WorldWideScience

Sample records for wastewaters einsatzgebiete spezieller

  1. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  2. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  3. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  4. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  5. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  6. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  7. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  8. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  9. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  10. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  11. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  12. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  13. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  14. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  15. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  16. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  17. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  18. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  19. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  20. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  1. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  2. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    1998). Research is directed on quantifying the C, N and P fractions in the secondary ... and prefermented wastewater, applicable for a basic in-line APT and other prefermenter ... representative composite samples, and from these samples the ... Constituents in true solution (dissolved) (particle size < 1 nm);. • not visible by ...

  3. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  4. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  5. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  6. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig

  7. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  8. Microplastic in Danish wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the role of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the emission of microplastic to the environment in terms of amounts and types of plastic polymers emitted and if possible, to evaluate which sources these plastic polymers could originate...... investigations (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy imaging applying a Focal Plane Array). This method allows both determination of the microplastic concentrations in the samples and identification of the type of plastic polymer of each microplastic particle....

  9. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  10. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  11. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  12. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  13. Neutralization of wastewater from nitrite passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Mientki, B.; Wasag, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method for neutralization of wastewater formed in nitrite passivation has been presented. The method consists of introducing urea into wastewater and acidifying it with sulphuric acid. Wastewater is neutralized with lime. After clarification, wastewater can be drained outside the plant

  14. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  15. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  16. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  17. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    to analyze and quantify the effect of the Aeration Tank Settling (ATS) operating mode, which is used during rain events. Furthermore, the model is used to propose a control algorithm for the phase lengths during ATS operation. The models are mainly formulated as state space model in continuous time......In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...... at modelling the fluxes in terms of the multiple correlation coefficient R2. The model of the SS concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP as well as in the effluent from the aeration tanks is a mass balance model based on measurements of SS in one aeration tank and in the common outlet...

  18. Processes, spheres of use and importance of sewage sludge disintegration; Verfahren, Einsatzgebiete und Bedeutung der Klaerschlammdesintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    The paper gives an overview of results attained by means of mechanical sludge disintegration methods and compares them with thermal and ozone treatment. The objective is to describe in scientific as well as application-oriented terms the opportunities held and limits to this process step of sludge treatment. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Beitrags wird eine Uebersicht ueber die mit mechanischen Verfahren der Schlammdesintegration erreichten Ergebnisse und ein Vergleich mit der Waerme- und der Ozonbehandlung gegeben. Ziel des Beitrages ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieses Prozessschrittes der Schlammbehandlung aus wissenschaftlicher wie aus anwendungsorientierter Sicht darzustellen. (orig.)

  19. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  20. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  1. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  2. Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater The NESC has provided of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Agencies, The Office of Wastewater Management at EPA, in cooperation with the Global Environment and

  3. Properties of Concrete Mixes with Carwash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the car wash industry today results in the need for wastewater reclamation. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the effect of using car wash wastewater on concrete properties in terms of mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 3 00.0 while the mechanical properties of concrete with car wash wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentages of wastewater replaced in the concrete mix ranged from 0% up to 40%. In addition, the results also suggest that the concrete with 20% car wash wastewater achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other compositions of wastewater. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete mixed with car wash wastewater has better compressive strength compared to conventional concrete.

  4. Understanding farmers' preferences for wastewater reuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater has emerged as an alternative source of water. Since the agricultural sector remains the largest water user world-wide, it is the main potential user of treated wastewater. However, while there are trade-offs in using wastewater, it may be the only option in water scarce regions. South Africa has included water ...

  5. Quantum leap for treating wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: For many Australian food manufacturers there is increasing pressure from government agencies to reach higher standards of wastewater treatment for environmental discharge. In fact, throughout the western wolrd industrual water users are facing a similar challenge. One of the big problems is ageing pipe networks, particularly sewage pipes. Also, industrial wastewaters with high sugar-nutrient loads can cause serious damage to pipelines. This is because fermentation occurs within the wastewater, eroding and degrading the pipes, causing numerous cracks and fractures. This in turn leads to water ingress, which puts a strain on treatment plants because of the higher volume of water, especially in wet weather. Food manufacturing produces large volumes of mostly biodegradable liquid and solid waste. Wastewaters released from food manufacturing can be 'muddy', with high concentrations of suspended solids, fats, oils and grease (FOGs), and, usually, nutrients such as nitrogen. The issue for many food manufacturers is that existing wastewater treatment systems are unable to reduce the nutrient load in the biological treatment stage to a level allowing acceptable discharge. In addition, most rely on large tanks housing bacteria that are submerged in water and aerated. Aeration is energy-hungry and can create a 'sludge-cake' on top of the water, which is difficult to treat. Most existing technologies also use filters, but they foul easily and require ongoing maintenance. According to BioGill chief executive John West, the BioGill technology is groundbreaking and radically different from conventional bioreactors because the 'gills' are not submerged. Instead, the gills, composed of Nano-Ceramic Membrane sheets arranged vertically in pairs, are suspended in the air, above ground, with wastewater travelling down between them. “Fungi and bacteria, known as biomass, grow on the membranes in direct contact with the air, eating nutrients much faster than other systems

  6. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  7. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  8. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  10. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  11. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  12. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  13. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  14. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  15. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  16. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  17. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  18. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  19. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  20. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  1. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  2. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  4. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  5. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  6. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  7. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  8. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Cytogenotoxicity screening of untreated hospital wastewaters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters of the wastewaters were determined in accordance with standard methods. Onions root growth inhibition test was used to assess the toxic status of the wastewaters, while cytogenotoxicity was measured by microscopic investigation of the chromosomal aberrations. Onion bulbs were exposed ...

  10. Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhapi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable management of wastewater should aim at pollution prevention and reduction first, followed by resource recovery and reuse. This thesis shows that substantial water quality improvements could be achieved through a so-called 3-Step Strategic Approach to wastewater management. This

  11. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  12. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  13. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  17. Hazardous substances in wastewater systems:a delicate issue for wastewater management

    OpenAIRE

    Palmquist, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Many substances derived from human activity end up in wastewater systems at some point. A large number of different substances - up to 30,000 - are present in wastewater. Some of them are valuable, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, but there are also hazardous substances such as heavy metals and anthropogenic organic substances. To be able to utilise the wastewater nutrients on arable land (agriculture, forestry or other alternatives), it is of great importance to investigate the sources of ha...

  18. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  19. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  20. Duckweed cultures in animal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, M; Copelli, M; Ghetti, P F

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of duckweed (Lemna gibba and L. minor) were made for 2 months in 2 ponds fed by a semicontinuous flow of partially treated animal wastewaters. The growth rate of the organic load were obtained from weekly data and the rate of removal of N and P was evaluated. At high loads (concentrations greater than 400 COD, 60 NH/sub 4/+, 10 mg/L PO/sub 4/ to the power of 3-) an average yield (dry weight) of approximately 7 g/square meters/day was established. The mean dry weight of biomass was 6%. The N and P content in duckweed was 1.1 and 4.7%, respective, and the daily absorption rates were 415 N and 97 mg/square meters/day P. The technique of skimming biomass at a rate proportional to the growth rate is useful to maintain duckweed cultures in continuous active growth conditions.

  1. Quality of concrete plant wastewater for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Paula

    Full Text Available Efficient water use is one of the most important requirements of cleaner production, and the use of the wastewater from concrete production can be an important means to this end. However, there are no Brazilian studies on the quality of concrete plant wastewater and the activities in which such water can be used. This paper aims to evaluate the quality of concrete plant wastewater and to propose guidelines for its treatment for non-potable applications. Wastewater samples were collected from three points in the studied treatment system, and tests were later performed in the laboratory to evaluate the water quality. The results obtained were compared with the limit values for the quality parameters that have been used for the analysis of the non-potable water supply in Brazil. The results indicate a need to at least add coagulation and pH correction processes to the treatment system.

  2. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  3. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  4. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  5. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  6. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  7. Chemical Characterisation of Printed Circuit Board Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobri, S; Ali, A H M, E-mail: eeza@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Manufacturing of PCBs is highly complicated and involves many processes. Recycling of PCB wastewater receives wide concerns as the recent international growth in the electronics industry has generated a drastic increase in the amount of waste PCBs with profound environmental impacts such as soil and groundwater contamination. This paper reports on the chemical characterization of PCB wastewater as the initial investigation for selective metal recovery.

  8. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  9. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  10. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  11. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  12. Student und Wissenschaft: soziale Faktoren des wissenschaftlichen Engagements der Studenten ; spezieller Bericht "Student 79"

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Günter

    1982-01-01

    Die Ausgangsfragestellung, wie soziale Beziehungen im Studienprozeß das wissenschaftliche Engagement der Studenten beeinflussen, wird aufgrund vorliegenden empirischen Materials (der Autor stützt sich primär auf die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung STUDENT 79) auf die Analyse des Verhältnisses der Studenten zu den Lehrkräften eingegrenzt. Der Verfasser äußert sich zur Gültigkeit seiner Aussagen: "Der Bericht trägt den Charakter einer Zusammenfassung vorläufiger Ergebnisse zum Problem und bedarf ti...

  13. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  14. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  15. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES OF AMMONIUM WITHDRAWAL FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shved

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of the current technologies, as well as their trends and developments in the field of wastewater treatment in Ukraine and the world are given. The legal documents and the system of state regulation and control in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine have been analyzed. The information about government programs aimed at protecting the natural water bodies is also included. The global trends concerning development of biotechnology in the field of wastewater from nitrogen compounds have been investigated. The analysis of traditional (nitrification-denitrification and the latest biotechnology wastewater from inorganic nitrogen has been done. Current status of the present key technologies of nitrogen removal from wastewater has been formulated. The main advantages and disadvantages of these biotechnologies are described. It was determined that a major problem in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine is the usage of outdated technologies and regulatory documentation that is a consequence of the lack of sufficient funding for the sector and the low level of environmental awareness of the government and the population.

