWR: the traditional, with measurements made in soil samples with undisturbed structure; and in situ , with measurements of water content (θ, soil water potential (Ψ, and soil resistance to penetration (SR through the use of sensors. The in situ measurements of θ, Ψ and SR were taken over a period of four days of soil drying. At the same time, samples with undisturbed structure were collected for determination of bulk density (BD. Due to the limitations of measurement of Ψ by tensiometer, additional determinations of θ were made with a psychrometer (in the laboratory at the Ψ of -1500 kPa. The results show that it is possible to determine the LLWR by the θ, Ψ and SR measurements using the suggested approach and instrumentation. The quality of fit of the SRC was similar in both strategies. In contrast, the θ and Ψ in situ measurements, associated with those measured with a psychrometer, produced a better WRC description. The estimates of the LLWR were similar in both methodological strategies. The quantification of

  3. WELMM approach to energy strategies and options. [Water, energy, land, materials, and manpower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, M; Lapillonne, B

    1976-12-01

    The development of energy resources requires more and more natural or human resources--on the one hand because of the difficulty of ''harvesting'' primary energy resources, and on the other because of the complexity of the sequence of processes necessary to convert these primary resources into useful resources for an economy (final energy). In this context the WELMM approach has been designed to evaluate the resource requirements for the development of energy resources. WELMM focuses mainly on five limited resources: water, energy, land, materials, and manpower. The WELMM evaluation is implemented at the level of the major facilities concerned in the harvesting and conversion of primary energy resources into final resources. All the WELMM data are stored in three different data bases (Resource Data Base, Component Data Base, and Facility Data Base). They are meant to be used to enlarge and complete the traditional economic comparison of energy processes, energy strategies, or energy options.

  4. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  5. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    load decreases to occur; (4) long-term monitoring on the order of decades can be required to detect meaningful changes in water quality in response to BMP implementation; and (5) all consequences of specific BMPs need to be considered when considering strategies for watershed protection.

  6. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  7. Increased performance in the short-term water demand forecasting through the use of a parallel adaptive weighting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha-Lourenço, A.; Andrade-Campos, A.; Antunes, A.; Oliveira, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on water demand short-term forecasting has shown that models using univariate time series based on historical data are useful and can be combined with other prediction methods to reduce errors. The behavior of water demands in drinking water distribution networks focuses on their repetitive nature and, under meteorological conditions and similar consumers, allows the development of a heuristic forecast model that, in turn, combined with other autoregressive models, can provide reliable forecasts. In this study, a parallel adaptive weighting strategy of water consumption forecast for the next 24-48 h, using univariate time series of potable water consumption, is proposed. Two Portuguese potable water distribution networks are used as case studies where the only input data are the consumption of water and the national calendar. For the development of the strategy, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method and a short-term forecast heuristic algorithm are used. Simulations with the model showed that, when using a parallel adaptive weighting strategy, the prediction error can be reduced by 15.96% and the average error by 9.20%. This reduction is important in the control and management of water supply systems. The proposed methodology can be extended to other forecast methods, especially when it comes to the availability of multiple forecast models.

  8. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: Risk assessment and proposed management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannak, Judith S.; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors’ socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers – the target group for further education and skill training – were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive ‘ecotourism zone’ while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  9. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Actor modelling and its contribution to the development of integrative strategies for management of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Alexandra; Döll, Petra

    2009-02-01

    Widespread presence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe is documented. While some, but certainly not enough, research on the occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals in water resources has been carried out, a holistic risk management strategy is missing. The transdisciplinary research project "start" aimed to develop an integrative strategy by the participation of experts representing key actors in the problem field "pharmaceuticals in drinking water". In this paper, we describe a novel modelling method, actor modelling with the semi-quantitative software DANA (Dynamic Actor Network Analysis), and its application in support of identifying an integrative risk management strategy. Based on the individual perceptions of different actors, the approach allows the identification of optimal strategies. Actors' perceptions were elicited by participatory model building and interviews, and were then modelled in perception graphs. Actor modelling indicated that an integrative strategy that targets environmentally-responsible prescription, therapy, and disposal of pharmaceuticals on one hand, and the development of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals on the other hand, will likely be most effective for reducing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water (at least in Germany where the study was performed). However, unlike most other actors, the pharmaceutical industry itself does not perceive that the production of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals is an action that helps to achieve its goals, but contends that continued development of highly active pharmaceutical ingredients will help to reduce the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle. Investment in advanced waste or drinking water treatment is opposed by both the wastewater treatment company and the drinking water supplier, and is not mentioned as appropriate by the other actors. According to our experience, actor modelling is a useful method to suggest effective

  12. Book review: Policy Entrepreneurs and Strategies for Change: The Case of Water Management in the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available are Stijn’s ‘new typology’ of policy entrepreneur strategies (pp. 54–64), under four categories: attention- and support-seeking strategies, linking strategies, relational management strategies and arena strategies (p. 64). I am not sure whether Stijn...

  13. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-05

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  14. Estimates of microbial quality and concentration of copper in distributed drinking water are highly dependent on sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Hirvonen, Arja; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2007-12-01

    The numbers of bacteria generally increase in distributed water. Often household pipelines or water fittings (e.g., taps) represent the most critical location for microbial growth in water distribution systems. According to the European Union drinking water directive, there should not be abnormal changes in the colony counts in water. We used a pilot distribution system to study the effects of water stagnation on drinking water microbial quality, concentration of copper and formation of biofilms with two commonly used pipeline materials in households; copper and plastic (polyethylene). Water stagnation for more than 4h significantly increased both the copper concentration and the number of bacteria in water. Heterotrophic plate counts were six times higher in PE pipes and ten times higher in copper pipes after 16 h of stagnation than after only 40 min stagnation. The increase in the heterotrophic plate counts was linear with time in both copper and plastic pipelines. In the distribution system, bacteria originated mainly from biofilms, because in laboratory tests with water, there was only minor growth of bacteria after 16 h stagnation. Our study indicates that water stagnation in the distribution system clearly affects microbial numbers and the concentration of copper in water, and should be considered when planning the sampling strategy for drinking water quality control in distribution systems.

