WorldWideScience

Sample records for wastewater

  1. WASTEWATER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid in the ozonized wastewater were degraded completely by ... wastewater from pulp and paper plants pose serious environmental problems when they are ... support aquatic life (Stern & Gasner 1974), Gupta and Battacharya 1985).

  2. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  3. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make water safe. Effects of wastewater pollutants If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife ... in wastewater and the potentially harmful effects these substances can ...

  4. Wastewater Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  6. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  7. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment plants receiving industrial effluent. FT Mhlanga* and ... The modelling of biological wastewater treatment systems has developed ..... of KwaZulu-Natal. ORHON D and CORGNOR EU (1996) COD fractionation in waste-.

  9. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  10. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  11. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  12. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    the suitability of the prefermented wastewater for downstream biological nutrient removal processes. The raw ... in the secondary treatment processes (BNRAS reactor), without ..... Wastewater and Activated Sludge from European Municipal.

  13. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved unde

  14. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  15. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  16. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  18. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  19. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    The Arctic nature is vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low biological diversity, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. In Greenland neither industrial nor domestic wastewater is treated before it is discharged to the recipients, which in most cases is the sea...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...

  20. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  1. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  2. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  3. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    -known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...... function. The grey box models are estimated on data sets from the Lundtofte pilot scale plant and the Aalborg West wastewater treatment plant. Estimation of Monod- kinetic expressions is made possible through the application of large data sets. Parameter extimates from the two plants show a reasonable......The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...

  4. Treatment of electroplating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To study the feasibility of treated water being used as rinsing water with CP/ED (chemical precipitation/electrodialysis) system, the relation between concentration of Cr (VI) and conductivity of water is investigated, the effect of electrodialysis (ED) for different wastewater is also studied. And several parameters of importance that are relevant to the process are identified. Analysis of ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) and IC (Ion chromatography) shows that the main reason of conductivity increase in CP treated water is the increase of Na+ and Cl- ions. The 93.8%-100% of ions from wastewater both in ED and CP/ED systems was removed successfully. The results of experiments indicate that the CP/ED system is a feasible method for electroplating wastewater treatment, the CP/ED system used as a way of wastwater is not only in favour of environment, but also economic beneficial to achieve.

  5. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  6. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  7. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  8. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  9. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...

  10. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  11. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  12. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  13. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  14. Bioindicators of wastewater ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirova, Gabriela; Wittlingerova, Zdenka; Zimova, Magdalena; Vlkova, Alena; Wittlerova, Martina; Dvorakova, Marketa; Jirova, Dagmar

    2016-12-18

    Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and legislation dealing with test methods for identification and classification of health hazard of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, medical devices and consumer products such as cosmetics for environmental ecosystems and for man require to employ alternative toxicological methods respecting the 3Rs concept with priority given to methods in vitro. The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is identified as a relevant, reliable and efficient alternative test method in vitro for determination of acute toxicity for fish. Using the FET, additional toxicological endpoints may be investigated to assess organ specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, teratogenicity, various forms of neurotoxicity or endocrine disruptivity. The addition of multiparametric sensitive endpoints makes the FET a true alternative in vitro assay and a powerful tool in toxicology.

  15. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  16. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  17. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  18. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  19. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  20. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit

  1. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  2. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the... fixed roof except that if the wastewater tank is used for heating wastewater, or treating by means of an... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  3. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  5. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several...... hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  6. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  7. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  8. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  9. Economic Analysis on Wastewater Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan WAN; Na LI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The shortage of water resources social development. Wastewater reuse is an has become a major limiting factor for effective solution to solve water short- ages, which not only has economic benefits, but also has significant social and en- vironmental benefits. The economic evaluation is an important component in the study of wastewater reuse feasibility and the basis for the program optimization and economic feasibility determination.

  10. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section... for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1256 Standards: Wastewater. (a) General. Each owner or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  15. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  16. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  17. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  18. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  19. Biological flocculation treatment on distillery wastewater and recirculation of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Rongchun; Wei, Gang

    2009-12-30

    In the present study, a wastewater treatment system for the ethanol fermentation industry was developed by recycling distillery wastewater. The waste was able to be recycled for the next fermentation after being treated with bio-flocculation process. The bio-flocculation process contains three steps: screening, treatment with polyaspartic acid and filtration. When the filtrate from this process was recycled, the average ethanol production yield was very close to that in the conventional process using tap water. In contrast, the recycle of wastewater without flocculation and with chemical flocculation showed negative effects on ethanol yield as recycling was repeated. This new process was confirmed to have stable operation over ten recycles. Hazardous materials influencing distillery wastewater recycles on fermentation were also considered. It was found that the content of suspended solids (SS), volatile acid and Fe ions inhibited fermentation and resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Bio-flocculation was shown to be an effective way to diminish the content of inhibitory compounds drastically when the waste was recirculated.

  20. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  1. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  2. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, P.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Eggels, P.G.; Rulkens, W.H.; Starkenburg, van W.

    1997-01-01

    n this study the insustainability of the treatment of municipal wastewater is evaluated with the LCA-methodology. Life-Cycle Assessments (LCA) analyze and assess the environmental profile over the entire life cycle of a product or process. The LCA-methodology proved to be a proper instrument to

  4. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  5. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    -arsenate precipitates. This work evaluates the feasibility of EC as a treatment process at various stages during conventional copper smelter wastewater treatment - with a focus on arsenic. The reactor used is a batch airlift electrocoagulator. The results showed that raw copper smelter wastewater was difficult to treat......The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  6. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  7. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  8. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  9. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  10. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  11. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (15), pp. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ... separate), industrial waste entering the sewer, type of.

  12. The developments of anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... 0.34. Bodkhe (2009). Complex wastewater ..... hydrolysis of complex wastewater into soluble substrates; .... Kinetic analysis of palm oil mill wastewater ... Abdullah LG, Idris A, Ahmadun FR, Baharin BS, Emby F, Megat MNMJ,.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Palanivelu, K. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: kpvelu@hotmail.com

    2004-09-10

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD and TOC concentrations were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were detected at high concentrations during the electrolytic treatment of the effluents. However, it was observed that increasing the electrolysis time bring down the AOX concentration to lower levels. Energy consumption and current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated and presented. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment for highly concentrated bio-refractory organic pollutants present in the industrial wastewater.

  14. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  15. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  16. Microbiological analysis of municipal wastewater treating photobioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Krustok, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae reactors, commonly known as photobioreactors, have become increasingly popular as an alternative for wastewater treatment. These systems reduce pollutants and remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from wastewater utilizing microalgae and bacteria. The biomass produced in the reactors can potentially be used to produce biofuels and decrease some of the energy demands of the process. Wastewater treating photobioreactors are a relatively new technology and many a...

  17. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.; Deverić Meštrović, B.; Ležajić, Z.; Bevetek, A.; Čurlin; M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already b...

  18. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  19. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  20. LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liqu...

  2. Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts during n

  3. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  4. Developments in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics and biological treatment technologies of several kinds of industrial wastewater are summarised. Biological treatment of industrial wastewater is a well-established system with applications going back for over a century. However, developments are still taking place but at the design stage, more emphasis will be placed on small "footprint" systems, odour control and minimization of excess sludge production.

  5. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  6. Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts during n

  7. Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhapi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable management of wastewater should aim at pollution prevention and reduction first, followed by resource recovery and reuse. This thesis shows that substantial water quality improvements could be achieved through a so-called 3-Step Strategic Approach to wastewater management. This thesi

  8. Power from wastewater and residual products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Jeppesen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way......Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way...

  9. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  10. Wastewater washing screens out solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.G. [Hycor Corp., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

  11. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream...

  12. Bioelectricity production from various wastewaters through microbial fuel cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha S Mathuriya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell technology is a new type of renewable and sustainable technology for electricity generation since it recovers energy from renewable materials that can be difficult to dispose of, such as organic wastes and wastewaters. In the present contribution we demonstrated electricity production by beer brewery wastewater, sugar industry wastewater, dairy wastewater, municipal wastewater and paper industry wastewater. Up to 14.92 mA current and 90.23% COD removal was achieved in 10 days of operation. Keywords: Bioelectricity, COD, Microbial Fuel Cells, Wastewater Received: 12 November 2009 / Received in revised form: 30 November 2009, Accepted: 30 November 2009, Published online: 10 March 2010

  13. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  15. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  16. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  17. Wastewater treatment by oxidation with ozone.

    OpenAIRE

    Edna de Almeida; Márcia Regina Assalin; Maria Aparecida Rosa; Nelson Durán

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds may be found in wastewater which can contribute to environmental contamination. Oxidation processes with ozone (O3; O3/UV; O3/H2O2; O3/TiO2; O3/Mn+2) and the use of ozone in the pre- or post-treatment of wastewater combined with biological processes has been extensively studied for the treatment of effluents. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the ozonation process in the treatment of several industrial wastewaters, namely ...

  18. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  19. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  20. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  1. Wastewater services for small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  2. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  3. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  4. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  5. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  6. Treated wastewater reuse on potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A.; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron...

  7. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  8. Fertigation with domestic wastewater: Uses and implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Geraldo

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... scarcity of water, the large amount of sewage produced and the ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access .... wastewater reuse started in the first half of the twentieth ..... domestic residual water.

  9. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  10. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...... of treated wastewater, energy conservation, and proper financial and organizational set up.   Sustainable Wastewater Management in Developing Countries will urge practitioners, decision makers, and researchers to approach these systems in new ways that are practical, innovative, and-best of all-sustainable....

  11. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater applying natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is one of the most chemically active compounds which is discharged with untreated or just partially treated industrial wastewater. It is hazardous for environment and humans. Formaldehyde vapors can strongly irritate skin, can cause damage to eyes and harm respiratory tract. As long as formaldehyde causes a toxic effect on environment and living organisms, it is necessary to remove it from wastewater which is directed to natural water. There are many methods used for formaldehyde...

  12. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is thus of benefit since it would reduce the energy consumption in the wastewater treatment. In the present study, wastewater from an electro-coating process was treated biologically using a packed column as an aerator where the wastewater was aerated by a countercurrent air flow. The objective was to obtain an optimum aeration cycle. Approach: Intermittent aeration time was varied at different preset cycles. An operational optimum of the aeration time (or air-water contacting time in the column was determined from the BOD5 removal after a certain treatment period. For continuous aeration of the wastewater, the air-liquid contacting time in the column was 52 min for 24 h of treatment. A unit energy consumption for pumping liquid and air, which was defined as the energy consumption per percent BOD5 removed, was used as a criterion to determine the optimum contacting time. Results: Optimum air-liquid contacting times were found to be about 38, 26 and 22 min for the treatment times of 24, 48 and 72 h, consecutively. This indicates that 27-58% saving on the unit energy consumption can be achieved using intermittent aeration of the wastewater. On the basis of the overall BOD5 removal, 17% and 23% savings in energy were observed with the intermittent aeration as compared to the continuous aeration of the wastewater for 48 and 72 h. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that an appropriate intermittent aeration cycle can bring about a substantial energy saving

  13. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Revelo; Diego Proaño; Carlos Banchón

    2015-01-01

    (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24)The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador) where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extr...

  14. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  15. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  16. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed.

  17. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  18. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzymatic biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwadiae, S.E.; Yerima, Y.; Azik, R.U. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Igbinedion University, Okada, P.M.B. 0006, Benin City, Edo State (Nigeria)

    2011-07-01

    The present effort is an attempt to reduce pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater (effluents) to the environment by using a low cost method. The effluent was bio-remediated using yeast and amylase as the active agents. The greater the decomposable matters present in an effluent, the greater the oxygen demand; the greater the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) values, the less Dissolved Oxygen(DO) values. 10g of yeast and amylase were added to 1000ml each of pharmaceutical effluent. 150 ml of the effluent (from the yeast and amylase) dosed was withdrawn weekly for analysis alongside with the effluent without enzymes for turbidity, DO, BOD and COD. After a period of six weeks the effluent dosed with yeast gave the highest performance followed by that dosed with amylase. The result shows that as time increases, the amount of oxygen demand reduces while the dissolved oxygen content of the effluent increases. This indicates that the yeast enzyme was able to aid remediation of the pharmaceutical effluent.

  20. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der BAI; Chia-Jung HSIAO [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  1. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  2. General Characteristics and Treatment Possibilities of Dairy Wastewater - A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandar Kolev Slavov

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of the paper is to review contemporary research on dairy wastewater. The origin, categories, as well as liquid by-products and general indicators of real dairy wastewater are described...

  3. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil microbiological properties under ... Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation. ... Article Metrics.

  4. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability for reuse. ... for restricted use. Before reuse, effluent wastewater needs advanced treatment to prevent its impact on human health and the environment. ... Article Metrics.

  5. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... reported the application of PSB in wastewater treatment, many researchers had ... industries since organic industrial wastewater strength is dependent on the raw .... its addition in a system is not endless, in a biological system ...

  6. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW) and treated municipal wastewater (TMW). ... industrial waste, municipal wastes, animal remains, ... or for use in the closed equilibrated biological aquatic.

  7. a review of the effects of wastewater on reinforced concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    treatment facilities for wastewater; they are exposed to extremely ... industrial effluent, storm water and other urban run- ... quantities of industrial wastewater are equally generated [5] and [6] .... of experimental test methods to analyse biological.

  8. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The use of anaerobic process for domestic wastewater treatment would achieve lower carbon footprint ... However, its application is still limited to industrial wastewater treatment. ...... Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Sweden.

  9. Water quality modelling and optimisation of wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among these activities, wastewater treatment plays a crucial role. In this work, a Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model (DO) is implemented in a ... The Olifants River catchment modelled in this study features 9 wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  11. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  12. Control of wastewater using multivariate control chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jaka; Fatimah, Is; Prabowo, Rino Galang

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater treatment is a crucial process in industry cause untreated or improper treatment of wastewater may leads some problems affecting to the other parts of environmental aspects. For many kinds of wastewater treatments, the parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and the Total Suspend Solid (TSS) are usual parameters to be controlled as a standard. In this paper, the application of multivariate Hotteling T2 Individual was reported to control wastewater treatment. By using wastewater treatment data from PT. ICBP, east Java branch, while the fulfillment of quality standards are based on East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 Year 2013 on Standards of Quality of Waste Water Industry and / or Other Business Activities. The obtained results are COD and TSS has a correlation with BOD values with the correlation coefficient higher than 50%, and it is is also found that influence of the COD and TSS to BOD values are 82% and 1.9% respectively. Based on Multivariate control chart Individual T2 Hotteling, it is found that BOD-COD and BOD-TSS are each one subgroup that are outside the control limits. Thus, it can be said there is a process that is not multivariate controlled, but univariately the variables of BOD, COD and TSS are within specification (standard quality) that has been determined.

  13. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP) physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic ...

  14. Wastewater treatment alternatives for a vegetable and seafood cannery

    OpenAIRE

    Grassiano, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Peeled or whole-pack tomatoes, herring roe and oysters are processed at a Virginia Cannery. Wastewater from each food processing effluent was characterized. Treatment alternatives were investigated for tomato and herring roe wastewaters. For herring roe processing wastewater, the discharge requirement for BOD was nearly met through plain settling, while the TSS limitation was easily achieved by settling out the roe particles" Oyster processing wastewater was found to meet effluent guidelines ...

  15. In vitro analysis of the phytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Aligarh wastewater and Mathura refinery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad Fazili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present report deals with the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Mathura refinery wastewater and Aligarh wastewater of Northern India. The IC50 value in Allium cepa root growth inhibition test was recorded to be 0.14X and 0.10X for Mathura refinery and Aligarh industrial wastewaters, respectively. Significant decline in the survival of various Escherichia coli K12 DNA repair defective mutants was observed when the tester strains were exposed to the aforementioned samples. The order of sensitivity was invariably as: AB1157 (wild type < AB2494 (lexA mutant < AB2463 (recA mutant < AB2480 (uvrA recA double mutant. These results suggested a significant amount of DNA damage within the bacterial cells exposed to test wastewaters. A. cepa genotoxicity test also demonstrated a considerable amount of chromosomal damage of A. cepa brought about by the test samples. The aberration index (A.I. for Aligarh wastewater and refinery wastewater was recorded to be 11.2% and 14.7%, respectively, whereas the aquaguard mineral water serving as negative control displayed the A.I. value to be 2.6%. Interestingly, genotoxicity of both industrial wastewaters was reduced to a remarkable extent in presence of mannitol, the hydroxyl radical scavenger. Present study clearly indicated a distinct pattern of the chromosomal aberrations showing predominantly stickiness and stray chromosomes in case of AWW while clumping and stickiness in case of RWW, thereby affirming the genotoxicity of both test waters.