  17. A wastewater game-changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a biotechnology that could slash energy use, chemical inputs and greenhouse emissions in wastewater treatment. The Australian water sector is slowly tuning in to one of the world's most promising wastewater and trade waste treatment technologies, anammox. SA Water, Queensland United Utilities and Veolia Water are each at different stages of trials of ''anaerobic ammonium oxidation'' to replace activated sludge in removing nitrogen. It relies on special anammox bacteria, which were first identified in 1999 and have been heavily researched ever since. The bacteria short circuit the normal nitrification/denitrification process and oxidise ammonia (NH_3) to nitrogen (N_2) under anaerobic conditions, promising deep cuts in energy demand, chemical use, fugitive greenhouse emissions and waterway impacts. Most local utilities have taken a look at it, but WME is aware of only three that have proceeded to trial stage. Veolia Water is keeping the trial it is supporting with its ANITA Mox technology under wraps for now, but municipal client manager Voon Chin said the technology has been proven for numerous applications overseas, including sludge dewatering effluent (SDE). QUU is in now stepping up from bench-scale tests to a full pilot at its Luggage Point sewage treatment plant (STP). It is currently enriching anammox cultures in 200-litre drums onsite to speed up the painstaking conditioning process when the plant gets up and running shortly in a 40-foot shipping container. But the most advanced are SA Water and Degremont through their Allwater joint venture, which runs Adelaide's water and sewerage network. It has wrapped up Australia's first pilot project, a 4m"3 plant treating SDE at the Bolivar STP. An Allwater spokesperson told WME in a statement that the pilot was a success and they are now assessing full- scale options. A paper to Enviro 2012anticipated a full-scale plant at Bolivar would create operational savings of $650

  18. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  20. Additional application areas of the 3D process information display; Weiterfuehrende Einsatzgebiete des 3-D-Prozessinformationsdisplays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, K. [Institut fuer Automatisierung und Informatik GmbH, Zentrum fuer industrielle Forschung und Entwicklung, Wernigerode (Germany); Hensel, H. [Hochschule Harz, Fachbereich Automatisierung und Informatik, Wernigerode (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The current technological progress in the process industry results in a significant increase of the complexity of control systems. The amount of supervised information grows constantly for each operator because of a higher level of automation and an optimized information acquisition of the control systems. This development results in a cognitive overload of the operator which causes incorrect behaviour and responses in alert situations. In technical literature, several approaches are discussed to counteract this problem. This paper presents the newly developed 3-D Process Information Display (3D-PID) and describes which additional application areas as a primary representation method to the supervision of complex process conditions are imaginable. The 3D-PID is based on a cognitive scenic representation of the process values within a 3-D process room. Particularly the problem of the overview and detail presentation known from the literature is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  2. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  3. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao

    2006-01-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H 2 /kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H 2 /kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  4. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  5. The Role of Anaerobic Digestion in Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater systems potentially contribute significant negative impacts not only on regional water bodies, but also on global energy, climate, and sustainability. Energy recovery from wastewater is one way to reduce the negative impacts and achieve greater resource recovery. The ...

  6. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  7. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation MUSA, J J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    waste-water discharge and disposal practices that may ... impacts from sewage contamination in urban areas are well documented ... tanks, aerated wastewater treatment systems (AWTS) ..... water sources in selected rural communities of the.

  8. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  9. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for the Californian wastewater industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Wastewater treatment is of vital importance for protecting human health and minimizing the environmental impact of polluted water. Since the beginning of the 20th century public facilities have been installed globally which treat wastewater at a

  10. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  11. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water ... water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. ... in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater ...

  12. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  13. Improved Electrocoagulation Reactor for Rapid Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yushi; He, Weihua; Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Ren, Nanqi; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    by electrocoagulation. The performance of this process, called a reverse-electric field, air cathode electrocoagulation (REAEC) reactor, was tested using domestic wastewater as a function of charging time and electrocoagulation time. REAEC wastewater treatment removed

  14. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  15. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  16. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  17. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  18. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  19. Fluidized bed anaerobic biodegration of food industry wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toldra, F.; Flors, A.; Lequerica, J.L.; Valles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized bed reactors were used to reduce the COD of low-strength food industry wastewaters. Soluble organic removal efficiencies of 75%, 80% and 50% were obtained for hog slaughterhouse, dairy and brewery wastewaters, respectively, at 35 degrees C and 8 hours hydraulic retention time. Removal efficiencies decreased with decreasing temperature (35 degrees C to 20 degrees C); no detrimental effect of temperature was observed when treating the slaughterhouse wastewater. Methane production rate was only relevant on brewery wastewater treatment. (Refs. 17).

  20. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  1. Wastewater screening method for evaluating applicability of zero-valent iron to industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Cha, D.K.; Oh, Y.K.; Ko, K.B.; Jin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a screening protocol to evaluate the applicability of the ZVI pretreatment to various industrial wastewaters of which major constituents are not identified. The screening protocol consisted of a sequential analysis of UV-vis spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and bioassay. The UV-vis and HPLC analyses represented the potential reductive transformation of unknown constituents in wastewater by the ZVI. The UV-vis and HPLC results were quantified using principal component analysis (PCA) and Euclidian distance (ED). The short-term bioassay was used to assess the increased biodegradability of wastewater constituents after ZVI treatment. The screening protocol was applied to seven different types of real industrial wastewaters. After identifying one wastewater as the best candidate for the ZVI treatment, the benefit of ZVI pretreatment was verified through continuous operation of an integrated iron-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) resulting in the increased organic removal efficiency compared to the control. The iron pretreatment was suggested as an economical option to modify some costly physico-chemical processes in the existing wastewater treatment facility. The screening protocol could be used as a robust strategy to estimate the applicability of ZVI pretreatment to a certain wastewater with unknown composition.

  2. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  3. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  4. Sustainable Approach to Wastewater Management in the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As population grows and urbanization increases, more wastewater is generated and there is great awareness on the health and environmental implication of poorly disposed wastewater. This research work develops a sustainable approach to wastewater disposal in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The existing ...

  5. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  6. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  7. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  8. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  9. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  10. Ion Chromatography Applications in Wastewater Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater analysis is an important area in analytical and environmental chemistry. It can be performed with both the classic wet methods and instrumental techniques. The development of new methods, and modification of the existing ones, constitute a major task for researchers. Ion chromatography plays a predominant role in ion determinations with the instrumental methods. It offers several advantages over the conventional methods, such as simultaneous determinations of alkali and alkaline earth cations and ammonia. Ammonium ions cannot be determined by spectroscopic methods. Ion chromatography has been accepted world-wide as a reference method for analyzing anions and cations in water and wastewater due to the fact that it enables the replacement of several individual wet chemistry methods for common ions with one instrumental technique. The following article describes the principles of ion chromatography, such as stationary phases, eluents, detectors, and sample preparation methods. Moreover, the applications of ion chromatography in wastewater analyses and international standards are presented.

  11. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  12. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  13. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  14. Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory.

  15. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  16. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  17. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  18. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  19. Analyzing water/wastewater infrastructure interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J. L.; Fisher, R. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Whitfield, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes four general categories of infrastructure interdependencies (physical, cyber, geographic, and logical) as they apply to the water/wastewater infrastructure, and provides an overview of one of the analytic approaches and tools used by Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate interdependencies. Also discussed are the dimensions of infrastructure interdependency that create spatial, temporal, and system representation complexities that make analyzing the water/wastewater infrastructure particularly challenging. An analytical model developed to incorporate the impacts of interdependencies on infrastructure repair times is briefly addressed

  20. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  1. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  2. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  3. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  4. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  5. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  6. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  7. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  8. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  9. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  10. Modeling Trihalomethane Formation Potential from Wastewater Chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Aerated Lagoon Chlor/Dechlor - - - King Salmon River Luke, AZ Tertiary Ultraviolet 1.2 MGD Agua Fria River / Irrigation MacDD, FL Activated Sludge...November 1988). Tchobanoglous, George and Burton, Franklin L. Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal, and reuse / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. -3rd ed

  11. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  12. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  13. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  14. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  15. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  16. Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Örvös; T. Balázs; K. F. Both

    2008-01-01

    From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

  17. Anaerobic prefermentation and primary sedimentation of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating the solubilisation and acidification capacity of fermenting organisms in suspension in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which had a volume of 1 800 ℓ. Using 8 h cycles with 340 min of anaerobic reaction time, the wastewater fed to the SBR presented an average of ...

  18. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  19. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions... operation of the treatment process or control technique, the owner or operator shall instead comply with the... calibration gas for Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A shall be the single organic HAP representing the...

  1. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  2. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  3. Environmental systems analysis of wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerrman, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The history of wastewater management tells us that efforts have been made at solving only one problem at the time; sanitation during the first half of the 20th Century followed by eutrophication of lakes and sea and, for the past ten years, recycling of nutrients. After the 'Brundtland Report', 1987, a reversal of the debate occurred where water management was discussed in a more holistic manner than before. The concept sustainable development became widely accepted and was put into practice. This thesis suggests a framework for evaluating the sustainability of wastewater systems, which contains the use of criteria and system analytical evaluation methods matching each criterion. The main categories of criteria are identified as: Health and Hygiene, Social and Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Functional and Technical. The usability of different concepts of Environmental Systems Analysis for evaluating environmental criteria of wastewater systems is also investigated. These studies show that a substance-flow model combined with evaluation methods from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), sometimes complemented with Exergy Analysis or Analysis of Primary Energy, is a beneficial approach for evaluating environmental impacts and the usage of resources. The substance-flow model ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) combined with LCA was used to compare four systems structures for the management of household wastewater and solid organic waste, namely Conventional System, Irrigation of Energy Forests, Liquid Composting and Urine Separation. This study shows a potential for further development of the three alternative systems. The comparative study also included some development of system analytical methods. This thesis shows how the contribution from oxidation of ammonia should be included in the eutrophication impact category. Furthermore, a method is given for prioritization of the most relevant impacts from wastewater management by using normalisation of these impacts in

  4. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  5. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  6. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  7. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  8. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  9. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative behavior of americium and plutonium in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetaeva, N.E.; Filin, V.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Rudaya, L.Y.; Shapiro, K.Y.; Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of trace americium and plutoniumin wastewater fed into purification systems. Activities of the elements were determined on a semiconductive alpha-ray spectrometer. the distributio nonuniformity, or heterogeneity, of americium and plutonium per unit volume of wastewater was determined quantitatively before and after passage through filter papers. The two elements were found to be in a colloidal or pseudocolloidal state in the original wastewater sample at pH 6. On acidifying the wastewater from pH 4 to 1 M nitric acid the americium passed quantitatively into the water phase but the most plutonium remained in the colloidal or pseudocolloidal state. the plutonium also passed quantitatively into the water phase in wastewater at a 1 M nitric acid acidity but only after a prolonged (12-day) hold. A knowledge of the heterogeneity of plutonium and americium in wastewaters made it possible to quickly distinguish their state, i.e., colloidal, pseudocolloidal, or in true solution

  12. Utilization of portable effluent wastewater in brick manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Mahllawy, M.S.; El-Sokkary, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Portable wastewater is produced from sedimentation and filtration tanks in portable water treatment plants. Usually, this useless wastewater is drained into River Nile Canal and not to the sewer system causing a potential pollution. Wastewater has been taken from Portable Treatment Plant located at Qalubia Province, Delta, Egypt. Evaluation of raw materials was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) as well as plasticity and drying sensitivity coefficient (DSC) measurements. Technological properties of fired bricks were investigated according to Egyptian and American Specifications. The obtained experimental results encourage substitution of the drained portable wastewater for the tap water in bricks manufacturing. Thus, utilization of the studied portable effluent wastewater in such industry is possible and fulfills the double target of saving drinking water used in clay bricks manufacturing, rather than its environmental pollution prevention. Keywords: Portable wastewater, tap water, clay building bricks, physicomechanical properties

  13. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  15. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  16. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  17. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  18. Electron beam processing of wastewater in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton A. Bakar

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing technology started in Malaysia in 1991 when two accelerators were installed through JICA cooperation to perform medical product sterilization project. Since then several private companies have installed electron accelerators to develop in removing volatile organic materials and to demonstrate flue gas treatment. In this country report, effort on electron beam processing of wastewater or contaminated groundwater is presented: After de-coloration tests using gamma rays as function of radiation doses, electron beam treatment of textile industry wastewater as function of beam energy and current intensity as well as with combined treatment such as aeration or biological treatment to examine the effectiveness in color and BOD or COD change has been carried out and the main results are reported. Furthermore, the present technique was examined to apply in river water treatment for use as drinking water. Techno-economic feasibility study for recycling of industrial waste water using electron beam technology is now underway. (S. Ohno)

  19. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  20. Method and apparatus for processing oily wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torline, W.N.; Williams, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A method of treating oily wastewater is described comprising the steps of passing oily wastewater through a coalescer to coalesce dispersed oil droplets; separating a free oil fraction as a liquid stream having a lower specific gravity from a contaminated water stream having a higher specific gravity; filtering particulate material from said contaminated water stream; passing the filtered water stream under pressure across an ultrafiltration membrane to separate a retentate fraction enriched in residual emulsified oil from an aqueous permeate fraction; recycling said substantially only retentate fraction to said coalescer; filtering said aqueous permeate through an activated carbon filter to remove low molecular weight organic materials; subjecting the filtrate from said activated carbon filter to cation exchange to remove heavy metal ions; and periodically flushing said ultra filter with filtrate from said particulate filter to maintain the permeability of said ultrafiltration membrane

  1. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor: Sludge characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Application of slaughterhouse wastewater as feed wastewater demonstrated that the slaughterhouse wastewater to be more effective in promoting the formation of anaerobic granules and granule size in UASB reactor.