  15. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  16. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-15

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  17. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  18. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-01-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0 3 , H 3 C 2 00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0 3 medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L -1 ) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 μg L -1 and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 μg L -1 . In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and minimize reagent consumption, as well as

  19. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  20. Automated River Reach Definition Strategies: Applications for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Renato Prata de Moraes; Wei, Rui; Durand, Michael; Minear, J. Toby; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Williams, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Picamilh, Christophe; Lion, Christine; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Garambois, Pierre-André

    2017-10-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will measure water surface heights and widths for rivers wider than 100 m. At its native resolution, SWOT height errors are expected to be on the order of meters, which prevent the calculation of water surface slopes and the use of slope-dependent discharge equations. To mitigate height and width errors, the high-resolution measurements will be grouped into reaches (˜5 to 15 km), where slope and discharge are estimated. We describe three automated river segmentation strategies for defining optimum reaches for discharge estimation: (1) arbitrary lengths, (2) identification of hydraulic controls, and (3) sinuosity. We test our methodologies on 9 and 14 simulated SWOT overpasses over the Sacramento and the Po Rivers, respectively, which we compare against hydraulic models of each river. Our results show that generally, height, width, and slope errors decrease with increasing reach length. However, the hydraulic controls and the sinuosity methods led to better slopes and often height errors that were either smaller or comparable to those of arbitrary reaches of compatible sizes. Estimated discharge errors caused by the propagation of height, width, and slope errors through the discharge equation were often smaller for sinuosity (on average 8.5% for the Sacramento and 6.9% for the Po) and hydraulic control (Sacramento: 7.3% and Po: 5.9%) reaches than for arbitrary reaches of comparable lengths (Sacramento: 8.6% and Po: 7.8%). This analysis suggests that reach definition methods that preserve the hydraulic properties of the river network may lead to better discharge estimates.

  1. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  2. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aubert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%, including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods.

  3. Plant Water Use Strategy in Response to Spatial and Temporal Variation in Precipitation Patterns in China: A Stable Isotope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in precipitation patterns can directly alter the survival and growth of plants, yet in China there is no comprehensive and systematic strategy for plant use based on the effects of precipitation patterns. Here, we examined information from 93 published papers (368 plant species on plant xylem water stable isotopes (δD and δ18O in China. The results showed that: (1 The slope of the local meteoric water line (LMWL gradually increased from inland areas to the coast, as a result of continental and seasonal effects. The correlation between δD and δ18O in plant stem water is also well fitted and the correlation coefficients range from 0.78 to 0.89. With respect to the soil water line, the δ18O values in relation to depth (0–100 cm varied over time; (2 Plants’ main water sources are largely affected by precipitation patterns. In general, plants prioritize the use of stable and continuous water sources, while they have a more variable water uptake strategy under drought conditions; (3 There are no spatial and temporal variations in the contribution of the main water source (p > 0.05 because plants maintain growth by shifting their use of water sources when resources are unreliable.

  4. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  5. Shortening the Defense Acquisition Cycle: A Transformational Imperative?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vollmecke, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    .... The acquisition system is both political and complex. This Strategy Research Project paper explores the effectiveness of past policy changes to reduce cycle time, and reviews current acquisition issues or problems related to cycle time reduction...

  6. Exploiting water versus tolerating drought: water-use strategies of trees in a secondary successional tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando Pineda-García; Horacio Paz; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Angeles; Guillermo Goldstein

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal plant communities where water availability changes dramatically both between and within seasons, understanding the mechanisms that enable plants to exploit water pulses and to survive drought periods is crucial. By measuring rates of physiological processes, we examined the trade-off between water exploitation and drought tolerance among seedlings of trees...

  7. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  8. The Effectiveness of the Instructional Programs Based on Self-Management Strategies in Acquisition of Social Skills by the Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management skills training program, based on self-control strategies, on students with intellectual disabilities. A multiple-probe design across subjects single-subject research methodology was used in this study. Nine students with intellectual disabilities, whose ages are between…

  9. 基于互联网社区的消费者需求信息采集策略%Strategies of Consumer Demand Information Acquisition Based on Internet Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 李倩

    2011-01-01

    从互联网社区参与者角色——社区建设者、主题发布者、话题讨论者出发,提出企业在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的基本方针,分析在互联网社区上消费者需求信息表现形式的转化过程,构建在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的具体路线,以此为企业制定在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息策略提供借鉴。%From the roles of Interact community participants—— the community constructor, the subject promulgator and the topic discusser, the paper proposes the basic acquisition policies for consumer demand information on the Internet community. It analyzes the conversion process of the forms of the consumer demand information, and constructs the concrete routes of gathering the information on the Internet community. It provides the reference to develop strategies of consumer demand information acquisition for enterprises.

  10. Nonlinear control for core power of pressurized water nuclear reactors using constant axial offset strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Ansarifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operations in nuclear power plants is load following, in which an imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation is considered to be a constraint for the load following operation. In this paper, the design of a sliding mode control (SMC, which is a robust nonlinear controller, is presented. SMC is a means to control pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR power for the load following operation problem in a way that ensures xenon oscillations are kept bounded within acceptable limits. The proposed controller uses constant axial offset (AO strategy to ensure xenon oscillations remain bounded. The constant AO is a robust state constraint for the load following problem. The reactor core is simulated based on the two-point nuclear reactor model with a three delayed neutron groups. The stability analysis is given by means of the Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the SMC exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness, and stability. Results show that the proposed controller for the load following operation is so effective that the xenon oscillations are kept bounded in the given region.

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  12. INTERPRETATION OF THE STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CROATIAN FRESH–WATER FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The shock of the transition to the market economy in Croatian agriculture (including aquaculture influenced the fall of the production and employment, debt, slow technologic development, worse economic parameters. High inputs, rigid tax system, lack of investments, non–rational trade and distribution system, as well as insufficient budget support also influenced this. The international competition additionally raised by Croatian entering into WTO. So, it was important to redefine strategic priorities in order to preserve and develop sustainable Croatian freshwater fisheries, whose production could satisfy domestic needs and actual export demand, respecting the law of the market and ecology at the same time. The aquaculture should be completely adjusted to the market demands and areas with satisfactory production characteristics, stimulated. Open waters management should be based on scientific research and permanent monitoring. Fishery management of bordering rivers should be coordinated according to international contracts. The development of family farms, alternative aquaculture and fish processing should be systematically stimulated. In order to be carried out, it is prerogative that this strategy be accompanied by employment of highly skilled freshwater experts.

  13. Knowledge-sharing Behavior and Post-acquisition Integration Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    AbstractNot achieving the anticipated synergy effects in the post-acquisition integration context is a serious causefor the high acquisition failure rate. While existing studies on failures of acquisitions exist fromeconomics, finance, strategy, organization theory, and human resources management......, this paper appliesinsights from the knowledge-sharing literature. The paper establishes a conceptual link between obstaclesin the post-acquisition integration processes and individual knowledge-sharing behavior as related toknowledge transmitters and knowledge receivers. We argue that such an angle offers...... important insights toexplaining the high failure rate in acquisitions.Descriptors: post-acquisition integration, acquisition failure, individual knowledge-sharing behavior...