  16. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  17. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  18. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... managed and treated as a Group 1 wastewater stream. This prohibition does not apply to materials from the... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132...

  19. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes.Secondary effluents from six Swedish...

  20. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements. 63... § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to this... wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this part. (b) The owner...

  1. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-reporting... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.146 Process wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control...

  2. Anaerobic Conversion of Glycol Rich Industrial Wastewater to BiogasAnaerobic Conversion of Glycol Rich Industrial Wastewater to Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas industries generate large volumes of wastewater during exploitation and processing of oil and gas. Industrial wastewater contains glycols along with other organic and inorganic compounds. It is essential to treat such wastewaters before discharge to the environment as these can have significant impacts on the environment. This research work has attempted to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of glycol rich industrial wastewater for biogas production. In the present...

  3. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman W. Harun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD. The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising.

  4. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  5. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    enough, too expensive, or simply inefficient.  This book investigates the complex political, economic, and cultural reasons that so many developing nations lack the ability to provide proper and effective wastewater treatment for their citizens.      The authors draw upon their experiences in Malaysia......Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...

  7. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima

    2011-03-23

    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  9. The potential of dairy wastewater for denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibela Landeka Dragičević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the potential of dairy wastewater for denitrification process by means of a microbial culture of nitrificants and denitrificants was investigated. The aim of this work was to remove nitrate by using organic compounds from the dairy wastewater as an electron donors. The minimal ratio of COD/NO3-N of 10 (COD-chemical oxygen demand/NO3-N-nitrate nitrogen was required to achieve complete reduction of NO3-N. The microbial culture of nitrificants and denitrificants, that was previously adapted on the dairy wastewater, carried out nitrate reduction with a different substrate utilization rate. The denitrification rate of 5.75 mg NO3-N/Lh was achieved at the beginning of denitrification when the microbial culture utilizes readily biodegradable COD. Further degradation occurred with the denitrification rate of 1.7 mg NO3-N/Lh.

  10. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  11. Fibre optic sensors for selected wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Su Sin; Aziz, A R Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman W

    2013-07-05

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising.

  12. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  13. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...

  14. Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nupur Mathur; Pradeep Bhatnagar; Hemraj Verma

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment,into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct.

  15. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Duncan

    2004-09-15

    Details methods of domestic wastewater treatment that are especially suitable in developing countries. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. (Author)

  16. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2017-03-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  17. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding area. Only across the EU, there are 16000 WWTPs that consume around 10000 GWh year-1 of electricity. Furthermore, the volume of wastewater treated in WWTPs in the EU is increasing with a rate of aroun...

  18. Low technology systems for wastewater treatment: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F

    2007-01-01

    Low technology systems for the treatment of wastewater are sometimes presented as remnants of the past, nowadays supposedly only meant to serve developing countries and remote rural areas. However, considering their advantages and disadvantages together with enhanced treatment requirements and recent research and technological developments, the future of these systems still appears promising. Successful applications of low technology systems require that more care is taken of their design and operation than often observed. Correlatively, more efforts should be made to decipher the treatment mechanisms and determine the related reaction parameters, so as to provide more deterministic approaches of the natural wastewater treatment systems and better predict their performance.

  19. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.;

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...... of a wastewater treatment system. It briefly references the methods currently used to evaluate prediction accuracy and uncertainty and discusses the relevance of uncertainty evaluations in model applications. The paper aims to raise awareness and initiate a comprehensive discussion among professionals on model...

  20. Effects of Micronutrient Niacin on Treatment Efficiency of Textile Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; HU Hongying; GU Xin; CHE Yuling; WANG Hui; GUO Yufeng; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater is well known as one of the wastewaters to be most difficultly treated. The effects of niacin on textile wastewater niacin, the physical and chemical indexes of the water samples, such as COD, ammonia and dehydrogenase activities, were analyzed every day with standard methods, and obvious improvement in wastewater treatcould improve the COD removal efficiency signifcantly with removal rates mental condition, addition of niacin had almost no effect on the removal of ase by 130%. It proved that the biological treatment performance of textile wastewater treatment system probably could be optimized through micronutrient niacin supplement.

  1. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tetouan pilot station, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, Loubna, E-mail: dloubna78@hotmail.co [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed [Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co{sup 60} gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  2. Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Wastewater in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Khalil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Untreated wastewater is used for irrigation in over 80% of all Pakistani communities with a population of over 10,000 inhabitants. The absence of a suitable alternative water source, wastewater’s high nutrient value, reliability, and its proximity to urban markets are the main reasons for its use. Two case studies in Pakistan studied the impact of untreated wastewater use on health, environment, and income. The results showed a high increase in hookworm infections among wastewater users and a clear over-application of nutrients through wastewater. Heavy metal accumulation in soil over a period of 30 years was minimal in Haroonabad, a small town with no industry,but showed initial signs of excess levels in soil and plant material in Faisalabad, a city with large-scale industry. The impact of wastewater irrigation on household income was considerable as wastewater farmers earned approximately US$300/annum more than farmers using freshwater. Both case studies showed the importance of wastewater irrigation on local livelihoods. The lack of financial resources at municipal and provincial levels for wastewater treatment calls for other measures to reduce the negative impact of untreated wastewater use on health and environment, for example to manage groundwater, regular (canal irrigation water, and wastewater conjunctively, and regular deworming treatment of those exposed to wastewater.

  3. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  4. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  5. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  6. Study on Supercritical Water Oxidation of Oily Wastewater with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wenbing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional treatments are unable to effectively remove the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of oily wastewater, which has seriously threatened the environment and the normal production of oil field. In this paper, an advanced method was proposed for oily wastewater treatment, Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO. The co-oxidative effect of ethanol on oily wastewater is characterized for the initial COD of oily wastewater (4000 mg/L and ethanol concentration (20 mg/L for a range of temperatures (390°C-450°C, a pressure of 23 Mpa for the complete combustion of both ethanol and oily wastewater. High concentrations of ethanol caused an increase in the conversion of oily wastewater at T = 450°C, p = 23 MPa and t = 9 min, the oily wastewater removal increases 8%.

  7. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina in municipal wastewater or digester centrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bingfeng; Ho, Nam; Ogden, Kimberly L; Arnold, Robert G

    2014-05-01

    Meaningful use of biofuels for transportation depends on utilization of water from non-traditional, non-potable resources. Here it is hypothesized that (i) reclaimed wastewater or nutrient-rich side streams derived from municipal wastewater treatment are suitable for that purpose and (ii) use of those waters for algal growth can promote water quality through nutrient management. Experiments showed that metals levels in municipal wastewaters are unlikely to inhibit algal growth and lipid production, at least by metals tolerant microalgae like Nannochloropsis salina. Cells grew without inhibition in treated municipal wastewater or centrate derived from wastewater treatment at additions up to 75 percent v/v in their normal growth medium minus nitrogen and phosphorus. Although wastewater provides a suitable nutrient source for algal growth, not enough municipal wastewater is available to support a meaningful biofuels industry without efficient water recycling and nutrient recovery/reuse from spent algae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  10. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  11. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  12. Treatment of Distillery Wastewater by Anaerobic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Patyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems faced by the world is management of wastes. Industrial processes create a wide range of wastewater pollutants; which are not only difficult but costly to treat. Characteristics of wastewater and level of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. To control this problem today emphasis is laid on waste minimization and revenue generation through by-product and energy recovery. Pollution prevention focuses on preventing the harmful effect of generated wastewater on the environment, while waste minimization refers to reducing the volume or toxicity of hazardous wastes by water recycling and reuse, process modifications and by by-product recovery. Production of ethyl alcohol in distilleries based on cane sugar molasses constitutes a major industry in Asia and South America. The world’s total production of alcohol from cane molasses is more than13 million m3 /annum. The aqueous distillery effluent stream known as spent wash is a dark brown highly organic effluent and is approximately 12-15 times by volume of the product alcohol. This highly aqueous, organic soluble containing residue is considered a troublesome and potentially polluting waste due to its extremely high BOD and COD values. Because of the high concentration of organic load, distillery spent wash is a potential source of renewable energy. The paper reviews the possibility of anaerobic treatment of the distillery wastewater.

  13. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  14. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with

  15. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater, a

  16. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laborato

  17. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological system specially treated and acclimated activated sludge from Sofia Wastewater Treatment Plant was used. The acclimation and immobilization of initially inoculated biomass, the addition of microbiological preparations and its modification for increase of the biodegradation activity to target pollutants were studied as opportunities for the stimulation of water treatment process in bioreactors and water receiver. Second: self-purification processes in а water receiver for partially treated dairy wastewater were investigated. The functional role and restructuring of the microbial communities in the water, sediment water and sediments were studied. Results: The results showed that the most important approaches for achieving high effectiveness of wastewater treatment process were both the acclimation and immobilization of biomass. In that aspect the data for the water receiver confirmed this conclusion. These two processes increased biodegradation effectiveness of the target pollutant (protein with 67%. Conclusion: The effect of the added preparations was smaller (protein biodegradation was increased to 9% for the different biological systems. It was thoroughly related to low improvement of the rate of metabolism and functioning of the biological system mainly on an enzyme level.

  18. WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING MACROALGAE KELP SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Elena BIRIS-DORHOI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was used the alga Kelp sp. in wastewater collected from a household, in order to experiment its treatment capacities. Every measurement in this study was made using Spectoquant NOVA 60. The results show an decrease in the main parameters when low quantities of algae were used, but an increase when larger quantities were used.

  19. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  20. Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrich, K.D. (Andco Environmental Processes, Inc., Amherst, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

  1. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    ) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...

  2. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding are

  3. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laborato

  4. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  5. Cytogenotoxicity Screening of Untreated Hospital Wastewaters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2005-09-05

    Sep 5, 2005 ... Despite the growing concern over hospital waste management, scant ... epidemics, water contamination, radioactive pollution and a host of other .... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study Area: ... solution and stored at 4oC for cytological analysis. ..... wastewaters. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

  6. Wastewater treatment in relation to marine disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    receiving the discharge. The EU has decided on regulation of wastewater treament by enforcing effluent standards. This is interpreted in relation to basic EU-principles and discussed with regard to an ethical framework of thinking. The conclusion is that basically different concepts are difficult...

  7. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewat...

  8. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. Howeve

  9. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m(3), (or 0.087 kWh/m(3), if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  10. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  11. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  12. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  13. Phycoremediation of Wastewater: Heavy Metal and Nutrient Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotrans-formation of pollutants from wastewater. The study is a novel at-tempt to integrate nutrient (N and P removal and some heavy met-als (iron, manganese and zinc bioaccumulation from municipal wastewater using two microalgae species: Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus armatus. The Chlorella vulgaris showed higher re-moval of total nitrogen (TN both in influent and effluent waste water than Scenedesmus armatus. Nevertheless, more than 51% of total phosphorus (TP in effluent and 36% in influent wastewaters were removed by Scenedesmus armatus. More efficient microalga in heavy metal removal in influent wastewater was Scenedesmus armatus. The results showed that Chlorella vulgaris was appropriate for TN removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from effluent wastewater. Nevertheless, Scenedesmus armatus was highly pref-erable for heavy metals removal from influent wastewater.

  14. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  15. Use of Ionizing Radiation Technology for Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas R. Al-Khalidy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In big cities, the cost of treating wastewater is increasing with more stringent environmental requirements. Ionizing radiation technology for treating municipal wastewater may be an alternative to reduce treatment costs. In this paper, laboratory tests were carried out using different doses of radiation to treat wastewater samples collected from the AL-Rustamia wastewater treatment plant in Baghdad city. According to the results, irradiation by gamma radiation with a dose ranging from 100 to 500 krad was efficient in reducing some of the physical contaminants. The organic contaminants were degraded and reduced to about 12% of their original concentrations. Generally, irradiation technology could effectively modify the characteristics of the wastewater to such levels that are compatible with Iraqi disposal standards. The results of the study also showed that, an experimental pilot plant study is required to optimize the cost of wastewater treatment through the use of this technology.

  16. Wastewater minimization in multipurpose batch plants with a regeneration unit: multiple contaminants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization can be achieved by employing water reuse opportunities. This paper presents a methodology to address the problem of wastewater minimization by extending the concept of water reuse to include a wastewater regenerator...

  17. Cultivation of microalgae in industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson

    Microalgae production for the purpose of clearing wastewater has been researched for at least half a century. Such systems have a dual benefit: first, they prevent nutrients from entering water bodies and causing eutrophication; second, they transform sunlight and carbon dioxide into a biomass...... to a growing body of knowledge with the aim to make algae cultivation viable for the production of sustainable products. Specific contributions include: improvement in the methods of screening the growth potential of different microalgae species; identification of an industrial wastewater that allows good...... is that there are many potential combinations which must empirically screened. Tens of thousands of microalgae species have been identified so far and there are numerous waste-streams that potentially could be of interest. A screening system was developed using the microplate as cultivation vessel and measurement...

  18. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  19. Performance indicators for wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmér, P; Hellström, D

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association has operated a web-based system, VASS, for the collection and compilation of key data from the Swedish water utilities since 2003. The VASS system will now be expanded to include data on operation of individual wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The objective is to provide performance indicators (PIs) for performance and economy and the use of resources such as energy, chemicals and manpower. A set of PIs has been developed that also includes explanatory factors to compensate for differences in the condition of operation between plants. This paper discusses the data required for the calculation of PI but also for explanatory factors, quality checks and for plant operation context. The discussion is based on the experiences from a test round with the participation of 24 WWTP.

  20. Put the breaks on wastewater emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alther, G. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Emulsions in wastewater pose a vexing problem for facilities attempting to recycle water and stay in compliance with permissible discharge limits. But the challenges are no less formidable for routine maintenance. The removal of emulsions, a major constituent of which are fats, oils and greases (FOGs), is necessary to prevent them from depositing on pipes and fouling filtration media. Some of the havoc caused by emulsions can be avoided if emulsions are broken and removed from wastewater streams. Successful emulsion breaking requires a basic understanding of emulsions, their chemical composition, and the technologies required to remove them from water. The paper discusses emulsion basics and emulsion breaking, including counteracting emulsions, testing procedures, physical separation methods, removal strategies, bentonite-based powders, and post-polishing.

  1. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  2. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  3. Performance intensification of Prague wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, L; Havrlíková, D

    2004-01-01

    Prague wastewater treatment plant was intensified during 1994--1997 by construction of new regeneration tank and four new secondary settling tanks. Nevertheless, more stringent effluent limits and operational problems gave rise to necessity for further intensification and optimisation of plant performance. This paper describes principal operational problems of the plant and shows solutions and achieved results that have lead to plant performance stabilisation. The following items are discussed: low nitrification capacity, nitrification bioaugmentation, activated sludge bulking, insufficient sludge disposal capacity, chemical precipitation of raw wastewater, simultaneous precipitation, sludge chlorination, installation of denitrification zones, sludge rising in secondary settling tanks due to denitrification, dosage of cationic polymeric organic flocculant to secondary settling tanks, thermophilic operation of digestors, surplus activated sludge pre-thickening, mathematical modelling.

  4. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  5. Wastewater evaluation by analytical and biological procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carballo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Some procedures, based on analytical and biological methods, are useful tools for risk assessment of treatment plant wastewater. In fact, urban effluents, called “complex mixtures” due to their nature, origin and toxicologic and environmental variability, need a more realistic evaluation. In this study, 11 municipal wastewater effluents were studied. Chemical analysis (GC/MS and biological methods (acute and chronic toxicity bioassays and estrogenicity, mutagenity and teratogeny tests were carried out to identify the most frequent organic compounds and toxic effluents. Results showed 7 effluents with acute toxicity, 3 with chronic toxicity and 4, with estrogenic effects. When toxicity and analytical results were compared, it was observed that in effluents with estrogenic effects, at least 3 estrogenic substances were identified. Attending all these results, the inclusion of combined methodologies must be considered to get more realistic information about these situations.

  6. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater). Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1) were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a p...