  2. Wastewater minimization in multipurpose batch plants with a regeneration unit: multiple contaminants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization can be achieved by employing water reuse opportunities. This paper presents a methodology to address the problem of wastewater minimization by extending the concept of water reuse to include a wastewater regenerator...

  3. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Lughano J. M. Kusiluk

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater use for crop irrigation and aquaculture is commonly practiced by communities situated close to wastewater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from wastewater and Tilapia fish...

  4. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  5. Phycoremediation of industrial wastewater containing azo compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Parin D. Shah; Dipti Galani; M S. Rao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art biological wastewater treatment technique that uses eukaryotic microalgae as well as several prokaryotic photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Micro algae are known to remove dyes by bioadsorption (sorption of dye molecules over the surface of algal cells), biodegradation and bioconversion (diffusion of dye molecules into the algal cells and subsequent conversion). This paper mainly focuses on biodegradation abilities of microalgae for t...

  6. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  7. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  8. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  9. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Rubino; Maurizia Catalano; Antonio Lonigro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being coll...

  10. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  12. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  13. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  14. Wastewater disinfection with peracetic acid and UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caretti, C.; Lubello, C.

    2001-01-01

    Was investigated the synergy between UV and peracetic acid (PAA) through a five months on-site experimental study in a pilot plant fed by the secondary effluent of the central wastewater treatment plant of Pistoia, Italy. This experiment is a part of a larger research project on advanced treatment for municipal wastewater reuse in agriculture. Because of Italy's strict limits on unrestricted wastewater reuse in agriculture (2 CFU total coliform/100 ml), a very high degree of disinfection is necessary. In the investigated experimental conditions, it has been impossible to meet such values through an exclusive use of UV irradiation (the UV unit reaches at most 4 Log inactivation). Low levels of PAA greatly enhance the decline of indicator levels, but higher unsustainable doses are required to hit the Italian limit. Through a poor amount of information on the subject was available in literature, it was tried to find out how the disinfection efficiency could improve by simultaneously using UV and PAA. It was found out that a combined treatment is satisfactory and that it is more advantage of the hydroxyl radicals formation due to the PAA photo lysis. The application of 2 ppm of PAA with an UV dose of 192 mWscm - 2 is enough to meet the Italian limit [it

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  16. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  17. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  18. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  19. (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khoramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheriyoun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a Biofilter System for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khorramabad Abstract The biofilter system is one of the methods commonly used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide as the main source of odors emitted from wastewater facilities. The system is based on using the contaminant material as bedding to feed microorganisms. To achieve the desirable removal efficiency, it is, therefore, essential to create the proper conditions for the bacteria to grow on the bedding. In this study, a pilot-scale biofilter made of compost and woodchip (with a compost/woodchip ratio of 5:1 was used as the bedding material at Khorrmabad wastewater pumping station to investigate the performance of the system under real conditions. The experiment was carried out over 75 days during which time the input and output H2S concentrations were measured on a regular basis. Moisture was adjusted between 40% and 60% throughout the experiment to provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth. The results showed that the concentration of H2S emitted from the pumping station during 24 hours varied greatly between 0 and 48 PPM. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biological bedding was recorded at 2.874 g/m3.hr and the mean efficiency of H2S removal including the startup time was 89%. The mean performance efficiency during the biological activity after the startup was recorded at 98%.

  20. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  1. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  2. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  3. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  4. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Grabic, R.; Ledin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater spiked with a mixture of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was treated with 0–20mg/L chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in laboratory-scale experiments. Wastewater effluents were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with extended......O2, while in high COD effluent a significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8mg/L ClO2. This study illustrates the successful degradation of several APIs during treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide....

  5. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  6. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  7. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  8. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  9. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  10. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Energy and Environment Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn-Woo, E-mail: ywlee@snu.ac.kr [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 deg. C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2 s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O{sub 2} concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 deg. C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 deg. C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper.

  11. Disinfection of water and wastewater of Isfahan water and wastewater treatment plants by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: At gamma doses used in this study, the coliforms were removed completely. But for wastewater samples, although the removal efficiencies were above 80%, the environmental standards related to microbial parameters were not satisfied. Therefore, it is necessary to use higher doses of gamma radiation.

  12. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  13. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... exothermic reaction or the contents of the tank is sparged, the owner or operator shall comply with the... barometric pressure, or (B) An engineering evaluation that the Administrator determines is an accurate method...

  14. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  15. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  16. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  17. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  18. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  19. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  20. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  1. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  2. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  3. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-containers. 63.135 Section 63.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  4. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  5. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  6. Physicochemical Characterization of Wastewaters from a Cluster of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myina O M

    chlorides – of the wastewaters from the various industries were investigated using standard protocols. The ranges of the ... water bodies of these wastewaters are at risk of being polluted. ... Most of it is in oceans, ice caps, underground aquifers ...

  7. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  8. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  9. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reuse of treated effluent (for agriculture and as supplement for drinking water needs) is currently receiving attention as a reliable water source. This paper is aimed at reviewing the environmental and health impacts of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater effluents. The quality of wastewater effluents is ...

  10. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  11. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 déc. 2009 ... The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which focus on high-end treatment options and the use of treated wastewater. ... Pay Drechsel is Global Theme Leader on Water Quality, Health and Environment at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  12. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  13. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  14. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  15. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... concentration in the simulated wastewater as in the RCVBN medium. Optimization of wastewater composition and treatment conditions. SW with pollutants strength of 3600 mgl-1 COD was used to incubate the phototrophic bacteria microaerobically in the light (appro- ximately 2000 lx), the COD reduction ...

  16. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  17. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  18. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  19. Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples ...

  20. Optimization of the Ethanol Fermentation of Cassava Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on the optimisation of the cassava wastewater medium for ethanol fermentation. The main thrust was the investigation of the influence of the glucose concentration, nutrient (NH4Cl) level, and cell concentration on the yield of ethanol from cassava wastewater. Twenty experiments based on ...

  1. Effects of high salinity wastewater on methanogenic sludge bed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Jeison, D.A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The attainable loading potentials of anaerobic sludge bed systems are strongly dependent on the growth of granular biomass with a particular wastewater. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of high salinity wastewater on the biological and physical properties of methanogenic sludge.

  2. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  3. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic drinks companies' ...

  4. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  6. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  7. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  8. physico-chemical evaluation of wastewater in katsina metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    associated sludge and grey water kitchen and bathroom wastewater or the mixture of domestic wastewater from commercial establishments and institutions ... oil mill Ltd and Katsina steel rolling company Ltd. K/Durbi:- It is located on latitude. 59'44.10”N and. 37'00.73”E, the midpoint of the water and irrigational activities ...

  9. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW) and treated ... municipal wastewater (from 1.34 to 0.95 ds/m) and the EC of raw ... wastes are generated daily from highly populated cities ... plants is an integral part of the biogeochemical cycle of .... Waste Management and Treatment, 2nd ed.

  10. Parasitological Profile of Raw Wastewater and the Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    960 L of wastewater was examined and a significant level of parasite eggs, cysts and oocysts were .... crop irrigation is less than one (≤ 1) Helminth Ova. (HO) per Litre .... due to wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara City ...

  11. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the vulnerability of the wastewater collection and disposal infrastructure (i.e. pipelines and manholes, pumping stations and wastewater treatment plants) to sea-level rise in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. By using geographical information systems (GIS) and a multi-criteria analysis considering ...

  12. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  13. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  14. Wastewater and sludge management and research in Oman: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Abdul Khaliq, Suaad; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Wardy, Malik; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Choudri, B S

    2017-03-01

    It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and sludge production take place under different technical, economic, and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations, as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to provide useful information about the current wastewater and sludge treatment, management, regulations, and research in Oman. Based on the review and discussion, the wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman has been evolving over the years. Further, the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman. Wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman have been evolving over the years. Sludge utilization has been a challenge due to its association with human waste. Therefore, composting of sewage sludge is the best option in agriculture activities. Sludge and wastewater utilization can add up positively in the economic aspects of the country in terms of creating jobs and improving annual income rate. The number of research projects done on wastewater reuse and other ongoing ones related to the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman.

  15. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  16. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  17. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  18. Phycoremediation of Heavy Metals in Wet Market Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apandi, Najeeha; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Al-Gheethi, Adel; Latiffi, Atikah; Nor Hidayah Arifin, Siti; Gani, Paran

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of phycoremediation using microalgae for removing nutrients and heavy metals from wastewaters has been proved. However, the differences in the composition of wastewaters as well as microalgae species play an important role in the efficient of this process. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Scenedesmus sp. to removal of heavy metals from wet market wastewater. Scenedesmus sp. was inoculated with 106 cells/mL into each wet market wastewater concentration included 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and incubated for 18 days. The highest growth rate was recorded in 50% WM with a maximum dry weight of 2006 mg L-1 which subsequently removed 93.06% of Cd, 91.5% of Cr, 92.47% of Fe, 92.40% of Zn. These findings reflected the high potential of Scenedesmus sp. in the treatment of wet market wastewater and production microalgae biomass.

  19. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  20. Planning of Eka Hospital Pekanbaru wastewater recycling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecky, A.; Andrio, D.; Sasmita, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Ministry of Public Works No. 06 2011 required the large scale of water to conserve the water resource, Eka Hospital Pekanbaru have to improve the sewage treatment plant through the wastewater recycling. The effluent from the plant can be used to landscape gardening and non-potable activities. The wastewater recycling design was done by analyzing the existing condition of thesewage treatment plant, determine the effluent quality standards for wastewater recycling, selected of alternative technology and processing, design the treatment unit and analyze the economic aspects. The design of recycling facility by using of combination cartridge filters processing, ultrafiltration membranes, and desinfection by chlorination. The wastewater recycling capacity approximately of 75 m3/day or 75% of the STP effluent. The estimated costs for installation of wastewater recycling and operation and maintenance per month are Rp 111,708,000 and Rp 2,498,000 respectively.