  14. [Identification of Systemic Contaminations with Legionella Spec. in Drinking Water Plumbing Systems: Sampling Strategies and Corresponding Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, S; Schreiber, C; Müller, H; Zacharias, N; Kistemann, T

    2017-05-01

    After the amendment of the Drinking Water Ordinance in 2011, the requirements for the hygienic-microbiological monitoring of drinking water installations have increased significantly. In the BMBF-funded project "Biofilm Management" (2010-2014), we examined the extent to which established sampling strategies in practice can uncover drinking water plumbing systems systemically colonized with Legionella. Moreover, we investigated additional parameters that might be suitable for detecting systemic contaminations. We subjected the drinking water plumbing systems of 8 buildings with known microbial contamination (Legionella) to an intensive hygienic-microbiological sampling with high spatial and temporal resolution. A total of 626 drinking hot water samples were analyzed with classical culture-based methods. In addition, comprehensive hygienic observations were conducted in each building and qualitative interviews with operators and users were applied. Collected tap-specific parameters were quantitatively analyzed by means of sensitivity and accuracy calculations. The systemic presence of Legionella in drinking water plumbing systems has a high spatial and temporal variability. Established sampling strategies were only partially suitable to detect long-term Legionella contaminations in practice. In particular, the sampling of hot water at the calorifier and circulation re-entrance showed little significance in terms of contamination events. To detect the systemic presence of Legionella,the parameters stagnation (qualitatively assessed) and temperature (compliance with the 5K-rule) showed better results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramaningsih, Vita; Suprayogi, Slamet; Purnama, Setyawan

    2018-02-01

    Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4); Industry (0.4); Society (0.2). Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338), low (0.288), human resources (0.205) and sustainable (0.169). Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433); license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238); communal waste water installation (0.169); monitoring of water quality (0.161).

  16. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramaningsih Vita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4; Industry (0.4; Society (0.2. Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338, low (0.288, human resources (0.205 and sustainable (0.169. Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433; license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238; communal waste water installation (0.169; monitoring of water quality (0.161.

  17. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  18. An image acquisition and registration strategy for the fusion of hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI and x-ray CT images of the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Rob H.; Woodhouse, Neil; Hoggard, Nigel; Swinscoe, James A.; Foran, Bernadette H.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Wild, Jim M.

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this ethics committee approved prospective study was to evaluate an image acquisition and registration protocol for hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He-MRI) and x-ray computed tomography. Nine patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) gave written informed consent to undergo a free-breathing CT, an inspiration breath-hold CT and a 3D ventilation 3He-MRI in CT position using an elliptical birdcage radiofrequency (RF) body coil. 3He-MRI to CT image fusion was performed using a rigid registration algorithm which was assessed by two observers using anatomical landmarks and a percentage volume overlap coefficient. Registration of 3He-MRI to breath-hold CT was more accurate than to free-breathing CT; overlap 82.9 ± 4.2% versus 59.8 ± 9.0% (p < 0.001) and mean landmark error 0.75 ± 0.24 cm versus 1.25 ± 0.60 cm (p = 0.002). Image registration is significantly improved by using an imaging protocol that enables both 3He-MRI and CT to be acquired with similar breath holds and body position through the use of a birdcage 3He-MRI body RF coil and an inspiration breath-hold CT. Fusion of 3He-MRI to CT may be useful for the assessment of patients with lung diseases.

  19. An image acquisition and registration strategy for the fusion of hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI and x-ray CT images of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland, Rob H; Woodhouse, Neil; Hoggard, Nigel; Swinscoe, James A; Foran, Bernadette H; Hatton, Matthew Q; Wild, Jim M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this ethics committee approved prospective study was to evaluate an image acquisition and registration protocol for hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging ( 3 He-MRI) and x-ray computed tomography. Nine patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) gave written informed consent to undergo a free-breathing CT, an inspiration breath-hold CT and a 3D ventilation 3 He-MRI in CT position using an elliptical birdcage radiofrequency (RF) body coil. 3 He-MRI to CT image fusion was performed using a rigid registration algorithm which was assessed by two observers using anatomical landmarks and a percentage volume overlap coefficient. Registration of 3 He-MRI to breath-hold CT was more accurate than to free-breathing CT; overlap 82.9 ± 4.2% versus 59.8 ± 9.0% (p 3 He-MRI and CT to be acquired with similar breath holds and body position through the use of a birdcage 3 He-MRI body RF coil and an inspiration breath-hold CT. Fusion of 3 He-MRI to CT may be useful for the assessment of patients with lung diseases.

  20. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractLife-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  1. Evaluating Monitoring Strategies to Detect Precipitation-Induced Microbial Contamination Events in Karstic Springs Used for Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Besmer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of microbial drinking water quality is a key component for ensuring safety and understanding risk, but conventional monitoring strategies are typically based on low sampling frequencies (e.g., quarterly or monthly. This is of concern because many drinking water sources, such as karstic springs are often subject to changes in bacterial concentrations on much shorter time scales (e.g., hours to days, for example after precipitation events. Microbial contamination events are crucial from a risk assessment perspective and should therefore be targeted by monitoring strategies to establish both the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of bacterial peak concentrations. In this study we used monitoring data from two specific karstic springs. We assessed the performance of conventional monitoring based on historical records and tested a number of alternative strategies based on a high-resolution data set of bacterial concentrations in spring water collected with online flow cytometry (FCM. We quantified the effect of increasing sampling frequency and found that for the specific case studied, at least bi-weekly sampling would be needed to detect precipitation events with a probability of >90%. We then proposed an optimized monitoring strategy with three targeted samples per event, triggered by precipitation measurements. This approach is more effective and efficient than simply increasing overall sampling frequency. It would enable the water utility to (1 analyze any relevant event and (2 limit median underestimation of peak concentrations to approximately 10%. We conclude with a generalized perspective on sampling optimization and argue that the assessment of short-term dynamics causing microbial peak loads initially requires increased sampling/analysis efforts, but can be optimized subsequently to account for limited resources. This offers water utilities and public health authorities systematic ways to evaluate and optimize their

  2. Growth and yield of cowpea/sunflower crop rotation under different irrigation management strategies with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Leila Rocha Neves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management strategies of irrigation with saline water on growth and yield of cowpea and sunflower in a crop rotation. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with thirteen treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2, T3 and T4 using water of 0.5 (A1, 2.2 (A2, 3.6 (A3 and 5.0 (A4 dS m-1, respectively, during the entire crop cycle; T5, T6 and T7, use of A2, A3 and A4 water, respectively, only in the flowering and fructification stage of the crop cycle; using different water in a cyclic way, six irrigations with A1 followed by six irrigations with A2 (T8, A3 (T9 and A4, (T10, respectively; T11, T12 and T13, using water A2, A3 and A4, respectively, starting at 11 days after planting (DAP and continuing until the end of the crop cycle. These treatments were employed in the first crop (cowpea, during the dry season, and the same plots were used for the cultivation of sunflower as succeeding crop during rainy season. The strategies of use of saline water in the salt tolerant growth stage (treatments T5, T6 and T7 or cyclically (treatments T8, T9 and T10 reduced the amount of good quality water used in the production of cowpea by 34 and 47%, respectively, without negative impacts on crop yield, and did not show the residual effects of salinity on sunflower as a succeeding crop. Thus, these strategies appear promising to be employed in areas with water salinity problems in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  3. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MSn Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qi-Rui; Hou, Jin-Jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-Hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-Peng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MS n (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MS n acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C 9 ) and sebacic acid (C 10 )] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C 8 , u-C 9 , and u-C 10 ). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Water consumption and allocation strategies along the river oases of Tarim River based on large-scale hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2016-04-01