  7. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  8. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Biosorption of nanoparticles to heterotrophic wastewater biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Mehlika A; Ryu, Hodon; Jang, Hyunyoung; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Sorption to activated sludge is a major removal mechanism for pollutants, including manufactured nanoparticles (NPs), in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The objectives of this work were to (1) image sorption of fluorescent NPs to wastewater biomass; (2) quantify and compare biosorption of different types of NPs exposed to wastewater biomass; (3) quantify the effects of natural organic matter (NOM), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), surfactants, and salt on NP biosorption; and (4) explore how different surface functionalities for fullerenes affect biosorption. Batch sorption isotherm experiments were conducted with activated sludge as sorbent and a total of eight types of NPs as sorbates. Epifluorescence images clearly show the biosorption of fluorescent silica NPs; the greater the concentration of NPs exposed to biomass, the greater the quantity of NPs that biosorb. Furthermore, biosorption removes different types of NPs from water to different extents. Upon exposure to 400 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS) of wastewater biomass, 97% of silver nanoparticles were removed, probably in part by aggregation and sedimentation, whereas biosorption was predominantly responsible for the removal of 88% of aqueous fullerenes, 39% of functionalized silver NPs, 23% of nanoscale titanium dioxide, and 13% of fullerol NPs. Of the NP types investigated, only aq-nC(60) showed a change in the degree of removal when the NP suspension was equilibrated with NOM or when EPS was extracted from the biomass. Further study of carbonaceous NPs showed that different surface functionalities affect biosorption. Thus, the production and transformations in NP surface properties will be key factors in determining their fate in the environment.

  10. DRINK WATER, WASTEWATER - CUSTOMERS` AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Mihaela TUTUNEA

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to establish behavioural patterns related to drink water and beliefs on water and on the water company.Four main issues are analysed: the awareness on the services delivered by the water company, the use of drink water from the tap, the evaluation of general quality of the water and the cause of dissatisfaction with the water quality. The results show good awarenesson drink water transportation, medium for raw water treatment, low for wastewater collection and tr...

  11. Reactions of fish to microorganisms in wastewater.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Fish were inoculated with various microorganisms present in wastewater. A threshold concentration was determined over which these microorganisms were recovered from the muscles. The threshold concentrations were different for bacteria, bacteriophages, and polio 1 LSc virus. The threshold values were lower when fish were inoculated than when they were immersed in water containing these organisms. Depuration experiments were efficient when the fish did not contain high concentrations of bacteri...

  12. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regard to the removal of heavy metals....

  13. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Schneider; Yana Topalova

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological sy...

  14. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  15. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  16. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  17. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  18. Winery Wastewater Treatment Applying Aerated Submerged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pellizzaro Bento

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The winery wastewater usually shows conditions of low pH, high organic loads and concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus that are inappropriate for biologic treatment. The purpose of this research was to apply the technology of aerated submerged biofilter (ASB for the winery effluent treatment during the harvest (ASB 1 and non harvest (ASB 2 at lab scale. Therefore, two up flow biofilter built on glass (5 liters volume were installed. The nutrient balance of the winery wastewater was adjusted and the correction of the pH was done by oyster shell used as filter material. The efficiency removal (COD for the harvest reactor was 90% while for the non harvest was 82%. The oyster shells contributed to an increase on average of 180 mg/L of alkalinity to the BAS 1 and 318 mg/L for the BAS 2. As regards the metals, the average values in the treated effluent to meet iron and zinc is permitted by the environmental standards of Santa Catarina. Under the experimental conditions applied in this research, this kind of reactor has presented potential for the treatment of winery wastewater. However, operational improvements would be required in the reactors to adequate them to the specific management into the wineries.

  19. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  20. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater applying natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Kulikauskaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is one of the most chemically active compounds which is discharged with untreated or just partially treated industrial wastewater. It is hazardous for environment and humans. Formaldehyde vapors can strongly irritate skin, can cause damage to eyes and harm respiratory tract. As long as formaldehyde causes a toxic effect on environment and living organisms, it is necessary to remove it from wastewater which is directed to natural water. There are many methods used for formaldehyde removal from wastewater: biological method, evaporation, membrane separation method. Most of them have disadvantages. Adsorption method has many advantages: it is fast, cheap, and universal, and can be widely used, therefore it was chosen for this research. Experiment was carried out with natural zeolite in different contact time with different concentration formaldehyde solutions. Concentration of formaldehyde was determined applying the Photocolorimetric Method. Method is based on reaction of formaldehyde with chromotropic acid and determination of formaldehyde concentration. Determined average sorption efficiency was highest when formaldehyde concentration was lowest, e. g. 2 mg/l (45.94% after eight hours of contact time with adsorbent. Sorption efficiency was increasing when the contact time increased, but when the contact time increased to 12 hours, sorption efficiency stayed the same because of the saturation of zeolite.

  1. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  2. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  3. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater.

  4. Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, B; Mehta, P; Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R

    2011-05-01

    This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/L(R), successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor.

  5. Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Synthetic Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.

    2002-07-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater (SYMAWE), using heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation, has been studied at pilot plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogenous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts concentration, pH values and oxidants on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 KJ I''-1 the synergetic effect of TiO{sub 2} P-25 with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content respectively. The Photo-Fenton process shows to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 KJ I''-1 leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe''+3/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Solar photocatalytic treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I. [University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Lab. Physical Chemistry; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2004-03-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater by the use of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation has been studied at a pilot-plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts and oxidants concentration on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 kJ L{sup -1} the synergetic effect of 0.2 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} P-25 with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content, respectively. The photo-fenton process appears to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 kJ L{sup -1} leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (author)

  7. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  8. Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters. Part 2: Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, .... ground of a dynamic wastewater treatment environment which ..... source, nitrification/denitrification and ammonia stripping.

  9. Estimating costs and manpower requirements for conventional wastewater treatment facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, W.L; Banker, R.F

    1971-01-01

    Data for estimating average construciton costs, operation and maintenance costs, and manpower staffing requirements, are presented for conventional wastewater treatment plants ranging from 1 to 100...

  10. A Review on Advanced Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Qi, P. S.; Liu, Y. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The composition of pharmaceutical wastewater is complex, which is high concentration of organic matter, microbial toxicity, high salt, and difficult to biodegrade. After secondary treatment, there are still trace amounts of suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. To improve the quality of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent, advanced treatment is essential. In this paper, the classification of the pharmaceutical technology was introduced, and the characteristics of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent quality were summarized. The methods of advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater were reviewed afterwards, which included coagulation and sedimentation, flotation, activated carbon adsorption, membrane separation, advanced oxidation processes, membrane separation and biological treatment. Meanwhile, the characteristics of each process were described.

  11. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Grabic, R.; Ledin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater spiked with a mixture of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was treated with 0–20mg/L chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in laboratory-scale experiments. Wastewater effluents were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with extended......O2, while in high COD effluent a significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8mg/L ClO2. This study illustrates the successful degradation of several APIs during treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide....

  12. Reuse rate of treated wastewater in water reuse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yao-bo; YANG Wen-bo; LI Gang; WU Lin-lin; WEI Yuan-song

    2005-01-01

    A water quality model for water reuse was made by mathematics induction. The relationship among the reuse rate of treated wastewater(R), pollutant concentration of reused water( Cs ), pollutant concentration of influent( C0 ), removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater(E), and the standard of reuse water were discussed in this study. According to the experiment result of a toilet wastewater treatment and reuse with membrane bioreactors, R would be set at less than 40%, on which all the concerned parameters could meet with the reuse water standards. To raise R of reuse water in the toilet, an important way was to improve color removal of the wastewater.

  13. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  14. Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated.

  15. Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

    2010-10-01

    Dye wastewater is one of the most difficult to treat. There has been exhaustive research on biosorption of dye wastewater. It is evolving as an attractive option to supplement conventional treatment processes. This paper examines various biosorbents such as fungi, bacteria, algae, chitosan and peat, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanism involved, the effects of various factors influencing dye wastewater decolorization and reviews pretreatment methods for increasing the biosorption capacity of the adsorbents. The paper examines the mismatch between strong scientific progress in the field of biosorption and lack of commercialization of research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotics with anaerobic ammonium oxidation in urban wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Biofilter process is based on biological oxidation process on the introduction of fast water filter design ideas generated by an integrated filtration, adsorption and biological role of aerobic wastewater treatment process various purification processes. By engineering example, we show that the process is an ideal sewage and industrial wastewater treatment process of low concentration. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation process because of its advantage of the high efficiency and low consumption, wastewater biological denitrification field has broad application prospects. The process in practical wastewater treatment at home and abroad has become a hot spot. In this paper, anammox bacteria habitats and species diversity, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in the form of diversity, and one and split the process operating conditions are compared, focusing on a review of the anammox process technology various types of wastewater laboratory research and engineering applications, including general water quality and pressure filtrate sludge digestion, landfill leachate, aquaculture wastewater, monosodium glutamate wastewater, wastewater, sewage, fecal sewage, waste water salinity wastewater characteristics, research progress and application of the obstacles. Finally, we summarize the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process potential problems during the processing of the actual waste water, and proposed future research focus on in-depth study of water quality anammox obstacle factor and its regulatory policy, and vigorously develop on this basis, and combined process optimization.

  17. High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Mukhtar, M; Tahir, Zarfishan; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2005-11-01

    The health risks of wastewater use in agriculture were investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, by means of a cross-sectional study. The study showed an increased risk of intestinal nematode infection and hookworm infection, in particular, in wastewater farmers (OR = 31.4, 95% CI 4.1-243) and their children (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1-16) when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water. Textile labourers living in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a lower risk of hookworm infection than wastewater farmers but an increased risk compared with farming households using regular irrigation water. Many urban and peri-urban farmers make a living by using untreated wastewater in the production of fresh produce for the urban market. Banning the use of untreated wastewater would deprive these farmers of their livelihood and affect food supply for the urban population. If treatment of wastewater is not a feasible option, the promotion of footwear and improved hygiene, the construction of toilets, in combination with regular anthelminthic treatment, would be suitable alternatives to safeguard the health of wastewater farmers and their children.

  18. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C......Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.4...

  19. Performance of organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems by intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long; Huang, Linli; Fei, Hexin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Organics and nitrogen removal in four subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs), named SWIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SWIS B (with intermittent aeration), SWIS C (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SWIS D (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) was investigated. High average removal rates of 92.3% for COD, 90.2% for NH4-N and 88.1% for TN were achieved simultaneously in SWIS D compared with SWIS A, B and C. The excellent TN removal of SWIS D was due to intermittent aeration provided sufficient oxygen for nitrification in upper matrix and the favorable anoxic or anaerobic environment for denitrification in subsequent matrix, and moreover, shunt distributing wastewater provided sufficient carbon source for denitrification process. The results indicated that intermittent artificial aeration combined with shunt distributing wastewater could achieve high organics and nitrogen removal in SWISs.

  20. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  1. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  2. Comparison between treatment of kitchen-sink wastewater and a mixture of kitchen-sink and washing-machine wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelgas, A; Nakajima, M; Nagata, H; Funamizu, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a submerged membrane bioreactor was used to treat 'higher-load' grey water: (a) kitchen-sink wastewater only, and (b) a mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater. For each type of wastewater, three systems operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were investigated. In the mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater, the reactor with a short HRT of four hours was stopped due to foaming. It has been observed that for both types of wastewater, an HRT of eight hours or longer can be used for the treatment. However, it has been observed that a higher COD in the permeate of the mixture can be obtained compared with that of the kitchen-sink wastewater only. This indicated that washing-machine wastewater has some component that is not easily biodegradable. The total linear akylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) removal was > 99% even at a concentration of 10-23 mg 1(-1).

  3. Effect of anaerobic digestion on the high rate of nitritation, treating piggery wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiyeol Im; Kyungik Gil

    2011-01-01

    The amount of piggery wastewater as domestic livestock is increasing.The volume of piggery wastewater produced is less than the volume of other wastewaters,but piggery wastewater has a heavy impact on wastewater streams due to an extremely high concentration of nitrogen and COD.In this study,laboratory reactors were operated using piggery wastewater and the effluent of anaerobic digester from piggery wastewater plants.The purpose of this study was to induce the nitritation process,which is an economically advantageous nitrogen removal method that converts ammonium nitrogen into nitrite.The results showed that the effluent of anaerobic digester from piggery wastewater was more efficient than raw piggery wastewater in terms of inducing nitritation.It can be deduced that nitritation is largely affected by an organic fraction of piggery wastewater.It can also be concluded that a small amount of biodegradable organic matter in piggery wastewater is efficient in inducing nitritation.

  4. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  5. Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed.

  6. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  7. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    the activated sludge units. Settings on ref’-igerevion units are to be ret at minimun values, and the wastewater is to be kept in the ’■efrige...8217^^^^^ BODS cf 5< wage COD of Se-age Reactc Tenperature, T Sludge Vclune Index, SVI Mixed Liquor Suspended Sclics, KLSS Solios Fe-er.tion Time

  8. Towards Simulation of Clogging Effects in Wastewater Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of clogging effects caused by cloths in wastewater pumps enables a faster and cheaper design process of wastewater pumps, which potentially leads to a reduction in the occurrence of clogging. Four potential methods for cloth simulation are reviewed and the challenges of each method...

  9. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  10. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The tr

  11. Stabilisation of Biological Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich

    The biological phosphorus removal (BPR) from wastewater has developed considerably during the last decades and is applied in many present wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) all over the world. The process performance and the control of the BPR are under the influences of daily and seasonal...

  12. Treatment of Municipal Wastewater by Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgun, H.

    2013-01-01

    Reclamation and reuse of wastewater for various purposes such as landscape and agricultural irrigation are increasingly recognized as essential strategies in the world, especially for the areas suffering from water scarcity. Wastewater treatment and reuse have two major advantages including the redu

  13. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard.

  14. DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR MANAGING WASTEWATER PIPELINE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater collection systems are an extensive part of the nation's infrastructure. In the US approximately 150 million people are served by about 19,000 municipal wastewater collection systems representing about 500,000 miles of sewer pipe (not including privately owned service ...

  15. DECISION-SUPPORT TOOLS FOR MANAGING WASTEWATER PIPELINE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater collection systems are an extensive part of the nation's infrastructure. In the US approximately 150 million people are served by about 19,000 municipal wastewater collection systems representing about 500,000 miles of sewer pipe (not including privately owned service ...

  16. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  17. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  18. Prediction of wastewater quality using amperometric bioelectronic tongues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Dock, Eva; Tonning, Erik

    2016-01-01

    of the wastewater, the array consists of several sensing elements which yield a multidimensional response. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to decompose the array's responses, and found that wastewater with different degrees of pollution can be differentiated. With the help of partial least squares...

  19. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  20. Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ching-Shyung, H.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when consider

  1. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  2. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  3. Chemical aspects of peracetic acid based wastewater disinfection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-04

    Feb 4, 2013 ... Peracetic acid (PAA) has been studied for wastewater disinfection applications for some 30 years and has been shown to be ... Wastewater treatment has traditionally focused on the removal of solids ... industries (Orth, 1998; Rasimus et al., 2011). ..... It is also possible that PAA residual functions as a bio-.

  4. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  5. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  6. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  7. Treatment of Wastewater Containing RDX by Fenton's Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hang; ZHANG Dong-xiang; XU Wen-guo

    2008-01-01

    Fenton's reagent was employed to treat the wastewater containing RDX. The effects of FeSO4 concentration, H2O2 concentration, pH value, reaction time, temperature and initial COD of wastewater on residual COD of wastewater were investigated. The results show that the optimum FeSO4 concentration and pH are 700mg/L and 2.5, respectively, and the residual COD of wastewater decreases with the rise in H2O2 concentration, but increases with the rise in temperature. After Fenton's reagent treatment, the initial COD of less than 874 mg/L wastewater can meet effluent standard. Under conditions of 100 mg/L H2O2, 437 mg/L initial COD and 15 ℃ temperature, the lowest residual COD is obtained at 83.80 mg/L in 5 min.

  8. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  9. Integrated design of sewers and wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Ujang, Z; Talib, S A

    2002-01-01

    Sewer system design must be integrated with wastewater treatment plant design when moving towards a more sustainable urban wastewater management. This integration allows an optimization of the design of both systems to achieve a better and more cost-effective wastewater management. Hitherto integrated process design has not been an option because the tools to predict in-sewer wastewater transformations have been inadequate. In this study the WATS model--being a new and validated tool for in-sewer microbial process simulations--is presented and its application for integrated sewer and treatment plant design is exemplified. A case study on a Malaysian catchment illustrates this integration. The effects of centralization of wastewater treatment and the subsequently longer transport distances are addressed. The layout of the intercepting sewer is optimized to meet the requirements of different treatment scenarios.

  10. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL`s Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation.