  1. Tofu wastewater treatment by sediment microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, W.; Abubakar; Rahmi, R. F.; Silmina

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to measure power density generated by sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) by varying anode position and wastewater concentration. Anode position was varied at 2 cm and 4 cm under the surface of sediment, while wastewater concentration varied into 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The electrodes employed was stainless steel mesh, while the organic subtrate source was taken from wastewater of soybean washing and boiling process. The sediment was taken from the Lamnyong River around the outlet of tofu industry wastewater. SMFCs was run until the power density was relatively small. The produced electricity represented in power density. The results of this research showed that power density was decreased over time. Generated power density by varying 2 cm and 4 cm position of anode under the sediment surface was not significantly different, while the lowest wastewater concentration, 25%, gave the highest power density.

  2. Effect of activated sludge culture conditions on Waxberry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Treated activated sludge is suitable for the treatment of wastewater. Biochemical method is used to treat the wastewater, and the influence of time on the COD index is investigated. The results showed that time had a significant effect on COD, and then affected the performance of activated sludge. Under different time, according to the order of time from short to long, COD decreases in turn. Under the action of activated sludge, the degradation of myrica rubra wastewater samples, after 25 h aeration for 96 h, the effect is better. Under this condition, the COD value was reduced at 72 mg/L, and the COD removal efficiency of myrica rubra wastewater was up to 93.39 %, and reached the two level discharge standard of municipal wastewater treatment.

  3. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  4. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  5. Application of a membrane bioreactor for winery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Pavan, P; Cecchi, F

    2010-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are variable in nature and are hard to treat by means of the conventional activated sludge process because of the high organic loading associated with their production, especially during vintage. To face this situation, recently, membrane bioreactors have been widely applied to treat winery wastewaters. In this study, a full-scale membrane bioreactor treated some 110 m(3)/d of wastewater and organic loadings up to 1,600 kg COD per day. The average removal efficiency was 95% while the corresponding sludge yield was only 0.1 kg MLVSS per kg COD removed, as usual for these wastewaters. A detailed analysis of energy consumption showed specific energy demands of 2.0-3.6 kWh/m(3) of treated wastewater or 1 kWh per kg of COD removed.

  6. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  7. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  8. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  9. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  11. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  12. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  13. Heat recovery from wastewater systems; Waermerueckgewinnung aus Abwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, O.

    2004-07-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of heat energy which can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer system. Practical problems, which may arise and have been investigated in this research project, are the reduction of the heat transfer efficiency due to heat exchanger fouling and the reduction of the nitrification capacity of downstream wastewater treatment plants due to lower wastewater temperatures. A mathematical model was developed by which the decrease of the wastewater temperature in the treatment plant influent can be determined as a function of the amount of heat energy gathered from the wastewater in the sewer system. By this model the variation in time and space of the wastewater temperature in a sewer pipe is calculated for given hydraulics, geometry and environmental conditions. By analysis of data from a large wastewater treatment plant and simulations with a calibrated model, the effect of lowered influent temperatures on nitrification safety, total nitrogen removal efficiency and ammonium effluent concentrations could be quantified. A procedure is suggested by which the reserve nitrification capacity of an existing treatment plant and the increase of the ammonium effluent concentration resulting from a permanent decrease of the wastewater influent temperature can be estimated. By experiments with a pilot scale heat exchanger in a small wastewater channel, the significance of parameters known to have an effect on fouling was investigated and measures to reduce fouling were tested. The measures tested included controlled variation of the wastewater flow velocity (flushing), coatings and finish of the heat exchanger surface and obstacles mounted on the surface. The best results were obtained by regular short term increases of the flow velocity. By this measure, the efficiency of the fouled heat exchanger, which on the average was 60% of the efficiency of the clean heat exchanger, could repeatedly be raised to an

  14. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  15. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  16. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  17. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  18. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  20. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  1. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  2. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  3. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  4. Glutaraldehyde degradation in hospital wastewater by photoozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Lourdes Teresinha; Rosa, Ellen Caroline; Machado, Enio Leandro; Camargo, Maria Emilia; Moro, Celso Camilo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), a chemical used for the disinfection of hospital materials, using advanced oxidative processes, O3, and UV, and the combination of the latter two. Assays with different ozone concentrations at distinct pH levels were conducted to determine the best treatment process. GA concentrations before and after each treatment were measured by spectrophotometry. The best treatment was that which combined O3 and UV, yielding a degradation of 72.0-75.0% in relation to the initial concentration with pH between 4 and 9. Kinetics demonstrated that GA degradation is not dependent on pH, as there was a first-order reaction with a rate constant of k = 0.0180 min(-1) for initial pH 9 and of k = 0.0179 min(-1) for initial pH 7, that is, the values are virtually the same. Secondary wastewater samples were also analysed using the septic tank/filter system of a regional hospital in Vale do Rio Pardo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In this case, the characteristics of the wastewater were described and, after treatment, a GA degradation rate of 23.3% was noted, with reductions of 75% for chemical oxygen demand, 81% for biochemical oxygen demand, 68% for turbidity, 70% for surfactants and total disinfection in terms of thermotolerant coliforms.

  5. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  6. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  7. Sustainable management of leakage from wastewater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, D; Burn, S; Tjandraatmadja, G; Moglia, M; Davis, P; Wolf, L; Held, I; Vollertsen, J; Williams, W; Hafskjold, L

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater pipeline leakage is an emerging concern in Europe, especially with regards to the potential effect of leaking effluent on groundwater contamination and the effects infiltration has on the management of sewer reticulation systems. This paper describes efforts by Australia, in association with several European partners, towards the development of decision support tools to prioritize proactive rehabilitation of wastewater pipe networks to account for leakage. In the fundamental models for the decision support system, leakage is viewed as a function of pipeline system deterioration. The models rely on soil type identification across the service area to determine the aggressiveness of the pipe environment and for division of the area into zones based on pipe properties and operational conditions. By understanding the interaction between pipe materials, operating conditions, and the pipe environment in the mechanisms leading to pipe deterioration, the models allow the prediction of leakage rates in different zones across a network. The decision support system utilizes these models to predict the condition of pipes in individual zones, and to optimize the utilization of rehabilitation resources by targeting the areas with the highest leakage rates.

  8. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  9. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  10. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  11. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  13. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  14. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  15. Effect of wastewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of wastewaters on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Fourteen water treatment plants were found out in the Narasaraopet municipality region in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, from each plant, between 3500 and 4000 L/day of potable water is selling to consumers. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. During water treatment, plants are discharging approximately 1,00,000 L/day as wastewater in side drains in Narasaraopet municipality. Physical and chemical analysis was carried out on fourteen plants wastewater and distilled water as per producer described in APHA. In the present work, based on the concentrations of constituent's in wastewater, four typical plants i.e., Narasaraopeta Engineering College (NECWW), Patan Khasim Charitable Trust (PKTWW), Mahmadh Khasim Charitable Trust (MKTWW) and Amara (ARWW) were considered. The performance of four plants wastewater on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were performed in laboratories and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time but setting times of selected wastewaters were retarded as compared to that of reference water. Almost, no change was observed in 90 days compressive and flexural strengths in four plants wastewaters specimens compared to that of reference water specimens. XRD technique was employed to find out main hydration compounds formed in the process.

  16. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  17. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  18. Determination of aromatic and PAH content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I. (Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA); Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    A method for analysis of oil and grease in water is described. The method is used to provide data on total, dissolved, and suspended organic content of wastewater sample and the concentration of hydrocarbons. Additionally, volatile and water soluble fractions which contain many organic compounds critical to the environment are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. A number of real-life treated and untreated bilge waste samples were collected at the U.S. Army Fort Eustis facility and analyzed using this method. It was found that untreated bilge wastewater contained both suspended and dissolved organic matter. The suspended organics ranged between 10 and 300 ppM, while the dissolved organics were in the 10 to 150 ppM range. Treated bilge wastewater usually contained no suspended organics but did contain rather high levels of dissolved organic matter 700 to 200 ppM). Up to 70% of the dissolved organics in untreated bilge wastewater were chloroform extractable, while less than 10% of the dissolved organis in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater is biologically derived from the degradation of petroleum, while smaller portions consist of refractory, petroleum derived, water-soluble organic compounds.

  19. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  20. Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m 3 /wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  1. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  2. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  3. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  4. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...

  5. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  7. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-01-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process

  9. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  10. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  12. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  13. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  14. Disinfection of Water and Wastewater Using Gamma Irradiation in Isfahan Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the disinfection of water and wastewater, water samples were collected from raw and filtered water and wastewater samples were taken from the effluent of the secondary sedimentation, polished effluent (1-day retention time, and also from filtered (rapid sand filter effluent. The samples were irradiated with gamma collimated beam in a batch system using a Co-60 therapeutic gamma radiation machine with a radioactive source emission rate of 405.38CGy/min at different doses of 20-160 Gy and 80-240 Gy, respectively. The samples were analyzed before and after irradiation for total and fecal coliforms. It was observed that nearly 100% reduction was achieved in total and fecal coliforms in water samples treated with a dose of 160 Gy. Depending on effluent quality, disinfection efficiencies achieved using 240 Gy gamma irradiation for inactivation of total coliforms in wastewater samples were 83, 64, and 56 percent for filtered, clarified, and secondary effluents, respectively. The same values were nearly 81, 58, and 46 percent, respectively, for inactivation of fecal coliforms. At lower doses of 120-240Gy, the coliform bacteria were successfully inactivated. It was concluded that a linear correlation holds between the dose delivered and the inactivation of microorganisms, so that inactivation increases with increasing irradiation time.

  15. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  16. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  17. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  18. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  19. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  20. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  1. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  2. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  3. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  4. Deciphering conjugative plasmid permissiveness in wastewater microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Milani, Stefan Morberg

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to robustly treat polluted water. They are characterized by ceaseless flows of organic, chemical and microbial matter, followed by treatment steps before environmental release. WWTPs are hotspots of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria via...... still remains largely uncharted. Furthermore, current in vitro methods used to assess conjugation in complex microbiomes do not include in situ behaviours of recipient cells, resulting in partial understanding of transfers. We investigated the in vitro conjugation capacities of WWTP microbiomes from...... inlet sewage and outlet treated water using the broad-host range IncP-1 conjugative plasmid, pKJK5. A thorough molecular approach coupling metagenomes to 16S rRNA DNA/cDNA amplicon sequencing was established to characterize microbiomes using the ecological concept of functional response groups. A broad...

  5. Toxicity removal from hard board wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, S.S.; El Kamah, H.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid growth of industry in Egypt in recent years has made industrial pollution an important issue. During the past decade fish production in some canals and lakes have virtually ceased due to the discharge of industrial and agricultural wastewater. The alternatives under study include effluent treatment before discharge to receiving water. Highly polluted waste from a hard board mill was treated using the activated sludge process. Factors affecting the efficiency of the treatment were detention time and organic loading rate. The results indicated that BOD and phenol reduction reached 82% and 94% respectively, when the organic loading rate was 0.1 (kg BOD/kg SS). The process proved to be successful in completely eliminating the toxicity effect of the waste on Nile fish (Tilapia nilotica). 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  7. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  8. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  9. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  10. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  11. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-five per cent of decentralized wastewater around the ... Organic pollutant and nitrogen removal performance of SWISs ... a rubber hose with flow rate control valves. .... the limitation of oxygen became more obvious, and resulted in. 4. 3.