    With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. The project aims to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups. The modelling of water consumption and allocation strategies is a core block in the SuMaRiO cluster. A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO Basin) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River. MIKE HYDRO Basin is an integrated, multipurpose, map-based decision support tool for river basin analysis, planning and management. It provides detailed simulation results concerning water resources and land use in the catchment areas of the river. Calibration data and future predictions based on large amount of data was acquired. The results of model calibration indicated a close correlation between simulated and observed values. Scenarios with the change on irrigation strategies and land use distributions were investigated. Irrigation scenarios revealed that the available irrigation water has significant and varying effects on the yields of different crops. Irrigation water saving could reach up to 40% in the water-saving irrigation scenario. Land use scenarios illustrated that an increase of farmland area in the

  5. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  6. How Cisco Systems Used Enterprise Architecture Capability to Sustain Acquisition-Based Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme; Henningsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Value-creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. The case of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced enterprise architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the four phases of the acquisition process: pre-acquisition preparation, acquisition selection, acquisition integration...... and post-integration management. Cisco’s EA capability improves its ability to rapidly capture value from acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition-based growth strategy over time....

  7. Long-Term Effect of Different Carbon Management Strategies on Water Flow and Related Processes for Three Loamy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2013-01-01

    on preferential flow and loss of colloids during heavy irrigation events. The field sites were all under long-term management and therefore represent up to 30 years of pairwise different management strategies. One field in each field pair was managed with a more C-repleting strategy (HighC) than the other (Low......The decline in organic matter of arable land, induced and accelerated by modern agriculture, has been identified as a threat to sustained soil quality. In this article, we studied strategies to counter this decrease by building up soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in the soils using several......C). Only small differences in SOC contents were identified, and none of the management strategies had succeeded in building up SOC pools large enough to saturate the soil with C. Only at one field site was the content of water-dispersible colloids lower in the HighC than the LowC treatment. Preferential...

  8. Effects of inequality of supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of intermittent water supply in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guragai, B; Takizawa, S; Hashimoto, T; Oguma, K

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Free chlorine concentration in all piped water samples was below the national standards (0.1-0.2mg/L), but combined chlorine was detected at an average of 0.24mg/L, indicating ingression of contaminants in the network. Point-of-use devices could increase access to safe water in the KV from 42% to 80%. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients revealed inequality of piped water supply hours per week both between and within service areas in the KV, due mainly to a small percentage of households who receive longer supply hours. To cope with reduced supply hours, home owners pay more to get water from alternative sources, while tenants compromise their water consumption. Under IWS, expectations for improvements in piped water quality and supply regularity are higher than those for supply volume. Consumers' perceptions of the piped water services worsen with the reduction in supply hours, but perceptions of piped water tariff are independent of supply hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural water use, crop water footprints and irrigation strategies in the seasonally dry Guanacaste region in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Laura; Johnson, Mark S.; Hund, Silja V.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is the main productive sector and a major water-consuming sector in the seasonally-dry Guanacaste region of north-western Costa Rica. Agriculture in the region is intensifying at the same time that seasonal water scarcity is increasing. The climate of this region is characterized by a prolonged dry season from December to March, followed by a bimodal wet season from April to November. The wet season has historically experienced periodic oscillations in rainfall timing and amounts resulting from variations of several large-scale climatic features (El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation). However, global circulation models now project more recurrent variations in total annual rainfall, changes in rainfall temporal distribution, and increased temperatures in this region. This may result in a lengthening of the dry season and an increase in water scarcity and water-related conflicts as water resources are already limited and disputed in this area. In fact, this region has just undergone a four-year drought over the 2012-2015 period, which has intensified water related conflicts and put agricultural production at risk. In turn, the recent drought has also increased awareness of the local communities regarding the regional threat of water scarcity and the need of a regional water planning. The overall goal of this research is to generate data to characterize water use by the agricultural sector in this region and asses its sustainability in the regional context. Towards this goal, eddy-covariance flux towers were deployed on two extensive farms growing regionally-representative crops (melon/rice rotation and sugarcane) to evaluate, monitor and quantify water use in large-scale farms. The two identically instrumented stations provide continuous measurements of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes, and are equipped with additional instrumentation to monitor

  10. Strategies to assess systemic exposure of chemicals in subchronic/chronic diet and drinking water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghir, Shakil A.; Mendrala, Alan L.; Bartels, Michael J.; Day, Sue J.; Hansen, Steve C.; Sushynski, Jacob M.; Bus, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies were developed for the estimation of systemically available daily doses of chemicals, diurnal variations in blood levels, and rough elimination rates in subchronic feeding/drinking water studies, utilizing a minimal number of blood samples. Systemic bioavailability of chemicals was determined by calculating area under the plasma concentration curve over 24 h (AUC-24 h) using complete sets of data (≥5 data points) and also three, two, and one selected time points. The best predictions of AUC-24 h were made when three time points were used, corresponding to C max , a mid-morning sample, and C min . These values were found to be 103 ± 10% of the original AUC-24 h, with 13 out of 17 values ranging between 96 and 105% of the original. Calculation of AUC-24 h from two samples (C max and C min ) or one mid-morning sample afforded slightly larger variations in the calculated AUC-24 h (69-136% of the actual). Following drinking water exposure, prediction of AUC-24 h using 3 time points (C max , mid-morning, and C min ) was very close to actual values (80-100%) among mice, while values for rats were only 63% of the original due to less frequent drinking behavior of rats during the light cycle. Collection and analysis of 1-3 blood samples per dose may provide insight into dose-proportional or non-dose-proportional differences in systemic bioavailability, pointing towards saturation of absorption or elimination or some other phenomenon warranting further investigation. In addition, collection of the terminal blood samples from rats, which is usually conducted after 18 h of fasting, will be helpful in rough estimation of blood/plasma half-life of the compound. The amount of chemical(s) and/or metabolite(s) in excreta and their possible use as biomarkers in predicting the daily systemic exposure levels are also discussed. Determining these parameters in the early stages of testing will provide critical information to improve the appropriate design of other longer

  11. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  12. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  13. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  14. Perceived risks in online hotel services acquisition: Determinant factors of reduction strategies and their relation with consumer´s demographical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gomes de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to identify which factors determine the adoption of strategies to reduce perceived risk in the purchase of hotel services online, checking whether there is any relation between those relievers and demographical characteristics. A factor analysis was conducted after application of a structured questionnaire with consumers who have a habit of traveling and booking hotels through the internet. The results showed that the factors that characterize the strategies used by consumers as a means of reducing risk in the virtual environment are: users and partners own experience, regulation guarantees and certainty and higher price. That is, it can be considered that these factors are relevant and tend to be used by consumers as a way to reduce risks when purchasing a hotel service online. On the other hand, it was found that demographic characteristics show no relationship with consumers´ perception of risk. With these results, the question that remains is whether the companies in this field of activity develop actions aligned with these factors in order to enable consumers to reduce their risk perceptions while buying these services on websites.