  12. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed. F...... in a specific wastewater seem to be constant even when concentrations vary. Wastewater input to sewers and the sewer transport system significantly influences the raw wastewater composition at treatment plants........ Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  13. Ozonation for degradation of pharmaceutical in hospital wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Hansen, Kamilla S; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini

    There is an increasing concern about hospital wastewater as a point source of chemical pollution to municipal wastewater. Thus in Denmark a project with focus ion cleaning point source at hospitals was established. Pilot scale Moving-Bed-Biofilm-Reactors (MBBR) in stages were used to treat...... wastewater from a hospital followed by ozonation. As the treatment was close to the source, a high variety in the quality of the wastewater was observed (e.g. change in pH and dissolved organic carbon). High DOC results in relative high ozone doses needed to remove non-biodegradable micro......-pollutants (Antoniou et al., 2013). In the present work, ozonation of biological treated hospital wastewater spiked with pharmaceuticals were performed to determine the required ozone dose for 90 % removal of the investigated pharmaceuticals. Effluents with different DOC level were used to investigate the effect...

  14. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  15. Photochemical Wastewater Treatment for Potential Agricultural Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban wastewaters after advanced primary treatment (APT are again discharged into the river without any use. In the present research in a soilless culture system where maize seedlings were tested three different treatments were planted: 1. Obtained from the effluent water of an APT, 2. Photochemically treated wastewater (PCT and 3. Urban water network (UW. A block randomly distributed design was tested, with five repetitions where the experimental unit was formed by a 36 cavities filled with Peat Moss and the useful plot was considered by 16 central plants for each experimental unit. Irrigations were scheduled since the first time of the planting, employed 27 mL/cavity. The removal of the organic contaminants present into the water was conducted by the employment of a Batch photoreactor, adapted with a recirculation system (UV/H2O2/O3, evaluated to determine UV-Vis spectra, pH, color and turbidity parameters initial and final samples. Measurements of height and percentage of germination in plants, where is determined that the seedlings irrigated with water PCT were reached the highest average compared to APT and UW irrigated; After the 50 cm growing plant, a determination of the presence of heavy metal, via atomic absorption method, were carried on analyzing the leaves, roots and stalks of the samples. Concluding that the presences of heavy metals into the APT were higher than PCT treatments, it can be an impediment for the normal growing of the plants. Therefore, the application of the photochemical treatment using (UV/H2O2/O3 system, represent a viable alternative for the wastewater treatment after the APT process to possible use of irrigation.

  16. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  17. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF NITRITE IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Morozov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for high concentration of nitrite ions in water is the existence of sources of industrial and agricultural pollution. Contamination of drinking water, juices, wine and other liquids of nitrite ions as a result of improper use of nitrogen fertilizers has an adverse effect on living organism, because under the influence of enzymes nitrite ions in living organisms form high carcinogenic nitrosamines, and the interaction of nitrite ions from blood hemoglobin causes such toxicity that leads to disease cyanosis [1]. Therefore removal of nitrite ions from water has received increased attention. The paper discusses an innovative wastewater treatment technology from the nitrite ion with hypochlorite produced during electrolysis.

  19. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...... development and this paper discusses crucial points in the development of the method....

  20. QUALITY AND QUANTITY SURVEY OF HOSPITAL WASTEWATERS IN HORMOZGAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Sarafraz, M. R. Khani, K. Yaghmaeian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital wastewaters are one of the most contaminating wastewaters and need to be paid more attention due to containing infectious agents. In this study, which had been conducted in a period of one year, 7 public hospitals were selected out of 12 public hospitals in Hormozgan Province of Iran. For studying quality of wastewater in hospitals, both influent and effluent wastewaters of treatment plant, if any, were sampled once in each season and totally 30 mixed samples were obtained. In order to determine the quality of hospital wastewaters in all samples, parameters such as pH, BOD5, COD, TSS and temperature were measured. Results of investigation on annual water consumption indicated that average water consumption in hospitals of the province was 194m3/d., considering water-to-wastewater conversion ratio of 0.8 and green yard ratio of 0.3. Wastewater production rate had been estimated to be 47m3/d and 0.362 m3/d.bed. Results indicated that in 7 hospitals of Hormozgan province, mean values of BOD5 ,COD ,TSS in raw wastewater were 242.25 mg/L, 628.1 mg/L and 231.25 mg/L, respectively, pH=7.42 and temperature=30.17 ºC. In Khalij-e-Fars hospital which had wastewater treatment plant, values of these parameters in effluent were 12.53 mg/L and 51.7 mg/L, 19.68 mg/L, respectively, with pH=7.39 and temperature=26.1 ºC. Comparison between values of influent and effluent wastewaters indicated that in understudy cases, contamination rate was higher than determined limits, as compared to environmental standards of the country and it was necessary to establish appropriate treatment plants in these units.

  1. Satellite detection of wastewater diversion plumes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Michelle M.; Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Jack Pan, B.; Rains, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Multi-sensor satellite observations proved useful in detecting surfacing wastewater plumes during the 2006 Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) and 2012 Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) wastewater diversion events in Southern California. Satellite sensors were capable of detecting biophysical signatures associated with the wastewater, compared to ambient ocean waters, enabling monitoring of environmental impacts over a greater spatial extent than in situ sampling alone. Thermal satellite sensors measured decreased sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the surfacing plumes. Ocean color satellite sensors did not measure a distinguishable biological response in terms of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations during the short lived, three-day long, 2006 HTP diversion. A period of decreased chl-a concentration was observed during the three-week long 2012 OCSD diversion, likely in association with enhanced chlorination of the discharged wastewater that suppressed the phytoplankton response and/or significant uptake by heterotrophic bacteria. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data were able to identify and track the 2006 HTP wastewater plume through changes in surface roughness related to the oily components of the treated surfacing wastewater. Overall, it was found that chl-a and SST values must have differences of at least 1 mg m-3 and 0.5 °C, respectively, in comparison with adjacent waters for wastewater plumes and their biophysical impact to be detectable from satellite. For a wastewater plume to be identifiable in SAR imagery, wind speeds must range between ∼3 and 8 m s-1. The findings of this study illustrate the benefit of utilizing multiple satellite sensors to monitor the rapidly changing environmental response to surfacing wastewater plumes, and can help inform future wastewater diversions in coastal areas.

  2. Particle related fractionation and characterisation of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; van der Graaf, J H J M; Kampschreur, M J; Mels, A R

    2004-01-01

    Several studies show that a more detailed characterisation of the particulate matter in municipal wastewater gives a better understanding and prediction of removal efficiencies of physical-chemical treatment techniques and the application of optimal chemical dosages. Such a characterisation should include the distribution of contaminants over various particle sizes. This article describes a method and results of experimental and full-scale investigations, conducted to determine how contaminants in wastewater are distributed over different particle sizes. For this purpose, particle size fractionations of wastewater influents originating from more than thirteen WWTP were carried out. One of these fractionations (WWTP Venray) is shown and interpreted in this article. First, the wastewaters were fractionated into 5 to 6 particle fractions (45, 5.0, 1.0/1.2, 0.45 and 0.1 microm) after which the fractions were analyzed for various water quality parameters like organic components, nutrients, salts, solids and turbidity. Based on the results the effects of removal of the different size fractions on design of the biological treatment and energy balance of a wastewater treatment plant can be assessed. The method also indicates whether a certain wastewater is efficiently treatable with physical-chemical pre-treatment methods. It is concluded wastewater fractionation on particle size is very useful, but that wastewater characteristics and particle size distributions should not be generalised, but have to be interpreted as indications for a certain average wastewater composition. To give more insight into the distribution of contaminants over particle size and the particle removal potential, a specific wastewater fractionation has to be carried out per WWTP.

  3. Removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater by membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaya Srisuwan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the treatment of heavy metals in electroplating wastewater using membranes. Two selected membrane types, cellulose acetate microfiltration membrane with pore size 0.2 μm and polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with MWCO of 30 kDa were used in this study. Synthetic and factory electroplating wastewater were used as the samples. The experiments were performed by chemical precipitating both synthetic and factory wastewater in the first step and membrane filtrating of supernatant at the pressure of 50, 100 and 200 kPa in the second step. The concentration of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc of treated water were compared with standard values given by the Ministry of Industry (MOI, Thailand. The experimental results showed that flux was highest at the pressure of 200 kPa and decreased as the pressure decreased. The rejection was highest at the pressure of 50 kPa and decreased as pressure increased. The results from synthetic wastewater were better than those from factory wastewater. Thecapability of heavy metal removal of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane was the same, but microfiltration gave more flux. The heavy metal removal efficiency of microfiltration of synthetic electroplating wastewater of four processes of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc electroplating , each was higher than that from factory wastewater but slightly lower than the removal efficiency obtained from composite synthetic wastewater. The removal efficiency of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc from composite synthetic wastewater was higher than those from composite factory wastewater for both microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. The results from the study of membrane surface washing showed little flux increase after washing the membrane by stirring with a propeller at a distance of 2 mm above membrane surface at 400 rpm for 30 minutes.

  4. Heat recovery from wastewater systems; Waermerueckgewinnung aus Abwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, O.

    2004-07-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of heat energy which can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer system. Practical problems, which may arise and have been investigated in this research project, are the reduction of the heat transfer efficiency due to heat exchanger fouling and the reduction of the nitrification capacity of downstream wastewater treatment plants due to lower wastewater temperatures. A mathematical model was developed by which the decrease of the wastewater temperature in the treatment plant influent can be determined as a function of the amount of heat energy gathered from the wastewater in the sewer system. By this model the variation in time and space of the wastewater temperature in a sewer pipe is calculated for given hydraulics, geometry and environmental conditions. By analysis of data from a large wastewater treatment plant and simulations with a calibrated model, the effect of lowered influent temperatures on nitrification safety, total nitrogen removal efficiency and ammonium effluent concentrations could be quantified. A procedure is suggested by which the reserve nitrification capacity of an existing treatment plant and the increase of the ammonium effluent concentration resulting from a permanent decrease of the wastewater influent temperature can be estimated. By experiments with a pilot scale heat exchanger in a small wastewater channel, the significance of parameters known to have an effect on fouling was investigated and measures to reduce fouling were tested. The measures tested included controlled variation of the wastewater flow velocity (flushing), coatings and finish of the heat exchanger surface and obstacles mounted on the surface. The best results were obtained by regular short term increases of the flow velocity. By this measure, the efficiency of the fouled heat exchanger, which on the average was 60% of the efficiency of the clean heat exchanger, could repeatedly be raised to an

  5. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  7. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  8. Hydrogen production as a novel process of wastewater treatment - studies on tofu wastewater with entrapped R. sphaeroides and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heguang Zhu [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Environmental Science; Ueda, Shunsaku [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Productive Science; Asada, Yasio [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Attention is focusing on hydrogen production from wastewater, not only because hydrogen is a clean energy but also because it can be a process for wastewater treatment. In this paper, the characteristics of biological hydrogen production as a process of wastewater treatment is discussed by a comparison with methane production. The hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and its potential for wastewater treatment are reported. The possibility of co-cultivation with heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. As a solution to overcome the repressive effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +} on hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, a study was done using glutamine auxotroph which was obtained by chemical mutagenesis. To confirm that the mutation had occurred in DNA molecular level, the glutamine synthetase gene was cloned and sequenced. (Author)

  9. Monitoring as a tool for the assessment of wastewater quality dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, R.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater system in the Netherlands comprises approximately 100,000 km of sewer pipes and more than 350 wastewater treatment plants (wwtp). The system collects and treats the majority of domestic and industrial wastewater. A small amount of untreated wastewater, however, is occasionally dischar

  10. Monitoring as a tool for the assessment of wastewater quality dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, R.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater system in the Netherlands comprises approximately 100,000 km of sewer pipes and more than 350 wastewater treatment plants (wwtp). The system collects and treats the majority of domestic and industrial wastewater. A small amount of untreated wastewater, however, is occasionally

  11. [Recent progress in treatment of aquaculture wastewater based on microalgae--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanping; Gong, Yanyan; Ma, Dongdong

    2009-06-01

    Microalgae enables aquaculture wastewater recycling through a biological conversion. Recently, many studies have been reported on microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment, including developing various wastewater treatment technologies such as algae pond, activated algae, immobilized algae and algae photo-bioreactor. In this review, we address the mechanisms, progress and application in the purification of aquaculture wastewater, as well as some research perspectives.

  12. 40 CFR 63.145 - Process wastewater provisions-test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-test... Operations, and Wastewater § 63.145 Process wastewater provisions—test methods and procedures to determine... analytical method for wastewater which has that compound as a target analyte. (7) Treatment using a series...

  13. 25 CFR 171.230 - What are my responsibilities for wastewater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are my responsibilities for wastewater? 171.230... OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Service § 171.230 What are my responsibilities for wastewater? (a) You are responsible for your wastewater. (b) Wastewater may be returned to our facilities, but only...

  14. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  15. POTENTIAL FOR WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT USING ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair R. McCRACKEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In most countries within Europe there are numerous small rural Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTWs often serving a small number of people equivalents (PEs. It is usually impractical and expensive to upgrade such WWTWs and yet they are often delivering potentially highly polluting effluent into streams and rivers. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC willow, grown as an energy source, may be an ideal crop for the bioremediation of a variety of effluents and wastewater streams. As part of an EU funded (INTERREG IVA project called ANSWER (Agricultural Need for Sustainable Willow Effluent Recycling four Proof of Concept irrigation schemes were established ranging in size from 5 to 15 ha. One of the larger of these at Bridgend, Co. Donegal, Republic of Ireland was planted in spring 2013 and has been irrigated with municipal effluent since June 2014. Over 19,000 m3 of effluent has been applied to the willow thus preventing 617 kg N and 28.5 kg P from being discharged to a neighbouring stream. Using SRC willow for the bioremediation of effluent from small rural WWWTs offers a sustainable, cost-effective and practical solution to wastewater management in many countries. There may be also potential to use willow for the bioremediation of landfill leachates, within the footprint of the landfill site.

  16. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2001-01-01

    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  17. Glutaraldehyde degradation in hospital wastewater by photoozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Lourdes Teresinha; Rosa, Ellen Caroline; Machado, Enio Leandro; Camargo, Maria Emilia; Moro, Celso Camilo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), a chemical used for the disinfection of hospital materials, using advanced oxidative processes, O3, and UV, and the combination of the latter two. Assays with different ozone concentrations at distinct pH levels were conducted to determine the best treatment process. GA concentrations before and after each treatment were measured by spectrophotometry. The best treatment was that which combined O3 and UV, yielding a degradation of 72.0-75.0% in relation to the initial concentration with pH between 4 and 9. Kinetics demonstrated that GA degradation is not dependent on pH, as there was a first-order reaction with a rate constant of k = 0.0180 min(-1) for initial pH 9 and of k = 0.0179 min(-1) for initial pH 7, that is, the values are virtually the same. Secondary wastewater samples were also analysed using the septic tank/filter system of a regional hospital in Vale do Rio Pardo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In this case, the characteristics of the wastewater were described and, after treatment, a GA degradation rate of 23.3% was noted, with reductions of 75% for chemical oxygen demand, 81% for biochemical oxygen demand, 68% for turbidity, 70% for surfactants and total disinfection in terms of thermotolerant coliforms.

  18. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  19. Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation with low cell current (≤ 1A) and soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) was studied. Compared with aluminum electrodes, mild steel electrodes were more effective for the removal of sulfide, with a removal efficiency of over 90%. But during the treatment process, black color precipitate typical to iron(II) sulfides was produced. While aluminum electrodes were effective to eliminate the colority of the effluent, the removal efficiency of sulfide was lower than 12%. The mechanisms of the removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority with different soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) were discussed in detail. In order to exert the predominance of diffenent types of electrodes, the tannery wastewater was treated using mild steel electrodes first (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A) followed by the filter and finally by the aluminum electrodes (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A), the elimination rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority were 68.0%, 43.1%, 55.1%, 96.7% and 84.3%, respectively, with the initial concentrations 2413.1 mg/L, 223.4 mg/L, 1000.4 mg/L, 112.3 mg/L and 256 dilution times, respectively. The absorbance spectra and energy consumption during electrocoagulation process were also discussed.

  20. Food-service establishment wastewater characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesikar, B J; Garza, O A; Persyn, R A; Kenimer, A L; Anderson, M T

    2006-08-01

    Food-service establishments that use on-site wastewater treatment systems are experiencing pretreatment system and/or drain field hydraulic and/or organic overloading. This study included characterization of four wastewater parameters (five-day biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]; total suspended solids [TSS]; food, oil, and grease [FOG]; and flow) from 28 restaurants located in Texas during June, July, and August 2002. The field sampling methodology included taking a grab sample from each restaurant for 6 consecutive days at approximately the same time each day, followed by a 2-week break, and then sampling again for another 6 consecutive days, for a total of 12 samples per restaurant and 336 total observations. The analysis indicates higher organic (BOD5) and hydraulic values for restaurants than those typically found in the literature. The design values for this study for BOD5, TSS, FOG, and flow were 1523, 664, and 197 mg/L, and 96 L/day-seat respectively, which captured over 80% of the data collected.