  12. Applications of Natural Coagulants to Treat Wastewater − A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural water falls from the mountain is merging into the oceans. This water is preserved by humans that are consumed for agriculture, industrial, and municipal use. This water become wastewater after different usage, and finally, completes the hydrological cycle. The water becomes wastewater due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sewage from household, institutions, hospitals, industries and etc. Wastewater can be destructive for the public because it contains a variety of organic and inorganic substances, biological substances, toxic inorganic compounds and the presence of toxic materials. The coagulant chemicals and its associated products are resourceful but these may change the characteristics of water in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, this make matters worse in the disposal of sludge. An option of natural polymer can be used in water and wastewater in this review. The natural polymers are most efficient that provide several benefits such as; prolific, exempt from physical and chemical changes from the treated water.

  13. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  14. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  15. Liquid manna? Treating urban wastewater for local gardening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... “Before, we had no proper sewage system and people were forced to empty ... Conventional sewage treatment is beyond the means of the municipality, ... Researchers found that some vegetables irrigated with wastewater ...

  16. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  17. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results show cobalt levels in wastewater were in the range of ...

  18. Concentrating molasses distillery wastewater using biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, N.; Petrinic, I.; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater is challenging due to the presence of complex phenolic compounds (melanoidins and polyphenols) having antioxidant properties. Due to zero liquid discharge regulations, Indian distilleries continue to explore effective treatment options...

  19. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Sarp, Sarper; Bucs, Szilard; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v

  20. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  1. Effects of radiation on wastewater from textile industries in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbe, S.A.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater samples from three textile industries in Ghana were progressively irradiated in a gamma irradiator of dose rate 7.8 kGy/h. Gamma irradiation alone was done, and also in combination with hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide and ferrous ammonium sulphate. Preliminary work involved irradiation of model aqueous solutions of six textile dyes commonly used in Ghana. The dyes were Cibacron Yellow 6G, Cibacron Violet 2R, Basilen Blue P 5R, Basilen Brown P 2R, Solidazol Red RB, Acramin Green FB. Colour and pH of the wastewater and dye solutions were found to decrease with irradiation. Decolouration of the wastewater improved further when irradiation was carried out in combination with the chemical agents. Ferrous ammonium sulphate showed the most improved decolouration. Values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater were found to decrease with irradiation. (author)

  2. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  4. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to sea level rise: A South African case study ... developing countries such as South Africa, and for their coastal cities. ... of the wastewater pipeline network is around 8 790 km and .... propensity for regional infrastructure to malfunction under.

  5. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  6. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  7. Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters. Part 2: Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part 2: Evaluation of tannery wastewater as production media for the mass culture of ... as a critical driver in the profitability of the algal biotechnology enterprise. ... and possibly marginal economics of, biofuels production from the microalgae ...

  8. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm-3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0-10×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation.

  9. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  10. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  11. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  13. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Key words: Cobalt level, Kubanni River, soil, vegetable, wastewater. INTRODUCTION. Cobalt is ... metals released into the environment from a variety of anthropogenic activities ..... Heavy Metal Stress in Plants, 2nd Edition,. Springer,. United.

  14. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  15. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... metals are one of the most persistent pollutants in waste- water. Unlike organic ... nitrate levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children ...... Rybicki S (1997). Advanced Wastewater Treatment: Phosphorus.

  16. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution ... appropriate for artificial recharge use, discharge in rivers and lakes or utilization in agriculture ..... These problems have a negative impact on.

  17. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  18. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  19. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  20. Optimization of Dye Removal from Textile Wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    however, this often gets polluted through the activities of man ... study examines the treatment of effluent from a textile industry in Kano ... II. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A. Materials. The textile wastewater used in this research was collected.

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  2. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-12-18

    Dec 18, 2009 ... In most developing countries wastewater treatment systems have very low ... from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk ... at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  3. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... undergo degradation during wastewater treatment. As these chemicals ... environmental factors, hormonal stimuli and by microbial attack (Nover and ... sowed in plastic pots (10 x 20 cm) containing a mixture of 1:2 perlite-peat.

  4. The oxidative degradation by pyrolusite of p-nitrophenol wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aminophenol was degraded into H2O and CO2 finally. The degradation mechanism of wastewater from pretreatment by pyrolusite has been further investigated based on previous work. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  5. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    status of wastewater reuse in urban farming in Katsina, an important urban area in the semi arid ... officially registered with the Katsina Urban Planning Authority. ..... crop production in the water-short Guanajuato river basin. Mexico. Res. Rep.

  6. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  7. Managing urban wastewater for maximising water resource utilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available into components of distinctly different quality, and the separate treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater for different end-uses. The groundwater exploitation strategy is largely controlled by water quality requirements. Reuse of domestic and industrial...

  8. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration...... for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment....... permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO...

  9. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria in a secondary wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /mL, with its prevalence among total heterotrophic bacteria at 47% and 26%, respectively. Correlation of CRBP with physico-chemical and other bacteriological parameters of wastewater was estimated. Higher numbers of CRBP in influent and ...

  10. optimization of the ethanol fermentation of cassava wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umo

    production would improve the ethanol yield, and thereby reduce the cost of production. KEYWORDS: Ethanol, cassava ... biomass sources are receiving attention globally. .... HYDROLYZED CASSAVA WASTEWATER. A blank solution ..... A Global Overview of Biomass Potentials ... Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes.

  11. Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive distribution system: ... region where 80 % of the freshwater resources are consumed by agriculture. ... the reuse limits for orchard irrigation, being 80 mg/ℓ and 25 mg/ℓ respectively.

  12. Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater from a ... different points of a treatment plant and bacterial isolates were obtained from them. ... The biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, ...

  13. Papers by the Decentralized Wastewater Management MOU Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four position papers for state, local, and tribal government officials and interested stakeholders. These papers include information on the uses and benefits of decentralized wastewater treatment and examples of its effective use.

  14. Developing Nations Face Problems in Water and Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, Charles L.; Adams, Larry W.

    1978-01-01

    Reports past developments, present assessments, and future needs of wastewater management in developing countries. It is suggested that future engineers should be trained as managers and not scientists. (MA)

  15. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  16. Simulated Pathogen Concentrations in Locally-Collected Greywater and Wastewater

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains simulated pathogen concentrations in locally-collected greywater and wastewater. Each .zip file includes 21 .csv files, each containing 10,000...

  17. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved. PMID:27551860

  18. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in wastewaters and sludges from wastewater treatment plants in Bratislava (SR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiometric X-ray fluorescence analysis was used for the determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in wastewater and sludges from three wastewater treatment plants in Bratislava (SR). Metals were determined in wastewaters after preconcentration by 8-hydroxyquinoline and in sludges by drying and pressing to pellets. 238 Pu and 109 Cd was used for excitation of fluorescence radiation. (author)

  19. Anaerobic degradation of the various fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Zanden, J. van der; Wijffels, R.; Lettinga, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of the present investigations were to determine the maximum extent of anaerobic biological degradation of the soluble, colloidal and Coarse Suspended Solids fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the removal of these organic pollutant fractions and to determine the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of each fraction of the wastewater, and to assess the effects of the fractions on the methanogenic activity of the sludge.

  20. Towards Simulation of Clogging Effects in Wastewater Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of clogging effects caused by cloths in wastewater pumps enables a faster and cheaper design process of wastewater pumps, which potentially leads to a reduction in the occurrence of clogging. Four potential methods for cloth simulation are reviewed and the challenges of each method are...... advantages and disadvantages, and each of them may prove to be applicable for the application. The CFD-DEM approach is chosen for future work....

  1. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  2. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Wastewater Oxidation under Microgravity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Boyun Guo; Donald W. Holder; David S. Schechter

    2005-01-01

    Volatile removal assembly (VRA) is a module installed in the International Space Station for removing contaminants (volatile organics) in the wastewater produced by the crew. The VRA contains a slim pack bed reactor to perform catalyst oxidation of the wastewater at elevated pressure and temperature under microgravity conditions. Optimal design of the reactor requires a thorough understanding about how the reactor performs under microgravity conditions. The objective of this study was to theo...

  4. REUSE IN EXHAUST DYEING PROCESSES OF TEXTILE WASTEWATERS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Monllor; J.F. Sanz; R. Vicente; M. Bonet

    2013-01-01

    Textile dyeing and wet finishing wastewaters are considered a major concern because of the necessity of removing colour and pollutants before their discharge into the environment. Their chemical composition is diverse depending mainly on fashion, material and process. After the homogenization of all the wastewaters coming from the different textile processes, the generally used multi-stage technology for their treatment and purification combines physico-chemical and biological processes. Howe...

  5. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  7. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  8. Membrane processes for the reuse of car washing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Uçar

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates alternative treatments of car wash effluents. The car wash wastewater was treated by settling, filtration, and membrane filtration processes. During settling, total solid concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 hours and then remained constant. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity were decreased by 10% and 4%, respectively. After settling, wastewater was filtered throughout a 100 μm filter. It was found that filtration had a negligible effect on COD...

  9. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  10. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  11. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin...

  12. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  13. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  14. AN INVESTIGATION ON PATHOGENIC VIBRIOS DISTRIBUTION IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Almasi

    2005-01-01

    Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cr...