  15. Socio-Hydrological Observatory for Water Security (SHOWS): Examples of Adaptation Strategies With Next Challenges from Brazilian Risk Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F. A. A. D.; Mendiondo, E. M.; Taffarello, D.; Guzmán-Arias, D.; Fava, M. C.; Abreu, F.; Freitas, C. C.; de Macedo, M. B.; Estrada, C. R.; do Lago, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    In Brazil, more than 40,000 hot-spot areas, with vulnerable human settlements with ca. 120 million inhabitants and responsible of 60% of Brazilian Gross Net Product, are threatened by hydrological-driven disaster risks. In these areas, local resilient actions and adaptation strategies do integrate the current Brazilian Act and Regulation of Laws of urban waters, climate change and civil protection. However, these initiatives are still under slow progress, especially to cope with floods, landslides, droughts, progressive biodiversity losses and energy burnouts. Here we address these hot-spots through the concept of Socio-Hydrological Observatory for Water Security (SHOWS), with a mix of adaptation strategies, open-source, big data analysis and societal feedbacks. On the one hand, SHOWS merges strategies like the dynamic framework of water security (Srinivasan et al, 2017), drought risk mapping (Rossato et al, 2017) and water securitization under varying water demand and climate change until year 2100 (Mohor & Mendiondo, 2017; Guzmán-Arias et al, 2017). SHOWS acknowledges different perspectives of water insecurity, several spatiotemporal scales and regime shifts in socio-hydrologic systems. On the one hand, SHOWS links field monitoring during water insecurity hazards (Taffarello et al, 2016), ecosystem-based adaptation networks, and decision-making and big data sources to disaster management (Horita et al, 2017). By using selected examples from two Brazilian running interdisciplinary research aliances, i.e. CAPES-ProAlertas CEMADEN-CEPED/USP and the CNPq/FAPESP National Institute of Science & Technology on Climate Change-II Water Security, we also face the limits, the pros and cons of SHOWS' assumptions. Through real-cases paradoxes, (i.e. 2013/2014 drought), water dashboards and coevolution trends (i.e. impacts on river basin committees from scenarios until 2050, 2100 in NE & SE Brazil), SHOWS helps on guiding decisionmaking for next societal steps of water

  16. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  17. Accomplishing Water Strategy Policies in Hospitals: The Role of Management Information Systems and Managerial Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are using more sophisticated and comprehensive management information systems to implement multiple strategic policies towards water cost saving and water quality enhancement. However, they do not always achieve the intended strategic goals. This paper analyzes how managerial styles interact with sophisticated management information systems to achieve different water strategic priorities. How proactive vs. reactive managerial styles moderate the effects of management information systems on water cost saving and water quality enhancement is analyzed. Relationships are explored using data collected from 122 general services directors in Spanish public hospitals. The findings show a positive effect of sophisticated management information systems on the achievement of water policies focused on cost saving and quality enhancement. Results also show a different moderated effect of managerial styles; thus, sophisticated management information systems with a proactive managerial style facilitate managers to achieve better water quality policies rather than water cost saving policies.

  18. An integrated strategy for biological effects monitoring in Scottish coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.A.; Dobson, J.; Richardson, L.; Hill, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarises SEPA's current programme of water quality and biological effects monitoring and, using recent examples, discusses the current environmental issues affecting the condition of our coastal waters. (author)

  19. Acquisition of a potent and selective TC-PTP inhibitor via a stepwise fluorophore-tagged combinatorial synthesis and screening strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Luo, Yong; Gunawan, Andrea; Lawrence, David S; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2009-09-16

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and immune responses. Dysfunction of PTP activity is associated with cancers, metabolic syndromes, and autoimmune disorders. Consequently, small molecule PTP inhibitors should serve not only as powerful tools to delineate the physiological roles of these enzymes in vivo but also as lead compounds for therapeutic development. We describe a novel stepwise fluorophore-tagged combinatorial library synthesis and competitive fluorescence polarization screening approach that transforms a weak and general PTP inhibitor into an extremely potent and selective TC-PTP inhibitor with highly efficacious cellular activity. The result serves as a proof-of-concept in PTP inhibitor development, as it demonstrates the feasibility of acquiring potent, yet highly selective, cell permeable PTP inhibitory agents. Given the general nature of the approach, this strategy should be applicable to other PTP targets.

  20. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  1. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  2. Physiological strategies of co-occurring oaks in a water- and nutrient-limited ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schafer

    2014-01-01

    Oak species are well suited to water-limited conditions by either avoiding water stress through deep rooting or tolerating water stress through tight stomatal control. In co-occurring species where resources are limited, species may either partition resources in space and/or time or exhibit differing efficiencies in the use of limited resources. Therefore, this study...

  3. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  4. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Distinct Osmoadaptation Strategies in the Strict Halophilic and Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Lunsu Salt Water Body of North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Shivani; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2018-07-01

    Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains. The strict halophiles and, one of the halotolerants, Marinomonas sp. SS8 were found to utilize both "salt-in strategy" and "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" for osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions. On the contrary, the remaining two halotolerants used "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" under saline stress and not the "salt-in strategy". The present study suggests towards distinct mechanisms of salt tolerance in the two classes, wherein strict halophiles accumulate compatible solutes as well as adopt salt-in strategy, while the halotolerant bacteria accumulate a range of compatible solutes, except Marinomonas sp. SS8, which utilizes both the strategies to combat salt stress.

  6. Pressurised light water reactor failed fuel monitoring. Comparison of international strategies used in the surveillance of the primary barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldworth, Robin; Dinse, Christelle; Mole, Didier

    2014-01-01

    As part of its focus on continuous improvement, the nuclear industry has devoted considerable effort to the prevention, monitoring, characterisation and impact mitigation of fuel failures. Failed fuel and primary circuit activity monitoring strategies have thus evolved over time, with utilities changing their strategies as a function of operational experience, regulator encouragement and improvements to scientific understanding. Differences among utility fuel monitoring strategies are therefore to be expected. This paper compares and analyses a selection of failed fuel and primary circuit activity monitoring strategies employed at French, American, South-African and Belgian pressurised water reactors (PWRs). These strategies, which were received in response to a questionnaire sent by Electricité de France, are discussed with a number of potential best practices and areas for future research and development being provided. Finally, and so as to ensure the utility of this paper with regards to the development, or evolution of, failed fuel monitoring strategies, this paper has been split into four sections representing the primary radiochemistry indicator groups: gross, calculated, fission products and activated corrosion products. (author)

  7. Evaluation of an Extremum Seeking Control Based Optimization and Sequencing Strategy for a Chilled-water Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhongfan; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Salsbury, Timothy I.; House, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Chilled-water plants with multiple chillers account for a significant fraction of energy use in large commercial buildings. Real-time optimization and sequencing of such plants is thus critical for building energy efficiency. Due to the cost and complexity associated with calibrating a chiller plant model to field operation, model-free control has become an attractive solution. Recently, Mu et al. (2015) proposed a model-free real-time optimization and sequencing strategy based on extremum se...