  1. Methane emission during municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Volcke, Eveline I P; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-07-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants emit methane. Since methane is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change, the abatement of the emission is necessary to achieve a more sustainable urban water management. This requires thorough knowledge of the amount of methane that is emitted from a plant, but also of the possible sources and sinks of methane on the plant. In this study, the methane emission from a full-scale municipal wastewater facility with sludge digestion was evaluated during one year. At this plant the contribution of methane emissions to the greenhouse gas footprint were slightly higher than the CO₂ emissions related to direct and indirect fossil fuel consumption for energy requirements. By setting up mass balances over the different unit processes, it could be established that three quarters of the total methane emission originated from the anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. This amount exceeded the carbon dioxide emission that was avoided by utilizing the biogas. About 80% of the methane entering the activated sludge reactor was biologically oxidized. This knowledge led to the identification of possible measures for the abatement of the methane emission.

  2. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  3. Microbial community structure of a freshwater system receiving wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladilek, Matthew D; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Collard, David A; Johnson, Daniel B; Canam, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Despite our dependency on treatment facilities to condition wastewater for eventual release to the environment, our knowledge regarding the effects of treated water on the local watershed is extremely limited. Responses of lotic systems to the treated wastewater effluent have been traditionally investigated by examining the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and community structure; however, these studies do not address the microbial diversity of the water systems. In the present study, planktonic and benthic bacterial community structure were examined at 14 sites (from 60 m upstream to 12,100 m downstream) and at two time points along an aquatic system receiving treated effluent from the Charleston Wastewater Treatment Plant (Charleston, IL). Total bacterial DNA was isolated and 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed using a metagenomics platform. The community structure in planktonic bacterial communities was significantly correlated with dissolved oxygen concentration. Benthic bacterial communities were not correlated with water quality but did have a significant geographic structuring. A local restructuring effect was observed in both planktonic and benthic communities near the treated wastewater effluent, which was characterized by an increase in abundance of sphingobacteria. Sites further downstream from the wastewater facility appeared to be less influenced by the effluent. Overall, the present study demonstrated the utility of targeted high-throughput sequencing as a tool to assess the effects of treated wastewater effluent on a receiving water system, and highlighted the potential for this technology to be used for routine monitoring by wastewater facilities.

  4. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  5. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  6. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  7. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  8. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  9. Phytoremediation of urban wastewater by model wetlands with ornamental hydrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, non-intrusive, and safe alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, we used ornamental hydrophytes plants as constructed wetlands to treat urban or rural domestic wastewater. Most ornamental hydrophytes adapted to the wastewater well, and were fairly efficient in scavenging BOD5 (biological oxygen demand 5 d), COD (chemical oxygen demand), TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus) and heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd) in the wastewater. However, the efficiency varied a lot for various species to different contaminants, Iris pseudacorus L. and Acorus gramineus Soland were good choices for treatment of composite-polluted urban wastewater. Some variation in the change of membrane peroxidation and endogenous protective system in responses to wastewater was found among six hydrophytes, which have a correlation with the efficiency of wastewater treatment. It may demonstrate that the developed antioxidative systems of Iris pseudacorus L. and Acorus gramineus Soland contributed much to their superiority. On the other hand, interaction of different components in the wastewater might have certain effects on phytoremediation.

  10. Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.

  11. Stability of alumina, ceria, and silica nanoparticles in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-González, Lila; Barbero, Isabel; Field, Jim A; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in semiconductor manufacturing operations such as wafer chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP). Understanding the stability of NPs in municipal wastewater is essential for the evaluation of the fate of NPs released to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study aimed to evaluate the stability of Al(2)O(3), CeO(2), and SiO(2) NPs and CMP waste effluents containing these NPs in municipal wastewater. Al(2)O(3) and CeO(2) NPs were destabilized by wastewater constituents, as indicated by the formation of large agglomerates. However, the same NPs in the CMP waste slurries showed high stability in wastewater, probably due to additives present in the slurry that modify the surface chemistry of the particles. Likewise, both the commercial SiO(2) NPs and the CMP waste slurry containing SiO(2) NPs showed substantial stability in wastewater since this NP has a very low point of zero charge, which suggests that this NP could be the hardest one to remove in conventional WWTPs by aggregation-sedimentation. In summary, the results indicate that wastewater may destabilize NPs suspensions, which would facilitate NP removal in WWTPs. However, some chemicals present in real CMP slurries may counterbalance this effect. More research is needed to completely understand the surface chemistry involved.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Wastewater Treated Plant for Ninava Drug Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the characteristics of raw and treated wastewater from Ninava drug factory were evaluated. The results revealed that the strength of raw wastewater can be classified as medium concentrated wastewater with respect to its BOD5 since the average value is 231.7 mg/l. In addition a strong correlations were found between many characteristics of raw waste. The characteristics of produced effluent from waste water treatment plant of the factory were within the Iraqi specification for the disposed wastewater constraints in 1997, where the average is 7.8 for pH, 40mg/l for SS, 2.8 mg/l for PO4-3, 45 mg/l for BOD5 and 104.3 mg/l for COD. The heavy metals concentrations for both raw and treated wastewater is to be less than those of the related literatures for Tigris river, municipal wastewater and water supply in Mosul city, the average heavy metal concentrations of raw and treated wastewater were 0.5 mg/l for Iron, 0.2 mg/l for zinc and 0.005 mg/l for copper, and there is no significant difference between raw and treated heavy metal concentrations.

  13. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  14. The purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Ma, Suk Hwal; Huh, Jin Young; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Chonbuk National University Team; Kwangwoon University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    There is a continuing need for development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for purification of wastewater. In this regard, the plasmas can be a promising candidate for next-generation method to purify the wastewater. It is well known that the plasmas generate many reactive species and thus they are predominant for degradation of organic pollutants from water. In order to generate plasma in wastewater, the capillary electrodes are used with ac power supply. After plasma treatment, the coagulants are added to purify the wastewater. The efficiency of coagulation is significantly improved by plasma treatment of wastewater. These results may come from the reactions among radicals of plasma-treated water, electron reduction and oxidation of ions in waste water, and coagulant. In order to verify the hypothesis, we measured characteristics changes of water by underwater discharge. In this study, we propose the purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge. We expect that the underwater discharge can be applied to purify wastewater in near future.

  15. Clogging of fractured formations by biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, C.; Masciopinto, C.; La Mantia, R.; Manariotis, I. D.

    2009-12-01

    Two pilot-scale fractured filters consisting of horizontal limestone slabs were employed to investigate fracture aperture clogging due to deposition of biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater. To better understand the behavior of real fractured aquifers, the filters intentionally were not “clean”. The fracture apertures were randomly spread with soil deposits and both filters were pre-flooded with reclaimed wastewater to simulate the field conditions of the Nardò fractured aquifer in the Salento area, Italy, where due to artificial groundwater recharge the fractures are not “clean”. One of the filters was injected with secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant collected prior to the chlorination step, and the other with exactly the same effluent, which was further treated in a commercial membrane reactor. Consequently, the organic and pathogen concentrations were considerably higher in the secondary effluent than the membrane reactor effluent. The injected wastewater was continuously recirculated. The pathogen removal by the filter was more significant for the secondary wastewater than the cleaner membrane reactor effluent. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe fracture clogging. The results suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured filters can be significantly reduced from the retention of viable and inactivated biocolloids originating from reclaimed wastewater. Fracture aperture clogging is strongly related to the chemical oxygen demand of the reclaimed wastewater injected. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

  16. Treatment of industrial and agro-industrial wastewater using constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Mar-Yam

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution from untreated wastewater disposal is one of the most serious environmental issues. Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is known to be a very toxic compound, frequently found in polluted industrial wastewaters, and causes major environmental problems. On the other hand, among the agro-industrial wastewaters, dairy wastewaters can also cause serious environmental pollution due to their high organic loads. Specifically, when untreated dairy wastewater is deposited into surface ...

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITY OF INDUSTRIAL LAUNDRY RAW WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Dąbkowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial laundries are one of the largest consumers of water, which is associated with significant generation of laundry wastewater. Water is one of the most important technological factors in the laundry industry. The amount of laundry wastewater generated is the result of the quantity of textile laundered and is roughly equal to the amount of technological water used to reduce the losses caused by evaporation. The quality of raw laundry wastewater depends on the quantity of impurities removed during the textile washing process and on the amount and quality of detergents added to the washing bath. The aim of the research was to conduct a determination analysis of raw laundry wastewater from industrial laundry located in Nowe Czarnowo. The subject of the study was raw laundry wastewater cleaned mechanically from a 500 ml autosampler tank to obtain a representative test sample. Raw wastewater quality designations were made using photometric methods Hach Lange's cuvette tests. The following determinations were made: anionic detergents, nonionic detergents, COD, BOD5, chlorides, total phosphate, total nitrogen and total organic carbon. The pH was also determined. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that industrial laundry wastewater contains organic compounds at the level of 126 to 153 mg/dm3. In addition, the analyzed raw wastewater is characterized by the presence of surfactants such as anionic and nonionic detergents ranging from 11.0 to 54.6 mg/dm3. The increased content of surfactants is closely related to the specific characteristics of industrial laundries. According to the literature, the values of individual indicators of raw laundry wastewater do not deviate from the values found in other types of industrial laundry.

  18. The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jon K; Dean, Andrew P; Osundeko, Olumayowa

    2011-01-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgal biofuel production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. Wastewaters derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities potentially provide cost-effective and sustainable means of algal growth for biofuels. In addition, there is also potential for combining wastewater treatment by algae, such as nutrient removal, with biofuel production. Here we will review the current research on this topic and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using wastewaters as resources for cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on Aeration Systems Efficiency in Small Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ala Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Large amount of small wastewater treatment plants does not work properly. One of the reasons could be wrong design of the aeration system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to analyse the performance of two aeration systems used in Lithuanian small wastewater treatment plants. Both aeration systems are designed for the following parameters: 4 PE and 0,8 m3/d wastewater flow. These data correspond to the oxygen requirement of 40,9 g O2/h. Summarizing the results of the research, it was fo...

  20. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Cost of phosphate removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction and operating costs of advanced wastewater treatment for phosphate removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants have been investigated on orders from the Federal Environmental Bureau in Berlin. Particular attention has been paid to applicable kinds of precipitants for pre-, simultaneous and post-precipitation as well as to different phosphate influent and effluent concentrations. The article offers detailed comments on determination of technical data, investments, capital costs, operating costs and annual costs as well as potential cost reductions resulting from precipitation. Selected results of the cost investigation are shown in graphical form as specific investments, operating and annual costs depending on wastewater flow.

  2. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant......The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...

  3. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena......, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol....

  4. Modernizing sewers and wastewater systems with new technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    After continuous problems and challenges with dead fish and oxygen depletion in the waters, Denmark initiated an action plan for Danish waters to reduce pollution in the late 1980s. The action plan puts focus on stricter criteria for wastewater treatment plants. Over the years, the plan has been...... revised three times to ensure continuity in the work. As a result, Danish waters are significantly cleaner today. Since 1987 the pollution caused by wastewater has been reduced by 80 - 90 % - depending on the type of pollutant. Upgrading the wastewater treatment system with a number of new and innovative...

  5. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Collectively, the Special Issue presents an evolution of technologies, from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  6. WASTEWATER TREATMENT CENTER BENEFIT OF OR SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Salas C., Gilberto; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú; Condorhuamán C., Cesario; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú

    2014-01-01

    The meat processing industry is believed to produce highly polluted wastewater. Analysis of such wastewater indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by DQO (mg/L), DBO (mg/L ), and TSS (mg/L ). Moreover, oil and grease concentrations reached mg/L treatment of raw wastewater using Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was studied. Efficiency of the DAF for the removal of DBO, DQO, and oil and grease was 80%, 75% y 95 % .The overall efficiency of the treatmen...

  7. Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Shon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. Nanofiltration (NF is one of the widely used membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in addition to other applications such as desalination. NF has replaced reverse osmosis (RO membranes in many applications due to lower energy consumption and higher flux rates. This paper briefly reviews the application of NF for water and wastewater treatment including fundamentals of membrane process in general, mechanisms of NF process including few basic models. fouling challenges and their control mechanisms adopted.

  8. Mitigating Environmental Risks of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2016-04-01

    Low rainfall and overexploitation of conventional water resources present a critical problem in many regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, there is a dire need for judicious management of existing water supplies, including incorporating the use of non-conventional water resources. Treated wastewater has shown high potential for reuse in agricultural production, which can thereby contribute to the conservation of surface water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the aim of the study was to optimize treated wastewater reuse in conjunction with other available water resources by taking into consideration their quantity and quality, in addition to the agronomic, environmental, and economic components. It was a joint project between three countries (Oman, Jordan and Tunisia) and funded by USAID. In Oman, the study was done in open field at Sultan Qaboos University. Three types of crops (sweet corn, okra and maize) were grown and irrigated by four types of water (A: 50% groundwater and 50% treated wastewater, B: 100% groundwater, C: 75% treated wastewater and 25% groundwater, and D: 100% treated wastewater). Soil physicochemical properties did not show significant differences with treated wastewater irrigation as compared to groundwater. Heavy metals concentrations for both waters (treated wastewater & groundwater) were very close to each other. However, some significant differences were found between some treatments which could be an indicator for long term changes in soil chemical properties. On other hand, some chemical properties significantly increased (pelectrical conductivity, total carbon and some major elements (N, K, Mg). Soil biological analysis indicated that treated wastewater had no effect in contaminating soil horizons. Whereas, crop physical analysis showed significant increases in plant productivity when plants were irrigated with treated wastewater. The good supply of different nutrients from treated wastewater enhanced plant growth

  9. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  10. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  11. Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Shon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. Nanofiltration (NF is one of the widely used membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in addition to other applications such as desalination. NF has replaced reverse osmosis (RO membranes in many applications due to lower energy consumption and higher flux rates. This paper briefly reviews the application of NF for water and wastewater treatment including fundamentals, mechanisms, fouling challenges and their controls.

  12. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... along with its combination with available technology. Finally expression of the environmental requirements are discussed in relation to environmental and technological considerations....

  13. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  14. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... lagoon systems is the most common method of treating municipal wastewater in Indian country in Region 8. Wastewater lagoon systems are also used to treat domestic wastewater from isolated housing developments... 8; 2. The wastewater lagoon system treats primarily domestic wastewater; and 3. The...

  15. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  16. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  17. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  18. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  19. Rotating Reverse Osmosis for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Yoon, Yeomin; Pederson, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Our previous work established the concept of a low-pressure rotating reverse osmosis membrane system. The rotation of the cylindrical RO filter produces shear and Taylor vortices in the annulus of the device that decrease the concentration polarization and fouling commonly seen with conventional RO filtration techniques. A mathematical model based on the film theory and the solution-diffusion model agrees well with the experimental results obtained using this first generation prototype. However, based on the model, the filtrate flux and contaminant rejection depend strongly on the transmembrane pressure. Therefore, the goal of our current work is to improve the flux of the device by increasing the transmembrane pressure by a factor of 3 to 4. In addition, the rejections for a wider variety of inorganic and organic compounds typically found in space mission wastewater are measured.

  20. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  1. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  2. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...

  3. Deciphering conjugative plasmid permissiveness in wastewater microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Milani, Stefan Morberg

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to robustly treat polluted water. They are characterized by ceaseless flows of organic, chemical and microbial matter, followed by treatment steps before environmental release. WWTPs are hotspots of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria via...... still remains largely uncharted. Furthermore, current in vitro methods used to assess conjugation in complex microbiomes do not include in situ behaviours of recipient cells, resulting in partial understanding of transfers. We investigated the in vitro conjugation capacities of WWTP microbiomes from...... diversity of recipient bacterial phyla for the plasmid was observed, especially in WWTP outlets. We also identified permissive bacteria potentially able to cross WWTPs and engage in conjugation before and after water treatment. Bacterial activity and lifestyle seem to influence conjugation extent...