  15. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  16. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  17. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  19. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  20. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  1. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  2. Energetic use of renewable fuels, especially in Bavaria; Energetische Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen, speziell Holz, in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, A.; Lamp, P.; Funk, R. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Abt. Energieumwandlung und -speicherung, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Most of Bavaria`s biomass-fuelled furnaces with capacities of more than 1 MW are heating stations with a thermal capacity of 0.6 to 0.9. The few heat-and-power stations among them use the conventional steam cycle and have electric capacities of 0.15 to 0.2. Most furnaces are grate furnaces and underfeed stoker furnaces. Dust and CO emissions are well below the specified limiting values. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mehrzahl der in Bayern installierten Anlagen mit Biomassefeuerung im Kapazitaetsbereich oberhalb 1 MW arbeiten als Heizwerke mit einem thermischen Wirkungsgrad von 0,6 bis 0,9. Die wenigen Heizkraftwerke nutzen den konventionellen Dampfkreislauf und erreichen damit elektrische Wirkungsgrade von 0.15 bis 0.2. Die ueberwiegend eingesetzten Feuerungstechniken sind die Rost- und die Unterschubfeuerungen. Bezueglich der Staub- und CO-Emissionen koennen die Grenzwerte heute problemlos eingehalten werden. (orig)

  3. Energetic use of renewable fuels, especially in Bavaria; Energetische Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen, speziell Holz, in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, A; Lamp, P; Funk, R [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Abt. Energieumwandlung und -speicherung, Garching (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Most of Bavaria`s biomass-fuelled furnaces with capacities of more than 1 MW are heating stations with a thermal capacity of 0.6 to 0.9. The few heat-and-power stations among them use the conventional steam cycle and have electric capacities of 0.15 to 0.2. Most furnaces are grate furnaces and underfeed stoker furnaces. Dust and CO emissions are well below the specified limiting values. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mehrzahl der in Bayern installierten Anlagen mit Biomassefeuerung im Kapazitaetsbereich oberhalb 1 MW arbeiten als Heizwerke mit einem thermischen Wirkungsgrad von 0,6 bis 0,9. Die wenigen Heizkraftwerke nutzen den konventionellen Dampfkreislauf und erreichen damit elektrische Wirkungsgrade von 0.15 bis 0.2. Die ueberwiegend eingesetzten Feuerungstechniken sind die Rost- und die Unterschubfeuerungen. Bezueglich der Staub- und CO-Emissionen koennen die Grenzwerte heute problemlos eingehalten werden. (orig)

  4. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  6. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  7. Investigations into the biodegradation of microcystin-LR in wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Lionel; Hoefel, Daniel; Palazot, Sebastien; Sawade, Emma; Newcombe, Gayle; Saint, Christopher P.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    Microcystins are potent hepatotoxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria. These organisms can proliferate in wastewaters due to a number of factors including high concentrations of nutrients for growth. As treated wastewaters are now being considered as supplementary drinking water sources, in addition to their frequent use for irrigated agriculture, it is imperative that these wastewaters are free of toxins such as microcystins. This study investigated the potential for biodegradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) in wastewaters through a biological sand filtration experiment and in static batch reactor experiments. MCLR was effectively removed at a range of concentrations and at various temperatures, with degradation attributed to the action of microorganisms indigenous to the wastewaters. No hepatotoxic by-products were detected following the degradation of MCLR as determined by a protein phosphatase inhibition assay. Using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, the first gene involved in bacterial degradation of MCLR (mlrA) was detected and the responsible bacteria shown to increase with the amount of MCLR being degraded. This finding suggested that the degradation of MCLR was dependent upon the abundance of MCLR-degrading organisms present within the wastewater, and that MCLR may provide bacteria with a significant carbon source for proliferation; in turn increasing MCLR removal.

  8. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  9. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  10. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm −3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0–10×10 9 mol −1 dm 3 s −1 . Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation. - Highlights: ► We treat pharmaceuticals in wastewater by activated sludge and ionizing radiation. ► Activated sludge decreases the amounts of total organic carbons in wastewater. ► Pharmaceuticals were decomposed by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. ► We construct simulation for treatment of pharmaceuticals by ionizing radiation.

  11. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  12. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  13. Wastewater disinfection by combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddeo, V., E-mail: vnaddeo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Landi, M.; Belgiorno, V. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Napoli, R.M.A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Napoli Parthenope, Via Amm. F. Acton, 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    Reclamation and reuse of wastewater is one of the most effective ways to alleviate water resource scarcity. In many countries very stringent limit for chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes has been set for wastewater reuse. Accordingly, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. Recently ultrasound (US) was found to be effective as pre-treatment for wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation. The aim of this work is to investigate the wastewater advanced treatment by simultaneous combination of UV and US in terms of bacteria inactivation (Total coliform and Escherichia coli) at pilot-scale. The pilot plant was composed of two reactors: US-UV reactor and UV reactor. The influence of different reaction times, respective US and UV dose and synergistic effect was tested and discussed for two different kinds of municipal wastewater. An important enhancement of UV disinfection ability has been observed in presence of US, especially with wastewater characterized by low transmittance. In particular the inactivation was greater for T. coliform than for E. coli. Furthermore, the results obtained showed also that the fouling formation on the lamps was slower in US-UV reactor than in UV reactor both with and without solar radiation.

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  15. Applying a Modified Triad Approach to Investigate Wastewater lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowicz, R.; Urizar, L.; Blanchard, S.; Jacobsen, K.; Scholfield, J.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 20 miles of wastewater lines are below grade at an active military Base. This piping network feeds or fed domestic or industrial wastewater treatment plants on the Base. Past wastewater line investigations indicated potential contaminant releases to soil and groundwater. Further environmental assessment was recommended to characterize the lines because of possible releases. A Remedial Investigation (RI) using random sampling or use of sampling points spaced at predetermined distances along the entire length of the wastewater lines, however, would be inefficient and cost prohibitive. To accomplish RI goals efficiently and within budget, a modified Triad approach was used to design a defensible sampling and analysis plan and perform the investigation. The RI task was successfully executed and resulted in a reduced fieldwork schedule, and sampling and analytical costs. Results indicated that no major releases occurred at the biased sampling points. It was reasonably extrapolated that since releases did not occur at the most likely locations, then the entire length of a particular wastewater line segment was unlikely to have contaminated soil or groundwater and was recommended for no further action. A determination of no further action was recommended for the majority of the waste lines after completing the investigation. The modified Triad approach was successful and a similar approach could be applied to investigate wastewater lines on other United States Department of Defense or Department of Energy facilities. (authors)

  16. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  17. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  18. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  19. Wastewater disinfection by combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddeo, V.; Landi, M.; Belgiorno, V.; Napoli, R.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reclamation and reuse of wastewater is one of the most effective ways to alleviate water resource scarcity. In many countries very stringent limit for chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes has been set for wastewater reuse. Accordingly, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. Recently ultrasound (US) was found to be effective as pre-treatment for wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation. The aim of this work is to investigate the wastewater advanced treatment by simultaneous combination of UV and US in terms of bacteria inactivation (Total coliform and Escherichia coli) at pilot-scale. The pilot plant was composed of two reactors: US-UV reactor and UV reactor. The influence of different reaction times, respective US and UV dose and synergistic effect was tested and discussed for two different kinds of municipal wastewater. An important enhancement of UV disinfection ability has been observed in presence of US, especially with wastewater characterized by low transmittance. In particular the inactivation was greater for T. coliform than for E. coli. Furthermore, the results obtained showed also that the fouling formation on the lamps was slower in US-UV reactor than in UV reactor both with and without solar radiation.

  20. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  1. Removal Efficiency of Microbial Contaminants from Hospital Wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants from two hospitals on-site Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. Hospital wastewaters often go untreated in Saudi Arabia as in many devolving countries, where no specific regulations are imposed regarding hospital wastewater treatment. The current guidelines are placed to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however, they do not regulate for pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Results from this study have detected pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the sampled hospitals wastewater. And although the treatment process of one of the hospitals was able to meet current quality guidelines, the other hospital treatment process failed to meet these guidelines and disgorge of its wastewater might be cause for concern. In order to estimate the risk to the public health and the impact of discharging the treated effluent to the public sewage, a comprehensive investigation is needed that will facilitate and guide suggestions for more detailed guidelines and monitoring.

  2. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Chan-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Bakje-daero, Deokjin-Gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyun [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwook, E-mail: jin-wook.chung@samsung.com [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coagulation and ion exchange technologies were ineffective in removing fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyamide RO was more efficacious than cellulose RO due to its high flux and rejection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral wound RO system was more preferential to disc tube RO system for reusing raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined coagulation and RO technology can be applied to reuse raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. - Abstract: The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  3. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of adsorbent from Tamarix hispida and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater: Adsorbent characteristics and real wastewater treatment data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Habibi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes a facile method for production of an adsorbent from Tamarix hispida wasted wood and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater. The main characteristics of the adsorbent consist of BET surface area, functional groups, and elemental analysis is presented. The data for attenuating the pollutants from a real wastewater treatment which was provided from a glass factory is also represented. More than 90% of fluoride content of the real wastewater was treated by the adsorbent. Generally, these data would be informative for extend research aim to industrial wastewater treatment and those who work in the wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Occurrence of illicit drugs in water and wastewater and their removal during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meena K; Short, Michael D; Aryal, Rupak; Gerber, Cobus; van den Akker, Ben; Saint, Christopher P

    2017-11-01

    This review critically evaluates the types and concentrations of key illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids and their metabolites) found in wastewater, surface water and drinking water sources worldwide and what is known on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in removing such compounds. It is also important to amass information on the trends in specific drug use as well as the sources of such compounds that enter the environment and we review current international knowledge on this. There are regional differences in the types and quantities of illicit drug consumption and this is reflected in the quantities detected in water. Generally, the levels of illicit drugs in wastewater effluents are lower than in raw influent, indicating that the majority of compounds can be at least partially removed by conventional treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filters. However, the literature also indicates that it is too simplistic to assume non-detection equates to drug removal and/or mitigation of associated risks, as there is evidence that some compounds may avoid detection via inadequate sampling and/or analysis protocols, or through conversion to transformation products. Partitioning of drugs from the water to the solids fraction (sludge/biosolids) may also simply shift the potential risk burden to a different environmental compartment and the review found no information on drug stability and persistence in biosolids. Generally speaking, activated sludge-type processes appear to offer better removal efficacy across a range of substances, but the lack of detail in many studies makes it difficult to comment on the most effective process configurations and operations. There is also a paucity of information on the removal effectiveness of alternative treatment processes. Research is also required on natural removal processes in both water and sediments that may over time facilitate further removal of these compounds in receiving

  6. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural

  7. Final environmental impact statement supplement for wastewater management systems, North Jefferson County, Kentucky wastewater facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement (FEISS) serves to update the wastewater treatment alternatives presented in the original EIS (The North County Area Environmental Impact Statement, Jefferson County, KY, July 1984), determine the best alternative, and compare that alternative to the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District's North County Action Plan (NCAP). The NCAP was determined to have the greatest cost effectiveness, lowest environmental impact, and best implementability and reliability and so is the preferred alternative in the FEISS. Significant environmental impacts of the alternative are described and mitigative measures discussed

  8. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... prevention and the implementation of cleaner technology by putting a stress on the industry. Further an approach for the balance between environmental and technological considerations is introduced. The need for easily understandable environmental priorities is stressed and a concept for this is presented...

  9. Soil Chemistry after Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in Semiarid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Pacheco de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil irrigation using treated wastewater in the Brazilian semiarid region is a promising practice as this area currently faces water scarcity and pollution of water resources by domestic sewage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of treated wastewater in drip irrigation and its effect on the chemistry of soil cultivated with squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. Coroa IAC and to verify whether there was an increase in soil salinity under a semiarid climate. The experiment was conducted for 123 days on a farm close to the sewage treatment plant, in a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two irrigation water depths (100 and 150 % of the evapotranspiration, two applications of gypsum to attenuate wastewater sodicity (0 and 5.51 g per plant, and a control treatment with no application of wastewater or gypsum. During the experiment, treated wastewater and soil gravitational water, at a depth of 0.40 m, were collected for measurement of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO−3, NH4+, Cl− , alkalinity, electrical conductivity, pH and sodium adsorption ratio. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m; and pH, total N, organic C, exchangeable cations and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (CEs were analyzed. Besides an increase in pH and a reduction in total N, the irrigation with wastewater reduces soil salinity of the naturally salt-rich soils of the semiarid climate. It also led to soil sodification, in spite of the added gypsum, which indicates that irrigation with wastewater might require the addition of greater quantities of gypsum to prevent physical degradation of the soil.