  8. Application of Emotional Branding Strategy in the Model Development of Sports Brand of The Bottled Water Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Jankovic

    2017-01-01

    The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction o...

  9. Questioning the effectiveness of planned conflict resolution strategies in water disputes between rural communities and mining companies in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Disputes between mining companies and surrounding communities over the access to, control of and distribution of water form an important part of the socio-environmental conflicts that large mining operations in Peru are producing. In order to mitigate environmental impacts, solve conflicts and deal with opposition to mining operations, governmental actors and mining companies make use of a combination of legal and technical strategies. This article questions the effectiveness of these strateg...

  10. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy K.K. Ngai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under seven scenarios of how the external context may plausibly evolve. The results showed that the optimal choice of strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame. The analysis also revealed some key programme management challenges, including the trade-off between optimising short- or long-term gains, and counter-intuitive results, such as higher subsidy fund allocation leading to fewer filter distribution, and technology advances leading to fewer sales. This study outlines how an NGO can choose effective strategies in consideration of complex system interactions. This study demonstrated that small NGOs can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing operational budget.

  11. Optimisation of the Monitoring Strategy of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the River Dender, in Relation to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P. D’heygere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dender basin in Flanders (Belgium was used as a case study to implement the European Union (EU Water Framework Directive. During the last 5 years, ample research on pollution loads and ecological water quality has been done on the Dender River. In addition to biological sampling of macroinvertebrates and fish, automated measurement stations were also used to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of the physical-chemical water quality. This research revealed that the pollution of the Dender River is highly variable. The high nutrient loads result in severe algae blooms during summer, leading to very complex diurnal processes. In this paper, the monitoring strategy for the assessment of the biological water quality in the Dender basin has been reviewed in relation to the EU Water Framework Directive. For this, seasonal macroinvertebrate data were collected and assessed. General trends and hidden structures in these data were analysed by means of classification trees, using different inputs (seasons, river types, and subbasins. Validation of the results was obtained by applying statistical methods. Analysis about the presence and abundance of the macroinvertebrates revealed that there is a distinct difference between the biological water quality in the Dender stem river and its tributaries. There are also seasonal differences between the macroinvertebrate communities when the Dender and its tributaries are examined separately. An optimised monitoring strategy is proposed based on these results and the EU Water Framework Directive. This includes two monitoring campaigns in summer and winter every 3 years. Furthermore, a cyclic monitoring scheme was developed to minimise sampling efforts.

  12. Safety research on fusion DEMO in Japan: Toward development of safety strategy of a water-cooled DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Makoto, E-mail: nakamura.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho 039-3212, Aomori (Japan); Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Youji; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho 039-3212, Aomori (Japan); Gulden, Werner [Fusion for Energy, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports the current status of a safety research on water-cooled fusion DEMO in Japan. • We report analyses of two transients: (i) complete loss of decay heat removal and (ii) major ex-VV LOCA. • The MELCOR analysis has clarified the temperature histories of the DEMO components in complete loss of decay heat removal. • A strategy to reduce the pressure load to the final barrier confining radioactive materials is proposed against the major ex-VV LOCA. - Abstract: This paper reports the current status of a safety research on water-cooled fusion DEMO in Japan. A basic strategy of development of the safety guidelines is described for DEMO based on a water-cooled solid pebble bed blanket. Clarification of safety features of the DEMO in accident situations is a key issue to develop the guidelines. Recent achievements in understanding of the safety features of the water-cooled DEMO are reported. The MELCOR analysis has clarified the temperature histories of the DEMO components in a complete loss of decay heat removal event. The transient behavior of the first wall temperature is found to be essentially different from that of ITER. The pressure load to the tokamak cooling water system vault (TCWSV) is analyzed based on a simple model equation of the energy conservation. If the amount of the primary coolant is the same as that of Slim-CS, the previous small Japanese DEMO, the discharged water does not damage the TCWSV with the volume and pressure-tightness similar to those of pressurized light water reactors. It is shown that implementation of a pressure suppression system to the small TCWSV is effective to suppress the pressure load to the second confinement barrier.

  13. Innovatively Therapeutic Strategy on Lung Cancer by Daily Drinking Antioxidative Plasmon-Induced Activated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Kai; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2018-04-20

    Many human diseases are inflammation-related, such as cancer and those associated with aging. Previous studies demonstrated that plasmon-induced activated (PIA) water with electron-doping character, created from hot electron transfer via decay of excited Au nanoparticles (NPs) under resonant illumination, owns reduced hydrogen-bonded networks and physchemically antioxidative properties. In this study, it is demonstrated PIA water dramatically induced a major antioxidative Nrf2 gene in human gingival fibroblasts which further confirms its cellular antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, mice implanted with mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) cells drinking PIA water alone or together with cisplatin treatment showed improved survival time compared to mice which consumed only deionized (DI) water. With the combination of PIA water and cisplatin administration, the survival time of LLC-1-implanted mice markedly increased to 8.01 ± 0.77 days compared to 6.38 ± 0.61 days of mice given cisplatin and normal drinking DI water. This survival time of 8.01 ± 0.77 days compared to 4.62 ± 0.71 days of mice just given normal drinking water is statistically significant (p = 0.009). Also, the gross observations and eosin staining results suggested that LLC-1-implanted mice drinking PIA water tended to exhibit less metastasis than mice given only DI water.

  14. Power flattening and reactivity suppression strategies for the Canadian supercritical water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.; Colton, A.; Pencer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is a conceptual heavy water moderated, supercritical light water cooled pressure tube reactor. In contrast to current heavy water power reactors, the Canadian SCWR will be a batch fuelled reactor. Associated with batch fuelling is a large beginning-of-cycle excess reactivity. Furthermore, radial power peaking arising as a consequence of batch refuelling must be mitigated in some way. In this paper, burnable neutron absorber (BNA) added to fuel and absorbing rods inserted into the core are considered for reactivity management and power flattening. A combination of approaches appears adequate to reduce the core radial power peaking, while also providing reactivity suppression. (author)

  15. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters: Identification, Potential Ecological Impact, and Implications for Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses identification of individual organic contaminants in FPW, and stresses the gaps in the knowledge on FPW composition that exist so far. Furthermore, the risk quotient approach was applied to predict the toxicity of the quantified organic compounds for fresh water organisms in recipient surface waters. This resulted in an identification of a number of FPW related organic compounds that are potentially harmful namely those compounds originating from shale formations (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates), fracturing fluids (e.g., quaternary ammonium biocides, 2-butoxyethanol) and downhole transformations of organic compounds (e.g., carbon disulfide, halogenated organic compounds). Removal of these compounds by FPW treatment processes is reviewed and potential and efficient abatement strategies are defined. PMID:28376616