  4. Hydrodynamics research of wastewater treatment bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Nan-qi; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xue-fei

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the design and improve the performance of wastewater treatment bioreactors, the review concerning the hydrodynamics explored by theoretical equations, process experiments, modeling of the hydrody-namics and flow field measurement is presented. Results of different kinds of experiments show that the hydro-dynamic characteristics can affect sludge characteristics, mass transfer and reactor performance significantly. A-long with the development of theoretical equations, turbulence models including large eddy simulation models and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are widely used at present. Standard and modified k-ε models are the most widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models for simulating flows in bioreactors. Numericalsimulation of hydrodynamics is proved to be efficient for optimizing design and operation. The development of measurement techniques with high accuracy and low intrusion enables the flow filed in the bioreactors to be transparent. Integration of both numerical simulation and experimental measurement can describe the hydrody-namics very well.

  5. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  6. Treatment of wastewater by natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, S C; Akça, L

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results from a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) treatment plant have been described. The study was conducted at two different systems: continuous and batch. In the continuous system, the treatment yields were monitored in different loading conditions in 1-year period. The pilot plant consists of two serially connected tanks settled up with fillers; Cyperus was used as treatment media and wastewater between the two tanks was recycled periodically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid (SS) removal efficiencies were obtained as 90% and 95%, respectively. The effluent COD concentration at an average loading of 122 g COD/m2 day was satisfactory for the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. This means that a 0.8 m2 of garden area per person is required. Other removal values for the same conditions were as follows: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 77%, total nitrogen (TN) was 61%, and PO4(3-) -P was 39%. The batch experimental systems consist of 12 pairs of serially connected tanks, with each pair having a surface area of 1 m2. Each set was filled with sewage once a day, and the wastewater between the paired tanks was recycled periodically by the pump. Each pair of tanks was filled with materials such as gravel, peat, and perlite. Seven of them were vegetated with Phragmites, Cyperus, Rush, Iris, Lolium, Canna, and Paspalum, while the other five were not seeded. The best performances were obtained by Iris for COD (% 94), by Canna for ammonia nitrogen (% 98), and by Iris for total nitrogen (% 90) and phosphorus (% 55) removal.

  7. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (Prisk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural industry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries.

  8. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  9. Assessment of contamination sources of trace metals in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of contamination sources of trace metals in wastewater irrigated vegetable garden soils of Kano, Northern Nigeria. ... Heavy metal pollution is on the increase especially in urban centers where there were proliferation of industrial ...

  10. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernar, E.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline, extraction by organic solvents and freezing. The different methods for wastewater purification after scouring in use are: settling/floculation, biological treatment, adsorptionand catalytic oxidation. In this work, wastewater treatments after improved raw wool scouring with enzymes and EDTA have been investigated. Isothermal adsorption on zeolite A, active carbon and a natural and H+ type of bentonite for removal of the obtained wastewater impurities was used. The results were determined by means of different physical-chemical test methods.

  11. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  12. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  13. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  14. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system.

  15. A 3-step strategic approach to sustainable wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3-step strategic approach to sustainable wastewater managementage/gi. ... production principles, three intervention steps are proposed in this paper. ... Treatment technologies recommended make the best use of side products via reuse.

  16. Simulated Pathogen Concentrations in Locally-Collected Greywater and Wastewater

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains simulated pathogen concentrations in locally-collected greywater and wastewater. Each .zip file includes 21 .csv files, each containing 10,000...

  17. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-11-15

    The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  18. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... ammonia oxidizing bacteria; NOB, nitrite oxidizing bacteria;. SBR, sequencing .... anoxic reactor, the sulfur-packed biofilter and the mixed liquor in ..... bioreactor for treatment of strong nitrogenous swine wastewater. Process ...

  19. The Effective Electrolytic Recovery of Dilute Copper from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplating copper industry was discharged huge amount wastewater and cause serious environmental and health damage in Taiwan. This research applied electrical copper recovery system to recover copper metal. In this work, electrotreatment of a industrial copper wastewater ([Cu] = 30000 mg L−1 was studied with titanium net coated with a thin layer of RuO2/IrO2 (DSA reactor. The optimal result for simulated copper solution was 99.9% copper recovery efficiency in current density 0.585 A/dm2 and no iron ion. Due to high concentration of iron and chloride ions in real industrial wastewater, the copper recovery efficiency was down to 60%. Although, the copper recovery efficiency was not high as simulated copper solution, high environmental economic value was included in the technology. The possibility of pretreating the wastewater with iron is the necessary step, before the electrical recovery copper system.

  20. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withey, S. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cartmell, E. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.cartmell@cranfield.ac.uk; Avery, L.M. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Stephenson, T. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction.

  1. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  2. Treatment of drilling wastewater using a weakly Dasic resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Ronghu; Mu Bo; Zhang Hongyan; Guo Shaohui

    2008-01-01

    Macroporous weak basic anion exchanger(D301R)was used to remove organic substances from drilling wastewater.The effect of pH,temperature and contact time on adsorption behavior was investigated in batch experiments,which indicated that the COD(Chemical Oxygen Demand)removal ratio of drilling wastewater was approximately 90%.and the COD of treated wastewater was below 70 mg/L under appropriate operating conditions.A mixed liquor of NaOH and NaCl was selected as desorbent because of its better elution performance.The results of column dynamic adsorption and regeneration showed that the COD of wastewater could be efficiently removed bv D301R resin,and the resin was easily regenerated by the selected desorbent.

  3. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, South Africa .... infrastructure so that maintenance regimes incorporate resil- ... Wastewater works and main pipelines in the eThekwini Municipality ...

  4. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  5. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system.

  6. Managing urban wastewater for maximising water resource utilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available into components of distinctly different quality, and the separate treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater for different end-uses. The groundwater exploitation strategy is largely controlled by water quality requirements. Reuse of domestic and industrial...

  7. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality. ... The reuse of treated effluent (for agriculture and as supplement for drinking water needs) is currently receiving attention as a reliable water source. ... Article Metrics.

  8. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. ... as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning implications in Katsina metropolis, Nigeria. ... In Nigeria, there is a paucity of information on reuse of waste water in urban farming. The purpose of this paper is to ... Article Metrics.

  10. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  11. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%.

  12. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  14. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  15. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal ..... Altogether, these data revealed that irrigation with waste- ..... wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso,. Texas.

  16. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  17. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  18. efficiency of wastewater treatment by a mixture of sludge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Khaldi

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Environmental Health and Biotechnology Research Group, Division of ... Urbanisation and other factors have resulted in dramatic increases in volumes of industrial ... microalgae-sludge system in wastewater treatment.

  19. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  20. Application of the DIY carbon footprint calculator to a wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to manage the energy budget and develop climate-friendly ... paper, disposal of residual waste and release of biogas exert a carbon ..... from the food chain. ..... Biomass conversion to energy supply. Wastewater sludge for sustainable ...

  1. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process.

  2. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.

  3. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  4. Nutrients valorisation via duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The treatment system was efficiënt in organic matter removal during the entire year, while nitrogen, phosphorus and faecal coliform removal were negatively affected by the decline in temperature in winter...

  5. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Rubino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  6. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  7. Natural systems for wastewater treatment in warm climate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Gil, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity and the high costs of new water supply technologies are the two major factors responsible for the increasing recognition of the importance to conserve water resources by wastewater treatment, reuse or reclamation. Sustainability of sanitation systems should be related to low cost, low energy consumption and operation and maintenance requirements, especially for small communities in developing countries. Hence, natural systems for wastewater treatment seem to be a suitable so...

  8. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  9. Optimum municipal wastewater treatment plant design with consideration of uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-ming; LIN Yu-peng; QIN Xiao-sheng; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; JIANG Ru

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed model for the optimum municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) design is presented. Through introducing the interval variables, the model attempts to consider the effects of uncertainties caused by the fluctuation of the wastewater quality and quantity during the design of MWTP. The model solution procedure is illustrated in detail, and a numerical example is given to verify the feasibility and advantage of the model. Furthermore, the possibility of the model application is briefly outlined.

  10. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas N. Angelakis; Snyder, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Colle...

  11. Communities of microalgae and bacteria in photobioreactors treating municipal wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Krustok, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Everyone who uses water produces wastewater. This inevitability creates several problems that increase with the growth of the population and industry. What to do with the wastewater, how to purify it and how to design the infrastructure are all important questions that each municipality has to deal with, taking into account ever growing demands to reduce environmental impact. In these conditions scientists and engineers have turned to biological processes to help treat the water. Currently th...

  12. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  13. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  14. Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater by clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay; Sahin, Vicdan

    2007-12-01

    Clinoptilolite- a natural zeolite has been investigated for the removal of heavy metals from the wastewaters. A pyrex-glass column of 30 mm diameter and 600 mm height was used. The column was filled with the conditioned clinoptilolite of 0.5-1 mm. In the first stage of the research, synthetic wastewater containing single cation 0.02 N and 0.04 N Cu and 0.02 N Fe and Zn solutions were passed through the column. Two liter of 0.02 N Cu and 750 ml of the 0.04 N Cu solution was treated with 100 percent removal efficiency. Clinoptilolite column was regenerated for the reuse when the removal efficiency decreased. The cation exchange capacities were calculated as 1.0663 and 1.5342 meq/g clinoptilolite for 0.02 N and 0.04 N Cu solutions, respectively. In the second stage of this research, the same procedure was repeated with the actual wastewater samples of the equalization and the neutralization tanks of the Telka-Rabak Electrolytic Copper Industry. A volume of 1811 ml of the wastewater of the equalization tank and 180 ml of the neutralization tank wastewater, which had high concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Fe, was treated with 100 percent efficiency. The cation exchange capacities of clinoptilolite for the wastewater of the equalization and the neutralization tanks for Cu were 0.4483 and 0.4274, respectively. It was observed that only one third of the single copper ion solutions were obtained with the actual wastewater having competing ions such as Zn, Fe and Ni. The experimental results also indicate that the clinoptilolite is an effective cation exchanger for the removal of the metals from the wastewater and the removal efficiency is higher when there is not ant competing ions.

  15. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  16. Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginkel, Steven W.; Oh, Sang-Eun; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g/L (apple processing), 21g/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60% hydrogen, with the balance as carbon dioxide. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as a result of hydrogen gas production were generally in the range of 5-11%. Overall hydrogen gas conversions were 0.7-0.9L-H{sub 2}/L-wastewater for the apple wastewater, 0.1L/L for Confectioner-A, 0.4-2.0L/L for Confectioner B, and 2.1-2.8L/L for the potato wastewater. When nutrients were added to samples, there was a good correlation between hydrogen production and COD removal, with an average of 0.10+/-0.01L-H{sub 2}/g-COD. However, hydrogen production could not be correlated to COD removal in the absence of nutrients or in more extensive in-plant tests at the potato processing facility. Gas produced by a domestic wastewater sample (concentrated 25x) contained only 23+/-8% hydrogen, resulting in an estimated maximum production of only 0.01L/L for the original, non-diluted wastewater. Based on an observed hydrogen production yield from the effluent of the potato processing plant of 1.0L-H{sub 2}/L, and annual flows at the potato processing plant, it was estimated that if hydrogen gas was produced at this site it could be worth as much as $65,000/year. (author)

  17. Supercritical water oxidation of wastewater and sludges - design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M.J.C.; Sanchez, E.A.; Fernandez-Polanco, F. [Dept. Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process is a promising technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters and sludges. It has been shown to be effective in destroying recalcitrant, xenobiotic or nonbiodegradable compounds and is an interesting alternative to conventional chemical and biological oxidation processes. This paper describes the basic concepts and state of the art of the SCWO technology and presents the flow sheets and energy and mass balances for diluted wastewater and sludge treatment. (orig.)

  18. New regulatory framework for wastewater quality control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade Hazin, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the new regulatory framework for wastewater quality control developed in Mexico. It provides a description of the Mexican government strategies for water pollution control. The discussion focuses on the policy instruments used, their evolution and the main difficulties encountered in their implementation. The new regulatory framework is discussed highlighting some of the economic implications of the reforms. The paper concludes that proper institutional development and monitoring are essential factors for the success of any policy instrument for wastewater quality control.

  19. Mobile Nitrite Wastewater Treatment System (NWTS) User Data Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING SERVICE CENTER Port Hueneme, California 93043-4370 USER DATA PACKAGE UDP-2003-ENV MOBILE NITRITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MOBILE NITRITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS (NWTS) USER DATA PACKAGE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...SYSTEM (NWTS) USER DATA PACKAGE by T. Richard Lee, Ph.D R. T. Kudo Joseph McGillian* *Naval Surface Warfare Center Cardcrock Division Pmladclpma, PA

  20. Effect of White Charcoal on COD Reduction in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijarn, Nuchanaporn; Butsee, Manipa; Buakul, Kanokwan; Seng, Hasan; Sribuarai, Tinnphat; Phonprasert, Pongtep; Taneeto, Kla; Atthameth, Prasertsil

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the COD reduction in wastewater between using coconut shell and coconut spathe white charcoal from Khlong Wat NongPra-Ong, Krathumbaen, SamutSakhon province, Thailand. The waste water samples were collected using composite sampling method. The experimental section can be divided into 2 parts. The first part was study the optimum of COD adsorption time using both white charcoals. The second part was study the optimum amount of white charcoal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The pre-treatment of wastewater was examined in parameters include temperature, alkalinity (pH), conductivity, turbidity, suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), and COD. The results show that both white charcoals can reduce COD of wastewater. The pH of pre-treatment wastewater had pH 9 but post-treatment wastewaters using both white charcoals have pH 8. The COD of pre-treatment wastewater had COD as 258 mg/L but post-treatment wastewater using coconut shell white charcoal had COD steady at 40 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. The COD of post-treatment wastewater using coconut spathe white charcoal had COD steady at 71 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. Therefore comparison of COD reduction between coconut shell white charcoal versus coconut spathe white charcoal found that the coconut shell white charcoal had efficiency for COD reduction better than coconut spathe white charcoal.

  1. Removal of polyvinylpyrrolidone from wastewater using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julinová, Markéta; Kupec, Jan; Houser, Josef; Slavík, Roman; Marusincová, Hana; Cervenáková, Lenka; Klívar, Stanislav

    2012-12-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a frequently used polymer in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. Because it is not subject to metabolic changes and is virtually nondegradable, trace concentrations of PVP are often found in community wastewaters. The literature finds that the partial removal of PVP in wastewater treatment plants probably occurs through sorption. The primary objective of this study was to find an effective method to remove PVP from wastewaters. In this regard, the literature indicates the theoretical potential to use specific enzymes (e.g., gamma-lactamases, amidases) to gradually degrade PVP molecules. Polyvinylpyrrolidone biodegradability tests were conducted using suitable heterogeneous cultures (activated sludge) collected from a conventional wastewater treatment plant, treatment plants connected to a pharmaceutical factory, and using select enzymes. Aerobic biodegradation of PVP in a conventional wastewater environment was ineffective, even after adaptation of activated sludge using the nearly identical monomer 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Another potential method for PVP removal involves pretreating the polymer prior to biological degradation. Based on the results (approximately 10 to 15% biodegradation), pretreatment was partially effective, realistically, it could only be applied with difficulty at wastewater treatment plants. Sorption of PVP to an active carbon sorbent (Chezacarb S), which corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm, and sorption to activated sludge, which corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm, were also evaluated. From these sorption tests, it can be concluded that the considerable adsorption of PVP to activated sludge occurred primarily at low PVP concentrations. Based on the test results, the authors recommend the following methods for PVP removal from wastewater: (1) sorption; (2) application of specific microorganisms; and (3) alkaline hydrolysis, which is the least suitable of the three for use in wastewater treatment

  2. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  3. Time difference based measurement of ultrasonic cavitations in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌平

    2016-01-01

    Intensity of cavitation is significant in ultrasonic wastewater treatment, but is complicated to measure.A time difference based method of ultrasonic cavitation measurement is proposed.The time differences at different powers of 495kHz ultrasonic are measured in experiment in comparison with conductimetric method.Simulation results show that time difference and electrical conductivity are both approximately positive proportional to the ultrasonic power.The degradation of PNP solution verifies the availability in wastewater treatment by using ultrasonic.

  4. Occurrence of tylosin in swine wastewater in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B

    2013-01-01

    This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.

  5. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  6. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  7. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Imran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  8. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising.

  9. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL(-1), respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wastewater Irrigation: Persistent Organic Pollutans in Soil and Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated or untreated wastewaters, used for irrigation purpose, contain various persistent organic pollutants. The long use of these waters for irrigation purpose results in deposition of the pollutants in soil, contaminates products and has adverse health affect on the human through food chain, and biologic activity of flora and fauna. The wastewaters of Konya were conveyed to the Salt Lake through the main drainage channel without any treatment until 2010.  During the arid period, the wastewater in the main drainage channel was used for irrigation and the products were cultivated. In this work, persistent organic pollutants i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene are determined in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil samples and the wheat samples cultivated in the region. High alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil were determined. These properties of soil result in the accumulation of contaminants in top soil layer used for agricultural production. On the other hand, PCB and PAH compounds were determined in comparable concentrations in well water irrigated reference soils with wastewater irrigated soils. PCB and PAH sources other than wastewater irrigation was evidenced for the study field.