  10. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  11. The radioactive organic wastewater treatment of INER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chinchang; Chen Chaorui; Chung Jenchren

    2014-01-01

    The treatment strategy of radioactive organic wastewater was to separate it at first, then to treat it step by step by the characteristics of liquid layer. The waste liquid has separated into three layers, the organic layer, aqueous layer and the bottom gel mastic by natural sedimentation. The organic layer has occupied 23% of the total volume, the intermediate aqueous layer occupied 75% of the total volume, the bottom mastic was about 2% of the total. The aqueous layer of organic waste was with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 20,000ppm. The combustion test shows good treatment performance and all samples can be decomposed completely by incineration. The experiment of incineration has passed the test more than 200 batches and 3000L low-level radioactive organic aqueous solution. The process goes smoothly and gas emission values far below the regulatory limit. Each kilogram of polymer absorber can absorb 45 kg aqueous solution to form a solid combustible material and can be decomposed by incineration. Organic waste solvents were diesel miscible and similar calorific value and small viscosity. It can be used as an incinerator auxiliary fuel of radioactive incinerator. The method testing has begun in this year. It has expected to save diesel fuel consumption of incineration, and well solved such kind waste liquid. (author)

  12. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  14. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  15. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  16. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  17. Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Bruno; van de Ven, Wilbert; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2017-01-01

    Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows that this i......Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows...... that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio...

  18. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  20. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  1. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wastewater and wastewater-impacted marine coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Artichowicz, Wojciech; Tarasewicz, Katarzyna; Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to β-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes.

  3. Capacity of textile filters for wastewater Treatment at changeable wastewater level – a hydraulic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spychała

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe in a mathematical manner the hydraulic capacity of textile filters for wastewater treatment at changeable wastewater levels during a period between consecutive doses, taking into consideration the decisive factors for flow-conditions of filtering media. Highly changeable and slightly changeable flow-conditions tests were performed on reactors equipped with non-woven geo-textile filters. Hydraulic conductivity of filter material coupons was determined. The dry mass covering the surface and contained in internal space of filtering material was then indicated and a mathematical model was elaborated. Flow characteristics during the highly changeable flow-condition test were sensitivity to differentiated values of hydraulic conductivity in horizontal zones of filtering layer. During the slightly changeable flow-conditions experiment the differences in permeability and hydraulic conductivity of different filter (horizontal zones height regions were much smaller. The proposed modelling approach in spite of its simplicity provides a satisfactory agreement with empirical data and therefore enables to simulate the hydraulic capacity of vertically oriented textile filters. The mathematical model reflects the significant impact of the filter characteristics (textile permeability at different filter height and operational conditions (dosing frequency on the textile filters hydraulic capacity.

  4. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  5. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  6. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  7. Application of monochloramine for wastewater reuse: Effect on biostability during transport and biofouling in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Loubineaud, E.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; El Chakhtoura, Joline; Salles, C.; Bucs, Szilard; Trampé , J.; Van den Broek, W.B.P.; Van Agtmaal, J.M.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2018-01-01

    The rising demand for clean and safe water has increased the interest in advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Reverse osmosis (RO) can provide reliable and high-quality water from treated wastewater. Biofouling inevitably occurs, certainly

  8. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  9. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  10. Quick-Reaction Report on Wastewater Testing at the Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, we determined which of the following was more cost-effective for the Command: to perform wastewater testing at the Mainside wastewater treatment plant laboratory or to have the testing done by contract...

  11. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  12. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  13. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  14. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  15. Governing the reuse of treated wastewater in irrigation : the case study of Jericho, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khatib, Nasser; Shoqeir, Jawad A.H.; Özerol, Gül; Majaj, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater reuse in irrigation provides additional water supply for agriculture and saves freshwater resources for human consumption. Through these benefits, wastewater reuse can significantly alleviate the water scarcity in Palestine and fit to the complexity of the geopolitical context. However,

  16. Applications of inorganic ion-exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Li Xingliang; Li Shoujian

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the application of abio-ion exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater, which would be useful for latter research of new inorganic materials that used in managing radioactivity wastewater. (authors)

  17. Energy and nutrient recovery for munipal wastewater treatment : how to design a feasible plant layout?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for

  18. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  19. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  20. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater.

  1. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  2. Solar photochemical treatment of winery wastewater in a CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mosteo, Rosa; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto; Peres, José A

    2009-12-09

    Degradation of simulated winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) and homogeneous photocatalysis with photo-Fenton was observed. The influence of TiO(2) concentration (200 or 500 mg/L) and also of combining TiO(2) with H(2)O(2) or Na(2)S(2)O(8) on heterogeneous photocatalysis was evaluated. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2), TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and TiO(2)/S(2)O(8)(2-) is revealed to be inefficient in removing TOC, originating TOC degradation of 10%, 11% and 25%, respectively, at best. However, photo-Fenton experiments led to 46% TOC degradation in simulated wastewater prepared with diluted wine (WV) and 93% in wastewater prepared with diluted grape juice (WG), and if ethanol is previously eliminated from mixed wine and grape juice wastewater (WW) by air stripping, it removes 96% of TOC. Furthermore, toxicity decreases during the photo-Fenton reaction very significantly from 48% to 28%. At the same time, total polyphenols decrease 92%, improving wastewater biodegradability.

  3. Algae Production from Wastewater Resources: An Engineering and Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan [Longitude 122 West, Inc.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL

    2018-03-01

    Co-locating algae cultivation ponds near municipal wastewater (MWW) facilities provides the opportunity to make use of the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the wastewater as nutrient sources for the algae. This use benefits MWW facilities, the algae biomass and biofuel or bioproduct industry, and the users of streams where treated or untreated waste would be discharged. Nutrient compounds can lead to eutrophication, hypoxia, and adverse effects to some organisms if released downstream. This analysis presents an estimate of the cost savings made possible to cultivation facilities by using the nutrients from wastewater for algae growth rather than purchase of the nutrients. The analysis takes into consideration the cost of pipe transport from the wastewater facility to the algae ponds, a cost factor that has not been publicly documented in the past. The results show that the savings in nutrient costs can support a wastewater transport distance up to 10 miles for a 1000-acre-pond facility, with potential adjustments for different operating assumptions.

  4. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, and total dissolved solids (TDS before being subjected to two modes of aeration system, that is diffused air and oxygen enriched air. These water quality concentrations were tested for every 20 minutes for two-hour period during the aeration process. Results of BOD, TSS, pH, conductivity, DO, SS and TDS concentrations against time of samples from the two modes of aeration were then compared. It was found that DO concentration achieved in oxygen enriched air aeration was better than aeration using diffused air system. Aeration using OES improve the DO concentration in the wastewater and thus improve the BOD reduction and also influence other physical characteristics of wastewater. This phenomenon indicates the advantage of using air with higher oxygen concentration for wastewater aeration instead of diffused air system.

  5. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  7. Semi-industrial production of methane from textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (DE)] (and others)

    2012-12-15

    The enzymatic desizing of starch-sized cotton fabrics leads to wastewaters with an extremely high chemical oxygen demand due to its high sugar content. Nowadays, these liquors are still disposed without use, resulting in a questionable ecological pollution and high emission charges for cotton finishing manufacturers. In this paper, an innovative technology for the production of energy from textile wastewaters from cotton desizing was developed. Such desizing liquors were fermented by methane-producing microbes to biogas. For this purpose, a semi-industrial plant with a total volume of more than 500 L was developed and employed over a period of several weeks. The robust and trouble-free system produces high amounts of biogas accompanied by a significant reduction of the COD of more than 85%. With regard to growing standards and costs for wastewater treatment and disposal, the new process can be an attractive alternative for textile finishing enterprises in wastewater management, combining economic and ecological benefits. Moreover, the production of biogas from textile wastewaters can help to overcome the global energy gap within the next decades, especially with respect to the huge dimension of cotton pretreatment and, therefore, huge desizing activities worldwide.

  8. Pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater using an anoxic baffled reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huoliang; Wu, Huifang

    2008-11-01

    A study on pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater was carried out using an anoxic baffled reactor (ABR) at wastewater temperatures of 5-31.1 degrees C. When hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 8h, the color of outflow of ABR was only 40 times at 5 degrees C and it could satisfy the professional discharge standard (grade-1) of textile and dyeing industry of China (GB4287-92). The total COD removal efficiency of ABR was 34.6%, 47.5%, 50.0%, 53.3%, 54.7% and 58.1% at 5, 9.7, 14.9, 19.7, 23.5 and 31.1 degrees C, respectively. Besides, after the wastewater being pre-treated by ABR when HRT was 6h and 8h, the BOD5/COD value rose from 0.30 of inflow to 0.46 of outflow and from 0.30 of inflow to 0.40 of outflow, respectively. Experimental results indicated that ABR was a very feasible process to decolorize and pre-treat the textile dyeing wastewater at ambient temperature. Moreover, a kinetic simulation of organic matter degradation in ABR at six different wastewater temperatures was carried through. The kinetic analysis showed the organic matter degradation was a first-order reaction. The reaction activation energy was 19.593 kJ mol(-1) and the temperature coefficient at 5-31.1 degrees C was 1.028.

  9. Phycoremediation of Tannery Wastewater Using Microalgae Scenedesmus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Kayil Veedu; Selvaraju, Muthusamy; Unnikannan, Pachikaran; Sruthi, Palliyath

    2015-01-01

    A number of microalgae species are efficient in removing toxicants from wastewater. Many of these potential species are a promising, eco-friendly, and sustainable option for tertiary wastewater treatment with a possible advantage of improving the economics of microalgae cultivation for biofuel production. The present study deals with the phycoremediation of tannery wastewater (TWW) using Scenedesmus sp. isolated from a local habitat. The test species was grown in TWW under laboratory conditions and harvested on the 12th day. The results revealed that the algal biomass during the growth period not only reduced the pollution load of heavy metals (Cr-81.2-96%, Cu-73.2-98%, Pb-75-98% and Zn-65-98%) but also the nutrients (NO3 >44.3% and PO4 >95%). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrums of Scenedesmus sp. biomass revealed the involvement of hydroxyl amino, carboxylic and carbonyl groups. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopic analysis (EDS) revealed the surface texture, morphology and element distribution of the biosorbent. Furthermore, the wastewater generated during wet-blue tanning process can support dense population of Scenedesmus sp., making it a potential growth medium for biomass production of the test alga for phycoremediation of toxicants in tannery wastewaters.

  10. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  11. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  12. Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, J.; Choi, J.S.; Park, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents. (author)

  13. Acid Pretreatment of Sago Wastewater for Biohydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi Mohamad Puad, Noor; Rahim, Nurainin Farhan Abd; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Biohydrogen has been recognized to be one of the future renewable energy sources and has the potential in solving the greenhouse effects. In this study, Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) was used as the biohydrogen producer via dark fermentation process using sago wastewater as the substrate. However, pretreatment of sago wastewater is required since it consists of complex sugars that cannot be utilized directly by the bacteria. This study aimed to use acid pretreatment method to produce high amount of glucose from sago wastewater. Three different types of acid: sulfuric acid (H2SO4); hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3) were screened for the best acid in producing a maximum amount of glucose. H2SO4 gave the highest amount of glucose which was 9.406 g/L. Design of experiment was done using Face-centred Central Composite Design (FCCCD) tool under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Design Expert 9 software. The maximum glucose (9.138 g/L) was recorded using 1 M H2SO4 at 100 °C for 60 min. A batch dark fermentation using E. aerogenes was carried out and it was found that pretreated sago wastewater gave a higher hydrogen concentration (1700 ppm) compared to the raw wastewater (410 ppm).