  16. Traits and selection strategies to improve root systems and water uptake in water-limited wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, A P; Richards, R A; Chatrath, R; Misra, S C; Prasad, S V Sai; Rebetzke, G J; Kirkegaard, J A; Christopher, J; Watt, M

    2012-05-01

    Wheat yields globally will depend increasingly on good management to conserve rainfall and new varieties that use water efficiently for grain production. Here we propose an approach for developing new varieties to make better use of deep stored water. We focus on water-limited wheat production in the summer-dominant rainfall regions of India and Australia, but the approach is generally applicable to other environments and root-based constraints. Use of stored deep water is valuable because it is more predictable than variable in-season rainfall and can be measured prior to sowing. Further, this moisture is converted into grain with twice the efficiently of in-season rainfall since it is taken up later in crop growth during the grain-filling period when the roots reach deeper layers. We propose that wheat varieties with a deeper root system, a redistribution of branch root density from the surface to depth, and with greater radial hydraulic conductivity at depth would have higher yields in rainfed systems where crops rely on deep water for grain fill. Developing selection systems for mature root system traits is challenging as there are limited high-throughput phenotyping methods for roots in the field, and there is a risk that traits selected in the lab on young plants will not translate into mature root system traits in the field. We give an example of a breeding programme that combines laboratory and field phenotyping with proof of concept evaluation of the trait at the beginning of the selection programme. This would greatly enhance confidence in a high-throughput laboratory or field screen, and avoid investment in screens without yield value. This approach requires careful selection of field sites and years that allow expression of deep roots and increased yield. It also requires careful selection and crossing of germplasm to allow comparison of root expression among genotypes that are similar for other traits, especially flowering time and disease and toxicity

  17. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  18. Water-use strategies in two co-occurring Mediterranean evergreen oaks: surviving the summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T S; Henriques, M O; Kurz-Besson, C; Nunes, J; Valente, F; Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Siegwolf, R; Chaves, M M; Gazarini, L C; David, J S

    2007-06-01

    In the Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal, the main tree species are Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia Lam. (holm oak) and Quercus suber L. (cork oak). We studied a savannah-type woodland where these species coexist, with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms of tree adaptation to seasonal drought. In both species, seasonal variations in transpiration and predawn leaf water potential showed a maximum in spring followed by a decline through the rainless summer and a recovery with autumn rainfall. Although the observed decrease in predawn leaf water potential in summer indicates soil water depletion, trees maintained transpiration rates above 0.7 mm day(-1) during the summer drought. By that time, more than 70% of the transpired water was being taken from groundwater sources. The daily fluctuations in soil water content suggest that some root uptake of groundwater was mediated through the upper soil layers by hydraulic lift. During the dry season, Q. ilex maintained higher predawn leaf water potentials, canopy conductances and transpiration rates than Q. suber. The higher water status of Q. ilex was likely associated with their deeper root systems compared with Q. suber. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance and minimum midday leaf water potential were lower in Q. ilex, indicating that Q. ilex was more tolerant to drought than Q. suber. Overall, Q. ilex seemed to have more effective drought avoidance and drought tolerance mechanisms than Q. suber.

  19. Water supply and demand management strategies in the Galapagos: A case study of Santa CRuz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources on many islands in the world have been severely strained by increases in visitors. Santa Cruz Island, a tourism hub in the Galapagos, is facing significant challenges of too many people and not enough available water. There are no permanent freshwater resources on Santa Cruz, and the

  20. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework to Evaluate Water Allocation Strategies I: Model Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, B.; Malano, H.; Davidson, B.; Hellegers, P.; Bharati, L.; Sylvain, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an integrated modelling framework for water resources planning and management that can be used to carry out an analysis of alternative policy scenarios for water allocation and use is described. The modelling approach is based on integrating a network allocation model (REALM) and a

  1. First results of the earth observation water cycle multi-mission observation strategy (WACMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Fernadez-Prieto, D.; Timmermans, J.; Chen, Xuelong; Hungershoefer, K.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; Stammes, P.; Wang, Peng; Wolters, e.

    2014-01-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is

  2. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  3. Model-based Impact Assessment of an Integrated Water Management Strategy on Ecosystem Services relevant to Food Security in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, R.; Liehr, S.

    2012-04-01

    North-central Namibia is characterized by seasonal alterations of drought and heavy rainfall, mostly saline groundwater resources and a lack of perennial rivers. Water scarcity poses a great challenge for freshwater supply, harvest and food security against the background of high population growth and climate change. CuveWaters project aims at poverty reduction and livelihood improvement on a long term basis by introducing a multi-resource-mix as part of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Herein, creating water buffers by rainwater harvesting (RWH) and subsurface water storage as well as reuse of treated wastewater facilitates micro-scale gardening activities. This link constitutes a major component of a sustainable adaptation strategy by contributing to the conservation and improvement of basic food and freshwater resources in order to reduce drought vulnerability. This paper presents main findings of an impact assessment carried out on the effect of integrated water resources management on ecosystem services (ESS) relevant to food security within the framework of CuveWaters project. North-central Namibia is perceived as a social-ecological system characterized by a strong mutual dependence between natural environment and anthropogenic system. This fundamental reliance on natural resources highlights the key role of ESS in semi-arid environments to sustain human livelihoods. Among other services, food provision was chosen for quantification as one of the most fundamental ESS in north-central Namibia. Different nutritional values were utilized as indicators to adopt a demand-supply approach (Ecosystem Service Profile) to illustrate the ability of the ecosystem to meet people's nutritional requirements. Calculations have been conducted using both Bayesian networks to incorporate uncertainty introduced by the variability of monthly precipitation and the application of plant specific water production functions. Results show that improving the

  4. Evaluating water management strategies with the Systems Impact Assessment Model: SIAM version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.; Heasley, John; Hanna, Blair; Sandelin, Jeff; Flug, Marshall; Campbell, Sharon; Henriksen, Jim; Douglas, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Water from many of California's coastal rivers has been used for a wide variety of development ventures, including major agricultural diversions, hydropower generation, and contaminant assimilation from industry, agriculture and logging. Anthropogenic impacts often degrade water quality and decrease the quantity and quality of aquatic habitat. Reallocating streamflow away from uses that degrade water quality to uses that foster higher water quality is a critical step in restoring riverine habitat and the anadromous fish that rely on that habitat for a portion of their life cycle. Reallocation always brings with it the need to examine the economic efficiency of the proposed changes. If the dollar benefits of improving water quality are greater than the costs, the criterion of improving economic efficiency is satisfied, a fact that can be highly persuasive to decision makers contemplating reallocation.

  5. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.

    2016-09-06

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  6. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, Gregoire; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  7. Encouraging Consumption of Water in School and Child Care Settings: Access, Challenges, and Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Karla E.