  11. Removal Efficiency of Microbial Contaminants from Hospital Wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants from two hospitals on-site Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. Hospital wastewaters often go untreated in Saudi Arabia as in many devolving countries, where no specific regulations are imposed regarding hospital wastewater treatment. The current guidelines are placed to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however, they do not regulate for pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Results from this study have detected pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the sampled hospitals wastewater. And although the treatment process of one of the hospitals was able to meet current quality guidelines, the other hospital treatment process failed to meet these guidelines and disgorge of its wastewater might be cause for concern. In order to estimate the risk to the public health and the impact of discharging the treated effluent to the public sewage, a comprehensive investigation is needed that will facilitate and guide suggestions for more detailed guidelines and monitoring.

  12. Removal of suspended solids from municipal wastewater using geotextile columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, M.H. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, Texas (United States); Kotha, K.K. [Hillis-Carnes Inc., Manassas, VA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to investigate the filtration behavior of geotextiles to remove suspended solids from municipal wastewater. Four nonwoven geotextiles were used in this preliminary investigation. The study also involved evaluating the suspended solids removal efficiency and regeneration potential of geotextiles for using as filter media. Wastewater samples were collected from the local wastewater treatment plant. Influent and effluent suspended solids concentration, chemical oxygen demand, and effluent flow rates were monitored during the tests. During filtration tests, suspended solids were retained on the upstream face and within the geotextile as wastewater passed through it. Due to the formation of a thin layer of suspended solids or filter cake on the upstream face of the geotextile, the effluent flow rate and suspended solids concentration decreased exponentially with time. When the effluent flow rate reduced below 90%, the filter media was backwashed to restore its filtering efficiency, for reuse. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that using geotextile columns, it was possible to remove 50 to 70% of suspended solids and decrease in chemical oxygen demand from 70 to 90% from the influent. This technique may be suitable for treating wastewater streams with low inflow and suspended solids concentrations, preferably in the range of 100 to 200 mg/L. The technique may be further evaluated for determining its suitability for treatment of wastewater generated from less populated areas and as a polishing step after secondary treatment. (author)

  13. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  14. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  15. Forward osmosis for application in wastewater treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Verliefde, A R D; Roest, K; Rietveld, L C; Cornelissen, E R

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of Forward Osmosis (FO) membrane technology has grown significantly over the last 10 years, but its application in the scope of wastewater treatment has been slower. Drinking water is becoming an increasingly marginal resource. Substituting drinking water for alternate water sources, specifically for use in industrial processes, may alleviate the global water stress. FO has the potential to sustainably treat wastewater sources and produce high quality water. FO relies on the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane to extract clean water from the feed, however the FO step is still mostly perceived as a "pre-treatment" process. To prompt FO-wastewater feasibility, the focus lies with new membrane developments, draw solutions to enhance wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and operating conditions. Optimisation of these parameters are essential to mitigate fouling, decrease concentration polarisation and increase FO performance; issues all closely related to one another. This review attempts to define the steps still required for FO to reach full-scale potential in wastewater treatment and water reclamation by discussing current novelties, bottlenecks and future perspectives of FO technology in the wastewater sector.

  16. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  17. Investigations into the biodegradation of microcystin-LR in wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Lionel, E-mail: lionel.ho@sawater.com.au [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Hoefel, Daniel [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Palazot, Sebastien [Ecole Superieure de Chimie Physique Electronique de Lyon, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 BP 2077, 69616 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sawade, Emma; Newcombe, Gayle [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Saint, Christopher P. [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Brookes, Justin D. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Microcystins are potent hepatotoxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria. These organisms can proliferate in wastewaters due to a number of factors including high concentrations of nutrients for growth. As treated wastewaters are now being considered as supplementary drinking water sources, in addition to their frequent use for irrigated agriculture, it is imperative that these wastewaters are free of toxins such as microcystins. This study investigated the potential for biodegradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) in wastewaters through a biological sand filtration experiment and in static batch reactor experiments. MCLR was effectively removed at a range of concentrations and at various temperatures, with degradation attributed to the action of microorganisms indigenous to the wastewaters. No hepatotoxic by-products were detected following the degradation of MCLR as determined by a protein phosphatase inhibition assay. Using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, the first gene involved in bacterial degradation of MCLR (mlrA) was detected and the responsible bacteria shown to increase with the amount of MCLR being degraded. This finding suggested that the degradation of MCLR was dependent upon the abundance of MCLR-degrading organisms present within the wastewater, and that MCLR may provide bacteria with a significant carbon source for proliferation; in turn increasing MCLR removal.

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  19. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  20. Biosorption of copper (II) from chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leah C; Ogden, Kimberly L

    2003-11-01

    Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization (Cu-CMP) is a critical step in integrated circuit (IC) device manufacturing. CMP and post-CMP cleaning processes are projected to account for 30-40% of the water consumed by IC manufacturers in 2003. CMP wastewater is expected to contain increasing amounts of copper as the industry switches from Al-CMP to Cu-CMP causing some IC manufacturers to run the risk of violating discharge regulations. There are a variety of treatment schemes currently available for the removal of heavy metals from CMP wastewater, however, many introduce additional chemicals to the wastewater, have large space requirements, or are expensive. This work explores the use of microorganisms for waste treatment. A Staphylococcus sp. of bacteria was isolated and studied to determine the feasibility for use in removing copper from Cu-CMP wastewater. A model Cu-CMP wastewater was developed and tested, as well as actual Cu-CMP wastes. Continuous-flow packed column experiments were performed to obtain adsorption data and show copper recovery from the waste. A predictive, empirical model was used to accurately describe Cu removal. Additionally, the immobilized cells were regenerated, allowing for the concentration and potential recovery of copper from the wastewater.

  1. Prediction of wastewater quality using amperometric bioelectronic tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Dock, Eva; Tønning, Erik; Christensen, Jakob; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Carlsson, Charlotte; Mojzíková, Renata; Skládal, Petr; Wollenberger, Ulla; Nørgaard, Lars; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2016-01-15

    Wastewater samples from a Swedish chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) mill collected at different purification stages in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed with an amperometric enzyme-based biosensor array in a flow-injection system. In order to resolve the complex composition of the wastewater, the array consists of several sensing elements which yield a multidimensional response. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to decompose the array's responses, and found that wastewater with different degrees of pollution can be differentiated. With the help of partial least squares regression (PLS-R), we could link the sensor responses to the Microtox® toxicity parameter, as well as to global organic pollution parameters (COD, BOD, and TOC). From investigating the influences of individual sensors in the array, it was found that the best models were in most cases obtained when all sensors in the array were included in the PLS-R model. We find that fast simultaneous determination of several global environmental parameters characterizing wastewaters is possible with this kind of biosensor array, in particular because of the link between the sensor responses and the biological effect onto the ecosystem into which the wastewater would be released. In conjunction with multivariate data analysis tools, there is strong potential to reduce the total time until a result is yielded from days to a few minutes.

  2. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-02

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type.

  3. Cavitationally induced biodegradability enhancement of a distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoley, K V; Saharan, Virendra Kumar; Mudliar, S N; Pandey, R A; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2012-06-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was evaluated as a pretreatment option for the complex/recalcitrant biomethanated distillery wastewater (B-DWW). The effect of various process parameters such as inlet pressure, dilution and reaction time on reduction of COD/TOC and enhancement of biodegradability index (BI:BOD(5):COD ratio) of the B-DWW was studied with an aim to maximize the biodegradability index and reducing the toxicity of the distillery wastewater. It was observed that higher operating pressure (13 bar) yielded the maximum BI whereas the lower pressure (5 bar) is suitable for the reduction in the toxicity of B-DWW. The toxicity of the distillery wastewater was analyzed by measuring the COD, TOC and color of the wastewater sample. The HC pretreatment under optimized conditions leads to a BI of 0.32, COD and TOC reduction of 32.24% and 31.43%, respectively along with a color reduction by 48%. These results indicate the potential of HC as a pretreatment option for enhancing the biodegradability index of the recalcitrant wastewater such as B-DWW along with reduced toxicity of wastewater as observed from COD, TOC and color reduction profile under optimized conditions.

  4. Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S.K. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Environmental Engineering Div.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

  5. Nutrients removal and lipids production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch wastewater and alcohol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Tan, Xiaobo; Li, Deyi; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Yu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) using anaerobic digested starch wastewater (ADSW) and alcohol wastewater (AW) was evaluated in this study. Different proportions of mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.176:1, 0.053:1, 0.026:1, v/v) and pure ADSW, AW were used for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. The different proportions between ADSW and AW significantly influenced biomass growth, lipids production and pollutants removal. The best performance was achieved using mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.053:1, v/v), leading to a maximal total biomass of 3.01±0.15 g/L (dry weight), lipids productivity of 127.71±6.31 mg/L/d and pollutants removal of COD=75.78±3.76%, TN=91.64±4.58% and TP=90.74±4.62%.

  6. Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time and Wastewater Temperature on Treatment Efficiency of Upflow Anaerobic Filter Treating Campus Domestic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the removal efficiency of upflow anaerobic filter reactor fed continuously with campus domestic wastewater at different hydraulic retention time and wastewater temperature. The reactor was filled with non woven filter materials and operated at hydraulic retention time ranging from 1 to 6 days and wastewater temperature ranging from 20 to 30C. At that operating condition, the result revealed no significant difference for Carbonaceous (COD and nutrients materials except there was significant production of gas. The result revealed that increase in HRT and wastewater temperature improves removal performance of the reactor. The overall reactor removal efficiency for COD, TN, NH4+-N, NO3-N and TP concentration were 51, 22, 21, 28 and 10% and 61 35, 37, 49 and 27% in the anaerobic and anoxic columns, respectively. The experimental system was capable of instantaneous removal of the carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds.

  7. IMPACT OF INFLUENT MICROORGANISMS UPON POOR SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE QUIESCENT ZONE OF AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most common biological treatment systems used to clean wastewater is suspended growth activated sludge wastewater treatment (AS). When AS is adapted for the treatment of wastewater from industrial manufacturing processes, unanticipated difficulties can arise. For the s...

  8. The use of wastewater in livestock production and its socioeconomic and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Liqin; Alugongo, Gibson Maswayi

    2017-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have found a significant amount of toxins in surface water, a complex link between animals' access to wastewater and associated animal and human welfare losses needs to be explored. The scarcity of safe water has put stress on the utilization of wastewater for crops and livestock production. The access of animals to wastewater is related to the emergence of dangerous animal's diseases, hampering productivity, increasing economic losses, and risking human health along the food chain. This review explores use of wastewater for agriculture, epidemiological evidence of microbial contamination in wastewater, and animal and human welfare disruption due to the use of wastewater for crop and livestock production. More specifically, the review delves into animals exposure to wastewater for bathing, drinking, or grazing on a pasture irrigated with contaminated water and related animal and human welfare losses. We included some scientific articles and reviews published from 1970 to 2017 to support our rational discussions. The selected articles dealt exclusively with animals direct access to wastewater via bathing and indirect access via grazing on pasture irrigated with contaminated wastewater and their implication for animal and human welfare losses. The study also identified that some policy options such as wastewater treatments, constructing wastewater stabilization ponds, controlling animal access to wastewater, and dissemination of necessary information to ultimate consumers related to the source of agricultural produce and wastewater use in animal and crop production are required to protect the human and animal health and welfare.

  9. CHANGES IN THE MICROBIAL COMPOSITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATED IN BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jolanta Bawiec

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater is characterized by diverse microbial content, largely dependent on their sources as well as many other factors like condition and health of their producer, but also environmental factors. The number and share of individual bacterial population in wastewater is changing during the process of their treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The microbial content of treated wastewater is significantly affected by the type of technology used for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the results of the species composition of bacteria present in the wastewater at various stages of treatment for the two different technologies. Samples of wastewater from hydroponic wastewater treatment plant and from the plant which technology is based on biofilters were analysed. A key mechanism for wastewater treatment in both cases is biological treatment, using microbial activity that decomposes pollutants in the wastewater, which significantly contributes to changes in the species composition of bacteria comparing to microbiological composition of sewage flowing into the treatment plant. Analyses of microbial composition showed that in the objects consisting of preliminary tank and biofilter, composition of bacteria species is changing, but many species isolated from raw sewage is also found in treated wastewater. In the plant with hydroponic lagoon after wastewater treatment throughout the process system, bacteria present in raw sewage or in wastewater after biological treatment were not identified in the outlet.

  10. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... prevention and the implementation of cleaner technology by putting a stress on the industry. Further an approach for the balance between environmental and technological considerations is introduced. The need for easily understandable environmental priorities is stressed and a concept for this is presented...

  11. Are standard wastewater treatment plant design methods suitable for any municipal wastewater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, G; Güder, B; Güneş, G; Ubay Cokgor, E

    2012-01-01

    The design and operational parameters of an activated sludge system were analyzed treating the municipal wastewaters in Istanbul. The design methods of ATV131, Metcalf & Eddy together with model simulations were compared with actual plant operational data. The activated sludge model parameters were determined using 3-month dynamic data for the biological nutrient removal plant. The ATV131 method yielded closer sludge production, total oxygen requirement and effluent nitrogen levels to the real plant after adopting correct influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) could not easily be predicted with ATV131 method due to low volatile fatty acids (VFA) potential.

  12. Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater.

  13. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  14. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  15. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams.

  16. Soil Chemistry after Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in Semiarid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Pacheco de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil irrigation using treated wastewater in the Brazilian semiarid region is a promising practice as this area currently faces water scarcity and pollution of water resources by domestic sewage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of treated wastewater in drip irrigation and its effect on the chemistry of soil cultivated with squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. Coroa IAC and to verify whether there was an increase in soil salinity under a semiarid climate. The experiment was conducted for 123 days on a farm close to the sewage treatment plant, in a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two irrigation water depths (100 and 150 % of the evapotranspiration, two applications of gypsum to attenuate wastewater sodicity (0 and 5.51 g per plant, and a control treatment with no application of wastewater or gypsum. During the experiment, treated wastewater and soil gravitational water, at a depth of 0.40 m, were collected for measurement of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO−3, NH4+, Cl− , alkalinity, electrical conductivity, pH and sodium adsorption ratio. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m; and pH, total N, organic C, exchangeable cations and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (CEs were analyzed. Besides an increase in pH and a reduction in total N, the irrigation with wastewater reduces soil salinity of the naturally salt-rich soils of the semiarid climate. It also led to soil sodification, in spite of the added gypsum, which indicates that irrigation with wastewater might require the addition of greater quantities of gypsum to prevent physical degradation of the soil.

  17. Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvala, N; Vrecko, D; Burica, O; Strazar, M; Levstek, M

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated based on data from ASP and MBBR pilot plants operating in parallel on the existing plant. Only two kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted to represent the real plant behaviour. Steady-state analyses have shown a similar efficiency of both processes in relation to carbon removal, but improved performance of MBBR in relation to nitrogen removal. Better performance of MBBR can be expected especially at low temperatures. Simulations have not confirmed the expected less volume required for the MBBR process. Finally, the MBBR was chosen for plant upgrading. The developed process model will be further used to evaluate the final plant configuration and to optimise the plant operating parameters.

  18. Bioelectrochemical metal recovery from wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-12-01

    Metal contaminated wastewater posts great health and environmental concerns, but it also provides opportunities for precious metal recovery, which may potentially make treatment processes more cost-effective and sustainable. Conventional metal recovery technologies include physical, chemical and biological methods, but they are generally energy and chemical intensive. The recent development of bioelectrochemical technology provides a new approach for efficient metal recovery, because it offers a flexible platform for both oxidation and reduction reaction oriented processes. While dozens of recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of the bioelectrochemical metal recovery concept, the mechanisms have been different and confusing. This study provides a review that summarizes and discusses the different fundamental mechanisms of metal conversion, with the aim of facilitating the scientific understanding and technology development. While the general approach of bioelectrochemical metal recovery is using metals as the electron acceptor in the cathode chamber and organic waste as the electron donor in the anode chamber, there are so far four mechanisms that have been reported: (1) direct metal recovery using abiotic cathodes; (2) metal recovery using abiotic cathodes supplemented by external power sources; (3) metal conversion using bio-cathodes; and (4) metal conversion using bio-cathodes supplemented by external power sources.

  19. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  20. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  1. Performance of wastewater sludge ecological stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yubo; SUN Tieheng; ZHAO Lihui; JIANG Tingliang; ZHANG Liping

    2008-01-01

    In this article,wastewater sludge ecological stabilization (WWSES) was presented for sludge dewatering,mineralization,and stabilization,as well as for percolate treatment.Two years of pilot scale experimental results indicated that sludge volatile solid,triphenylteuazolium chloride (TTC)-dehydrogenase aetivity(DHA),and moisture content as indicators showed the process and degree of sludge stabilization.The observation on dewatering process showed that dried sludge reached a content of 20%-50% total solid after two years of system operation.Sludge TTC-DHA in the first year was obviously lower than that of the second year,and TTC-DHA tended to decrease with an increase in the drying time of the sludge.Total nitrogen,total phosphorus,and organic contents of sludge decreased gradually from the top to the bottom of dried sludge layer.In comparison with natural stands on stands treated with sewage sludge,individual shoot was significantly higher,and coarse protein,coarse fat,and coarse fiber contents in reed roots,stems,and leaves in the system were higher than that of wild reed,especially coarse protein contents of reed roots in the system(7.38%)were obviously higher than that of wild reeds(3.29%).

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  3. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  4. Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.

  5. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. CFD for wastewater treatment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samstag, R W; Ducoste, J J; Griborio, A; Nopens, I; Batstone, D J; Wicks, J D; Saunders, S; Wicklein, E A; Kenny, G; Laurent, J

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a rapidly emerging field in wastewater treatment (WWT), with application to almost all unit processes. This paper provides an overview of CFD applied to a wide range of unit processes in water and WWT from hydraulic elements like flow splitting to physical, chemical and biological processes like suspended growth nutrient removal and anaerobic digestion. The paper's focus is on articulating the state of practice and research and development needs. The level of CFD's capability varies between different process units, with a high frequency of application in the areas of final sedimentation, activated sludge basin modelling and disinfection, and greater needs in primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion. While approaches are comprehensive, generally capable of incorporating non-Newtonian fluids, multiphase systems and biokinetics, they are not broad, and further work should be done to address the diversity of process designs. Many units have not been addressed to date. Further needs are identified throughout, but common requirements include improved particle aggregation and breakup (flocculation), and improved coupling of biology and hydraulics.

  7. Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Bruno; van de Ven, Wilbert; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2017-01-01

    that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio......Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows...... dropped to about 5 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 after 30 s. Equilibrium calculations yielded a theoretic ratio of 2 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1, indicating that the process had not equilibrated within the span of the experiment. Correspondingly, the highest sulfide conversion only reached 60%. These findings...

  8. Preparation of magnetic chitosan microspheres and its applications in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The methods of preparation of magnetic chitosan microspheres have been introduced. In addition, their applications in the wastewater treatment, based on different kinds of wastewater, have been reviewed, and their mechanisms have been discussed.

  9. Aerobic treatment of kitchen wastewater using sequence batch reactor (SBR) and reuse for irrigation landscape purposes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sule Abubakar; Ab aziz Abdul Latiff; I. M. Lawal; A. H. Jagaba

    2016-01-01

    .... While treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, not much effort are given for wastewater reuse in Malaysia due to the fact that Malaysia...

  10. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Avanti International AV-118 Acrylic Chemical Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to the infiltration of water from the surrounding environments. Wastewater facilities are not only wet, but also experience hydrostatic pressure conditions un...

  11. [Comparison of the quality and toxicity of wastewater after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-sha; Zhang, Tong; Hu, Hong-ying

    2005-11-01

    The effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections on quality and toxicity of wastewater were compared. The experiment results showed that chlorine disinfection had no obvious effect on wastewater color, while chlorine dioxide disinfection decreased wastewater color observably. The DOC of wastewater did not change much after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections. Chlorine disinfection significantly increased UV230 of wastewater and chlorine dioxide disinfection slightly decreased UV230 of wastewater. When the disinfectants dosage was 30 mg/L, UV230 increased about 0.7 cm(-1) after chlorine disinfection and decreased about 0.05 cm(-1) after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The acute toxicity of wastewater increased with increasing disinfectants dosage for both chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections and the acute toxicity after chlorine disinfection is much stronger than that after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The genotoxicity of wastewater increased slightly after chlorine disinfection and decreased slightly after chlorine dioxide disinfection.

  12. Wastewater minimisation using inherent storage capacity in multipurpose batch plants: an unexplored dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available in idle processing units has been presented. The methodology determines the minimum wastewater target while determining the optimal process schedule that will achieve the minimum wastewater target. An illustrative example is presented and solved...

  13. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  14. An Innovative Membrane Bioreactor Process For Achieving Sustainable Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals of concern (COCs), such as pharmaceutical chemicals, steroid hormones, and pesticides, have been found to be widely distributed in water and wastewater. Conventionally operated wastewater treatment plants do not provide an effective barrier against the release of these...

  15. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic

  16. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  17. An Innovative Membrane Bioreactor Process For Achieving Sustainable Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals of concern (COCs), such as pharmaceutical chemicals, steroid hormones, and pesticides, have been found to be widely distributed in water and wastewater. Conventionally operated wastewater treatment plants do not provide an effective barrier against the release of these...

  18. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include

  19. Removal of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals During On-Site Wastewater Treatment Using A Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants. These plants have been show...

  20. Acclimation of microalgae to wastewater environments involves increased oxidative stress tolerance activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osundeko, Olumayowa; Dean, Andrew P; Davies, Helena; Pittman, Jon K

    2014-01-01

    A wastewater environment can be particularly toxic to eukaryotic microalgae. Microalgae can adapt to these conditions but the specific mechanisms that allow strains to tolerate wastewater environments are unclear...

  1. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic microorganism

  2. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available adversely impacting on the wastewater biological treatment processes. Among the increasing emerging contaminants into wastewater are engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). However, the impacts of these contaminants including metal oxides ENPs on the treatment...

  3. Fungal and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five wine-related distillery wastewaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strong, PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterise wine-related wastewaters and ascertain the wastewater concentrations that were optimal for treatment by Trametes pubescens. Laccase production was also monitored. Crudely purified laccase was tested...

  4. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  5. Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and

  6. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  7. Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B R

    2009-01-01

    Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design.

  8. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  9. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Sequence Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment System Using Synthetic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian; JIANG Xiao-Qin; YANG Lin-Zhang; ZHANG Jian; QIAO Qing-Yun; HE Chen-Da; YIN Shi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    The rate of nitrous oxide emission from a laboratory sequence batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system using synthetic wastewater was measured under controlled conditions. The SBR was operated in the mode of 4 h for aeration, 3.5 h for stirring without aeration, 0.5 h for settling and drainage, and 4 h of idle. The sludge was acclimated by running the system to achieve a stable running state as indicated by rhythmic changes of total N, dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, pH, and N2O. Under the present experimental conditions measured nitrous oxide emitted from the off-gas in the aerobic and anaerobic phases, respectively, accounted for 8.6%-16.1% and 0-0.05%of N removed, indicating that the aerobic phase was the main source of N2O emission from the system. N2O dissolved in discharged water was considerable in term of concentration. Thus, measures to be developed for the purpose of reducing N2O emission from the system should be effective in the aeration phase.

  10. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  11. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  12. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments.

  13. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  14. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater.

  15. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  16. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  17. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  18. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  19. Biodegradation and ecotoxicological assessment of pectin production wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Reginatto; E. R. Amante; K. Gerhardy; S. Kunst; N. Duran

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the chemical composition of pectin production wastewater and its toxicity during biological treatment were investigated.Samples of wastewater from different steps of a pectin production wastewater biological treatment plant were investigated including the influent of the treatment (1),after denitrification tank (2),after anaerobic treatment (3) and final effluent (4).The conventional physico-chemical characteristics of samples did not indicate wastewater toxicity.However,toxicity assessments carried out on Vibrio fischeri and Scenedesmus subspicatus indicated low EC50 values.The fractionation of the samples using an XAD resin showed that the toxicity was associated with the organic matter.Wastewater apparent molecular mass distributions were 14.3,25.0,24.4 and 29.6 kDa for samples 1 to 4,respectively.Finally,characteristics of the sample by pyrolisis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-CG-MS) demonstrated its polyphenolic nature and a 23% increase in the levels of such compounds after the first biological treatment step.

  20. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  2. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  3. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  4. Pretreatment of apramycin wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shao-xia; FENG Yu-jie; WAN Jia-feng; LIN Qing-ying; ZHU Wan-peng; JIANG Zhan-peng

    2005-01-01

    The pretreatment technology of wet air oxidation(WAO) and coagulation and acidic hydrolysis for apramycin wastewater was investigated in this paper. The COD, apramycin, NH4+ concentration, and the ratio of BOD5/COD were analyzed, and the color and odor of the effluent were observed. WAO of apramycin wastewater, without catalyst and with RuO2/Al2 O3 and RuO2-CeO2/Al2 O3 catalysts, was carried out at degradation temperature of 200℃ and the total pressure of 4 MPa in a 1 L batch reactor. The result showed that the apramycin removals were respectively 50.2% and 55.0%, COD removals were 40.0% and 46.0%, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was increased to 0.49 and 0.54 with RuO2/Al2 O3 and RuO2-CeO2/Al2 O3 catalysts in catylytic wet air oxidation(CWAO) after the reaction of 150 min. With the pretreatment of coagulation and acidic hydrolysis, COD and apramycin removals were slight decreased, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was increased to 0.45, and the effluents was not suitable to biological treatment. The color and odor of the wastewater were the apramycin wastewater. The addition of CeO2 could promote the activity and stability of RuO2/Al2 O3 in WAO of apramycin wastewater.

  5. Semi-industrial production of methane from textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (DE)] (and others)

    2012-12-15

    The enzymatic desizing of starch-sized cotton fabrics leads to wastewaters with an extremely high chemical oxygen demand due to its high sugar content. Nowadays, these liquors are still disposed without use, resulting in a questionable ecological pollution and high emission charges for cotton finishing manufacturers. In this paper, an innovative technology for the production of energy from textile wastewaters from cotton desizing was developed. Such desizing liquors were fermented by methane-producing microbes to biogas. For this purpose, a semi-industrial plant with a total volume of more than 500 L was developed and employed over a period of several weeks. The robust and trouble-free system produces high amounts of biogas accompanied by a significant reduction of the COD of more than 85%. With regard to growing standards and costs for wastewater treatment and disposal, the new process can be an attractive alternative for textile finishing enterprises in wastewater management, combining economic and ecological benefits. Moreover, the production of biogas from textile wastewaters can help to overcome the global energy gap within the next decades, especially with respect to the huge dimension of cotton pretreatment and, therefore, huge desizing activities worldwide.

  6. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 {+-} 2% and 84 {+-} 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 {+-} 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 {mu}m pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m{sup 2}/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria.

  7. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  8. Dataset of producing and curing concrete using domestic treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Delnavaz, Mohammad; Rashnoiee, Vahid; Fazeli, Alireza; Gonabadi, Navid

    2016-03-01

    We tested the setting time of cement, slump and compressive and tensile strength of 54 triplicate cubic samples and 9 cylindrical samples of concrete with and without a Super plasticizer admixture. We produced concrete samples made with drinking water and treated domestic wastewater containing 300, 400 kg/m(3) of cement before chlorination and then cured concrete samples made with drinking water and treated wastewater. Second, concrete samples made with 350 kg/m(3) of cement with a Superplasticizer admixture made with drinking water and treated wastewater and then cured with treated wastewater. The compressive strength of all the concrete samples made with treated wastewater had a high coefficient of determination with the control concrete samples. A 28-day tensile strength of all the samples was 96-100% of the tensile strength of the control samples and the setting time was reduced by 30 min which was consistent with a ASTMC191 standard. All samples produced and cured with treated waste water did not have a significant effect on water absorption, slump and surface electrical resistivity tests. However, compressive strength at 21 days of concrete samples using 300 kg/m(3) of cement in rapid freezing and thawing conditions was about 11% lower than concrete samples made with drinking water.

  9. Optimal flow sensor placement on wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villez, Kris; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Corominas, Lluís

    2016-09-15

    Obtaining high quality data collected on wastewater treatment plants is gaining increasing attention in the wastewater engineering literature. Typical studies focus on recognition of faulty data with a given set of installed sensors on a wastewater treatment plant. Little attention is however given to how one can install sensors in such a way that fault detection and identification can be improved. In this work, we develop a method to obtain Pareto optimal sensor layouts in terms of cost, observability, and redundancy. Most importantly, the resulting method allows reducing the large set of possibilities to a minimal set of sensor layouts efficiently for any wastewater treatment plant on the basis of structural criteria only, with limited sensor information, and without prior data collection. In addition, the developed optimization scheme is fast. Practically important is that the number of sensors needed for both observability of all flows and redundancy of all flow sensors is only one more compared to the number of sensors needed for observability of all flows in the studied wastewater treatment plant configurations.

  10. Solar photochemical treatment of winery wastewater in a CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mosteo, Rosa; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto; Peres, José A

    2009-12-09

    Degradation of simulated winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) and homogeneous photocatalysis with photo-Fenton was observed. The influence of TiO(2) concentration (200 or 500 mg/L) and also of combining TiO(2) with H(2)O(2) or Na(2)S(2)O(8) on heterogeneous photocatalysis was evaluated. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2), TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and TiO(2)/S(2)O(8)(2-) is revealed to be inefficient in removing TOC, originating TOC degradation of 10%, 11% and 25%, respectively, at best. However, photo-Fenton experiments led to 46% TOC degradation in simulated wastewater prepared with diluted wine (WV) and 93% in wastewater prepared with diluted grape juice (WG), and if ethanol is previously eliminated from mixed wine and grape juice wastewater (WW) by air stripping, it removes 96% of TOC. Furthermore, toxicity decreases during the photo-Fenton reaction very significantly from 48% to 28%. At the same time, total polyphenols decrease 92%, improving wastewater biodegradability.

  11. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  12. Economic analysis and policy implications of wastewater use in agriculture in the central region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Weldesilassie, Alebel Bayrau

    2008-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to analyze the impact of wastewater use in agriculture. It mainly focused on three aspects of wastewater use for irrigation and their policy implications: impact on crop production and productivity; its impact on the health of farmers; and the value attached to its safe use for irrigation. The main objectives of the study were, therefore, 1) to define the farming system of wastewater farmers and to analyze the impact of wastewater on crop productivity; ...

  13. TREATMENT OF SORBIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT (NDA-150)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-150 resin wasinvestigated. The experiments show that this process is suitable for the treatment of sorbic acidmanufacturing wastewater. About 98% sorbic acid and 50% CODcr were removed under optimaloperating conditions, and 70% of sorbic acid in sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater wasreclaimed. This process makes it possible to recover valuable materials from the wastewater and toimprove the quality of effluent water.

  14. A study on the treatment of non-biodegradable wastewater by using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Ju; Jin, Joon Ha; Yoon, Byung Mok; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Lim, Moon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    This study was carried out for decomposition of dye wastewater which has been called non-biodegradable wastewater by using gamma radiation combined with ozone. When dye wastewater was oxidized by ozone combined with irradiation, a large amount of dye wastewater could be easily oxidized to final products. The irradiation acts an important roll of production of O{sub 2}{sup -}radical which is essential in decomposition of tert-butanol. 2 tabs., 22 figs. (Author).

  15. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  16. Scenario Analysis of Nutrient Removal from Municipal Wastewater by Microalgal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, H.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae can be used for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment systems seems attractive, being able to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater at a short hydraulic retention time. This study therefore investigates the area

  17. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater is an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne es...

  18. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-oil-water... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that receives, manages, or...

  19. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ort; A.L.N. van Nuijs; J.-D. Berset; L. Bijlsma; S. Castiglioni; A. Covaci; P. de Voogt; E. Emke; D. Fatta-Kassinos; P Griffiths; F. Hernández; I. González-Mariño; R. Grabic; B. Kasprzyk-Hordern; N Mastroianni; A. Meierjohann; T. Nefau; M. Östman; Y. Pico; I Racamonde; M. Reid; J. Slobodnik; S. Terzic; N Thomaidis; K.V. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across E

  20. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Berset, J.-D.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Emke, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Griffiths, P; Hernández, F.; González-Mariño, I.; Grabic, R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Mastroianni, N; Meierjohann, A.; Nefau, T.; Östman, M.; Pico, Y.; Racamonde, I; Reid, M.; Slobodnik, J.; Terzic, S.; Thomaidis, N; Thomas, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across