  14. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  15. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  16. Mechanism of nitrogen removal in wastewater lagoon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramelli, Richard A; Vijay, Saloni; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia being a nutrient facilitates the growth of algae in wastewater and causes eutrophication. Nitrate poses health risk if it is present in drinking water. Hence, nitrogen removal from wastewater is required. Lagoon wastewater treatment systems have become common in Canada these days. The study was conducted to understand the nitrogen removal mechanisms from the existing wastewater treatment lagoon system in the town of Lorette, Manitoba. The lagoon system consists of two primary aerated cells and two secondary unaerated cells. Surface samples were collected periodically from lagoon cells and analysed from 5 May 2015 to 9 November 2015. The windward and leeward sides of the ponds were sampled and the results were averaged. It was found that the free ammonia volatilization to the atmosphere is responsible for most of the ammonia removal. Ammonia and nitrate assimilation into biomass and biological growth in the cells appears to be the other mechanisms of nitrogen removal over the monitoring period. Factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be pH, temperature and hydraulic residence time. Also, the ammonia concentration in the effluent from the wastewater treatment lagoon was compared with the regulatory standard.

  17. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Can, O. T.; Hammed, M.; Nawarathna, D.; Simsek, H.

    2018-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from vegetable oil industries contain a high concentration of organic pollutants that are detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem. Electrochemical processes are gaining importance in the treatment of inorganic and resistant organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was applied to remove organic pollutants and oil and grease from canola oil wastewater using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes. The application of EC in the wastewater achieved more than 80% removal of organic carbon and nearly 100% removal of suspended solids (SS). The effectiveness of EC is influenced mainly by current density, pH, electrolyte (NaCl), electrode contact time and electrode type. It was observed that Al electrode combination yielded better removal at a lesser time compared to that of Fe electrodes. However, varying current densities had its significance in terms of coagulation time only. Increase in current density achieved decrease in coagulation time. Both Al and Fe could remove between 52-59% of oil and grease from canola oil wastewater

  18. Separation of Process Wastewater with Extractive Heterogeneous-Azeotropic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András József

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of vapour-liquid equilibria-based separation alternatives can be extraordinarily complicated for the treatment of process wastewaters containing heterogeneous-azeotropic. Despite dissimilar successfully tested methods for separation, there is possibility to get better distillation method by enabling the separation of more and more specific process wastewater. Extractive heterogeneous-azeotropic distillation (EHAD is a new advance in treatment of fine chemical wastewater showing special features to cope with the treatment of highly non-ideal mixtures. This method combines the worth of heterogeneous-azeotropic and extractive distillations in one apparatus without addition of any extra materials. The study of the separations of ternary component process wastewater from the fine chemical industry shows both in the modelled and experimental results that EHAD can be successfully applied. The measured and modelled compositions at extreme purities, that is, close to 0% or 100%, can be different because of the inaccuracies of the modelling. This highlights the paramount importance of the experiments if special extra-fine chemicals with almost no impurities, e.g. of pharmacopoeial quality are to be produced by special distillation technique. This study expands the application of EHAD technique, this new field is the separation of process wastewaters.

  19. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  20. Re-use of winery wastewaters for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Villaseñor, J; Buendía, I M; Fernández, F J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the re-use of the winery wastewater to enhance the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. In batch experiments it was observed that the addition of winery wastewater mainly enhanced the nitrogen removal process because of the high denitrification potential (DNP), of about 130 mg N/g COD, of the contained substrates. This value is very similar to that obtained by using pure organic substrates such as acetate. The addition of winery wastewater did not significantly affect either phosphorus or COD removal processes. Based on the experimental results obtained, the optimum dosage to remove each mg of N-NO3 was determined, being a value of 6.7 mg COD/mg N-NO3. Because of the good properties of the winery wastewater to enhance the nitrogen removal, the viability of its continuous addition in an activated sludge pilot-scale plant for BNR was studied. Dosing the winery wastewater to the pilot plant a significant increase in the nitrogen removal was detected, from 58 to 75%. The COD removal was slightly increased, from 89 to 95%, and the phosphorus removal remained constant.

  1. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  2. Maximizing recovery of energy and nutrients from urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, T.; Henkanatte-Gedera, S.M.; Muppaneni, T.; Nirmalakhandan, N.; Deng, S.; Lammers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, UWWs (urban wastewaters) that contain high levels of organic carbon, N (nitrogen), and P (phosphorous) have been considered an environmental burden and have been treated at the expense of significant energy input. With the advent of new pollution abatement technologies, UWWs are now being regarded as a renewable resource from which, useful chemicals and energy could be harvested. This study proposes an integrated, algal-based system that has the potential to treat UWWs to the desired discharge standards in a sustainable manner while recovering high fraction of its energy content as well as its N- and P-contents for use as fertilizers. Key embodiments of the system being proposed are: i) cultivation of an extremophile microalga, Galdieria sulphuraria, in UWW for removal of carbon, N, and P via single-step by mixotrophic metabolism; ii) extraction of energy-rich biocrude and biochar from the cultivated biomass via hydrothermal processing; and, iii) enhancement of biomass productivity via partial recycling of the nutrient-rich AP (aqueous product) from hydrothermal-processed biomass to the cultivation step to optimize productivity, and formulation of fertilizers from the remaining AP. This paper presents a process model to simulate this integrated system, identify the optimal process conditions, and establish ranges for operational parameters. - Highlights: • Developed model for algal system for wastewater treatment/energy production. • Evaluated energy efficiency in algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Optimized algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Demonstrated feasibility of energy-positive wastewater treatment.

  3. The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frijns, Jos; Hofman, Jan; Nederlof, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ► Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ► The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ► The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ► Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

  4. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  5. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  6. Spatial Characteristics and Driving Factors of Provincial Wastewater Discharge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunlun; Liu, Xiaoqiong; Ding, Lei; Huang, Gengzhi; Li, Zhigang

    2016-12-09

    Based on the increasing pressure on the water environment, this study aims to clarify the overall status of wastewater discharge in China, including the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wastewater discharge and its driving factors, so as to provide reference for developing "emission reduction" strategies in China and discuss regional sustainable development and resources environment policies. We utilized the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) method to analyze the characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of the total wastewater discharge among 31 provinces in China from 2002 to 2013. Then, we discussed about the driving factors, affected the wastewater discharge through the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method and classified those driving factors. Results indicate that: (1) the total wastewater discharge steadily increased, based on the social economic development, with an average growth rate of 5.3% per year; the domestic wastewater discharge is the main source of total wastewater discharge, and the amount of domestic wastewater discharge is larger than the industrial wastewater discharge. There are many spatial differences of wastewater discharge among provinces via the ESDA method. For example, provinces with high wastewater discharge are mainly the developed coastal provinces such as Jiangsu Province and Guangdong Province. Provinces and their surrounding areas with low wastewater discharge are mainly the undeveloped ones in Northwest China; (2) The dominant factors affecting wastewater discharge are the economy and technological advance; The secondary one is the efficiency of resource utilization, which brings about the unstable effect; population plays a less important role in wastewater discharge. The dominant driving factors affecting wastewater discharge among 31 provinces are divided into three types, including two-factor dominant type, three-factor leading type and four-factor antagonistic type. In addition, the

  7. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  8. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  9. A study on the treatment of non-biodegradable wastewater by using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Ju; Jin, Joon Ha; Yoon, Byung Mok; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Lim, Moon Ho

    1995-09-01

    This study was carried out for decomposition of dye wastewater which has been called non-biodegradable wastewater by using gamma radiation combined with ozone. When dye wastewater was oxidized by ozone combined with irradiation, a large amount of dye wastewater could be easily oxidized to final products. The irradiation acts an important roll of production of O 2 - radical which is essential in decomposition of tert-butanol. 2 tabs., 22 figs. (Author)

  10. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  11. Decentralized Wastewater Management Solutions for Improved Public Health Protection and Reclamation: Optimization and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Kartiki Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban or industrial areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers. Alternatively, the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation is called decentralized wastewater treatment. Smaller decentralized plants with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularization of expansion and minimum capital investment can mee...

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  13. Wastewater from monosodium glutamate industry as a low cost fertilizer source for corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satnam; Rekha, P.D.; Arun, A.B.; Huang, Y.-M.; Shen, F.-T.; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen rich wastewater from monosodium glutamate industry (MSG) and paper-mill wastewater were used in this study as low cost fertilizers for growing corn, a common fuel crop. Detailed characterization of the wastewaters and toxicity testes were conducted to assure the safety of these wastewaters. In a greenhouse pot experiment, effects of these wastewaters on corn growth and biomass yield along with the soil properties were evaluated. MSG-wastewater was applied at three rates i.e., zero, 5 m 3 ha -1 and 7.5 m 3 ha -1 and paper-mill wastewater was applied at and zero, 3.5 m 3 ha -1 and 5 m 3 ha -1 in a complete randomized blocks design experiment. Significant increase in the corn biomass yield was observed in all the wastewater treatments compared to the Control. Both these wastewaters did not show any adverse effects on plant. N-use efficiency from the MSG-wastewater was comparable to urea-N application. This study emphasizes on sustainable practices for energy crop production by utilizing wastewaters as fertilizer sources. Hence, we report for the first time that the MSG-wastewater can be used for growing corn as a low cost green practice without adverse affects on the soil properties. -- Highlights: → MSG-wastewater acidity neutralization with highly alkaline paper-mill effluent is sustainable practice. → Growing fuel crops using wastewaters comprises multiple benefits on plant, soil, and environment. → Organic rich wastewaters improve SOC. → Co-application of MSG and paper-mill wastewaters stimulates humification.

  14. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  15. Scenario Analysis of Nutrient Removal from Municipal Wastewater by Microalgal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, H.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae can be used for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment systems seems attractive, being able to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater at a short hydraulic retention time. This study therefore investigates the area

  16. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia-Lor, E.; Rousis, N.I.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles Llanes, A.; Hernández, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Santos, M.M.; Thomas, K.; de Voogt, P.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared with the

  17. Microbial indicators of fecal contamination in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Godinez, C. A.; Palacios-Lopez, O. A.; Munoz-Castellanos, L. N.; Saucedo-Teran, R.; Rubio-Arias, H.; Nevarez-Moorillon, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of wastewater to irrigate produce was a common practice in some suburban areas in Mexico. The continuous use of wastewater can increase the chance of fecal soil contamination, which can percolate in soil and finally cause groundwater contamination. A suburban area in Chihuahua, mexico, has been traditionally irradiated with wastewater for production of agriculture goods, including produce and animal foodstuffs. (Author)

  18. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  19. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  20. 40 CFR 420.08 - Non-process wastewater and storm water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-process wastewater and storm water...-process wastewater and storm water. Permit and pretreatment control authorities may provide for increased loadings for non-process wastewaters defined at § 420.02 and for storm water from the immediate process...