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water, instead opting for sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas, sports and energy drinks, milks, coffees, and fruit-flavored drinks with added sugars), 100% fruit juice, and other beverages. Drinking sufficient amounts of water can lead to improved weight status, reduced dental caries, and improved cognition among children and adolescents. Because children spend most of their day at school and in child care, ensuring that safe, potable drinking water is available in these settings is a fundamental public health measure. We sought to identify challenges that limit access to drinking water; opportunities, including promising practices, to increase drinking water availability and consumption; and future research, policy efforts, and funding needed in this area. PMID:21680941

  8. Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Haileslassie, A; Duncan, A J; de Boer, I J M

    2015-05-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall water use efficiency of agriculture. Previous studies have reported significant variation in livestock water productivity (LWP) within and among farming systems. Underlying causes of this variation in LWP require further investigation. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that explain the variation in LWP within and among farming systems in Ethiopia. We quantified LWP for various farms in mixed-crop livestock systems and explored the effect of household demographic characteristics and farm assets on LWP using ANOVA and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression. We focused on water used to cultivate feeds on privately owned agricultural lands. There was a difference in LWP among farming systems and wealth categories. Better-off households followed by medium households had the highest LWP, whereas poor households had the lowest LWP. The variation in LWP among wealth categories could be explained by the differences in the ownership of livestock and availability of family labor. Regression results showed that the age of the household head, the size of the livestock holding and availability of family labor affected LWP positively. The results suggest that water use efficiency could be improved by alleviating resource constraints such as access to farm labor and livestock assets, oxen in particular.

  9. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. M.; Ledin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority...... in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations...

  10. A Management Strategy for the Heavy Water Reflector Cooling System of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Park, Y. C.; Lim, S. P. (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Heavy water is used as the reflector and the moderator of the HANARO research reactor. After over 10 years operation since first criticality in 1995 there arose some operational issues related with the tritium. A task force team(TFT) has been operated for 1 year since September 2006 to study and deduce resolutions of the issues concerning the tritium and the degradation of heavy water in the HANARO reflector system. The TFT drew many recommendations on the hardware upgrade, tritium containing air control, heavy water quality management, waste management, and tritium measurement system upgrade.

  11. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, P.; Garrido, M.; Collos, Y.; Pasqualini, V.

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations. - Highlights: •Dinoflagellate proliferation is now common in Mediterranean coastal waters. •Trophic strategies are advanced to explain the success of these organisms. •Prorocentrum minimum exhaustively dominated in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica) in 2010. •Photosynthesis alone did not sustain the observed situation all year round. •Mixotrophy is hypothesized as an alternative driver of the process.

  12. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  13. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Indus Basin of Pakistan to develop strategies for the safe exploitation of fresh upper groundwater layer through multi-strainer skimming wells in the areas having deeper saline groundwater. Results of detailed investigations are given in this paper. A methodology was designed for investigations and to study the movement of saline-fresh water interface. For this purpose deep observation wells were installed and water samples from various depths over a period of wells operational hours have been collected. Water quality of these samples was tested to evaluate the movement of saline-fresh water interface. Results indicated that there exists a relatively fresh water aquifer above the depth of 20m. Relatively impervious layer and clay lenses of variable thickness exists at various locations in the area. There is relatively less contribution from the lower aquifer as compared to the lateral movement of water to the well above the impervious layers. The skimming wells were operated for a different number of hours and water quality evaluated. The results show that the quality and quantity of the pumped groundwater can be improved with intermittent pumping for 4-6 hours per day under drought conditions and recovery of the water-table is quick. Moreover, the intermittent pumping maintained a minimum suction lift that helped get a relatively good discharge. Continuous long term pumping proved to be dangerous which can cause saline water intrusion. It is recommended to avoid long term pumping of skimming wells. Intermittent short hours operation can be helpful for safe exploitation of fresh water and make skimming well operation more cost effective. It is further added that 4-6 strainers make these skimming wells cost effective as compared to having a large number of strainers in a skimming well. (author)

  14. Strategies to combat salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers : A model-based exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances in

  15. A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student’s performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zarifsanaiey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. Methods The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20 and experimental (n = 20 groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies, the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case B.to be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations, the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann–Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P <0

  16. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  17. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  18. Water Footprint Mitigation Strategies for Agrifood Products: The Application of System Dynamics in Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Aivazidou, E; Tsolakis, Naoum; Vlachos, D; Iakovou, E

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity (WS), which leads to multiple environmental, social and economic ramifications, has emerged as an indisputable concern for both public and private stakeholders. In this context, the water footprint (WF) concept has been introduced for assessing freshwater consumption and pollution at national, corporate or product level. In the agrifood industry, freshwater is a pivotal constituent since agricultural activities consume 70 % of the global freshwater resources, while food process...

  19. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of t...... of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  20. Ostrich-Like Strategies in Sahelian Sands? Land and Water Grabbing in the Office du Niger, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hertzog

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, large-scale agricultural investment projects have increased in sub-Saharan Africa as a result of the growing appetites of local and international investors for land resources. Research has so far mainly focused on land issues, but the water implications of these land deals are starting to surface. Taking the Office du Niger (ON, in Mali, as a case study, we show that while around 100,000 ha is currently being cultivated, mostly by smallholders, a total of 600,000 ha of land has been allocated in the past ten years to investors in large-scale farming. This process has largely bypassed the official procedure established by the ON at regional level. The allocation of new lands has shifted to the national level, with an attempt to recentralize the management of land deals and associated benefits at the highest level, despite contrary efforts by foreign donors to strengthen the ON. This article describes the complex allocation process based on 'behind-closed-doors' negotiations. It then analyses the implications of the land deals on water issues by focusing on the strategies of actors to limit the risk of future water shortages, the current and expected difficulties in water management and allocation, and the emerging spatial and social redistribution of benefits and risk that signals a process of water grabbing.

  1. Field Evidence Supporting Conventional Onion Curing Practices as a Strategy To Mitigate Escherichia coli Contamination from Irrigation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel; Feibert, Erik; Reitz, Stuart; Shock, Clint; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2018-03-01

    The Produce Safety Rule of the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act includes restrictions on the use of agricultural water of poor microbiological quality. Mitigation options for poor water quality include the application of an irrigation-to-harvest interval of onion production includes an extended irrigation-to-harvest interval (onion fields (randomized block design; n = 5) via drip tape on the final day of irrigation. Onions remained undisturbed for 7 days and were then lifted to the surface to cure for an additional 21 days before harvest. Water, onions, and soil were tested for presence of rifampin-resistant E. coli. One day after irrigation, 13.3% of onions (20 of 150) receiving the poorest quality water (3 log CFU/mL) tested positive for E. coli; this prevalence was reduced to 4% (6 of 150 onions) after 7 days. Regardless of inoculum level, E. coli was not detected on any onions beyond 15 days postirrigation. These results support conventional dry bulb onion curing practices as an effective strategy to mitigate microbiological concerns associated with poor quality irrigation water.

  2. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlor