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Sample records for wastewater manipueira treatment

  1. Start-up adjustment of a plug-flow digester for cassava wastewater (manipueira treatment Processo de partida de um biodigestor do tipo plug-flow para tratamento da manipueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ferreira Ribas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipueira, wastewater of cassava (Manihot esculenta processing, can be treated by anaerobic biodigestion. To study the start-up process of a plug-flow digester for manipueira treatment, this work consisted of two stages: gradual decrease of the hydraulic retention time (HRT to the preset time of 4 days or maintaining a fixed HRT of 4 days with gradual increase of the substrate concentration. A digester of 1980 mL capacity was opperated, at constant temperature (32 ± 1º C, with substrate pH corrected between 5.5 and 6.0. The first stage had durations of 16.6; 13.6; 11.6; and 9.6 days and the organic loads were 3.1; 2.0; 2.3; and 2.9 COD L-1 d-1, (chemical oxigen demand respectively. The second stage was characterized by a fixed HRT (4 days and organic loads of 0.48; 0.86; 1.65; and 2.46 g COD L-1 d-1. Total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS, COD, alkalinity and volatile acidity were determined in the substrate and in the effluent. During the first stage, the HRT of 9.6 days and organic load of 2.9 g COD L-1 d-1 resulted in the best performence; reductions in COD, total and volatile solids were 60, 44 and 60%, respectively. During the second stage, with a 4-day HRT, the best results were achieved with the 0.86 g COD L-1 d-1 organic load, which provided reductions in COD, total and volatile solids of 71, 58 and 79%, respectively. The start-up of the plug-flow digester for manipueira treatment can be made by gradually by decreasing the HRT, or fixing HRT and increasing substrate concentration.Um dos resíduos gerados no processamento da mandioca (Manihot esculenta é a manipueira, passível de tratamento por biodigestão anaeróbia. Este trabalho objetivou estudar o processo de partida de um biodigestor tipo plug-flow, tratando manipueira de duas maneiras: diminuindo-se gradativamente o tempo de retenção hidráulica (TRH até se chegar ao tempo pré-estabelecido, quatro dias; ou mantendo-se o TRH fixo em quatro dias e aumentando-se gradativamente

  2. Cassava wastewater (manipueira treatment using a two-phase anaerobic biodigestor Tratamento de água residual do processamento de mandioca (manipueira utilizando biodigestor anaeróbio de duas fases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia BARANA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase anaerobic biodigestor was employed in order to analyze methane production with different manipueira organic loading rates. The acidogenic phase was carried out in a batch process whereas the methanogenic in an up-flow anaerobic fixed bed reactor with continuous feeding. The organic loading rates varied from 0.33 up to 8.48g of Chemical Demand Oxygen (COD/L.day. The highest content of methane, 80.9%, was obtained with organic loading rate of 0.33g and the lowest, 56.8%, with 8.48gCOD/L.d. The highest reduction of COD, 88.89%, was obtained with organic loading rate of 2.25g and the lowest, 54.95%, with 8.48gCOD/L.d. From these data it was possible to realize that anaerobic biodigestion can be managed in at least two ways, i.e., for energy production (methane or for organic loading reduction. The organic loading rate should be calculated as part of the purpose of the treatment to be accomplished.Um biodigestor anaeróbio de duas fases foi utilizado para se analisar a produção de metano com diferentes cargas de entrada de manipueira. A fase acidogênica foi realizada em processo de batelada e a metanogênica em biodigestor anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente e leito fixo com alimentação contínua. As cargas orgânicas de entrada variaram de 0,33 a 8,48 gDQO (Demanda Química de Oxigênio/L.dia. A maior porcentagem de metano encontrada foi de 80,9%, com carga orgânica de 0,33g e a menor, 56,8%, obtida com 8,49gDQO/L.d. A maior taxa de redução de DQO foi de 88,89%, obtida com carga orgânica de 2,25g e a menor, 54,95%, com 8,48gDQO/L.d. Analisando-se os dados apresentados verificou-se que a biodigestão anaeróbia pode ser conduzida, pelo menos, de duas maneiras, ou seja, para produção de energia (metano ou para redução de carga orgânica. A carga orgânica de entrada deve ser calculada em função do objetivo a ser alcançado com a biodigestão anaeróbia.

  3. Tratamento de efluente de abatedouro de tilápia com adição de manipueira na fase anóxica Treatment of tilapia slaughterhouse wastewater with addition of cassava in anoxic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B Kummer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a desnitrificação de efluente de abatedouro de tilápia, em reator em batelada. Para isto, foi avaliado o efluente gerado por uma indústria processadora de mandioca (manipueira como fonte de carbono. Também foram avaliadas as condições de agitação do sistema. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em escala de laboratório, em que foram testados cinco níveis de agitação (20; 32; 60; 88 e 100 rpm e cinco níveis de relação DQO/N (0,1; 1,0; 3,2; 5,4 e 6,3, configurando-se um planejamento do tipo Delineamento Composto Central Rotacional (DCCR, com quatro ensaios nos níveis +1 e - 1; quatro ensaios nos níveis dos pontos axiais (-1,414 e +1,414 e mais uma triplicata no ponto central (0, totalizando 11 ensaios. Avaliaram-se o desempenho da desnitrificação através da remoção de nitrato (% e a remoção de nitrito (%. Durante o processo, também foram monitorados temperatura (ºC, pH e alcalinidade (mgCaCO3.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que a relação DQO/N teve influência significativa, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, sobre o processo de remoção de nitrato e nitrito, com faixa ótima de operação entre 3,2 e 5,4, cujas eficiências de remoção de nitrogênio foram de 100%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the denitrification of tilapia slaughterhouse wastewater, in a batch reactor. For this, it was evaluated the wastewater from a cassava processing industry (manipueira as a carbon source. It was also evaluated the shaking conditions of the process. The experiments were carried out in laboratory series, where five shaking levels were tested (20; 32; 60; 88 e 100 rpm as well as five COD/N ratio levels (0.1; 1.0; 3.2; 5.4 and 6.3, forming a planning as a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD, with four essays in levels +1 and - 1; four essays on the axial points levels (-1.414 and +1.414 and one more triplicate in the central point (0, which meant eleven essays. The denitrification

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion cassava wastewater and crude glycerin for removal of COD and solid; Co-digestao anaerobica de manipueira e glicerina bruta para remocao de DQO e solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jefferson L.G.; Guerra Junior, Joao B. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: j.lg11@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Simone D.; Mallmann, Larissa S. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/PGEAGRI/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento Ambiental

    2012-11-01

    To be discarded into the environment, cassava wastewater, generated during the processing of the cassava root, needs to be dealt with trying to reduce its organic load and total solids, harmful to water bodies. As for crude glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel production, need alternatives to its destination, because the cost to its purification is often not feasible, preventing its use by pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study we chose to anaerobic digestion to treat manipueira assessing the behavior of the reactor with the addition of glycerin. The reactor was constructed of PVC with 60cm long, 20cm in diameter and a volume of 8.38 L, and HRT was 5 days. Three treatments were applied: T1, only manipueira, T2 with 0.25% glycerol and T3, with 0.50%. The three treatments showed a great reduction of organic load (above 90%) and higher with the addition of 0.25% crude glycerine. The highest mean removal of solids and total volatile solids occurred in treatment with 0.50% crude glycerine, being 84.18% and 91.41% respectively. (author)

  5. COD removal and biogas production at the manipueira treatment in anaerobic one-stage reactor with different supporting media; Remocao de DQO e producao de biogas no tratamento de manipueira em reator anaerobico monofasico com diferentes meios de suporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Douglas Guedes Batista; Kunzler, Kathia Regina; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Tavares, Maria Herminia Ferreira; Assis, Tatiane Martins de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Emails: simoned@unioeste.br, mhstavar@certto.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This study aims at evaluating the efficiency for organic load removal and biogas production for the manipueira treatment in two anaerobic reactors using as supporting media bamboo rings and polyurethane. The manipueira loads added to the systems were 0.548, 1.156, 1.471 and 3.049 g COD/ L{sub reactorday}, gradually increased. With bamboo as supporting media, the load increasing carried the greatest biogas production, with 3.049 g COD/ L{sub reactorday}. Using polyurethane, the greatest production occurred with the 1.471 g CODL{sub reactorday} {sup -1}load. Therefore, it was shown that the supporting media use allowed greater loads and biogas productions, comparatively to the literature data. (author)

  6. Uso de diferentes doses de manipueira na cultura da alface em substituição à adubação mineral Use of different doses of cassava wastewater in lettuce crop in substitution of mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria de S. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito ocasionado pelo uso de diferentes doses de manipueira nas características agronômicas da alface em substituição à adubação mineral. O referido estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área pertencente ao Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, no período de maio a agosto de 2010. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos compostos das seguintes doses: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45, 65 m³ ha-1 e cinco repetições. Utilizou-se a cultivar de alface Regina 2000, dispondo-se uma planta por vaso de 4 L. Foram avaliadas, em função das doses aplicadas, as seguintes características agronômicas da alface: área foliar, altura de planta, número de folhas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da alface. Ao final do experimento constatou-se que a dose de 45 m³ ha-1 foi a que propiciou maior ganho de altura de planta, área foliar e, consequentemente, também maior produção de matéria fresca e seca. Assim sendo, o uso da manipueira serviu como fonte de adubação para a cultura da alface, dependendo da dose aplicada.The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect on agronomic characteristics of the lettuce when using different doses of cassava wastewater instead of mineral fertilizer. This study was conducted at the Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, from May to August 2010. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized blocks, with six treatments and five repetitions. Following doses were used: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45 and 65 m³ ha-1. The lettuce cultivar Regina 2000 was used (one plant per pot and leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, fresh leaf mass and dry leaf mass were evaluated for each dose of cassava wastewater. At the end of the experiment, the dose of 45 m³ ha-1 provided the best results by

  7. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Wastewater treatment

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    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make water safe. Effects of wastewater pollutants If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife ... in wastewater and the potentially harmful effects these substances can ...

  10. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  11. Uso de manipueira no desenvolvimento vegetativo do milho em ambiente protegido Use of cassava industry wastewater in the vegetative development of corn in a protected environment

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    Fernanda Z. Saraiva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se efeitos da água residuária de fecularia tratada por sistema de lagoas, na cultura do milho. A irrigação com água residuária propiciou aumento de todos os parâmetros químicos do solo, proporcional aos respectivos tratamentos como segue: L1E (efluente da lagoa de decantação, L1ED (efluente da lagoa de decantação diluído em 50%, L2E (efluente da primeira lagoa anaeróbia, L2ED (efluente da primeira lagoa anaeróbia diluído em 50%, L3E (efluente da segunda lagoa anaeróbia, L3ED (efluente da segunda lagoa anaeróbia diluído em 50% e T (testemunha sem adubação, irrigação com água exceto para o tratamento TA (testemunha com adubação 85 kg ha-1 K2O; 60 kg ha-1 N; 100 kg ha-1 P2O5 e irrigação com água que também mostrou altos teores dos elementos avaliados; maiores alturas de planta foram obtidas nos tratamentos L1E, TA, T, os quais diferiram entre si, seguidos de L1ED, L2ED e L3ED, semelhantes estatisticamente, e de L2E e L3E também foram iguais entre si, a 5% de probabilidade; o número de folhas não diferiu significativamente entre tratamentos mas apenas teores de fósforo e zinco mostraram diferenças significativas entre tratamentos nas análises químicas do tecido foliar e das raízes.This study evaluated the effects of the wastewater of cassava industry, treated by pond system, on the corn crop. The irrigation with wastewater resulted in an increase in chemical parameters of the soil, proportional to the respective treatments in the following order: L1E (effluent of the decantation pond, L1ED (effluent of the pond of decantation with 50% dilution, L2E (effluent of the first anaerobic pond, L2ED (effluent of the first anaerobic pond with 50% dilution, L3E (effluent of the second anaerobic pond, L3ED (effluent of the second anaerobic pond with 50% dilution and T (control without fertilization and irrigation with water except for the treatment TA (control with fertilization: 85 kg ha-1 K2O; 60 kg ha-1 N; 100

  12. Utilização de manipueira juntamente com sólidos da cama de aviário em biodigestores para geração de biogás / Use of cassava wastewater with solid poultry manure in anaerobic digesters to generate biogas

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    Ana Beatryz Prenzier Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA reciclagem energética de resíduos pode ser feita com o objetivo de geração de calor ou de gás combustível. Assim, este trabalho buscou viabilizar a utilização do resíduo chamado manipueira juntamente com os sólidos da cama de aviário evidenciando o potencial deste para a obtenção de biogás por meio de biodigestores. Foi desenvolvido para esse experimento um sistema exclusivo de biodigestão de biomassa formados por biodigestores batelada e gasômetros de cúpula móvel. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a cama de frango apresenta uma boa produção de biogás. A manipueira não foi obteve sucesso na mistura, pois fez com que a qualidade e quantidade do gás caíssem de acordo com o aumento na mistura.AbstractThe recycling of waste can be made for the purpose of generating heat or gas fuel. Thus, this project seeks to enable the use of cassava wastewater with poultry litter, emphasizing its potentiality for biogas production through anaerobic digesters. To accomplish this experiment a unique biomass digestion system formed of batch digesters and mobile gasometers was developed. The preliminary results showed that poultry litter offers a good production of biogas, but cassava wastewaters were not a good mixing option, because it affects adversely both the quantity and the quality of the biogas production.

  13. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  15. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    The Arctic nature is vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low biological diversity, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. In Greenland neither industrial nor domestic wastewater is treated before it is discharged to the recipients, which in most cases is the sea...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...

  16. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  18. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  19. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  20. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  1. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  2. Treatment of electroplating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To study the feasibility of treated water being used as rinsing water with CP/ED (chemical precipitation/electrodialysis) system, the relation between concentration of Cr (VI) and conductivity of water is investigated, the effect of electrodialysis (ED) for different wastewater is also studied. And several parameters of importance that are relevant to the process are identified. Analysis of ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) and IC (Ion chromatography) shows that the main reason of conductivity increase in CP treated water is the increase of Na+ and Cl- ions. The 93.8%-100% of ions from wastewater both in ED and CP/ED systems was removed successfully. The results of experiments indicate that the CP/ED system is a feasible method for electroplating wastewater treatment, the CP/ED system used as a way of wastwater is not only in favour of environment, but also economic beneficial to achieve.

  3. Spatial-temporal water quality parameters evaluation of the Santa Rita river (BA with respect to the release of manipueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Porto Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The watershed of the river Santa Rita includes the towns of Simão and Campinhos, where exists about 150 flour houses. Campinhos is among the largest cassava processing facilities in the region, generating many direct and indirect jobs. Manipueira is a liquid residue originating from the cassava pressing and presents high pollutant potential due to its high amount of glucose and fructose, this potential is 25 times greater than the one from domestic sewer. This work had as objective the evaluation of possible impacts of manipueira release in the water quality of Santa Rita river. For this, the land use map was elaborated and the physiographic characterization developed, besides being performed six campaigns for water samples collection in four sampling points along the river. The obtained results indicated that the watershed is elongated, with low drainage efficiency and it is not prone to flooding. Estimated water quality parameters indicated that organic effluents from Campinhos and Simão impact the values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and zinc, suggesting that the water quality of the river Santa Rita is affected by manipueira release. The concentrations of total phosphorus, iron and cooper were superior downstream of the Sewer Treatment Station. The river water was saline in the three sampling points most affected by the release of manipueira.

  4. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  5. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  6. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  7. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  8. In vitro degradation of linamarin by microorganisms isolated from cassava wastewater treatment lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S. P; Cereda, M. P.; Cagnon, J. R.; Foglio, M.A.; Rodrigues, R.A.; Manfio, G. P.; Oliveira, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at isolating and characterizing of microorganisms able to use linamarin as sole carbon source. Thirty one microbial strains were isolated from manipueira, a liquid effluent of cassava processing factories. Among these strains, Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 2_2) and Rhodotorulla glutinis (isolate L1) were able to degrade 71% and 95% of added linamarin, respectively, within 7 days, showing high biodegradation activity and great potential for detoxification of cassava processing wastewaters. PMID:24031436

  9. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  10. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  11. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  12. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit

  13. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  14. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  15. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  16. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  17. Sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, P.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Eggels, P.G.; Rulkens, W.H.; Starkenburg, van W.

    1997-01-01

    n this study the insustainability of the treatment of municipal wastewater is evaluated with the LCA-methodology. Life-Cycle Assessments (LCA) analyze and assess the environmental profile over the entire life cycle of a product or process. The LCA-methodology proved to be a proper instrument to

  18. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  19. Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Palanivelu, K. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: kpvelu@hotmail.com

    2004-09-10

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD and TOC concentrations were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were detected at high concentrations during the electrolytic treatment of the effluents. However, it was observed that increasing the electrolysis time bring down the AOX concentration to lower levels. Energy consumption and current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated and presented. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment for highly concentrated bio-refractory organic pollutants present in the industrial wastewater.

  20. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  1. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  2. Sobrevivência de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis em manipueira sob condições ambientais Survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in "manipueira" under environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Faria Theodoro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência de um isolado de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam, resistente ao sulfato de estreptomicina, em manipueira incubada em condições ambientais, em três épocas (março, julho e outubro de 2000. Foram utilizados um meio de cultura semi-seletivo para o isolamento de X. axonopodis pv. manihotis e a técnica de reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR ou de amplificação biológica (BIO-PCR. Foram determinados o pH e a acidez total da manipueira durante o período de incubação estudado. O isolado sobreviveu por um período inferior a 24 horas, nas três épocas do ano. A técnica de PCR ou BIO-PCR não foi eficaz em monitorar a sobrevivência do isolado em manipueira, pois apresentou resultados contraditórios e não confiáveis. Observou-se queda do pH e aumento da acidez total da manipueira incubada nas condições estudadas, que pode explicar o comportamento da sobrevivência de Xam em manipueira.The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival of a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam strain, resistant to streptomycin sulfate, in "manipueira" (cassava residue incubated under environmental conditions, in three periods of the year (March, July and October 2000. A semi-selective culture medium and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR or biological amplification (BIO-PCR methods were used. The pH and the total acidity of the "manipueira" were determined during the incubation period. The strain survived less than 24 hours in the three periods of the year. The PCR or BIO-PCR method was not effective in monitoring the strain survival in "manipueira", as it showed contradictory and unreliable results. An increase in total acidity and a decrease in pH of the "manipueira" were observed, explaining the survival behavior of Xam strain.

  3. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  4. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  5. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  6. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  7. Utilização de manipueira juntamente com sólidos da cama de aviário em biodigestores para geração de biogás / Use of cassava wastewater with solid poultry manure in anaerobic digesters to generate biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatryz Prenzier Suzuki; Armin Feiden; Daangela Maria Fernandes; Gislaine Iastiaque Martins

    2012-01-01

    ResumoA reciclagem energética de resíduos pode ser feita com o objetivo de geração de calor ou de gás combustível. Assim, este trabalho buscou viabilizar a utilização do resíduo chamado manipueira juntamente com os sólidos da cama de aviário evidenciando o potencial deste para a obtenção de biogás por meio de biodigestores. Foi desenvolvido para esse experimento um sistema exclusivo de biodigestão de biomassa formados por biodigestores batelada e gasômetros de cúpula móvel. Os resultados obti...

  8. Utilização de manipueira juntamente com sólidos da cama de aviário em biodigestores para geração de biogásUse of cassava wastewater with solid poultry manure in anaerobic digesters to generate biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Ana Beatryz Prenzier; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Feiden, Armin; UNIOESTE; Fernandes, Dangela Maria; UNIOESTE; Martins, Gislaine Iastiaque; UNIOESTE; Faria, Rui Alexandre Pereira; UFPR

    2012-01-01

    A reciclagem energética de resíduos pode ser feita com o objetivo de geração de calor ou de gás combustível. Assim, este trabalho buscou viabilizar a utilização do resíduo chamado manipueira juntamente com os sólidos da cama de aviário evidenciando o potencial deste para a obtenção de biogás por meio de biodigestores. Foi desenvolvido para esse experimento um sistema exclusivo de biodigestão de biomassa formados por biodigestores batelada e gasômetros de cúpula móvel. Os resultados obtidos mo...

  9. Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts during n

  10. Developments in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics and biological treatment technologies of several kinds of industrial wastewater are summarised. Biological treatment of industrial wastewater is a well-established system with applications going back for over a century. However, developments are still taking place but at the design stage, more emphasis will be placed on small "footprint" systems, odour control and minimization of excess sludge production.

  11. Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts during n

  12. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.; Deverić Meštrović, B.; Ležajić, Z.; Bevetek, A.; Čurlin; M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already b...

  13. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (15), pp. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ... separate), industrial waste entering the sewer, type of.

  14. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  15. Wastewater treatment by oxidation with ozone.

    OpenAIRE

    Edna de Almeida; Márcia Regina Assalin; Maria Aparecida Rosa; Nelson Durán

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds may be found in wastewater which can contribute to environmental contamination. Oxidation processes with ozone (O3; O3/UV; O3/H2O2; O3/TiO2; O3/Mn+2) and the use of ozone in the pre- or post-treatment of wastewater combined with biological processes has been extensively studied for the treatment of effluents. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the ozonation process in the treatment of several industrial wastewaters, namely ...

  16. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  17. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  18. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  19. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  20. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  1. Biological flocculation treatment on distillery wastewater and recirculation of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Rongchun; Wei, Gang

    2009-12-30

    In the present study, a wastewater treatment system for the ethanol fermentation industry was developed by recycling distillery wastewater. The waste was able to be recycled for the next fermentation after being treated with bio-flocculation process. The bio-flocculation process contains three steps: screening, treatment with polyaspartic acid and filtration. When the filtrate from this process was recycled, the average ethanol production yield was very close to that in the conventional process using tap water. In contrast, the recycle of wastewater without flocculation and with chemical flocculation showed negative effects on ethanol yield as recycling was repeated. This new process was confirmed to have stable operation over ten recycles. Hazardous materials influencing distillery wastewater recycles on fermentation were also considered. It was found that the content of suspended solids (SS), volatile acid and Fe ions inhibited fermentation and resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Bio-flocculation was shown to be an effective way to diminish the content of inhibitory compounds drastically when the waste was recirculated.

  2. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is thus of benefit since it would reduce the energy consumption in the wastewater treatment. In the present study, wastewater from an electro-coating process was treated biologically using a packed column as an aerator where the wastewater was aerated by a countercurrent air flow. The objective was to obtain an optimum aeration cycle. Approach: Intermittent aeration time was varied at different preset cycles. An operational optimum of the aeration time (or air-water contacting time in the column was determined from the BOD5 removal after a certain treatment period. For continuous aeration of the wastewater, the air-liquid contacting time in the column was 52 min for 24 h of treatment. A unit energy consumption for pumping liquid and air, which was defined as the energy consumption per percent BOD5 removed, was used as a criterion to determine the optimum contacting time. Results: Optimum air-liquid contacting times were found to be about 38, 26 and 22 min for the treatment times of 24, 48 and 72 h, consecutively. This indicates that 27-58% saving on the unit energy consumption can be achieved using intermittent aeration of the wastewater. On the basis of the overall BOD5 removal, 17% and 23% savings in energy were observed with the intermittent aeration as compared to the continuous aeration of the wastewater for 48 and 72 h. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that an appropriate intermittent aeration cycle can bring about a substantial energy saving

  3. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  5. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2017-03-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  6. Low technology systems for wastewater treatment: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F

    2007-01-01

    Low technology systems for the treatment of wastewater are sometimes presented as remnants of the past, nowadays supposedly only meant to serve developing countries and remote rural areas. However, considering their advantages and disadvantages together with enhanced treatment requirements and recent research and technological developments, the future of these systems still appears promising. Successful applications of low technology systems require that more care is taken of their design and operation than often observed. Correlatively, more efforts should be made to decipher the treatment mechanisms and determine the related reaction parameters, so as to provide more deterministic approaches of the natural wastewater treatment systems and better predict their performance.

  7. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  8. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    -arsenate precipitates. This work evaluates the feasibility of EC as a treatment process at various stages during conventional copper smelter wastewater treatment - with a focus on arsenic. The reactor used is a batch airlift electrocoagulator. The results showed that raw copper smelter wastewater was difficult to treat......The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  9. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  10. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  11. LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  12. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...

  14. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Duncan

    2004-09-15

    Details methods of domestic wastewater treatment that are especially suitable in developing countries. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. (Author)

  15. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.;

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...... of a wastewater treatment system. It briefly references the methods currently used to evaluate prediction accuracy and uncertainty and discusses the relevance of uncertainty evaluations in model applications. The paper aims to raise awareness and initiate a comprehensive discussion among professionals on model...

  16. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability for reuse. ... for restricted use. Before reuse, effluent wastewater needs advanced treatment to prevent its impact on human health and the environment. ... Article Metrics.

  17. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The use of anaerobic process for domestic wastewater treatment would achieve lower carbon footprint ... However, its application is still limited to industrial wastewater treatment. ...... Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Sweden.

  18. Water quality modelling and optimisation of wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among these activities, wastewater treatment plays a crucial role. In this work, a Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model (DO) is implemented in a ... The Olifants River catchment modelled in this study features 9 wastewater treatment plants.

  19. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological system specially treated and acclimated activated sludge from Sofia Wastewater Treatment Plant was used. The acclimation and immobilization of initially inoculated biomass, the addition of microbiological preparations and its modification for increase of the biodegradation activity to target pollutants were studied as opportunities for the stimulation of water treatment process in bioreactors and water receiver. Second: self-purification processes in а water receiver for partially treated dairy wastewater were investigated. The functional role and restructuring of the microbial communities in the water, sediment water and sediments were studied. Results: The results showed that the most important approaches for achieving high effectiveness of wastewater treatment process were both the acclimation and immobilization of biomass. In that aspect the data for the water receiver confirmed this conclusion. These two processes increased biodegradation effectiveness of the target pollutant (protein with 67%. Conclusion: The effect of the added preparations was smaller (protein biodegradation was increased to 9% for the different biological systems. It was thoroughly related to low improvement of the rate of metabolism and functioning of the biological system mainly on an enzyme level.

  20. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP) physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic ...

  1. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  2. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  3. WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING MACROALGAE KELP SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Elena BIRIS-DORHOI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was used the alga Kelp sp. in wastewater collected from a household, in order to experiment its treatment capacities. Every measurement in this study was made using Spectoquant NOVA 60. The results show an decrease in the main parameters when low quantities of algae were used, but an increase when larger quantities were used.

  4. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding are

  5. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  6. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewat...

  7. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. Howeve

  8. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding area. Only across the EU, there are 16000 WWTPs that consume around 10000 GWh year-1 of electricity. Furthermore, the volume of wastewater treated in WWTPs in the EU is increasing with a rate of aroun...

  9. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regard to the removal of heavy metals....

  10. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Schneider; Yana Topalova

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological sy...

  11. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  12. Manipueira como substrato na biossíntese de ácido cítrico por Aspergillus niger Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger from "manipueira", a manioc liquid residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a viabilidade do uso da manipueira, residuo líquido resultante da prensagem da massa ralada de mandioca, como substrato na biossíntese de ácido cítrico por Aspergillus niger. Os meios de manipueira foram comparados nas mesmas condições de temperatura, a meios sintéticos, utilizados tradicionalmente. Em se tratando de proposta de um novo substrato, foi estudado o armazenamento do resíduo a temperatura ambiente por 72 horas, e realizada a caracterização físico-química da manipueira e dos meios elaborados com esse substrato. Foi avaliada a produção de ácido cítrico nos meios sintéticos e de manipueira. Verificou-se que a produção de ácido cítrico não diferiu quanto ao meio. Não foi observado crescimento do microrganismo nos meios de manipueira com concentrações acima de 70 mg/l de cianeto. Os resultados obtidos mostraram necessidade de maiores estudos para viabilizar o uso da manipueira como substrato na biossíntese de ácido cítrico por A. niger, principalmente no que diz respeito à liberação enzimática do cianeto.This research was made to evaluate the manipueira as substrat for citric acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger. The manipueira medium was compared in the same conditions of the synthetical medium, traditionally used in citric acid biosynthesis. The residue was kept at room temperature during 72 hours, and the physico-chemical characterization was made. The citric acid production did not change in the different media and the fungus did not grow hi the manipueira medium with concentrations about of 70 mg/l of cyanide. The results showed that more research is need to make manipueira utilization possible as a substrat for citric acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger.

  13. Stability of an anaerobic reactor with support means in the treatment of cassava through the monitoring of relationship AV/AT specific and production of biogas; Estabilidade de um reator anaerobio com meio suporte no tratamento da manipueira atraves do monitoramento da relacao AV/AT e producao especifica de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunzleri, Kathia; Watthier, Elisangela; Gomes, Simone D.; Miguel, Joao F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Andreani, Cristina Lurdes [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the removal of different organic loading in an anaerobic reactor for treatment of cassava wastewater, and as a medium bamboo rings. Cassava wastewater study is derived from a starch industry. The wastewater was characterized following the method described in Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. The reactor was constructed of PVC, with a volume of 6.8 liters. The results were evaluated by variance analysis (parametric ANOVA) using the software Statistica 7.0. We observed a higher yield for the charge of 5, 601 (4) gDQO / L day, the ratio av/at was below 0.5 thus ensuring system stability. (author)

  14. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m(3), (or 0.087 kWh/m(3), if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  15. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  16. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  17. Treatment of Distillery Wastewater by Anaerobic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Patyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems faced by the world is management of wastes. Industrial processes create a wide range of wastewater pollutants; which are not only difficult but costly to treat. Characteristics of wastewater and level of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. To control this problem today emphasis is laid on waste minimization and revenue generation through by-product and energy recovery. Pollution prevention focuses on preventing the harmful effect of generated wastewater on the environment, while waste minimization refers to reducing the volume or toxicity of hazardous wastes by water recycling and reuse, process modifications and by by-product recovery. Production of ethyl alcohol in distilleries based on cane sugar molasses constitutes a major industry in Asia and South America. The world’s total production of alcohol from cane molasses is more than13 million m3 /annum. The aqueous distillery effluent stream known as spent wash is a dark brown highly organic effluent and is approximately 12-15 times by volume of the product alcohol. This highly aqueous, organic soluble containing residue is considered a troublesome and potentially polluting waste due to its extremely high BOD and COD values. Because of the high concentration of organic load, distillery spent wash is a potential source of renewable energy. The paper reviews the possibility of anaerobic treatment of the distillery wastewater.

  18. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  19. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  20. Winery Wastewater Treatment Applying Aerated Submerged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pellizzaro Bento

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The winery wastewater usually shows conditions of low pH, high organic loads and concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus that are inappropriate for biologic treatment. The purpose of this research was to apply the technology of aerated submerged biofilter (ASB for the winery effluent treatment during the harvest (ASB 1 and non harvest (ASB 2 at lab scale. Therefore, two up flow biofilter built on glass (5 liters volume were installed. The nutrient balance of the winery wastewater was adjusted and the correction of the pH was done by oyster shell used as filter material. The efficiency removal (COD for the harvest reactor was 90% while for the non harvest was 82%. The oyster shells contributed to an increase on average of 180 mg/L of alkalinity to the BAS 1 and 318 mg/L for the BAS 2. As regards the metals, the average values in the treated effluent to meet iron and zinc is permitted by the environmental standards of Santa Catarina. Under the experimental conditions applied in this research, this kind of reactor has presented potential for the treatment of winery wastewater. However, operational improvements would be required in the reactors to adequate them to the specific management into the wineries.

  1. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...

  2. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  3. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  4. Wastewater treatment alternatives for a vegetable and seafood cannery

    OpenAIRE

    Grassiano, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Peeled or whole-pack tomatoes, herring roe and oysters are processed at a Virginia Cannery. Wastewater from each food processing effluent was characterized. Treatment alternatives were investigated for tomato and herring roe wastewaters. For herring roe processing wastewater, the discharge requirement for BOD was nearly met through plain settling, while the TSS limitation was easily achieved by settling out the roe particles" Oyster processing wastewater was found to meet effluent guidelines ...

  5. Performance indicators for wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmér, P; Hellström, D

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association has operated a web-based system, VASS, for the collection and compilation of key data from the Swedish water utilities since 2003. The VASS system will now be expanded to include data on operation of individual wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The objective is to provide performance indicators (PIs) for performance and economy and the use of resources such as energy, chemicals and manpower. A set of PIs has been developed that also includes explanatory factors to compensate for differences in the condition of operation between plants. This paper discusses the data required for the calculation of PI but also for explanatory factors, quality checks and for plant operation context. The discussion is based on the experiences from a test round with the participation of 24 WWTP.

  6. Performance intensification of Prague wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, L; Havrlíková, D

    2004-01-01

    Prague wastewater treatment plant was intensified during 1994--1997 by construction of new regeneration tank and four new secondary settling tanks. Nevertheless, more stringent effluent limits and operational problems gave rise to necessity for further intensification and optimisation of plant performance. This paper describes principal operational problems of the plant and shows solutions and achieved results that have lead to plant performance stabilisation. The following items are discussed: low nitrification capacity, nitrification bioaugmentation, activated sludge bulking, insufficient sludge disposal capacity, chemical precipitation of raw wastewater, simultaneous precipitation, sludge chlorination, installation of denitrification zones, sludge rising in secondary settling tanks due to denitrification, dosage of cationic polymeric organic flocculant to secondary settling tanks, thermophilic operation of digestors, surplus activated sludge pre-thickening, mathematical modelling.

  7. Adsorption design for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, D.O.

    1998-12-31

    Understand the premier method for removing organic contaminants from water. Straight forward explanations and illustrations allow this overview to fill a dual purpose: study manual and design guide. The book discusses basic properties of activated carbons; explains the kinetics of adsorption processes; describes the design of both fixed-bed and batch process adsorption systems; contains useful knowledge that can be extended to other applications of adsorption, including drinking water treatment; and includes many illustrated examples and practice exercises.

  8. Effects of Micronutrient Niacin on Treatment Efficiency of Textile Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; HU Hongying; GU Xin; CHE Yuling; WANG Hui; GUO Yufeng; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater is well known as one of the wastewaters to be most difficultly treated. The effects of niacin on textile wastewater niacin, the physical and chemical indexes of the water samples, such as COD, ammonia and dehydrogenase activities, were analyzed every day with standard methods, and obvious improvement in wastewater treatcould improve the COD removal efficiency signifcantly with removal rates mental condition, addition of niacin had almost no effect on the removal of ase by 130%. It proved that the biological treatment performance of textile wastewater treatment system probably could be optimized through micronutrient niacin supplement.

  9. Photochemical Wastewater Treatment for Potential Agricultural Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban wastewaters after advanced primary treatment (APT are again discharged into the river without any use. In the present research in a soilless culture system where maize seedlings were tested three different treatments were planted: 1. Obtained from the effluent water of an APT, 2. Photochemically treated wastewater (PCT and 3. Urban water network (UW. A block randomly distributed design was tested, with five repetitions where the experimental unit was formed by a 36 cavities filled with Peat Moss and the useful plot was considered by 16 central plants for each experimental unit. Irrigations were scheduled since the first time of the planting, employed 27 mL/cavity. The removal of the organic contaminants present into the water was conducted by the employment of a Batch photoreactor, adapted with a recirculation system (UV/H2O2/O3, evaluated to determine UV-Vis spectra, pH, color and turbidity parameters initial and final samples. Measurements of height and percentage of germination in plants, where is determined that the seedlings irrigated with water PCT were reached the highest average compared to APT and UW irrigated; After the 50 cm growing plant, a determination of the presence of heavy metal, via atomic absorption method, were carried on analyzing the leaves, roots and stalks of the samples. Concluding that the presences of heavy metals into the APT were higher than PCT treatments, it can be an impediment for the normal growing of the plants. Therefore, the application of the photochemical treatment using (UV/H2O2/O3 system, represent a viable alternative for the wastewater treatment after the APT process to possible use of irrigation.

  10. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  11. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  12. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Estimating costs and manpower requirements for conventional wastewater treatment facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, W.L; Banker, R.F

    1971-01-01

    Data for estimating average construciton costs, operation and maintenance costs, and manpower staffing requirements, are presented for conventional wastewater treatment plants ranging from 1 to 100...

  14. A Review on Advanced Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Qi, P. S.; Liu, Y. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The composition of pharmaceutical wastewater is complex, which is high concentration of organic matter, microbial toxicity, high salt, and difficult to biodegrade. After secondary treatment, there are still trace amounts of suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. To improve the quality of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent, advanced treatment is essential. In this paper, the classification of the pharmaceutical technology was introduced, and the characteristics of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent quality were summarized. The methods of advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater were reviewed afterwards, which included coagulation and sedimentation, flotation, activated carbon adsorption, membrane separation, advanced oxidation processes, membrane separation and biological treatment. Meanwhile, the characteristics of each process were described.

  15. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF NITRITE IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Morozov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for high concentration of nitrite ions in water is the existence of sources of industrial and agricultural pollution. Contamination of drinking water, juices, wine and other liquids of nitrite ions as a result of improper use of nitrogen fertilizers has an adverse effect on living organism, because under the influence of enzymes nitrite ions in living organisms form high carcinogenic nitrosamines, and the interaction of nitrite ions from blood hemoglobin causes such toxicity that leads to disease cyanosis [1]. Therefore removal of nitrite ions from water has received increased attention. The paper discusses an innovative wastewater treatment technology from the nitrite ion with hypochlorite produced during electrolysis.

  16. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tetouan pilot station, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, Loubna, E-mail: dloubna78@hotmail.co [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed [Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co{sup 60} gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  17. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  18. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  19. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  20. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  1. Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation with low cell current (≤ 1A) and soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) was studied. Compared with aluminum electrodes, mild steel electrodes were more effective for the removal of sulfide, with a removal efficiency of over 90%. But during the treatment process, black color precipitate typical to iron(II) sulfides was produced. While aluminum electrodes were effective to eliminate the colority of the effluent, the removal efficiency of sulfide was lower than 12%. The mechanisms of the removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority with different soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) were discussed in detail. In order to exert the predominance of diffenent types of electrodes, the tannery wastewater was treated using mild steel electrodes first (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A) followed by the filter and finally by the aluminum electrodes (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A), the elimination rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority were 68.0%, 43.1%, 55.1%, 96.7% and 84.3%, respectively, with the initial concentrations 2413.1 mg/L, 223.4 mg/L, 1000.4 mg/L, 112.3 mg/L and 256 dilution times, respectively. The absorbance spectra and energy consumption during electrocoagulation process were also discussed.

  2. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  3. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  4. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  5. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The tr

  6. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  7. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  8. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  9. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL`s Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation.

  10. Methane emission during municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Volcke, Eveline I P; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-07-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants emit methane. Since methane is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change, the abatement of the emission is necessary to achieve a more sustainable urban water management. This requires thorough knowledge of the amount of methane that is emitted from a plant, but also of the possible sources and sinks of methane on the plant. In this study, the methane emission from a full-scale municipal wastewater facility with sludge digestion was evaluated during one year. At this plant the contribution of methane emissions to the greenhouse gas footprint were slightly higher than the CO₂ emissions related to direct and indirect fossil fuel consumption for energy requirements. By setting up mass balances over the different unit processes, it could be established that three quarters of the total methane emission originated from the anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. This amount exceeded the carbon dioxide emission that was avoided by utilizing the biogas. About 80% of the methane entering the activated sludge reactor was biologically oxidized. This knowledge led to the identification of possible measures for the abatement of the methane emission.

  11. Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated.

  12. Treatment of wastewater by natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, S C; Akça, L

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results from a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) treatment plant have been described. The study was conducted at two different systems: continuous and batch. In the continuous system, the treatment yields were monitored in different loading conditions in 1-year period. The pilot plant consists of two serially connected tanks settled up with fillers; Cyperus was used as treatment media and wastewater between the two tanks was recycled periodically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid (SS) removal efficiencies were obtained as 90% and 95%, respectively. The effluent COD concentration at an average loading of 122 g COD/m2 day was satisfactory for the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. This means that a 0.8 m2 of garden area per person is required. Other removal values for the same conditions were as follows: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 77%, total nitrogen (TN) was 61%, and PO4(3-) -P was 39%. The batch experimental systems consist of 12 pairs of serially connected tanks, with each pair having a surface area of 1 m2. Each set was filled with sewage once a day, and the wastewater between the paired tanks was recycled periodically by the pump. Each pair of tanks was filled with materials such as gravel, peat, and perlite. Seven of them were vegetated with Phragmites, Cyperus, Rush, Iris, Lolium, Canna, and Paspalum, while the other five were not seeded. The best performances were obtained by Iris for COD (% 94), by Canna for ammonia nitrogen (% 98), and by Iris for total nitrogen (% 90) and phosphorus (% 55) removal.

  13. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  14. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  15. Antibiotics with anaerobic ammonium oxidation in urban wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Biofilter process is based on biological oxidation process on the introduction of fast water filter design ideas generated by an integrated filtration, adsorption and biological role of aerobic wastewater treatment process various purification processes. By engineering example, we show that the process is an ideal sewage and industrial wastewater treatment process of low concentration. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation process because of its advantage of the high efficiency and low consumption, wastewater biological denitrification field has broad application prospects. The process in practical wastewater treatment at home and abroad has become a hot spot. In this paper, anammox bacteria habitats and species diversity, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in the form of diversity, and one and split the process operating conditions are compared, focusing on a review of the anammox process technology various types of wastewater laboratory research and engineering applications, including general water quality and pressure filtrate sludge digestion, landfill leachate, aquaculture wastewater, monosodium glutamate wastewater, wastewater, sewage, fecal sewage, waste water salinity wastewater characteristics, research progress and application of the obstacles. Finally, we summarize the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process potential problems during the processing of the actual waste water, and proposed future research focus on in-depth study of water quality anammox obstacle factor and its regulatory policy, and vigorously develop on this basis, and combined process optimization.

  16. Integrated design of sewers and wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Ujang, Z; Talib, S A

    2002-01-01

    Sewer system design must be integrated with wastewater treatment plant design when moving towards a more sustainable urban wastewater management. This integration allows an optimization of the design of both systems to achieve a better and more cost-effective wastewater management. Hitherto integrated process design has not been an option because the tools to predict in-sewer wastewater transformations have been inadequate. In this study the WATS model--being a new and validated tool for in-sewer microbial process simulations--is presented and its application for integrated sewer and treatment plant design is exemplified. A case study on a Malaysian catchment illustrates this integration. The effects of centralization of wastewater treatment and the subsequently longer transport distances are addressed. The layout of the intercepting sewer is optimized to meet the requirements of different treatment scenarios.

  17. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  18. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  19. Hydrodynamics research of wastewater treatment bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Nan-qi; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xue-fei

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the design and improve the performance of wastewater treatment bioreactors, the review concerning the hydrodynamics explored by theoretical equations, process experiments, modeling of the hydrody-namics and flow field measurement is presented. Results of different kinds of experiments show that the hydro-dynamic characteristics can affect sludge characteristics, mass transfer and reactor performance significantly. A-long with the development of theoretical equations, turbulence models including large eddy simulation models and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are widely used at present. Standard and modified k-ε models are the most widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models for simulating flows in bioreactors. Numericalsimulation of hydrodynamics is proved to be efficient for optimizing design and operation. The development of measurement techniques with high accuracy and low intrusion enables the flow filed in the bioreactors to be transparent. Integration of both numerical simulation and experimental measurement can describe the hydrody-namics very well.

  20. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  1. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  2. Treatment of Municipal Wastewater by Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgun, H.

    2013-01-01

    Reclamation and reuse of wastewater for various purposes such as landscape and agricultural irrigation are increasingly recognized as essential strategies in the world, especially for the areas suffering from water scarcity. Wastewater treatment and reuse have two major advantages including the redu

  3. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  4. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  5. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  6. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  7. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant......The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...

  8. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Collectively, the Special Issue presents an evolution of technologies, from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  9. Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Shon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. Nanofiltration (NF is one of the widely used membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in addition to other applications such as desalination. NF has replaced reverse osmosis (RO membranes in many applications due to lower energy consumption and higher flux rates. This paper briefly reviews the application of NF for water and wastewater treatment including fundamentals of membrane process in general, mechanisms of NF process including few basic models. fouling challenges and their control mechanisms adopted.

  10. Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Shon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. Nanofiltration (NF is one of the widely used membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in addition to other applications such as desalination. NF has replaced reverse osmosis (RO membranes in many applications due to lower energy consumption and higher flux rates. This paper briefly reviews the application of NF for water and wastewater treatment including fundamentals, mechanisms, fouling challenges and their controls.

  11. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard.

  12. Nutrients valorisation via duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The treatment system was efficiënt in organic matter removal during the entire year, while nitrogen, phosphorus and faecal coliform removal were negatively affected by the decline in temperature in winter...

  13. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  14. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  15. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  16. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  17. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  18. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withey, S. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cartmell, E. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.cartmell@cranfield.ac.uk; Avery, L.M. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Stephenson, T. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction.

  19. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  20. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. ... as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. ... Article Metrics.

  1. efficiency of wastewater treatment by a mixture of sludge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Khaldi

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Environmental Health and Biotechnology Research Group, Division of ... Urbanisation and other factors have resulted in dramatic increases in volumes of industrial ... microalgae-sludge system in wastewater treatment.

  2. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process.

  3. Research on Aeration Systems Efficiency in Small Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ala Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Large amount of small wastewater treatment plants does not work properly. One of the reasons could be wrong design of the aeration system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to analyse the performance of two aeration systems used in Lithuanian small wastewater treatment plants. Both aeration systems are designed for the following parameters: 4 PE and 0,8 m3/d wastewater flow. These data correspond to the oxygen requirement of 40,9 g O2/h. Summarizing the results of the research, it was fo...

  4. Cost of phosphate removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction and operating costs of advanced wastewater treatment for phosphate removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants have been investigated on orders from the Federal Environmental Bureau in Berlin. Particular attention has been paid to applicable kinds of precipitants for pre-, simultaneous and post-precipitation as well as to different phosphate influent and effluent concentrations. The article offers detailed comments on determination of technical data, investments, capital costs, operating costs and annual costs as well as potential cost reductions resulting from precipitation. Selected results of the cost investigation are shown in graphical form as specific investments, operating and annual costs depending on wastewater flow.

  5. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena......, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol....

  6. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  7. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising.

  8. Natural systems for wastewater treatment in warm climate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Gil, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity and the high costs of new water supply technologies are the two major factors responsible for the increasing recognition of the importance to conserve water resources by wastewater treatment, reuse or reclamation. Sustainability of sanitation systems should be related to low cost, low energy consumption and operation and maintenance requirements, especially for small communities in developing countries. Hence, natural systems for wastewater treatment seem to be a suitable so...

  9. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas N. Angelakis; Snyder, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Colle...

  10. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  11. Mobile Nitrite Wastewater Treatment System (NWTS) User Data Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING SERVICE CENTER Port Hueneme, California 93043-4370 USER DATA PACKAGE UDP-2003-ENV MOBILE NITRITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MOBILE NITRITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS (NWTS) USER DATA PACKAGE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...SYSTEM (NWTS) USER DATA PACKAGE by T. Richard Lee, Ph.D R. T. Kudo Joseph McGillian* *Naval Surface Warfare Center Cardcrock Division Pmladclpma, PA

  12. Time difference based measurement of ultrasonic cavitations in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌平

    2016-01-01

    Intensity of cavitation is significant in ultrasonic wastewater treatment, but is complicated to measure.A time difference based method of ultrasonic cavitation measurement is proposed.The time differences at different powers of 495kHz ultrasonic are measured in experiment in comparison with conductimetric method.Simulation results show that time difference and electrical conductivity are both approximately positive proportional to the ultrasonic power.The degradation of PNP solution verifies the availability in wastewater treatment by using ultrasonic.

  13. Treatment of Wastewater Containing RDX by Fenton's Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hang; ZHANG Dong-xiang; XU Wen-guo

    2008-01-01

    Fenton's reagent was employed to treat the wastewater containing RDX. The effects of FeSO4 concentration, H2O2 concentration, pH value, reaction time, temperature and initial COD of wastewater on residual COD of wastewater were investigated. The results show that the optimum FeSO4 concentration and pH are 700mg/L and 2.5, respectively, and the residual COD of wastewater decreases with the rise in H2O2 concentration, but increases with the rise in temperature. After Fenton's reagent treatment, the initial COD of less than 874 mg/L wastewater can meet effluent standard. Under conditions of 100 mg/L H2O2, 437 mg/L initial COD and 15 ℃ temperature, the lowest residual COD is obtained at 83.80 mg/L in 5 min.

  14. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  15. Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvala, N; Vrecko, D; Burica, O; Strazar, M; Levstek, M

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated based on data from ASP and MBBR pilot plants operating in parallel on the existing plant. Only two kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted to represent the real plant behaviour. Steady-state analyses have shown a similar efficiency of both processes in relation to carbon removal, but improved performance of MBBR in relation to nitrogen removal. Better performance of MBBR can be expected especially at low temperatures. Simulations have not confirmed the expected less volume required for the MBBR process. Finally, the MBBR was chosen for plant upgrading. The developed process model will be further used to evaluate the final plant configuration and to optimise the plant operating parameters.

  16. CFD for wastewater treatment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samstag, R W; Ducoste, J J; Griborio, A; Nopens, I; Batstone, D J; Wicks, J D; Saunders, S; Wicklein, E A; Kenny, G; Laurent, J

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a rapidly emerging field in wastewater treatment (WWT), with application to almost all unit processes. This paper provides an overview of CFD applied to a wide range of unit processes in water and WWT from hydraulic elements like flow splitting to physical, chemical and biological processes like suspended growth nutrient removal and anaerobic digestion. The paper's focus is on articulating the state of practice and research and development needs. The level of CFD's capability varies between different process units, with a high frequency of application in the areas of final sedimentation, activated sludge basin modelling and disinfection, and greater needs in primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion. While approaches are comprehensive, generally capable of incorporating non-Newtonian fluids, multiphase systems and biokinetics, they are not broad, and further work should be done to address the diversity of process designs. Many units have not been addressed to date. Further needs are identified throughout, but common requirements include improved particle aggregation and breakup (flocculation), and improved coupling of biology and hydraulics.

  17. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  18. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  19. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernar, E.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline, extraction by organic solvents and freezing. The different methods for wastewater purification after scouring in use are: settling/floculation, biological treatment, adsorptionand catalytic oxidation. In this work, wastewater treatments after improved raw wool scouring with enzymes and EDTA have been investigated. Isothermal adsorption on zeolite A, active carbon and a natural and H+ type of bentonite for removal of the obtained wastewater impurities was used. The results were determined by means of different physical-chemical test methods.

  20. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  1. Effect of White Charcoal on COD Reduction in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijarn, Nuchanaporn; Butsee, Manipa; Buakul, Kanokwan; Seng, Hasan; Sribuarai, Tinnphat; Phonprasert, Pongtep; Taneeto, Kla; Atthameth, Prasertsil

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the COD reduction in wastewater between using coconut shell and coconut spathe white charcoal from Khlong Wat NongPra-Ong, Krathumbaen, SamutSakhon province, Thailand. The waste water samples were collected using composite sampling method. The experimental section can be divided into 2 parts. The first part was study the optimum of COD adsorption time using both white charcoals. The second part was study the optimum amount of white charcoal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The pre-treatment of wastewater was examined in parameters include temperature, alkalinity (pH), conductivity, turbidity, suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), and COD. The results show that both white charcoals can reduce COD of wastewater. The pH of pre-treatment wastewater had pH 9 but post-treatment wastewaters using both white charcoals have pH 8. The COD of pre-treatment wastewater had COD as 258 mg/L but post-treatment wastewater using coconut shell white charcoal had COD steady at 40 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. The COD of post-treatment wastewater using coconut spathe white charcoal had COD steady at 71 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. Therefore comparison of COD reduction between coconut shell white charcoal versus coconut spathe white charcoal found that the coconut shell white charcoal had efficiency for COD reduction better than coconut spathe white charcoal.

  2. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  3. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  4. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  5. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. WASTEWATER TREATMENT CENTER BENEFIT OF OR SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Salas C., Gilberto; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú; Condorhuamán C., Cesario; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú

    2014-01-01

    The meat processing industry is believed to produce highly polluted wastewater. Analysis of such wastewater indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by DQO (mg/L), DBO (mg/L ), and TSS (mg/L ). Moreover, oil and grease concentrations reached mg/L treatment of raw wastewater using Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was studied. Efficiency of the DAF for the removal of DBO, DQO, and oil and grease was 80%, 75% y 95 % .The overall efficiency of the treatmen...

  8. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments.

  9. Forward osmosis for application in wastewater treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Verliefde, A R D; Roest, K; Rietveld, L C; Cornelissen, E R

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of Forward Osmosis (FO) membrane technology has grown significantly over the last 10 years, but its application in the scope of wastewater treatment has been slower. Drinking water is becoming an increasingly marginal resource. Substituting drinking water for alternate water sources, specifically for use in industrial processes, may alleviate the global water stress. FO has the potential to sustainably treat wastewater sources and produce high quality water. FO relies on the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane to extract clean water from the feed, however the FO step is still mostly perceived as a "pre-treatment" process. To prompt FO-wastewater feasibility, the focus lies with new membrane developments, draw solutions to enhance wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and operating conditions. Optimisation of these parameters are essential to mitigate fouling, decrease concentration polarisation and increase FO performance; issues all closely related to one another. This review attempts to define the steps still required for FO to reach full-scale potential in wastewater treatment and water reclamation by discussing current novelties, bottlenecks and future perspectives of FO technology in the wastewater sector.

  10. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  11. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  12. Optimum municipal wastewater treatment plant design with consideration of uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-ming; LIN Yu-peng; QIN Xiao-sheng; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; JIANG Ru

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed model for the optimum municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) design is presented. Through introducing the interval variables, the model attempts to consider the effects of uncertainties caused by the fluctuation of the wastewater quality and quantity during the design of MWTP. The model solution procedure is illustrated in detail, and a numerical example is given to verify the feasibility and advantage of the model. Furthermore, the possibility of the model application is briefly outlined.

  13. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  14. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  15. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater.

  17. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  18. Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, S

    2004-01-01

    Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided.

  19. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  20. [Recent progress in treatment of aquaculture wastewater based on microalgae--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanping; Gong, Yanyan; Ma, Dongdong

    2009-06-01

    Microalgae enables aquaculture wastewater recycling through a biological conversion. Recently, many studies have been reported on microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment, including developing various wastewater treatment technologies such as algae pond, activated algae, immobilized algae and algae photo-bioreactor. In this review, we address the mechanisms, progress and application in the purification of aquaculture wastewater, as well as some research perspectives.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  2. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  3. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams.

  4. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with

  5. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laborato

  6. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rabaey, K.; Keller, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laborato

  7. Wastewater treatment in relation to marine disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    receiving the discharge. The EU has decided on regulation of wastewater treament by enforcing effluent standards. This is interpreted in relation to basic EU-principles and discussed with regard to an ethical framework of thinking. The conclusion is that basically different concepts are difficult...

  8. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  9. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include

  10. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  11. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system.

  12. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  13. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Clech, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field.

  14. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  15. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of increasing phenol concentrations on the sludge characteristic have been also investigated. It was observed that, activity of activated sludge for acclimatization of phenol decreases at concentrations above 2000 mg L−1. It may be attributed to toxicity of phenol to active biomass at higher concentrations. Kinetics of phenol degradation has also been studied using Haldane model.

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  17. Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S.K. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Environmental Engineering Div.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

  18. Predication of Fhhh potential in PTA wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu-pei; SHI Lei; ZHANG Xu-xiang; YAN Jun; DING Zhong-hai; HAO Chun-bo

    2004-01-01

    Ebis is the intelligent environmental biotechnological informatics software developed for judging the effectiveness of the microorganism strain in the industrial wastewater treatment system(IWTS) at the optimal status. The parameter, as the objective function for the judgment, is the minimum reactor volume ( Vmin ) calculated by Ebis for microorganism required in wastewater treatment. The rationality and the universality of Ebis were demonstrated in the domestic sewage treatment system(DSTS) with the data published in USA and China at first, then Fhhh strain's potential for treating the purified terephthalic acid(PTA) was proved. It suggests that Ebis would be useful and universal for predicating the technique effectiveness in both DSTS and IWTS.

  19. Treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater by reed bed technology: A low cost treatment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bansari M. Ribadiya; Mehali J. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Reed bed system for wastewater treatment has been proven to be effective and sustainable alternative for conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Use of macrophytes to treat wastewater is also categorized in this method. This new approach is based on natural processes for the removal of different aquatic macrophytes such as floating, submerged and emergent. Macrophytes are assumed to be the main biological components of wetlands. These techniques are reported to be cost eff...

  20. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  1. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  2. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 {+-} 2% and 84 {+-} 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 {+-} 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 {mu}m pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m{sup 2}/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria.

  3. Optimal flow sensor placement on wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villez, Kris; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Corominas, Lluís

    2016-09-15

    Obtaining high quality data collected on wastewater treatment plants is gaining increasing attention in the wastewater engineering literature. Typical studies focus on recognition of faulty data with a given set of installed sensors on a wastewater treatment plant. Little attention is however given to how one can install sensors in such a way that fault detection and identification can be improved. In this work, we develop a method to obtain Pareto optimal sensor layouts in terms of cost, observability, and redundancy. Most importantly, the resulting method allows reducing the large set of possibilities to a minimal set of sensor layouts efficiently for any wastewater treatment plant on the basis of structural criteria only, with limited sensor information, and without prior data collection. In addition, the developed optimization scheme is fast. Practically important is that the number of sensors needed for both observability of all flows and redundancy of all flow sensors is only one more compared to the number of sensors needed for observability of all flows in the studied wastewater treatment plant configurations.

  4. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  5. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Long, Elizabeth Cudney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  6. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  7. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2011-01-01

    While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Membrane bio-reactors for decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuler, S; Paris, S; Hackner, T

    2008-01-01

    Decentralized wastewater treatment is the key to sustainable water management because it facilitates effluent (and nutrient) reuse for irrigation or as service water in households. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) can produce effluents of bathing water quality. Septic tanks can be retrofitted to MBR units. Package MBR plants for wastewater or grey water treatment are also available. Systems for decentralized treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater or grey water are also feasible for hotels, condominiums and apartment or office complexes. This paper presents the effluent qualities of different decentralized MBR applications. The high effluent quality allows infiltration even in sensitive areas or reuse for irrigation, toilet flushing and cleaning proposes in households. Due to the reusability of treated water and the possibility to design the systems for carbon reduction only, these systems can ideally and easily serve to close water and nutrient loops. IWA Publishing 2008.

  9. Biologic treatment of wastewater from cassava flour production using vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce T Correia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimate cassava production in Brazil in 2007 was of 25 million tons (= 15% of the world production and most of it is used in the production of flour. During its processing, waste that can cause environmental inequality is generated, if discharged inappropriately. One of the liquid waste generated, manipueira, is characterized by its high level of organic matter. The anaerobic treatment that uses a vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR inoculated with granulated sludge, is one of the ways of treating this effluent. The anaerobic biodigestion phases are separated in this kind of reactor, allowing greater stability and resistance to load shocks. The VABR was built with a width/height rate of 1:2. The pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity and COD removal were analyzed in 6 different regions of the reactor, which was operated with an increasing feeding from ? 2000 to ? 10000 mg COD L?¹ and HRT between 6.0 and 2.5 days. The VABR showed decreasing acidity and turbidity, an increase in alkalinity and pH, and 96% efficiency in COD removal with 3-day HRT and feeding of 3800 mg COD L?¹.

  10. Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Synthetic Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.

    2002-07-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater (SYMAWE), using heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation, has been studied at pilot plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogenous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts concentration, pH values and oxidants on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 KJ I''-1 the synergetic effect of TiO{sub 2} P-25 with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content respectively. The Photo-Fenton process shows to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 KJ I''-1 leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe''+3/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Solar photocatalytic treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I. [University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Lab. Physical Chemistry; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2004-03-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater by the use of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation has been studied at a pilot-plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts and oxidants concentration on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 kJ L{sup -1} the synergetic effect of 0.2 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} P-25 with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content, respectively. The photo-fenton process appears to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 kJ L{sup -1} leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (author)

  12. Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed.

  13. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps as state-of-the-art technologies for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates...... municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre...

  14. IMPACT OF INFLUENT MICROORGANISMS UPON POOR SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE QUIESCENT ZONE OF AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most common biological treatment systems used to clean wastewater is suspended growth activated sludge wastewater treatment (AS). When AS is adapted for the treatment of wastewater from industrial manufacturing processes, unanticipated difficulties can arise. For the s...

  15. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  16. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  17. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  18. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  19. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able...... to respond appropriately and reject these disturbances in the influent. A methodology is described here which systematically addresses the assessment of the plant and the influent dynamics, in order to propose a controller tuning that is best adapted to an existing or planned wastewater treatment plant...

  20. Electrospun nylon 6 microfiltration membrane for treatment of brewery wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Sultana, Sormin; Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2016-07-01

    Nylon 6 microfiltration membrane, for the treatment of brewery wastewater, was fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by hot-pressing. The fabricated membrane was robust and demonstrated highly hydrophilic property (water contact angle 39° at the touching point to the membrane surface and the water droplet was completely immersed into the membrane in 7 seconds), and higher porosity (65%) with pore sizes of 100 to 210 nm. The electrospun nylon 6 membrane showed higher pure water flux (850 LMH) at an applied pressure of 4 psi. The same membrane also demonstrated a 95% rejection rate of suspended solids (SS) in brewery wastewater treatment.

  1. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  2. Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs. In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values.

  3. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  4. WASTEWATER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid in the ozonized wastewater were degraded completely by ... wastewater from pulp and paper plants pose serious environmental problems when they are ... support aquatic life (Stern & Gasner 1974), Gupta and Battacharya 1985).

  5. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed.

  6. Treatment of wastewater from dyes manufacture using adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K.A.; Puranik, S.A. [Govt. of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (India). Industries Commissionerate

    2003-11-01

    In a typical wastewater treatment flow sheet used by several industrial units in India, various stages of treatment include the primary treatment-oil/grease removal and neutralization, followed by the secondary treatment-chemical/biological oxidation and clarification, and the tertiary treatment-adsorption onto activated carbon. The neutralization of the wastewater with acid/milk of lime increases the concentration of total dissolved solids, which adversely affects the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidation process. To overcome this limitation, adsorption is proposed in the first stage of treatment and other stages could follow depending on the quality of the wastewater. Experiments were carried out on wastewater samples from different plants manufacturing dyes using various adsorbents - activated carbon, fly ash, bentonite and lignite. The effectiveness of adsorbents in reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour was evaluated. The results of COD reduction are fitted into different models available in the literature. A model for predicting COD equilibrium values is proposed. Sorption kinetics and rate of reduction of COD over time are also discussed.

  7. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  8. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  9. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  10. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  11. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available adversely impacting on the wastewater biological treatment processes. Among the increasing emerging contaminants into wastewater are engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). However, the impacts of these contaminants including metal oxides ENPs on the treatment...

  12. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  13. Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and

  14. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  16. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  17. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.

  18. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  19. Advanced Oxidation Technologies/Photocatalytic Treatment of Wastewater.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusionsThe last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despit

  20. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  1. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  2. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  3. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  5. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  6. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment : temperature aspects and process stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to assess the thermostability of thermophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment processes and the possibility to optimize the performance of thermophilic high-rate systems.

    Experiments were conducted to study the suitability of two types of seed

  8. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  9. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: feasibility and potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass retention is a necessary feature for the successful application of anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment. Biofilms and granule formation are the traditional way to achieve such retention, enabling reactor operation at high biomass concentrations, and therefore at high organic loading

  10. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-04

    Oct 4, 2005 ... industry (COD 700 to 1 200 mg/ℓ; fats 75 to 150 mg/ℓ; pH 9.5 to 11) supplemented ... from an urban wastewater treatment plant previously adapted to ..... als without a corresponding biological degradation fast enough to avoid ...

  11. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... waste minimization, utilization of waste, resource recovery and recycling of ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  12. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the

  13. Treatment of swine wastewater with subsurface-flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of swine wastewater with subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in Yucatán, ... 57 and 79% for total nitrogen, 63 and 75% for ammonium nitrogen, 70 and ... However, vegetated beds slightly improved water quality when compared to ...

  14. Fate of diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Niina; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-08-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a common anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical that is often detected in waste wasters, effluents and surface waters. Recently, DCF was included in the watch list of substances in EU that requires its environmental monitoring in the member states. DCF is also known to harmfully affect several environmental species already at concentrations of ≤ 1 μg/l. This review focuses on the occurrence and fate of DCF in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Research done in this area was gathered and analyzed in order to find out the possibilities to enhance DCF elimination during biological wastewater treatment. More precisely, human metabolism, concentrations in wastewater influents and effluents, elimination rates in the treatment train, roles of sorption and biotransformation mechanisms during the treatment as well as formation of transformation products are reported. Additionally, the effect of process configuration, i.e. conventional activated sludge (CAS), biological nutrient removal (BNR), membrane bioreactor (MBR) and attached-growth bioreactor, and process parameters, i.e. solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) are presented. Generally, DCF is poorly biodegradable which often translates into low elimination rates during biological wastewater treatment. Only a minor portion is sorbed to sludge. MBR and attached-growth bioreactors may result in higher elimination of DCF over CAS or BNR. Long SRTs (>150 d) favor the DCF elimination due to sludge adaptation. Longer HRTs (>2-3d) could significantly increase the elimination of DCF during biological wastewater treatment. Bioaugmentation could be used to enhance DCF elimination, however, this requires more research on microbial communities that are able to degrade DCF. Also, further research is needed to gain more information about the deconjugation processes and biotic and abiotic transformation and the nature of transformation products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, B

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs.

  16. Characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter in municipal wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiang; ZHANG Yu-ping; XU Jian-bin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter (IBAF) applied to municipal wastewater treatment were studied in a pilot scale experiment. The experimental results showed that IBAF has high efficiencies in removing organic pollutants, such as CODCr and SS, in municipal wastewater. The removal rates of CODCr and SS can reach over 90% and 80%, respectively, when COD and SS in the influent are 234 mg L-1 and 112 mg L-1, hydraulic retention time (HRT) is 8 h, and the aerated intensity is in the range of (0.5 to 0.6) L m-2 s-1.

  17. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  18. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  19. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-07-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  20. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  1. Integration of wastewater treatment in agro-ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geber, Ulrika [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production Science

    2000-07-01

    There is a need to find more ecologically sustainable wastewater treatment systems where increased reuse of phosphorus and nitrogen is combined with efficient resource use and decreased eutrophication of recipients. This thesis concerns the ecological sustainability in systems for treatment of municipal wastewater where processes at the WWTP are substituted for ecosystem services. A crop irrigation system was chosen for a study of how natural treatment of pre-treated municipal wastewater could be integrated with agricultural production. Reuse efficiency of nutrients and suitability as substrate for biogas generation was studied in reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) irrigated with pre-treated wastewater. Crop management in order to increase potential biomass quality for biogas generation was studied in reed canary grass. Resource use in treatment systems differing in their demand of land area and purchased input was evaluated in an emergy analysis. There were only small differences between species in N and P removal and in the yield of dry matter and digestible organic matter. The reed canary grass and meadow foxtail can function well as catch crops in wastewater treatment and potentially as substrates for biogas production. The risk of N leaching in the harvested reed canary grass ley, receiving 175 to 350 kg N ha{sup -1} applied as 300 to 700 mm wastewater, is considered low due to an observed low content soil water NO{sub 3}{sup -}N during the vegetation period and of soil NO{sub 3}{sup -}N in autumn. Increased cutting frequency did not increase the yield of digestible organic matter in reed canary grass. Increased stubble height could not compensate for the effects of increased harvest frequency on the yield of dry matter and digestible organic matter. The emergy analysis did not reveal any differences in the use of purchased inputs between treatment systems. A high

  2. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  3. Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-10-15

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cod Fractions In Mechanical-Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płuciennik-Koropczuk Ewelina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in the raw, mechanically treated and biologically treated wastewater. The test object was a wastewater treatment plant with the output of over 20,000 PE. The results were compared with data received in the ASM models. During investigation following fractions of COD were determined: dissolved non-biodegradable SI, dissolved easily biodegradable SS, in organic suspension slowly degradable XS and in organic suspension non-biodegradable XI. Methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the guidelines ATV-A 131. The real percentage of each fraction in total COD in raw wastewater are different from data received in ASM models.

  5. Dyeing wastewater treatment with a complex adsorption-coagulation agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-jian; LIU Jun-liang; ZHAO Qing-liang; LIU Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    To remove effectively the pollutants from printing and dyeing wastewater, a new complex adsorptioncoagulation agent was developed and employed in dyeing wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that better removals of COD, turbidity and color could be efficiently realized under the operating conditions of mixing at 150 r/min, reacting within 5 min and dosing at 15 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Combined with the settled sludge, the agent could be recycled for further adsorption and coagulation within 10 times. Compared to the conventional coagulants, the newly-developed agent had such merits as suitability for wide pH range of wastewater, less sludge production, reutilization of the condensed sludge and low operation cost.

  6. Investigation of the electrochemical treatment for distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, B M; Murthy, Ushan; Kumar, B Manoj; Lokesh, K S

    2011-04-01

    The treatability study of distillery wastewater by electrochemical (EC) oxidation technique as pretreatment has been carried out. Batch experiments were conducted using stainless steel plates as electrodes to assess the effects of operating parameters such as pH, electrolysis duration (ED) and current density (CD). The EC treatment removed 58% COD at current density 0.12 A cm(-2) and at wastewater pH 3 with 120 min of ED. The BOD to COD ratio increased from 0.25 to 0.76 indicating considerable improvement in wastewater biodegradability. The maximum anodic efficiency and minimum energy consumption observed were 7.44 kg COD h(-1) A(-1) m(-2) and 0.19 kWh kg(-1) COD respectively.

  7. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  8. Electrochemical and/or microbiological treatment of pyrolysis wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José R O; Santos, Dara S; Santos, Ubiratan R; Eguiluz, Katlin I B; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Schneider, Jaderson K; Krause, Laiza C; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation may be used as treatment to decompose partially or completely organic pollutants (wastewater) from industrial processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used to obtain bio-oil from biomasses, generating a liquid waste rich in organic compounds including aldehydes and phenols, which can be submitted to biological and electrochemical treatments in order to minimize its environmental impact. Thus, electrochemical systems employing dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) have been proposed to enable biodegradation processes in subsurface environments. In order to investigate the organic compound degradation from residual coconut pyrolysis wastewater, ternary DSAs containing ruthenium, iridium and cerium synthetized by the 'ionic liquid method' at different calcination temperatures (500, 550, 600 and 700 °C) for the pretreatment of these compounds, were developed in order to allow posterior degradation by Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. or Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. The electrode synthesized applying 500 °C displayed the highest voltammetric charge and was used in the pretreatment of pyrolysis effluent prior to microbial treatment. Regarding biological treatment, the Pseudomonas sp. exhibited high furfural degradation in wastewater samples electrochemically pretreated at 2.0 V. On the other hand, the use of Acinetobacter efficiently degraded phenolic compounds such as phenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,5-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol and 3,5-methylphenol in both wastewater samples, with and without electrochemical pretreatment. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of both processes used in this study is relevant for the treatment of pyrolysis wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  10. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  11. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day).

  12. Soft drink wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation-electrooxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares Hernández, Ivonne; Barrera Díaz, Carlos; Valdés Cerecero, Mario; Almazán Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Castañeda Juárez, Monserrat; Lugo Lugo, Violeta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a coupled system, a monopolar Electrocoagulation (EC)-Electrooxidation (EO) processes, for the treatment of soft drink wastewater. For the EC test, Cu-Cu, anode-cathode were used at current densities of 17, 51 and 68 mA cm(-2). Only 37.67% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 27% of total organic carbon (TOC) were removed at 20 min with an optimum pH of 8, this low efficiency can be associated with the high concentration of inorganic ions which inhibit the oxidation of organic matter due to their complexation with copper ions. Later EO treatment was performed with boron-doped diamond-Cu electrodes and a current density of 30 Am(-2). The coupled EC-EO system was efficient to reduce organic pollutants from initial values of 1875 mg L(-1) TOC and 4300 mg L(-1) COD, the removal efficiencies were 75% and 85%, respectively. Electric energy consumption to degrade a kilogram of a pollutant in the soft drink wastewater using EC was 3.19 kWh kg(-1) TOC and 6.66 kWh kg(-1) COD. It was concluded that the coupled system EC-EO was effective for the soft drink wastewater treatment, reducing operating costs and residence time, and allowing its reuse in indirect contact with humans, thus contributing to the sustainable reuse as an effluent of industrial wastewater.

  13. Dairy wastewater treatment in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ragazzi, M; Villa, R

    2002-01-01

    Dairy raw wastewater is characterised by high concentrations and fluctuations of organic matter and nutrient loads related to the discontinuity in the cheese production cycle and machinery washing. The applicability of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) filled with FLOCOR-RMP plastic media to the treatment of dairy wastewater was evaluated in a pilot-plant. COD fractionation of influent wastewater, MBBR performance on COD and nutrient removal were investigated. A removal efficiency of total COD over 80% was obtained with an applied load up to 52.7 gCOD m-2 d-1 (corresponding to 5 kgCOD m-3d-1). The COD removal kinetics for the MBBR system was assessed. The order of the kinetics resulted very close to half-order in the case of a biofilm partially penetrated by the substrate. The nitrogen removal efficiency varied widely between 13.3 and 96.2% due to the bacterial synthesis requirement. The application of a MBBR system to dairy wastewater treatment may be appropriate when upgrading overloaded activated sludge plants or in order to minimise reactor volumes in a pre-treatment.

  14. Wastewater treatment in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Stefania; Crispino, Nedda A; Farina, Roberto; Mattioli, Davide; Ferraris, Marco; Spagni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Although most membrane bioreactors are used under aerobic conditions, over the last few years there has been increased interest in their application for anaerobic processes. This paper presents the results obtained when a bench-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was used for the treatment of wastewaters generated in the agro-food industry. The reactor was fed with synthetic wastewater consisting of cheese whey and sucrose, and volumetric organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 1.5 to 13 kgCOD/(m(3)*d) were applied. Under the operating conditions studied, the maximum applicable OLR was between 6 and 10 gCOD/(g*L), which fell within the ranges of the high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, while high concentrations of volatile fatty acids were produced at higher OLR rates. With an OLR of 1.5-10 gCOD/(g*L), the reactor showed 94% COD removal, whereas this value dropped to 33% with the highest applied OLR of 13 gCOD/(g*L). The study therefore confirms that membrane bioreactors can be used for anaerobic wastewater treatment.

  15. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  16. Analysis of the aerotanks efficiency in wastewater treatment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Shamsutdinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe problem of wastewater treatment is discussed and the ways of its solution are offered in the given work. We consider the biological method based on the biochemical and physiological laws of self-purification of rivers and other bodies of water. The biological method is promising in wastewater treatment system due to its destructive, because as a result of a partial or complete destruction of the contaminants in the waste water. The intensity and effectiveness of this treatment are investigated in the article. The efficiency of wastewater treatment depends on the degree of maintaining the bacteria in state of physiological activity. For this application cases are compared processes with one, two or more stepwise of purification with differentiated water and sludge movement also structural units for biological purification schemes and the processes that accompany different types of purification. We analyze efficiency in aeration tanks with minimum and maximum regeneration zone. We found that the biological treatment with the maximum regeneration zone is more effective for chemical oxygen demand and oxidation rate higher than mode with the minimum regeneration zone. To solve the problem of efficient wastewater treatment is offered technological scheme of arrangement of aeration with variation of the angle of mixing activated sludge flows from the waste water. This flowsheet complete biological treatment is a complex of sewage treatment plants, which are located in such a way that the liquid waste passing them one after the other, is subject to mechanical, biological treatment and disinfection before lowering it into the reservoir.

  17. Hydrogen production as a novel process of wastewater treatment - studies on tofu wastewater with entrapped R. sphaeroides and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heguang Zhu [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Environmental Science; Ueda, Shunsaku [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Productive Science; Asada, Yasio [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Attention is focusing on hydrogen production from wastewater, not only because hydrogen is a clean energy but also because it can be a process for wastewater treatment. In this paper, the characteristics of biological hydrogen production as a process of wastewater treatment is discussed by a comparison with methane production. The hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and its potential for wastewater treatment are reported. The possibility of co-cultivation with heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. As a solution to overcome the repressive effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +} on hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, a study was done using glutamine auxotroph which was obtained by chemical mutagenesis. To confirm that the mutation had occurred in DNA molecular level, the glutamine synthetase gene was cloned and sequenced. (Author)

  18. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....

  19. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Vazquez, CM; Kubare, M.; Saroj, DP; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J.; Daims, H.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biologic...

  20. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  1. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

  2. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-10-24

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  3. Microbial pathogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajonina, Caroline; Buzie, Christopher; Rubiandini, Rafi Herfini; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are among the major health problems associated with water and wastewater. Classical indicators of fecal contamination include total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens. These fecal indicators were monitored in order to obtain information regarding their evolution during wastewater treatment processes. Helminth eggs survive for a long duration in the environment and have a high potential for waterborne transmission, making them reliable contaminant indicators. A large quantity of helminth eggs was detected in the wastewater samples using the Bailanger method. Eggs were found in the influent and effluent with average concentration ranging from 11 to 50 eggs/L. Both E. coli and total coliforms concentrations were significantly 1- to 3-fold higher in influent than in effluent. The average concentrations of E. coli ranged from 2.5×10(3) to 4.4×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 3.6×10(3) to 7.9×10(5) CFU/100 ml. Clostridium perfringens was also detected in influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at average concentrations ranging from 5.4×10(2) to 9.1×10(2) most probable number (MPN)/100 ml. Significant Spearman rank correlations were found between helminth eggs and microbial indicators (total coliform, E. coli, and C. perfringens) in the WWTP. There is therefore need for additional microbial pathogen monitoring in the WWTP to minimize public health risk.

  4. Toxicological assessment of hospital wastewater in different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Watanabe, Toru; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2015-06-24

    This study surveyed the hospital wastewater characters focusing on antibiotic contamination in seven hospitals in Bangkok. It detected 19 antibiotics of which the high-frequent detection were quinolones such as ofloxacin + levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin including sulfamethoxazole. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin appeared the highest concentrations of 12.11 and 9.60 μg/L, respectively. Most antibiotic concentrations in the wastewaters of the studied hospitals gave a good correlation (r (2)  = 0.77-0.99) to the amount of usage. In this study, batch acute toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of hospital wastewater on mixed liquor, freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda), and microcrustacean (Moina macrocopa). The hospital wastewaters could inhibit the mixed liquor growth and gave similar toxic levels among test species: algae and microcrustacean (9.81-13.63 and 2.62-3.09 TU, respectively). The conventional activated sludge (CAS) and rotating biological contactor (RBC) could remove fluoroquinolones and tetracycline via biomass adsorption. After treatment, most of treatment could reduce the toxicity. Nevertheless, the effluent gave slight toxicity on some test species which might be caused from chlorination and a common toxicant (NH3-N).

  5. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  6. Preparation of magnetic chitosan microspheres and its applications in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The methods of preparation of magnetic chitosan microspheres have been introduced. In addition, their applications in the wastewater treatment, based on different kinds of wastewater, have been reviewed, and their mechanisms have been discussed.

  7. Aerobic treatment of kitchen wastewater using sequence batch reactor (SBR) and reuse for irrigation landscape purposes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sule Abubakar; Ab aziz Abdul Latiff; I. M. Lawal; A. H. Jagaba

    2016-01-01

    .... While treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, not much effort are given for wastewater reuse in Malaysia due to the fact that Malaysia...

  8. An Innovative Membrane Bioreactor Process For Achieving Sustainable Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals of concern (COCs), such as pharmaceutical chemicals, steroid hormones, and pesticides, have been found to be widely distributed in water and wastewater. Conventionally operated wastewater treatment plants do not provide an effective barrier against the release of these...

  9. An Innovative Membrane Bioreactor Process For Achieving Sustainable Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals of concern (COCs), such as pharmaceutical chemicals, steroid hormones, and pesticides, have been found to be widely distributed in water and wastewater. Conventionally operated wastewater treatment plants do not provide an effective barrier against the release of these...

  10. Removal of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals During On-Site Wastewater Treatment Using A Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants. These plants have been show...

  11. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  12. New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.

    2010-01-01

    is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide......Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...

  13. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  14. Biological approaches for treatment of distillery wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-09-01

    Effluent originating from distilleries known as spent wash leads to extensive soil and water pollution. Elimination of pollutants and colour from distillery effluent is becoming increasingly important from environmental and aesthetic point of view. Stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water and fermenter wastewater are the primary polluting streams of a typical distillery. Due to the large volumes of effluent and presence of certain recalcitrant compounds, the treatment of this stream is rather challenging by conventional methods. Therefore, to supplement the existing treatments, a number of studies encompassing physico-chemical and biological treatments have been conducted. This review presents an account of the problem and the description of colour causing components in distillery wastewater and a detailed review of existing biological approaches. Further, the studies dealing with pure cultures such as bacterial, fungal, algal and plant based systems have also been incorporated. Also, the roles of microbial enzymes in the decolourization process have been discussed to develop a better understanding of the phenomenon.

  15. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  16. Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletta, R

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is widely used for wastewater treatment, especially in the food industries. Generally after the anaerobic treatment there is an aerobic post-treatment in order to return the treated water to nature. Several technologies are applied for winery wastewater treatment. They are using free cells or flocs (anaerobic contact digesters, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and anaerobic lagoons), anaerobic granules (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket--UASB), or biofilms on fixed support (anaerobic filter) or on mobile support as with the fluidised bed. Some technologies include two strategies, e.g. a sludge bed with anaerobic filter as in the hybrid digester. With winery wastewaters (as for vinasses from distilleries) the removal yield for anaerobic digestion is very high, up to 90-95% COD removal. The organic loads are between 5 and 15 kgCOD/m3 of digester/day. The biogas production is between 400 and 600 L per kg COD removed with 60 to 70% methane content. For anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of vinasses in the Cognac region, REVICO company has 99.7% COD removal and the cost is 0.52 Euro/m3 of vinasses.

  17. Comparison between treatment of kitchen-sink wastewater and a mixture of kitchen-sink and washing-machine wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelgas, A; Nakajima, M; Nagata, H; Funamizu, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a submerged membrane bioreactor was used to treat 'higher-load' grey water: (a) kitchen-sink wastewater only, and (b) a mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater. For each type of wastewater, three systems operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were investigated. In the mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater, the reactor with a short HRT of four hours was stopped due to foaming. It has been observed that for both types of wastewater, an HRT of eight hours or longer can be used for the treatment. However, it has been observed that a higher COD in the permeate of the mixture can be obtained compared with that of the kitchen-sink wastewater only. This indicated that washing-machine wastewater has some component that is not easily biodegradable. The total linear akylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) removal was > 99% even at a concentration of 10-23 mg 1(-1).

  18. TREATMENT OF SORBIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT (NDA-150)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-150 resin wasinvestigated. The experiments show that this process is suitable for the treatment of sorbic acidmanufacturing wastewater. About 98% sorbic acid and 50% CODcr were removed under optimaloperating conditions, and 70% of sorbic acid in sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater wasreclaimed. This process makes it possible to recover valuable materials from the wastewater and toimprove the quality of effluent water.

  19. Systematical strategies for wastewater treatment and the generated wastes and greenhouse gases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo GUO; Fang MA; Yuanyuan QU; Ang LI; Liang WANG

    2012-01-01

    China now faces double challenges of water resources shortage and severe water pollution. To resolve Chinese water pollution problems and reduce its impacts on human health, economic growth and social develop- ment, the situation of wastewater treatment was investi- gated. Excess sludge and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted during wastewater treatment were also surveyed. It is concluded that Chinese water pollution problems should be systematically resolved with inclusion of wastewater and the solid waste and GHGs generated during wastewater treatment. Strategies proposed for the wastewater treatment in China herein were also adequate for other countries, especially for the developing countries with similar economic conditions to China.

  20. Tratamento de água residual do processamento de mandioca (manipueira) utilizando biodigestor anaeróbio de duas fases

    OpenAIRE

    BARANA, Ana Cláudia; Cereda, Marney Pascoli

    2000-01-01

    A two-phase anaerobic biodigestor was employed in order to analyze methane production with different manipueira organic loading rates. The acidogenic phase was carried out in a batch process whereas the methanogenic in an up-flow anaerobic fixed bed reactor with continuous feeding. The organic loading rates varied from 0.33 up to 8.48g of Chemical Demand Oxygen (COD)/L.day. The highest content of methane, 80.9%, was obtained with organic loading rate of 0.33g and the lowest, 56.8%, with 8.48g...

  1. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  2. "Living off the land": resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Odum, H T; Brown, M T; Alling, A

    2001-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens(TM)) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  3. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Alfonsín, Carolina; Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO2 emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario.

  4. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  5. Municipal-wastewater treatment using upflow-anaerobic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, loannis D; Grigoropoulos, Sotirios G

    2006-03-01

    Three 12.5-L upflow-anaerobic filters (AF), with ceramic-saddle, plastic-ring, and crushed-stone packing, were used to evaluate the sustained treatment of municipal wastewater. The reactors were initially fed dogfood-fortified wastewater and then raw municipal wastewater, and operated at 25.4 degrees C (32 months) and 15.5 degrees C (2 months). During 23 months, the AF units treated municipal wastewater (mean chemical oxygen demand [COD] 442 mg/L and total suspended solids [TSS] 247 mg/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 3.1 to 0.30 d (empty bed), and the organic loading rate ranged from 0.115 to 1.82 kg COD/m3d. At the higher temperature and an HRT (void volume) of 1.0 d, COD and TSS removals ranged from 74 to 79% and 95 to 96%, respectively; however, efficiencies declined substantially at HRT values less than 0.4 d. Reactor performance, under the same hydraulic and organic loadings, deteriorated with time and was adversely affected by lower temperature.

  6. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  7. Toxicity Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Movahedian, B Bina, GH Asghari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity evaluation is an important parameter in wastewater quality monitoring as it provides the complete response of test organisms to all compounds in wastewater. The water flea Daphnia magna straus is the most commonly used zooplankton in toxicological tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of effluents from different units of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP. The samples were taken from four different physical and biological units. The acute toxicity tests were determined using Daphnia magna. The immobility of Daphnia was determined after 48h. Toxicity results showed that 48h-LC50 and ATU values for raw wastewater were 30% (v/v and 3.33, respectively. It was also found that LC50 values after 48 h for preliminary, primary, and secondary effluents were 32%, 52% and 85% (v/v, respectively. The ATU values for these effluents were 3.1, 1.9, and 1.8, correspondingly. The efficiency levels of preliminary, primary, and secondary units for removal of toxicity were found as 6%, 38.9% and 8%, in that order. Overall, the present investigation indicated that toxicity removal by up to 50% might be achieved in IWPT. Based on the obtained results and regarding the improvement of water quality standards, coupled with public expectations in Iran, it is necessary to consider more stringent water quality policies for regular monitoring and toxicity assessment.

  8. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Keefe, S.H.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Wass, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands on water resources in arid environments make reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater an important component of the water budget. Treatment wetlands can be an integral part of the water-reuse cycle providing both water-quality enhancement and habitat functions. When used for habitat, the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants in the wastewater is a critical consideration. Water and fish samples collected from the Tres Rios Demonstration Constructed Wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, which uses secondary-treated wastewater to maintain an aquatic ecosystem in a desert environment, were analyzed for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and trace elements. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed to investigate uptake of HOC. The wetlands effectively removed HOC, and concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and organic wastewater contaminants decreased 40-99% between inlet and outlet. Analysis of Tilapia mossambica and Gambusia affinis indicated accumulation of HOC, including p,p???-DDE and trans-nonachlor. The SPMD accumulated the HOC detected in the fish tissue as well as additional compounds. Trace-element concentrations in whole-fish tissue were highly variable, but were similar between the two species. Concentrations of HOC and trace elements varied in different fish tissue compartments, and concentrations in Tilapia liver tissue were greater than those in the whole organism or filet tissue. Bioconcentration factors for the trace elements ranged from 5 to 58 000 and for the HOC ranged from 530 to 150 000. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  9. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  10. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  11. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  12. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: sjin@uwyo.edu [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  13. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs.

  14. Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

    2009-05-01

    One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies.

  15. New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, L L; Rieger, L; Takács, I; Ekama, G; Hauduc, H; Vanrolleghem, P A; Oehmen, A; Gernaey, K V; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Comeau, Y

    2010-01-01

    Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide greater specification. Only those levels that make the name unique within the model context are needed in creating the symbol. The paper describes specific problems encountered with the currently used notation, presents the proposed framework and provides additional practical examples. The overall result is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper is to establish a consistent set of rules that can be applied to existing and most importantly, future models. Applying the proposed notation should make it easier for everyone active in the wastewater treatment field to read, write and review documents describing modelling projects.

  16. Treatment of whey wastewater by supercritical water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söğüt, Onur Ö; Kıpçak, Ekin; Akgün, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Whey wastewater is a by-product of cheese industry, which causes environmental pollution problems due to its containment of heavy organic pollutants. Conventional methods such as biological treatment and physico-chemical treatment are insufficient or ineffective. In this paper, the treatment of cheese whey wastewater has been carried out by supercritical water oxidation, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The reaction conditions ranged between temperatures of 400-650°C and residence times of 6-21 s under a pressure of 25 MPa. Treatment efficiencies based on TOC removal were obtained between 75.0% and 99.81%. An overall reaction rate model, which consists of the hydrothermal and the oxidation reactions, was determined for the hydrothermal decomposition of the wastewater with an activation energy of 50.022 (±1.7) kJmol(-1) and a pre-exponential factor of 107.72 (±4.1) s(-1). The oxidation reaction rate orders for the TOC and the oxidant were 1.2 (±0.4) and 0.4 (±0.1) respectively, with an activation energy of 20.337 (±0.9) kJmol(-1), and a pre-exponential factor of 1.86 (±0.5) mmol(-0.6)L(0.6)s(-1) in a 95% confidence level.

  17. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  18. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  19. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chai; Dawei Zhang; Yanling Yu; Yujie Feng; Man Sing Wong

    2015-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Oxy...

  20. Advances in chemical technologies for water and wastewater treatment: preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochang WANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chemical technologies have been applied for water and wastewater treatment since more than 150 year ago, and are still playing the leading role in this field. With the fast development of sciences and technologies especially in the last two decades, chemical technologies which are applicable for solving water quality and water environmental problems underwent a great development not only in traditional areas such as coagulation, solid/liquid separation, oxidation, adsorption etc., but also in the emerging multidisciplinary fields. Nowadays, an increasing number of chemists and chemical engineers has broadened research interests. Biochemical/biological technologies, ecological technologies and process modeling and simulation have become important branches of chemical technologies. Such a tendency has been well reflected in the activities of the Group of Chemists for Water and Wastewater Treatment (GCWWT), a subdivision of Chinese Chemical Society (CCS).

  1. Energy-efficiency in wastewater treatment plants; Energieeffizienz in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a data-collection system developed to monitor the energy consumption and production of wastewater treatment plants. The aim of the project was to optimise not only energy consumption but also the power and heat production in such an installation. Results are presented for the use of such a system at the wastewater treatment plant in Thun, Switzerland. The results show that considerable savings can be made by reducing the consumption of peak-rate external power by making use of the facility's own power and heat production that uses sewage-gas-powered combined heat and power units. Also, the demand-driven operation of various power consumers in the facility is discussed.

  2. Combined coagulation flocculation pre treatment unit for municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Ismail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentials of using the hydraulic technique in combined unit for municipal wastewater treatment were studied. A combined unit in which processes of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation, has been designed utilizing hydraulic mixing instead of mechanical mixing. A jar test treatability study has been conducted to locate the optimum dose of the coagulants to be used. Alum, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulfates, and mixture of lime and ferrous sulfate were all tested. A pilot unit was constructed in the existing wastewater treatment plant at El Mansoura governorate located in north Egypt. The optimum dose of coagulants used in the combined unit gives removal efficiencies for COD, BOD, and total phosphorous as 65%, 55%, and 83%, respectively.

  3. Dairy Wastewater Treatment Using Low Molecular Weight Crab Shell Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha Devi, M.; Dumaran, Joefel Jessica; Feroz, S.

    2012-08-01

    The investigation of possible use of low molecular weight crab shell chitosan (MW 20 kDa) in the treatment of dairy waste water was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, stirring speed, pH and adsorbent dosage. Treated effluent characteristics at optimum condition showed that chitosan can be effectively used as adsorbent in the treatment of dairy wastewater. The optimum conditions for this study were at 150 mg/l of chitosan, pH 5 and 50 min of mixing time with 50 rpm of mixing speed. Chitosan showed the highest performance under these conditions with 79 % COD, 93 % turbidity and 73 % TSS reduction. The result showed that chitosan is an effective coagulant, which can reduce the level of COD, TSS and turbidity in dairy industry wastewater.

  4. An Overview of Nanomaterials for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiao Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exceptional characteristics which resulted from nanoscale size, such as improved catalysis and adsorption properties as well as high reactivity, nanomaterials have been the subject of active research and development worldwide in recent years. Numerous studies have shown that nanomaterials can effectively remove various pollutants in water and thus have been successfully applied in water and wastewater treatment. In this paper, the most extensively studied nanomaterials, zero-valent metal nanoparticles (Ag, Fe, and Zn, metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, and iron oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and nanocomposites are discussed and highlighted in detail. Besides, future aspects of nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment are discussed.

  5. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Tanveer Ferdous

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes in detail the background, methods, results, and conclusions of a three-year PhD research project - “subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater”, which was undertaken at Monash University between April 2008 and December 2010. The overall objective of the research was to discover the efficiencies of key pollutant removals (organics, nutrients, solids, and coliforms), when a medium-strength wastewater is treated in different types of subsu...

  6. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers׳ health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses ar...

  7. Advanced Oxidation Technologies/Photocatalytic Treatment of Wastewater.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusionsThe last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocatalysts, ne...

  8. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    OpenAIRE

    Pernar, E.; Dosen-Sver, D.; Bujevic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline,...

  9. Temporal dynamics of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plant influent

    OpenAIRE

    Coutu, Sylvain; Wyrsch, Vera; Wynn, Htet Kyi; Rossi, Luca; Barry, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A yearlong field experimental campaign was conducted to reveal time scales over which antibiotic fluxes vary in the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WTP). In particular, sampling was carried out to ascertain the amplitudes of monthly, daily and hourly fluctuations of several antibiotics. A total of 180 samples was collected at the entrance of a WTP in Lausanne, Switzerland. Sample concentrations were multiplied by flow rate to obtain monthly, daily and hourly mass fluxes of six antib...

  10. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  11. Benchmarking wastewater treatment plants under an eco-efficiency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Amores, María José; Termes-Rifé, Montserrat; Marín-Navarro, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-10-01

    The new ISO 14045 framework is expected to slowly start shifting the definition of eco-efficiency toward a life-cycle perspective, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the environmental impact assessment method together with a system value assessment method for the economic analysis. In the present study, a set of 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain were analyzed on the basis of eco-efficiency criteria, using LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) as a system value assessment method. The study is intended to be useful to decision-makers in the wastewater treatment sector, since the combined method provides an alternative scheme for analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and costs. Two midpoint impact categories, global warming and eutrophication potential, as well as an endpoint single score indicator were used for the environmental assessment, while LCC was used for value assessment. Results demonstrated that substantial differences can be observed between different WWTPs depending on a wide range of factors such as plant configuration, plant size or even legal discharge limits. Based on these results the benchmarking of wastewater treatment facilities was performed by creating a specific classification and certification scheme. The proposed eco-label for the WWTPs rating is based on the integration of the three environmental indicators and an economic indicator calculated within the study under the eco-efficiency new framework.

  12. A Modified Bio-Ecological Process for Rural Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited water resources and ensuring access to clean water are critical environmental challenges, especially for the developing world. In particular, rural domestic wastewater has become a significant source for the pollution of freshwater bodies. A modified bio-ecological A2O-wetland system for rural wastewater treatment consisting of a biological unit (anaerobic baffled reactor, anoxic tank and oxic unit, A2O and an ecological unit (horizontal flow constructed wetland was developed, and key performance indicators were identified. The bio-ecological treatment system showed high removal efficiency for pollutants, successfully achieving 91%, 85%, 78%, and 92% removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium (NH4–N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The concentrations of pollutants in the effluent from the system were lower than the Class 1 A regulated values of the Chinese National Standard GB18918-2002. The system offered high removal efficiency, simple operation, and low energy consumption. The A2O-wetland is a good alternative for rural wastewater treatment systems.

  13. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  14. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  15. R-plasmid transfer in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, P A; Grimes, D J

    1982-12-01

    Enteric bacteria have been examined for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance in a wastewater treatment plant. Resistant Salmonella enteritidis, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli were isolated from clinical specimens and primary sewage effluent. Resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline was demonstrated by spread plate and tube dilution techniques. Plasmid mediation of resistance was shown by ethidium bromide curing, agarose gel electrophoresis, and direct cell transfer. Each donor was mated with susceptible E. coli and Shigella sonnei. Mating pairs (and recipient controls) were suspended in unchlorinated primary effluent that had been filtered and autoclaved. Suspensions were added to membrane diffusion chambers which were then placed in the primary and secondary setting tanks of the wastewater treatment plant. Resistant recombinants were detected by replica plating nutrient agar master plates onto xylose lysine desoxycholate agar plates that contained per milliliter of medium 10 micrograms of ampicillin, 30 micrograms of chloramphenicol, 10 micrograms of streptomycin, 100 micrograms of sulfadiazine, or 30 micrograms of tetracycline. Mean transfer frequencies for laboratory matings were 2.1 X 10(-3). In situ matings for primary and secondary settling resulted in frequencies of 4.9 X 10(-5) and 7.5 X 10(-5), respectively. These values suggest that a significant level of resistance transfer occurs in wastewater treatment plants in the absence of antibiotics as selective agents.

  16. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  17. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  18. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  19. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  20. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  1. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  2. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  3. Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B R

    2009-01-01

    Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design.

  4. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  5. Wastewater Treatment Using Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarafraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades witnessed sharp focus on environment pollution and its impact on life in nature. Wetlands can be used for biological treatment of wastewater. Problem statement: Scarcity of water is considered as a global problem and Iran is one the countries which is facing water shortage problem. Pollution of water bodies restrict the availability of water for various uses. Treatment of waste water before disposal contributes to water conservation efforts. Constructed wetlands are techniques aim to polish water quality and reduce the harmful effect of effluent. Approach: In this study, four horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSF were constructed at the Research Station of Tehran University, located in Karaj, Iran. The study was carried out from April to September, 2007. Gravel and zeoilte were used in this study as substrate. Gravel-beds with and without plants (called GP and G and gravel-beds mixed with (10% zeolite, with and without plants (called ZP and Z were examined to investigate the feasibility of treating synthetic wastewater which was specifically produced and modified to imitate agricultural wastewater. Results: The results of this study indicated that the system had acceptable pollutant removal efficiency and that both plants were found to be tolerant under the tested conditions. The wetland system could achieve the NO3-N removal of (79% in ZP, (86% in Z, (82% in GP and finally (87.94% in G. As for the P removal, the efficiencies of 93, 89, 81 and 76% were respectively achieved for ZP, GP, Z and G. The outflow concentrations of Pb and Cd were found to be under the detection limit; however, as for Zn, the removal efficiencies of 99.9, 99.76, 99.71 and 99.52% were concluded for ZP, Z, GP and G respectively. Conclusions/Recommendations: It can be concluded that constructed wetlands are efficient in removing Zn, Pb and Cd from agricultural wastewater. Plants types such as Phragmites Australis and Juncus Inflexus can contribute

  6. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  7. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  8. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  9. Removal of Cryptosporidium by wastewater treatment processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2016-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and various animal species. The environmental stability and the low infectious dose of Cryptosporidium facilitate its transmission by water and food. Discharge of untreated wastewater may result in waterborne or foodborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks, therefore a suitable treatment may prevent its dissemination. Most studies on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have reported a concentration range between 10 and 200 oocysts/L and a prevalence of 6 to 100%. Activated sludge has been found to be ineffective for the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from wastewater, especially when the retention time is longer than 20 days at suitable sunlight and temperature. High rate filtration and chlorine disinfection are inefficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from effluents, whereas ultrafiltration and UV irradiation were found to be very efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Adequate tertiary treatment may result in high quality effluent with low risk of Cryptosporidium for unrestricted irrigation and other non-potable applications.

  10. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photocatalysis as a tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis has been used as tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters to comply with the regulatory discharge limits and to oxidize persistent compounds that had not been oxidized in the biological treatment. The wastewater is generated by the refinery and directly discharged into the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro. Although BOD removal is high, a residual and persistent COD, besides a somewhat high phenol content remains. Three photocatalysts were tested - TiO2 (Aldrich, ZnO (Aldrich, and TiO2 (P25, Degussa - the third being the most active. The optimized conditions obtained with an experimental design were 3.0 g L-1 TiO2 and pH 6.3. The use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 showed no beneficial effect. Removal of 93% of phenols, 63% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and more than 50% of oil and grease (OG were achieved in the photocatalytic process, improving the quality of the treated wastewater.

  12. Performance evaluation of water and wastewater treatment plant in Kathmandu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bartaula, Reetu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, assessments of technology of the water and wastewater treatment plants including constructed wetlands in Kathmandu valley are presented. There are nine water treatment plants among which two are not in operation; seven constructed wetlands among which two are under maintenance and one is not in operation. In addition, one conventional wastewater treatment plant is studied in order to highlight the associated benefits and identify challenges of water and wastewater treatment in K...

  13. COMBINED ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI AHMED

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile manufacturing consumes a considerable amount of water in its manufacturing processes. The water is primarily utilized in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile establishments. Considering both the volume generated and the effluent composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. In this study a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated continuously for treatment of textile wastewater. Cosmo balls were used to function as growth media for microorganisms in anaerobic reactor. Effect of pH, dissolved oxygen, and organic changes in nitrification and denatrification process were investigated. The results indicated that over 84.62% ammonia nitrogen and about 98.9% volatile suspended solid (VSS removal efficiency could be obtained. Dissolved oxygen (DO, pH were shown to have only slight influences on the nitrification process; and for each 10% removal of nitrogen, only 3% of pH changes were achieved.

  14. Anaerobic filters for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, M T; Siekerka, G L; Kao, S W; Pfeffer, J T

    1983-06-01

    A process train consisting of the following sequence of unit processes, a berl-saddle-packed anaerobic filter, an expanded bed, granular activated carbon anaerobic filter, and an activated sludge nitrification system was evaluated for the treatment of a synthetically prepared coal gasification wastewater. The first-stage anaerobic filter resulted in very little removal of organic matter and no methane production. Excellent reduction in organic matter occurred in the granular activated carbon anaerobic filter. The removal mechanism was initially adsorptive and near the end of the study, removal of organic matter was primarily through conversion to methane gas. It is felt that the success of the activated carbon anaerobic filter was due to the ability of the activated carbon to sequester some components of the wastewater that were toxic to the mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The activated sludge nitrification system resulted in complete ammonia oxidation and was very efficient in final effluent polishing.

  15. Pilot-scale study of biomass reduction in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunhui; Ai, Hengyu; Li, Xuesong; Liu, Haitao; Xie, Weimin

    2007-05-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were continuously carried out for more than 9 months to study the excess biomass reduction effect using a biophase-separation bioreactor, which was designed based on food-chain theory. By separating the biophase in the wastewater treatment system, bacteria, protozoa, and metazoa could be separated from each other and dominated in different microbial communities. After degrading organic matter, bacteria were consumed by protozoa or metazoa in the following process in such a reactor. Thus, both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass were reduced. During the process of treating restaurant wastewater, the excess biomass yield in this biophase-separation technique varied from 0.13 to 0.22 kg/kg COD removed, 50% lower than that from the reference system. Apart from low biomass production, this biophase-separation technique can simultaneously achieve a high COD removal efficiency and improve settleability of biosolids at a hydraulic retention time of 6 to 13 hours.

  16. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  17. Tertiary treatment of distillery wastewater by solar photofenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Josephine Sahaya Rani; Kanmani, S.; Schindler, F. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna Univ., Chennai (India)

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of decolourisation / degradation of biologically treated distillery wastewater having high obnoxious odour, dark brown colour and high COD and BOD by solar photofenton process was investigated. The effect of operating variables viz., dilution, pH, concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, dosage of Fe{sup 2+}, depth of wastewater and contact time were studied. Complete removal of colour and odour and 90% reduction of COD were observed at the dilution ratio 4:6, pH 5 and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} / Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 38:1. This feasibility study has proved that solar photofenton could be used an appropriate tertiary treatment for distillery industries especially when they are located in the solar belt area. (orig.)

  18. Modeling of biobasins of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOSTIN K. KUTSAROV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The biobasins of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP on the Balkans has been examined. Samples were taken four times from the inlet and outlet flow. The concentration of the total hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and styrene in the wastewater has been obtained by gas chromatography. The average experimental concentrations were used when the mass balance was made. The results indicate that about 60% of pollutants are emitted in the air, about 22% are assimilated through biodegradation, and nearly 18% leave WWTP with the purified water. The measured concentrations were also modeled by Water 9.3 program. Comparison between the measured amounts of pollution concentrations and those forecasted by the Water 9.3 program has been made.

  19. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  20. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... and heavy metals has been developed during the past two years. The concept is based on guidelines that are made according to considerations of me environment and the treatment plant system, and that encourage the introduction of a cleaner technology and integrated preventive measures. For most organic...

  1. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  2. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...... technologies. Incineration is used as the reference process, as it is the only existing well-developed technology, while other techniques like pyrolysis and gasification are relatively new, and only exist at lab-scale or pilot-plant scale....

  3. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  4. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2017-06-20

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10-30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO2/IrO2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO2/IrO2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine).

  5. Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Güray; Perendeci, Altunay; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

    2008-08-30

    Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater produced during cheese manufacture was studied as an alternative treatment method for the first time in literature. Through the preliminary batch runs, appropriate electrode material was determined as iron due to high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity. The electrochemical treatment conditions were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM), where applied voltage was kept in the range, electrolyte concentration was minimized, waste concentration and COD removal percent were maximized at 25 degrees C. Optimum conditions at 25 degrees C were estimated through RSM as 11.29 V applied voltage, 100% waste concentration (containing 40 g/L lactose) and 19.87 g/L electrolyte concentration to achieve 29.27% COD removal. However, highest COD removal through the set of runs was found as 53.32% within 8h. These results reveal the applicability of electrochemical treatment to the deproteinated whey wastewater as an alternative advanced wastewater treatment method.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  7. Treatment of laundry wastewater using polyethersulfone/polyvinylpyrollidone ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumisha, A; Arthanareeswaran, G; Lukka Thuyavan, Y; Ismail, A F; Chakraborty, S

    2015-11-01

    In this study, laundry wastewater filtration was studied using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes. The performances of PES/PVP membranes were assessed using commercial PES membrane with 10kDa in ultrafiltration. Operating parameters The influence of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and stirring speed on laundry wastewater flux was investigated. A higher permeate flux of 55.2L/m(2)h was obtained for modified PES membrane with high concentration of PVP at TMP of 500kPa and 750rpm of stirring speed. The separation efficiencies of membranes were also studied with respect to chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity and conductivity. Results showed that PES membrane with 10% of PVP had higher permeate flux, flux recovery and less fouling when compared with other membranes. Higher COD and TDS rejection of 88% and 82% were also observed for modified membranes due to the improved surface property of membranes. This indicated that modified PES membranes are suitable for the treatment of surfactant, detergent and oil from laundry wastewater.

  8. Evaluation of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francisci, Davide; Su, Yixi; Iital, Arvo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-04-05

    In the present study, the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat-panel photobioreactors. Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to the four dilution rates, while chemical oxygen demand removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions. The biomass obtained at the highest dilution rate was characterized for its content of lipids, proteins and pigments. The average yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), protein, lutein, chlorophylls and β-carotene was 62.4, 388.2, 1.03, 11.82 and 0.44 mg per gram dry biomass, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that potentially more than 70% of revenue was from the production of pigments, that is, chlorophyllin (59.6%), lutein (8.9%) and β-carotene (5.0%) while reduction in discharging costs of the treated wastewaters could account for 19.6% of the revenue. Due to the low market price of biodiesel, the revenue from the above was found to be the least profitable (1.4%). Even when combining all these different revenues, this cultivation strategy was found with the current prices to be uneconomical. Power consumption for artificial light was responsible for the 94.5% of the production costs.

  9. Supercritical gasification for the treatment of o-cresol wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chao-hai; HU Cheng-sheng; WU Chao-fei; YAN Bo

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification of phenolic wastewater without oxidant was performed to degrade pollutants and produce hydrogen-enriched gases. The simulated o-cresol wastewater was gasified at 440-650℃ and 27.6 MPa in a continuous Inconel 625 reactor with the residence time of 0.42-1.25 min. The influence of the reaction temperature, residence time, pressure,catalyst, oxidant and the pollutant concentration on the gasification efficiency was investigated. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced the o-cresol gasification. The TOC removal rate and hydrogen gasification rate were 90.6% and 194.6%,respectively, at the temperature of 650℃ and the residence time of 0.83 min. The product gas was mainly composed of H2, CO2, CH4 and CO, among which the total molar percentage of H2 and CH4 was higher than 50%. The gasification efficiency decreased with the pollutant concentration increasing. Both the catalyst and oxidant could accelerate the hydrocarbon gasification at a lower reaction temperature, in which the catalyst promoted H2 production and the oxidant enhanced CO2 generation. The intermediates of liquid effluents were analyzed and phenol was found to be the main composition. The results indicate that the supercritical gasification is a promising way for the treatment of hazardous organic wastewater.

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  11. User Charge Revenues for Wastewater Treatment Plants--Insufficient to Cover Operation and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-02

    AD-All 588 SEMERAL ACCOUNTINq OFFICE WASHINGTON DC COMUNITY AN--ETC F/S 13/2 USER CHARGE REVENUES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS--INSUFFICI--ETC(U...COMPTROLLER GENERAL 0 Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES User Charge Revenues For Wastewater = Treatment Piants-Insutficient To Cover Operation And...Maintenance Half of the 36 municipal wastewater treatment plants GAO reviewed in 10 States were not raising sufficient funds from their user charge iP

  12. Assessing the sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Meerholz, A.; A C Brent, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable industrial wastewater treatment technology is not only about providing the best technical solution at the lowest cost: it is also about sustainability (including social and environmental acceptance) and institutional feasibility. This paper demonstrates and evaluates a method that may be used for wastewater treatment technology assessment and selection in an industrial context, with a specific focus on biological wastewater treatment in a petrochemical company. The...

  13. LPWCO method for the treatment of high concentrated organic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Based on wet air oxidation (WAO) and Fenton reagent, thispaper raises a new low pressure wet catalytic oxidation(LPWCO)which requires low pressure for the treatment of highlyconcentrated and refractory organic wastewater. Compared withgeneral wet air oxidation, the pressure of the treatment(0.1-0.6MPa) is only one of tens to percentage of latter(3.5-10MPa). Inaddition, its temperature is no more than 180℃.Compared withFenton reagent, while H2O2/COD(weight ratio) less than 1.2, theremoval of COD in the treatment is over twenty percents more thanFenton's even the value of COD is more than 14000mg/L. In thispaper, we study the effect factor of COD removal and the mechanismof this treatment. The existence of synergistic effect (catalytic oxidation and carbonization) for COD removal in H2SO4-Fenton reagent system under the condition of applied pressure and heating (0.1-0.6MPa, 104-165℃) was verified. The best condition of this disposal are as follows:H2O2/COD(weight ratio)=0.2-1.0, Fe2+ 0.6×10-3 mol, H2SO4 0.5mol, COD>1×104mg/L, the operating pressure is 0.1-0.6MPa and temperature is 104-165℃. This method suit to dispose the high-concentrated refractory wastewater, especially to the wastewater containing H2SO produced in the manufacture of pesticide, dyestuff and petrochemical works.

  14. A practitioner's perspective on the uses and future developments for wastewater treatment modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, G T

    2011-01-01

    The modern age of wastewater treatment modelling began with publication of the International Water Association (IWA) Activated Sludge Model (ASM) No.1 and has advanced significantly since. Models are schematic representations of systems that are useful for analysis to support decision-making. The most appropriate model for a particular application often incorporates only those components essential for the particular analyses to be performed (i.e. the simplest model possible). Characteristics of effective models are presented, along with how wastewater modelling is integrated into the wastewater project life cycle. The desirable characteristics of wastewater treatment modelling platforms are then reviewed. Current developments of note in wastewater treatment modelling practice include estimates of greenhouse gas emissions, incorporating uncertainty into wastewater modelling and design practice, more fundamental modelling of process chemistry, and improved understanding of the degradability of wastewater constituents in different environments. Areas requiring greater emphasis include increased use of metabolic modelling, characterisation of the hydrodynamics of suspended and biofilm biological treatment processes, and the integration of biofilm and suspended growth process modelling. Wastewater treatment models must also interface with water and wastewater management software packages. While wastewater treatment modelling will continue to advance and make important contributions to practice, it must be remembered that these are complex systems which exhibit counter-intuitive behaviour (results differ from initial expectations) and multiple dynamic steady-states which can abruptly transition from one to another.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, ctra. de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.es; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R. [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, ctra. de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-02-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination.

  16. Perspectives on the feasibility of using microalgae for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Guo, Wan-Qian; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-12-01

    Although microalgae can serve as an appropriate alternative feedstock for biofuel production, the high microalgal cultivation cost has been a major obstacle for commercializing such attempts. One of the feasible solution for cost reduction is to couple microalgal biofuel production system with wastewater treatment, as microalgae are known to effectively eliminate a variety of nutrients/pollutants in wastewater, such as nitrogen/phosphate, organic carbons, VFAs, pharmaceutical compounds, textile dye compounds, and heavy metals. This review aims to critically discuss the feasibility of microalgae-based wastewater treatment, including the strategies for strain selection, the effect of wastewater types, photobioreactor design, economic feasibility assessment, and other key issues that influence the treatment performance. The potential of microalgae-bacteria consortium for treatment of industrial wastewaters is also discussed. This review provides useful information for developing an integrated wastewater treatment with microalgal biomass and biofuel production facilities and establishing efficient co-cultivation for microalgae and bacteria in such systems.

  17. Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Hallvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and presents applications of wastewater treatment processes in which this reactor is used. The MBBR processes have been extensively used for BOD/COD-removal, as well as for nitrification and denitrification in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the municipal applications. The most frequent process combinations are presented and discussed. Basic design data obtained through research, as well as data from practical operation of various plants, are presented. It is demonstrated that the MBBR may be used in an extremely compact high-rate process (treatment. Most European plants require P-removal and performance data from plants combining MBBR and chemical precipitation is presented. Likewise, data from plants in Italy and Switzerland that are implementing nitrification in addition to secondary treatment are presented. The results from three Norwegian plants that are using the so-called combined denitrification MBBR process are discussed. Nitrification rates as high as 1.2 g NH4-N/m2 d at complete nitrification were demonstrated in practical operation at low temperatures (11 degrees C), while denitrification rates were as high as 3.5g NO3-Nequiv./m2.d. Depending on the extent of pretreatment, the total HRT of the MBBR for N-removal will be in the range of 3 to 5 h.

  18. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  19. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  20. Strengthening Critical Infrastructure: Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Webinar) – November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs), including advantages and challenges, financial incentives and funding programs, and technical and economic potential.

  1. Financing CHP Projects at Wastewater Treatment Facilities with Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities, including applications, financial challenges, and financial opportunities, such as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  2. Microbial community compositions in different functional zones of Carrousel oxidation ditch system for domestic wastewater treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Dong; Liu, Sitong; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community diversity in anaerobic-, anoxic- and oxic-biological zones of a conventional Carrousel oxidation ditch system for domestic wastewater treatment was systematically investigated...

  3. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Sequence Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment System Using Synthetic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian; JIANG Xiao-Qin; YANG Lin-Zhang; ZHANG Jian; QIAO Qing-Yun; HE Chen-Da; YIN Shi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    The rate of nitrous oxide emission from a laboratory sequence batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system using synthetic wastewater was measured under controlled conditions. The SBR was operated in the mode of 4 h for aeration, 3.5 h for stirring without aeration, 0.5 h for settling and drainage, and 4 h of idle. The sludge was acclimated by running the system to achieve a stable running state as indicated by rhythmic changes of total N, dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, pH, and N2O. Under the present experimental conditions measured nitrous oxide emitted from the off-gas in the aerobic and anaerobic phases, respectively, accounted for 8.6%-16.1% and 0-0.05%of N removed, indicating that the aerobic phase was the main source of N2O emission from the system. N2O dissolved in discharged water was considerable in term of concentration. Thus, measures to be developed for the purpose of reducing N2O emission from the system should be effective in the aeration phase.

  4. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli...... and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m3 was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal...... by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater....

  5. Screening of lipid degrading microorganisms for wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmurzina, Z. S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Fats, oils and greases (FOG are poorly removable materials in wastewater treatment systems. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable strain(s for a biological treatment technology of FOGs polluted wastewaters. Methodology and results: The 142 microorganisms from polluted environment were screened for lipase activity (LA by sequentially using assays on agar-Tween 80, agar-fats, and turbidimetrically measuring the quantity of calcium salts with fatty acids. The isolates G23, G30, and Zb32 showed highest units of LA and were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Lipid masses were determined gravimetrically after chloroform/ethyl alcohol extraction. In the model solutions with animal fats the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa G23 reduced mass fractions of mutton fat, beef tallow, and lard by 79±5%, 88±4%, and 80±6% respectively. Under the same conditions Aeromonas punctata G30 reduced: 65±3%, 60±8%, and 75±4%, and P. aeruginosa Zb32 reduced: 47±5%, 52±6% and 73±7%. In the model solutions with FOGs trap specimens as a carbon source from the local cafeteria the strains P. aeruginosa G23, A. punctata G30, and P. aeruginosa Zb32 reduced a lipid mass fraction by 61.5±7%, 45.2±5%, and 37.5±3% respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The strain P. aeruginosa G23 is the most effective lipid-degrading microorganism and the best candidate to use in biological treatment technology of FOGs polluted wastewater in Kazakhstan.

  6. Application of immobilized cells to the treatment of cyanide wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Lin, C E

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to living organisms, particularly in inactivating the respiration system by tightly binding to terminal oxidase. To protect the environment and water bodies, wastewater containing cyanide must be treated before discharging into the environment. Biological treatment is a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for cyanide removal compared with the other techniques currently in use. Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), isolated from cyanide-containing industrial wastewater, has been shown to be able to biodegrade cyanide to non-toxic end products. The technology of immobilized cells can be applied in biological treatment to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of biodegradation. In this study, potassium cyanide (KCN) was used as the target compound and both alginate (AL) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) techniques were applied for the preparation of immobilized cells. Results from this study show that KCN can be utilized as the sole nitrogen source by K. oxytoca. The free suspension systems reveal that the cell viability was highly affected by initial KCN concentration, pH, and temperature. Results show that immobilized cell systems could tolerate a higher level of KCN concentration and wider ranges of pH and temperature, especially in the system with CTA gel beads. Results show that a longer incubation period was required for KCN degradation using immobilized cells compared to the free suspended systems. This might be due to internal mass transfer limitations. Results also indicate that immobilized systems can support a higher biomass concentration. Complete KCN degradation was observed after the operation of four consecutive degradation experiments with the same batch of immobilized cells. This suggests that the activity of the immobilized cells can be maintained and KCN can be used as the nitrogen source throughout KCN degradation experiments. Results reveal that the application of immobilized cells of K. oxytoca is advantageous

  7. Implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in Norway - An Evaluation of the Norwegian Approach regarding Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Källqvist, T.; Molvær, J.; Oug, E.; Berge, D.; Tjomsland, T; Stene-Johansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses the effects and benefits of full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in Norway. The Norwegian policy for wastewater treatment has targeted phosphorus removal as the primary measure to reduce adverse effects of discharge of wastewater to freshwater and marine recipients. Chemical precipitation is therefore used at more than 70% of the wastewater treatment plants. This technique is very efficient in reducing the phosphorus concentration and in addit...

  8. TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER AT VILLA CLARA WATER MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floramis Pérez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current operating and safety conditions of biological treatment systems for wastewater in the centers of swinish and poultry breeding at Villa Clara Water Management Company, with the purpose of setting a group of organizational, technical and human measures that contributes to prevent contamination and minimize biological risks. In this way it can be guaranteed the protection to the workers, the facilities, community and the environment, to have a sure occupational atmosphere in the organization. As a result of the evaluation the factors that affect the operation of the biodigestion system and the security of the process are defined.

  9. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment ...

  10. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  11. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D C [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  12. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  13. Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR); Bioreactores de membrana (MBR) para la depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardino Ferre, R.

    2001-07-01

    Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR), are a good alternative of treatment to the conventional processes when wish to obtain very high quality of the treated water or to try high load contaminants in low flow. Simultaneously, the article explains the significant reduction of the wastewater treatment plant space, eliminating the secondary septic tank. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant Herford with biofiltration; Klaeranlage Herford mit Biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altemeier, G. [Herforder Abwasser GmbH, Herford (Germany); Gassen, M.

    1998-09-01

    In order to fulfil the higher effluent requirements especially for nitrogen and phosphorus removal the City of Herford due to limited space at the site of the existing plant planned to construct a new wastewater treatment plant applying the activated sludge process at a location in 4 km distance. During the environmental impact study it was decided to construct at the existing site a completely covered wastewater treatment plant (from screen to post floculation). Biological treatment is achieved by a less space consuming biofiltration plant (Biostyr process). The costs remained in the same range as of conventional plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um den gestiegenen Anforderungen insbesondere zur Stickstoff- und Phosphorelimination nachzukommen, plante die Stadt Herford wegen unzureichender Flaeche bei der vorhandenen Klaeranlage urspruenglich einen Neubau der Klaeranlage nach dem Belebungsverfahren an einem 4 km entfernten Standort. Im Zuge der Umweltvertraeglichkeitsuntersuchung kam man zu dem Entschluss, am vorhandenen Standort eine komplett eingehauste Abwasserreinigungsanlage (vom Rechen bis zur Nachflockung) zu errichten. Die biologische Reinigung erfolgt mit einer wenig Platz beanspruchenden Biofilteranlage (Biostyr Verfahren). Die Kosten blieben im Rahmen vergleichbarer konventioneller Anlagen. (orig.)

  15. SELECTION OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR OILY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When selecting a chemical treatment program for wastewater to achieve an effective flocculation and coagulation is crucial to understand how individual colloids interact. The coagulation process requires a rapid mixing while flocculation process needs a slow mixing. The behavior of colloids in water is strongly influenced by the electrokinetic charge, where each colloidal particle carries its own charge, which in its nature is usually negative. Polymers, which are long chains of high molecular weight and high charge, when added to water begin to form longer chains, allowing removing numerous particles of suspended matter. A study of physico-chemical treatment by addition of coagulant and flocculant was carried out in order to determine a chemical program for oily wastewater coming from the gravity separation process in a crude oil refinery. The tests were carried out in a Jar Test equipment, where commercial products: aluminum polychloride (PAC, aluminum sulfate and Sintec D50 were evaluated with five different flocculants. The selected chemical program was evaluated with fluids at three temperatures to know its sensitivity to this parameter and the mixing energy in the coagulation and flocculation. The chemical program and operational characteristics for physico-chemical treatment with PAC were determined, obtaining a removal of more than 93% for suspended matter and 96% for total hydrocarbons for the selected coagulant / flocculant combination.

  16. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  17. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  18. Treatment of Traditional Cloth Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Using Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the textile industry in Indonesia is not only included in the category of large and medium scale industries, but also in small-scale and some even in the household (home industry. This led to the pollution caused by the textile industry, especially as a result of the presence of the textile dyeing not only occur in industrial areas but also occurs in densely populated settlements. To overcome the problem of environmental pollution that occurs, it needs treatment of the textile wastewater. Treatment of traditional cloth wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material has been investigated in this paper. The effect of relevant wastewater characteristics such as pH and conductivity, and important process variables such as applied voltage and operating time on the chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS and total dissolved solid (TDS.  The processing time is used 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 minutes and for the variation of the applied voltage is 6 V, 12 V, 18 V, and 24 V. The best conditions and the effectiveness of electrocoagulation for each parameter varies with the voltage is in the range between 6 V– 18 V with the processing time between 90-120 minutes. The effectiveness of electrocoagulation method to decrease the turbidity value 99.634%; TSS 49.679%; TDS 17.243%; BOD 91.778%; COD 97.260% and to decrease the conductivity value of 23.631% and the increase in pH from 6.34 to 7.79.

  19. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  20. Ceramic Ultra Filtration Membrane Bioreactor for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A long term domestic wastewater treatment experiment was conducted using a recirculating ceramic ultra filtration membrane bioreactor (CUFMB) system. Three experiments were run with a hydraulic retention time of 5h, sludge retention times of 5d, 15d, and 30d and a membrane surface flow rate of 4m/s. The experiment studied the membrane fouling mechanism and cleaning techniques. The results show that a CUFMB system can provide continuous good quality effluent which is completely acceptable for reuse. The system is also not affected by fluctuations of the inlet flow. The CUFMB sludge loading rate is similar to that of conventional biological treatment units. However, the volumetric loading rate of the CUFMB is 24 times that of conventional biological treatment units. Membrane fouling occurs due to channel clogging, which could be easily removed, and surface fouling, which can be effectively removed using the method described in this work which includes water rinsing, base cleaning, and acid washing.

  1. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  2. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE BIOLOGICAL STAGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C MOGA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a model for the oxygen concentration profiles in a mobile bed biofilm reactor (MBBR is proposed. By using a material with a large specific surface area (m2/m3 high biological activity can be maintained using a relatively small reactor volume. Small parts made of special materials with density close to the water density, are immersed in the bioreactors. The biofilm carriers are kept in suspension and even mixed with the help of air bubbles generated by the aeration system. Water oxygenation is a mass transfer process of oxygen from gas/air to the liquid mass. It can be used in wastewater treatment in order to remove the organic matter, in the biological stage. The functioning of aerobic processes depends on the availability of sufficient quantities of oxygen. In wastewater treatment plants, submerged bubbles aeration is most frequently accomplished by dispersing air bubbles in the liquid. The main purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen using mathematical modeling and numerical simulations. The aim of the study is to find the optimum dimension and position of the aeration pipes for maintaining the oxygen concentration in the limits indicated in the literature. Experimental determinations (measurements of the DO concentration have also been realized. The oxygen profile concentration, in a MBBR reactor, was determined.

  3. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lian; Junxin Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing,two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted.The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments:shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition,whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition.Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds,but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway.The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs,n:number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition,then the anoxic,finally to the aerobic condition,while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions.Under every operational condition,long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity,followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs,whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition.In addition,introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials.

  4. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced.

  5. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissem......Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role...... in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes...... of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with WWTP environment. Our data highlight that, despite an abundance of functional resistance genes within WWTPs, only few genes are found in other environments, suggesting...

  6. Conditions and technologies of biological wastewater treatment in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, G M; Bakos, V; Jobbágy, A

    2012-01-01

    A survey has been carried out involving 55 Hungarian wastewater treatment plants in order to evaluate the wastewater quality, the applied technologies and the resultant problems. Characteristically the treatment temperature is very wide-ranging from less than 10 °C to higher than 26 °C. Influent quality proved to be very variable regarding both the organic matter (typical COD concentration range 600-1,200 mg l(-1)) and the nitrogen content (typical NH(4)-N concentration range 40-80 mg l(-1)). As a consequence, significant differences have been found in the carbon availability for denitrification from site to site. Forty two percent of the influents proved to lack an appropriate carbon source. As a consequence of carbon deficiency as well as technologies designed and/or operated with non-efficient denitrification, rising sludge in the secondary clarifiers typically occurs especially in summer. In case studies, application of intermittent aeration, low DO reactors, biofilters and anammox processes have been evaluated, as different biological nitrogen removal technologies. With low carbon source availability, favoring denitrification over enhanced biological phosphorus removal has led to an improved nitrogen removal.

  7. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  8. Improvement of wastewater treatment by use of natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Prodanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge and other organic sludges from wastewater treatment processes are usually anaerobically digested prior to application on land. The purpose of digestion is to convert bulky, odorous sludges to relatively inert material that can be rapidly dewatering. The important benefit of this process is a biogas production, too. It is proper to enlarge primary sludge production in a primary settler by adding some coagulation aids, with aim to increase a biogas production, as much as possible. The most common coagulant is alum, but presence of large quantities of aluminum salts in sludge has a harmful impact on digestion and digested sludge application. Some natural coagulants, that have a numerous advantages, can be used instead of alum. Natural coagulants could be extracted from a different plant material, and considering the fact that they are of organic nature, the biogas yield can be enhanced by their presence. A plant material that remains after extraction can be used as a feed. The aim of this paper is a consideration of potential environmental benefits of substitution of alum by natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in sewage wastewater treatment process.

  9. High rate anaerobic thermophilic technologies for distillery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, M; Romero-García, L I; Rodríguez-Cano, R; Sales-Márquez, D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance of two high rate technologies, upflow anaerobic fixed-film reactor and fluidized bed laboratory-scale, treating distillery wastewater (wine vinasses) at anaerobic thermophilic conditions have been compared. The results obtained show that the stationary packed bed, with a corrugated plastic support, operated under stable conditions at organic loading rates (OLR0) around 20 kgCOD/m3/d, gives maximal total CODr of 76% at OLR0 of 6.29 kgCOD/m3/d; the fluidized bed reactor, operated on open pore sintered-glass media, gives total CODr of 96% at OLR0 of 5.88 kgCOD/m3/d. The anaerobic fluidized bed technology is more effective than the upflow anaerobic fixed-film technology due, fundamentally, to this technology favouring the transport of microbial cells from the bulk to the surface and enhancing the contact between the microorganism-substrate phases, In this sense, the stationary packed bed technology is adequate for the treatment of easily biodegradable wastewater, or for the cases where elevated percentages of CODr removal are not required, while the fluidized bed technology is especially suitable for treatment of hazardous wastes with recalcitrant compositions.

  10. Electrochemical Techniques in Textile Processes and Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry uses the electrochemical techniques both in textile processes (such as manufacturing fibers, dyeing processes, and decolorizing fabrics and in wastewaters treatments (color removal. Electrochemical reduction reactions are mostly used in sulfur and vat dyeing, but in some cases, they are applied to effluents discoloration. However, the main applications of electrochemical treatments in the textile sector are based on oxidation reactions. Most of electrochemical oxidation processes involve indirect reactions which imply the generation of hypochlorite or hydroxyl radical in situ. These electrogenerated species are able to bleach indigo-dyed denim fabrics and to degrade dyes in wastewater in order to achieve the effluent color removal. The aim of this paper is to review the electrochemical techniques applied to textile industry. In particular, they are an efficient method to remove color of textile effluents. The reuse of the discolored effluent is possible, which implies an important saving of salt and water (i.e., by means of the “UVEC Cell”.

  11. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  12. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Sun MOK; Hyun Tae AHN; Joeng Tai KIM

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  13. Energy efficient urban wastewater treatment using Galdieria sulphuraria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Thinesh

    This dissertation research was undertaken to develop and validate the fundamentals of a photosynthetically oxygenated waste to energy recovery (POWER) system that can potentially render urban wastewater treatment energy-positive and sustainable. Experiments conducted in the first phase of the studies demonstrated that, Galdieria sulphuraria can be cultivated in primary-settled urban wastewater, achieving high nutrient removal efficiencies at removal rates comparable to other strains. In the lab scale reactors, the strain achieved ammoniacal-nitrogen removals greater than 95%; and phosphate removals greater than 96% in 7 days. Biomass yield in these experiments averaged 27.42 g biomass per g nitrogen removed while similar data reported in the literature averaged 25.75 g biomass per g nitrogen. The high biomass yield recorded under laboratory conditions as well as the high areal productivity achieved under outdoor conditions in closed photobioreactors, hold promise for Galdieria sulphuraria as a preferred strain for use in the POWER system. Growth studies conducted in the second phase of the research with the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction of algal biomass confirmed that Galdieria sulphuraria could be grown at rates comparable to that in the baseline artificial medium. This study confirmed another premise of the POWER system that recycling of the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction could increase biomass productivity and net energy yield: biomass productivity recorded with initial N-NH3 level of 80 mg L-1 and 20 mg L-1 of phosphate was 0.241 g L-1 d -1 whereas, that with initial N-NH3 level of 40 mg L -1 and 10 mg L-1 of phosphate typical of primary settled wastewater was 0.201 g L-1 d-1. Heterotrophic growth of Galdieria sulphuraria cultivated in the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction conducted over a range of temperatures (180 to 300°C) and dilutions showed that biomass productivity recorded with recycled AP was greater than that

  14. Application of Emergy Analysis to the Sustainability Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Shao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants consume much energy and manpower, are expensive to run, and generate sludge and treated wastewater whilst removing pollutants through specific treatment regimes. The sustainable development of the wastewater treatment industry is therefore challenging, and a comprehensive evaluation method is needed for assessing the sustainability of different wastewater treatment processes, for identifying the improvement potential of treatment plants, and for directing policymakers, management measures and development strategies. This study established improved evaluation indicators based on Emergy Analysis that place total wastewater, resources, energy, economic input and emission of pollutants on the same scale compared to the traditional indicators. The sustainability of four wastewater treatment plants and their associated Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2O, Constant Waterlevel Sequencing Batch Reactor (CWSBR, Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST and Biological Aerated Filter (BAF treatment processes were assessed in a city in northeast China. Results show that the CWSBR process was the most sustainable wastewater treatment process according to its largest calculated value of Improved Emergy Sustainable Index (2.53 × 100, followed by BAF (1.60 × 100, A2O (9.78 × 10−1 and CAST (5.77 × 10−1. Emergy Analysis provided improved indicators that are suitable for comparing different wastewater treatment processes.

  15. Carbon and energy footprint analysis of tannery wastewater treatment: A Global overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giaccherini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the carbon footprint and power demand of tannery wastewater treatment processes for the largest bovine leather producing regions were quantified and analysed. Moreover, we present a case in which we benchmarked the carbon footprint and energy demand analysis of tannery wastewater treatment to municipal wastewater treatment. We quantified the greenhouse gas direct and indirect emissions from tannery wastewater treatment facilities. Our results show that the total CO2-equivalent emission for tannery wastewater treatment is 1.49 103 tCO2,eq d−1. Moreover, the energy intensity of tannery wastewater treatment processes are evaluated at 3.9 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed, compared to 1.4 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Based on this work in the field of tannery wastewater treatment, an effort to innovate suitable treatment trains and technologies has the strong potential to reduce the carbon footprint.

  16. General Characteristics and Treatment Possibilities of Dairy Wastewater - A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandar Kolev Slavov

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of the paper is to review contemporary research on dairy wastewater. The origin, categories, as well as liquid by-products and general indicators of real dairy wastewater are described...

  17. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of colored wastewaters: case study of a textile dyeing factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Fardin; Fallah, Narges; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2017-03-01

    In the present study the feasibility of the use of a bacterial batch sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, in which activated sludge was used in both parts of the process, for pretreatment of wastewater generated by a textile dyeing factory has been considered. Activated sludge used in the process was obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and adapted to real dyeing wastewater using either an anaerobic-only or an anaerobic-aerobic process over a period of 90 days. The use of activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in a higher overall decolorization efficiency compared to that achieved with activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-only cycles. Anaerobic and aerobic periods of around 34 and 22 hours respectively resulted in an effluent with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color content which met the standards for discharge into the centralized wastewater treatment plant of the industrial estate in which the dyeing factory was situated. Neutralization of the real dyeing wastewater and addition of carbon source to it, both of which results in significant increase in the cost of the bacterial treatment process, was not found to be necessary to achieve the required discharge standards.

  18. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. This section specifies the performance standards for treating Group 1 wastewater streams. The... wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream has been treated in accordance with... the point at which the treated wastewater stream exits the last treatment process, or the vented...

  19. Treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater by reed bed technology: A low cost treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansari M. Ribadiya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reed bed system for wastewater treatment has been proven to be effective and sustainable alternative for conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Use of macrophytes to treat wastewater is also categorized in this method. This new approach is based on natural processes for the removal of different aquatic macrophytes such as floating, submerged and emergent. Macrophytes are assumed to be the main biological components of wetlands. These techniques are reported to be cost effective compared to other methods. Various contaminants like total suspended solids, dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, hardness, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, and other contaminants have been minimized using aquatic microphytes. In this paper, role of these plant species, origin and their occurrence, ecological factors and their efficiency in reduction of different water contaminants have been presented.

  20. Treatment of domestic wastewater using conventional and baffled septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Fayza Aly; Mikhaeil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of the study was a comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using conventional and baffled septic tanks. The septic tanks were fed continuously with domestic wastewater at three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The HRTs chosen were 24, 48 and 72 h with corresponding organic loads of 0.321, 0.436 and 0.885 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per m3 per day, respectively. The performance of the septic tanks at the three HRTs gave satisfactory results. For the conventional septic tank, COD removal was 53.4%, 56% and 65.3%, at an HRT of 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, with residual COD of 412, 380 and 334mg/l, respectively. At HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h, the following percentages removals were realized for: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 68.4%, 57, 53.5%; total suspended solid (TSS), 65.3%, 58.3, 55%; phosphorus, 29.3%, 26.9, 25.6%; total Kjeldahl nitrogen 26.8%, 20.8, 17.7%, respectively. On the contrary, ammonia concentrations increased by 7.1%, 5.2 and 4.2% under the same conditions. Consequently, the results showed that the removal of fecal coliform at all HRTs was less than one log. The two baffled septic tanks exhibited superior results at HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h. Comparing the treated domestic wastewater quality produced by the two types of septic tanks in terms of physico-chemical and biological characteristics, better results were obtained using the two baffles type.

  1. Feasibility assessment of electrocoagulation towards a new sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jackson; Stopić, Srećko; Krause, Gregor; Friedrich, Bernd

    2007-11-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) may be a potential answer to environmental problems dealing with water reuse and rational waste management. The aim of this research was to assess the feasibility of EC-process for industrial contaminated effluents from copper production, taking into consideration technical and economical factors. EC-technology claims to offer efficient removal rates for most types of wastewater impurities at low power consumption and without adding any precipitating agents. Real wastewater from Saraka stream with high concentrations of heavy metals was provided by RTB-BOR, a Serbian copper mining and smelting complex. Runs were performed on a 10 l EC-reactor using aluminum plates as sacrificial electrodes and powered by a 40 A supply unit. Results concerning key factors like pH, conductivity and power consumption were measured in real time. Analysis of dissolved metal concentrations before and after treatment were carried out via ICP-OES and confirmed by an independent test via AAS. Several aspects were taken into account, including current density, conductivity, interfacial resistivity and reactor settings throughout the runs, in order to analyze all possible factors playing a role in neutralization and metal removal in real industrial wastewater. Electrode configurations and their effects on energy demand were discussed and exemplified based on fundamentals of colloidal and physical chemistry. Based on experimental data and since no precipitating agents were applied, the EC-process proved to be not only feasible and environmentally-friendly, but also a cost-effective technology The EC-technology provides strategic guidelines for further research and development of sustainable water management processes. However, additional test series concerning continuous operation must be still performed in order to get this concept ready for future large-scale applications.

  2. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 35.2125 - Treatment of wastewater from industrial users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of wastewater from industrial... Treatment of wastewater from industrial users. (a) Grant assistance shall not be provided for a project... collector sewers constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve industrial users; or (2) Costs...

  4. RECOVERY AND DESTRUCTIVE TREATMENT OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCE IN COKING PLANT WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jianguang

    2000-01-01

    This paper discussed the comprehensive treatment of coking plant effluent.Cyanide-containing and phenol wastewater was first recovered and utilized respectively, and then, mixed it with other low harmful wastewater for destroying treatment.Treated water was reused in quenching coke.

  5. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  6. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  7. Comparative life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment in Denmark including sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Pizzol, Massimo; Gundorph Bruun, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment has nowadays multiple functions and produces both clean effluents and sludge, which is increasingly seen as a resource rather than a waste product. Technological as well as management choices influence the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the multiple fun...

  8. Inter-municipal cooperation for wastewater treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer-Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce cou

  9. Agricultural use of treated wastewater: the need for a paradigm shift in sanitation & treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Huibers, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate treated domestic sewage can be regarded as iseal for irrigation and fertilization purposes, particularly in the (semi)arid climate region. This contribution focuses on: 1) pathogens, various levels of interception; 2) basic wastewater treatment; 3) wastewater treatment for effluent use i

  10. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  11. Governance restricts : a contextual assessment of the wastewater treatment policy in the Guadelupe River Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiano Flores, Cesar; Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Hans

    Lack of wastewater treatment is among the main water problems worldwide. The implementation of wastewater treatment policies faces varying challenges given the many different contexts. Therefore, context-sensitive approaches are required from a governance perspective. This paper aims to improve the

  12. On an Exergy Efficiency Definition of a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Rangel-Hernandez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper analyzes the degradation of the water of a river in terms of its exergy while passing through the urban zone of a city. This analysis describes and compares the degradation process of the river from point to point, so it can be used to unify all the water quality measurements into the same exergy units [kJ/kg]. The second part introduces an exergy efficiency for a wastewater treatment plant that proposes to unify the means to measure the efficiency of the water treatment plants and their sub-systems. This particular case of study concerns the Lerma River in Mexico, which runs through Salamanca City, by determining its exergy at five sampling points.

  13. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a simulation benchmark for studying the influence of control strategy implementations on combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes in a biological wastewater treatment plant. The presented simulation benchmark plant and its performance criteria...... are to a large extent based on the already existing nitrogen removal simulation benchmark. The paper illustrates and motivates the selection of the treatment plant lay-out, the selection of the biological process model, the development of realistic influent disturbance scenarios for dry, rain and storm weather...... conditions respectively, the definition of performance indexes that include the phosphorus removal processes, and the selection of a suitable operating point for the plant. Two control loops were implemented: one for dissolved oxygen control using the oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as manipulated variable...

  14. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puyol, D.; Monsalvo, V.M.; Mohedano, A.F. [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J.L. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J.J., E-mail: juanjo.rodriguez@uam.es [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2 g TCOD L{sup -1} day{sup -1}). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  15. New magnetic-enhanced adsorption process for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, G.B.; Navratil, J.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sebesta, F. [Czech Tech Univ. (Czech Republic)

    1999-09-01

    Radioactive and nonradioactive metal ion and particulate species in aqueous solutions present a formidable treatment problem for the nuclear and commercial industries. An economical and highly effective system for the treatment of wastewater containing these metal species is presented that uses a new magnetic enhanced adsorption technique. The process employs low-cost magnetite (FeO{center_dot}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) supported on various organic and inorganic support media, and an external magnetic field to couple the inherent sorption properties of the magnetite with a high gradient magnetic separation technique. This combination of sorption techniques offers several advantages over current filtration and ion exchange systems and removes a variety of heavy metals and radioactive species. Filtration systems do not remove ionic species, and ion exchange systems can be plugged by particulate matter, which may limit the amount of exchange sites able to be accessed.

  16. Integrated treatment of molasses distillery wastewater using microfiltration (MF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhankar; Mukherjee, Sangeeta; Kaushik, Ankita; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-08-01

    To achieve zero-liquid discharge, high pressure reverse osmosis (RO) of effluent is being employed by molasses based alcohol distilleries. Low pressure and thus less energy intensive microfiltration (MF) is well established for particulate separation but is not suitable for removal of dissolved organics and color. This work investigates two schemes incorporating MF for molasses distillery wastewater (a) chemical coagulation followed by treatment in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using MF and (b) electrocoagulation followed by MF. The performance was assessed in terms of COD and color reduction; the conversion of the generated sludge into a zeolite desiccant was also examined. A comparison of the schemes indicates electrocoagulation followed by MF through a 0.1 μm membrane to be most effective. By hydrothermal treatment, electrocoagulated sludge can be transformed into a porous NaX zeolite with a surface area of 86 m(2)/g, which is comparable to commercial desiccants.

  17. Integrated airlift bioreactor system for on-site small wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Li, F; Qiao, Y; Yang, H G; Ding, F X

    2005-01-01

    An integrated airlift bioreactor system was developed, which mainly consists of a multi-stage loop reactor and a gas-liquid-solid separation baffle and possesses dual functions as bioreactor and settler. This integrated system was used for on-site treatment of industrial glycol wastewater in lab-scale. The strategy of gradually increasing practical wastewater concentration while maintaining the co-substrate glucose wastewater concentration helped to accelerate the microbial acclimation process. Investigation of microbial acclimation, operation parameters evaluation and microbial observation has demonstrated the economical and technical feasibility of this integrated airlift bioreactor system for on-site small industrial wastewater treatment.

  18. Influence of wastewater treatment process and the population size on human virus profiles in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Joanne; Leonard, Margaret; Greening, Gail E; Lewis, Gillian D

    2011-11-15

    Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus (EV) and norovirus (NoV) concentrations entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) serving different-sized communities, and effectiveness of different treatment processes in reducing concentrations were established. Data was combined to create a characteristic and unique descriptor of the individual viral composition and termed as the sample virus profile. Virus profiles were generally independent of population size and treatment process (moving bed biofilm reactors, activated sludge, waste stabilisation ponds). AdV and EV concentrations in wastewater were more variable in small (130,000 inhabitants) plants. AdV and EV concentrations were detected in influent of most WWTP (AdV range 1.00-4.08 log(10) infectious units (IU)/L, 3.25-8.62 log(10) genome copies/L; EV range 0.7-3.52 log(10) plaque forming units (PFU)/L; 2.84-6.67 log(10) genome copies/L) with a reduced median concentration in effluent (AdV range 0.70-3.26 log(10) IU/L, 2.97-6.95 log(10) genome copies/L; EV range 0.7-2.15 log(10)PFU/L, 1.54-5.28 log(10) genome copies/L). Highest culturable AdV and EV concentrations in effluent were from a medium-sized WWTP. NoV was sporadic in all WWTP with GI and GII concentrations being similar in influent (range 2.11-4.64 and 2.19-5.46 log(10) genome copies/L) as in effluent (range 2.18-5.06 and 2.88-5.46 log(10) genome copies/L). Effective management of WWTP requires recognition that virus concentration in influent will vary - particularly in small and medium plants. Irrespective of treatment type, culturable viruses and NoV are likely to be present in non-disinfected effluent, with associated human health risks dependent on concentration and receiving water usage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  20. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the municipal wastewater treatment sector, and it documents the experiences of the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) operators who have employed CHP.

  1. Dairy farm wastewater treatment by an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P S; Davies-Colley, R J

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater in New Zealand since the 1970s. The conventional two pond WSP systems provide efficient removal of wastewater BOD5 and total suspended solids, but effluent concentrations of other pollutants including nutrients and faecal bacteria are now considered unsuitable for discharge to waterways. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) provide a potential solution. A pilot dairy farm APS consisting of an Anaerobic pond (the first pond of the conventional WSP system) followed by three ponds: a High Rate Pond (HRP), an Algae Settling Pond (ASP) and a Maturation Pond (which all replace the conventional WSP system facultative pond) was evaluated over a two year period. Performance was compared to that of the existing conventional dairy farm WSP system. APS system effluent quality was considerably higher than that of the conventional WSP system with respective median effluent concentrations of BOD5: 34 and 108 g m(-3), TSS: 64 and 220 g m(-3), NH4-N: 8 and 29 g m(-3), DRP: 13 and 17 g m(-3), and E. coli: 146 and 16195 MPN/100 ml. APS systems show great promise for upgrading conventional dairy farm WSPs in New Zealand.

  2. Forward osmosis membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment with phosphorus recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ying; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2015-12-01

    A forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (OMBR) with a thin film composite membrane was seeded with flocculated sludge and aerobic granules to treat a synthetic wastewater with 1M NaCl as draw solution. The tested OMBR showed 96%, 43% and 100% removal of PO4(3-)-P, NH4(+)-N, and total organic carbon. Salinity was accumulated in OMBR principally owing to membrane rejection and salt leakage from draw solution. At high salinity level membrane fouling could be induced. Intermittent withdrawal and replenishment of supernatant from OMBR maintained its operation stability, while phosphorus in withdrawn supernatant was recovered by pH adjustment. The OMBR enriched phosphorus concentration from 156 mg/L in feed solution to 890-990 mg/L. At pH 8.5 with 2.65-2.71 g 3 M NaOH/g-P, 814-817 mg-P/L was recovered in the form of sodium hydrogen phosphite hydrate. The OMBR is a volatile wastewater treatment unit with capability for enrichment and recovery of phosphorus at reduced chemical costs.

  3. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2011-05-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L-1-135 mg L-1) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d-1-1780 mg d-1 applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency. © 2011.

  4. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs.

  5. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  6. Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from the antibiotics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, O; Shi, X; Wu, C H; Ng, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical wastewater generated by an antibiotics (penicillin) company was treated by aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). At a low organic loading rate of 0.22 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), both types of reactors were capable of treating the wastewater such that the treated effluent met the discharge regulation except for the total dissolved solids. However, when the loading rate was increased to 2.92 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), foaming issues resulted in unstable performance. Overall, the MBRs achieved better solid removal but the SBRs performed better in regards to the degradation of aromatic compounds, as determined by UV absorbance (UVA). Finally, ozonation was applied on two different streams and showed promise on the strong stream - that corresponds to the formulation effluent and contains most of the biorefractory compounds. Ozonation successfully reduced the UVA, lowered the pH and increased the biochemical oxygen demand : chemical oxygen demand (BOD5 : COD) ratio of the strong stream. However, it was less efficient on the effluent having undergone pre-treatment by a biofilter due to a lack of selectivity towards refractory compounds.

  7. Temporal dynamics of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plant influent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Wyrsch, V; Wynn, H K; Rossi, L; Barry, D A

    2013-08-01

    A yearlong field experimental campaign was conducted to reveal time scales over which antibiotic fluxes vary in the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WTP). In particular, sampling was carried out to ascertain the amplitudes of monthly, daily and hourly fluctuations of several antibiotics. A total of 180 samples was collected at the entrance of a WTP in Lausanne, Switzerland. Sample concentrations were multiplied by flow rate to obtain monthly, daily and hourly mass fluxes of six antibiotics (trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, clindamycin and metronidazole). Seasonality in mass fluxes was observed for all substances, with maximum values in winter being up to an order of magnitude higher than in summer. The hourly measurements of the mass flux of antibiotics were found to have a period of 12h. This was due to peaks in toilet use in the morning and early evening. In particular, the morning peak in flushing coincided with high concentrations (and hence high mass fluxes) due to overnight accumulation of substances in urine. However, little variation was observed in the average daily flux. Consequently, fluctuations in mass fluxes of antibiotics were mainly evident at the monthly and hourly time scales, with little variation on the day-week time scale. These results can aid in optimizing removal strategies and future sampling campaigns focused on antibiotics in wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  9. Bacterial communities involved in sulfur transformations in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; de Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia; Durrer, Ademir; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    The main sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located at southern Brazil were described based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA. Specific taxa of SRB and SOB were correlated with some abiotic factors, such as the source of the wastewater, oxygen content, sample type, and physical chemical attributes of these WWTPs. When the 22 families of SRB and SOB were clustered together, the samples presented a striking distribution, demonstrating grouping patterns according to the sample type. For SOB, the most abundant families were Spirochaetaceae, Chromatiaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, and Neisseriaceae, whereas, for SRB, were Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Nitrospiraceae, and Desulfovibriaceae. The structure and composition of the major families related to the sulfur cycle were also influenced by six chemical attributes (sulfur, potassium, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, and nitrogen). Sulfur was the chemical attribute that most influenced the variation of bacterial communities in the WWTPs (λ = 0.14, p = 0.008). The OTUs affiliated to Syntrophus showed the highest response to the increase of total sulfur. All these findings can contribute to improve the understanding in relation to the sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing communities in WWTPs aiming to reduce H2S emissions.

  10. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  11. Bioremediation Potential of Bacterial Isolates for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh A. Sonune

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bacteria for the treatment of municipal wastewater was investigated in present study. Total eight bacterial isolates were used for this study that showed growth on wastewater agar medium. These isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical test and identified as Bacillus licheniformis NW16, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Planococcus salinarum NS23, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NS21, Paenibacillus sp. NW9, Paenibacillus borealis NS3 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17. The B. licheniformis NW16 showed highest potential to reduce all parameter under study than other isolates except Ammonical nitrogen. B. licheniformis NW16 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed maximum reduction (42.86% in BOD each. B. licheniformis NW16 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed 82.76% and 81.61% reduction in COD respectively. B. licheniformis NW16, P. salinarum NS23 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in nitrate ranging from 17.36%-63.64%. All the isolates have potential to reduced phosphate from 17.55% -72.3%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Paenibacillus sp. NW9 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in TSS ranging from 42.69%-79.94%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, S. maltophilia NS21 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed reduction in TDS ranging from 14%-81.4%.

  12. Applicability of an electrochemical Fenton-type process to actual wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kitamura, Takuya; Nakamura, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of an electrochemical Fenton-type process (EF-HOCl-ReFe) to the treatment of three actual wastewaters, namely wastewater from an automobile factory (automobile wastewater), metal scrap-cleansing wastewater, and municipal wastewater, is discussed in this research. The EF-HOCl-ReFe successfully removed the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from automobile wastewater pre-treated by a coagulation process without any inhibition. The apparent current efficiency reached 86%, 46% of which was ascribed to the electrochemical Fenton-type mechanism. The metal scrap-cleansing wastewater had a yellow colour and high concentrations of COD (6550 mg/L) and Cl(-) (1560 mM). The EF-HOCl-ReFe could achieve almost complete COD removal and decolourization after 48 h of treatment, although a temporary intensification of colour was observed before the decolourization. The EF-HOCl-ReFe was also effective in the removal of 1,4-dioxane from municipal wastewater pre-treated by activated sludge and coagulation processes, which were unable to remove 1,4-dioxane. The 1,4-dioxane removal efficiency after 30 min of treatment reached 68.5%. Thus, the EF-HOCl-ReFe was applicable to the treatment of these actual wastewaters.

  13. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  14. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOK Young Sun; JO Jin-Oh; LEE Heon-Ju

    2008-01-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  15. Assessment of the Possibility of Improvement of Dairy Wastewater Treatment System Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hercog, Jernej

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of dairy wastewater from the viewpoint of successful elimination of organic and inorganic components in physical and biological treatment processes in pre-treatment systems. Theoretically, the thesis covers the definitions and explanations of biological wastewater treatment, and deals with treatment processes in the sequencing batch reactor as well as the tertiary treatment level for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Furthermore, the thesis cove...

  16. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  17. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Nzila; Shaikh Abdur Razzak; Jesse Zhu

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation...

  18. The treatment of radioactive wastewater by ultrasonic standing wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su-xia, Hou, E-mail: hsxljj@sina.com; Ji-jun, Luo; Bin, He; Ru-song, Li; Tao, Shen

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • USWM can be considered as the green cleaning separation techniques. • A physical model of suspended radioactive particle is established. • A computer program is developed to achieve numerical calculation and analysis. • The experimental device for low-level radioactive wastes treatment is designed. • Lots of experimental data are used to analysis the influence of the parameters. - Abstract: The radiation hazards of radionuclide arising from the storage of nuclear weapons cannot be ignored to the operators. Ultrasonic standing wave methods can be considered as the green cleaning separation techniques with high efficiency. The application of ultrasonic standing wave methods for liquid radioactive wastes treatment requires solving many problems connected with the proper selection of the frequency and power of ultrasonic transducers, and the processing time, etc. Based on the model of one single suspended radioactive particle subjected to in the field of ultrasonic standing wave, the principle of the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound was analyzed. The theoretical and simulation results show that under the action of ultrasonic standing wave, the particle will move toward the wave node plane, and the time of particle reaching the plane become shorter when the radius of particle and the frequency and power of ultrasound was enlarged. The experimental results show that the radioactive concentration of wastewater could be reduced from 400 Bq L{sup −1} to 9.3 Bq L{sup −1} and the decontamination efficiency was 97.68%. The decontamination efficiency could not be obviously improved by further increasing the treating time.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  20. Livestock wastewater treatment by zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ryul; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo [Radiation Research Center for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Livestock wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matters and ammonia-nitrogen has been known as one of the recalcitrant wastewater. It is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation treatment of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiencies of SCOD{sub Cr} and NH3-N were significantly enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. However, the effects of zeolite particle size on the SCOD{sub Cr} and NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiencies were insignificant. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation has potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater.

  1. Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models – Part ... organics under anaerobic conditions .... which limit the capacity of the WWTP. ..... Thermophilic Heat Treatment on the Anaerobic Digestibility of Pri-.

  2. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  3. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  4. Nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenhao; Tao, Erpan; Chen, Xiaoquan; Liu, Dawei [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hongbin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We studied nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process (WWTP) based on the activated sludge model. Two control strategies, back propagation for proportional-integral-derivative (BP-PID) and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), are applied in the WWTP. The simulation results show that the simple local constant setpoint control has poor control effects on the nitrate concentration control. However, the ANFIS (4*1) controller, which considers not only the local constant setpoint control of the nitrate concentration, but also three important indices in the effluent--ammonia concentration, total suspended sludge concentration and total nitrogen concentration--demonstrates good control performance. The results also prove that ANFIS (4*1) controller has better control performance than that of the controllers PI, BP-PID and ANFIS (2*1), and that the ANFIS (4*1) controller is effective in improving the effluent quality and maintaining the stability of the effluent quality.

  5. Phthalates, Nonylphenols and LAS in Roskilde Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.

    The steady-state compartment description of the biological reactors and settlers in wastewater treatment plants that is used in SimpleTreat has been evaluated with respect to an alternately operated WWTP situated in Roskilde, Denmark. The effect of substituting a complex discontinuous operation......, involving alternating degradation and flow conditions between two reactors, with one single biological reactor with continuos flow (SimpleTreat) has been investigated by setting-up two models representing the respective operation schemes. An experimental series was performed where inlet, outlet, primary...... concludes that it is possible to substitute a complex alternating operation with a system containing one single biological reactor, corresponding to SimpleTreat, when a suggested empirical aggregate 1st order degradation rate is employed...

  6. Carboxymethyl inulin: a novel flocculant for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, Rahul; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-02-01

    Carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) has been synthesized by incorporation of carboxymethyl groups in the inulin framework; by reacting inulin with sodium salt of monochloro acetic acid (SMCA) in presence of sodium hydroxide. The resulting carboxymethylated product, with different degrees of substitution, has been confirmed through various physicochemical characterization techniques, such as intrinsic viscosity measurement, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Flocculation efficacy of various grades of CMI, have been studied in kaolin suspension and then in municipal wastewater, in relation to inulin (parent polysaccharide). This has been done utilizing jar-test procedure towards possible application as a flocculant for waste water treatment.

  7. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with a pilot-scale bioaugmented biological treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In solving the deterioration of biological treatment system treating petrochemical wastewater under low temperatures,bioaugmentation technology was adopted by delivering engineering bacteria into a pilot-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O)process based on previous lab-scale study. Experimental results showed that when the concentrations of COD and NH4+-N of the influent were 370~910 mg/L and 10~70 mg/L, the corresponding average concentrations of those of effluent were about 80 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively, which was better than the Level I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). According to GC-MS analysis of the effluents from both the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the pilot system, there were 68 kinds of persistent organic pollutants in the WWTP effluent, while there were only 32 in that of the pilot system. In addition, the amount of the organics in the effluent of the pilot system reduced by almost 50% compared to that of the WWTP. As a whole, after bioaugmentation, the organic removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment system obviously increased.

  8. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  9. Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J M; Quintã, R; Papadimitriou, S; Norman, L; Rigby, M; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2012-10-15

    The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 μmol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 μmol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 μmol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 μmol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea.

  10. A heat transfer model for biological wastewater treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. H.

    A heat transfer model for predicting the water temperature of aeration tank in a biological wastewater treatment plant is presented. The heat transfer mechanisms involved in the development of the heat transfer model include heat gains from solar radiation and biochemical reaction and heat losses from evaporation, aeration, wind blowing and conduction through tank walls. Several empirical correlations were adopted and appropriate assumptions made to facilitate the model development. Experiments were conducted in the biological wastewater treatment plant of a chemical fiber company over a year's period. The operational, weather and temperature data were registered. The daily water temperature data were averaged over a month period and compared with the theoretical prediction. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the predicted and measured temperatures, verifying the proposed heat transfer model. Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Wärmeübergangsmodell zur Berechnung der Wassertemperatur im Belüftungstank einer Anlage zur biologischen Abwasserbehandlung vorgestellt. Die in das Modell eingehenden Wärmeübergangsmechanismen umfassen: solare Wärmeeinstrahlung, biochemische Reaktion, Wärmeverluste durch Verdampfung, Belüftung, Windeinfluß und Leitung durch die Behälterwände. Mehrere empirische Beziehungen sowie vertretbare Annahmen tragen zur Modellvereinfachung bei. An der biologischen Abwasser-Kläranlage einer Chemiefaserfirma wurden ein Jahr lang Experimente durchgeführt und dabei Betriebs-, Wetter- und Temperaturdaten aufgezeichnet. Die täglichen Wassertemperaturen, gemittelt über einen Monat, zeigten ausgezeichnete Übereinstimmung mit den theoretischen Vorausberechnungen und bestätigten so die Brauchbarkeit des vorgeschlagenen Wärmeübergangsmodells.

  11. Integration of biotechnological wastewater treatment units in textile finishing factories: from end of the pipe solutions to combined production and wastewater treatment units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitkenhauer, H; Meyer, U

    2001-08-23

    Increasing costs for water, wastewater and energy put pressure on textile finishing plants to increase the efficiency of wet processing. An improved water management can decrease the use of these resources and is a prerequisite for the integration of an efficient, anaerobic on-site pretreatment of effluents that will further cut wastewater costs. A two-phase anaerobic treatment is proposed, and successful laboratory experiments with model effluents from the cotton finishing industry are reported. The chemical oxygen demand of this wastewater was reduced by over 88% at retention times of 1 day or longer. The next step to boost the efficiency is to combine the production and wastewater treatment. The example of cotton fabric desizing (removing size from the fabric) illustrates how this final step of integration uses the acidic phase bioreactor as a part of the production and allows to close the water cycle of the system.

  12. Photochemical treatment as an alternative to improve the quality of wastewater after advanced primary treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research contains the photochemical treatment (PCT of residual wastewater effluent derived from an advanced primary treatment process (APT. The application employed an ultraviolet light system, hydrogen peroxide and ozone as a free hydroxyl’s radicals generator; strong oxidants for the organic contaminants mineralization which affects the water quality. The aliquots of the APT and PCT were analyzed by determination of the parameters as the color, turbidity, electric conductivity, COD, UV-Vis spectrometry, anion and cation techniques, enabling the determination of the photo-oxidative wastewater treatment efficiency. The microbiological assays denote the one hundred percent photo-oxidative effectiveness for the removal of undesirable microorganisms. After the treatment, the water is suitable for its reuse, commercialization or spill into a body receptor without any risk for the environment or the health.

  13. [The wastewater treatment significance in the control sanitarian and epidemiological state of environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojecka, Agnieszka; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Podgórska, Marta; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The municipal wastewater consist of organic, inorganic and biological contaminations. The most of human and animals pathogens are found in municipal wastewater responsible for water-borne and waterwashed diseases. Wastewater biological treatment is effective methods to reduce the transmission route of this pathogens. Different kind of methods (microfiltration/coagulation) and technology (aerobic/anaerobic stabilization) treated municipal wastewater, secondary effluent, primary and excess sludge are used to inactivation viruses, bacteria and protozoan. Chemical disinfection with CaO significantly affects inactivation of helminthes eggs during the hygienization of sludge. However the efficiency of pathogens disinfection particularly depend on contact time and concentration of disinfectants.

  14. Start- up strategies of UASB reactor for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two start-up strategies of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater were investigated. The results showed that both of them were workable. Compared with the strategy that started up the reactor directly using chloromycetin wastewater, the strategy that started up the reactor first using mixed wastewater and then using chloromycetin wastewater could save time by 23%. When the latter strategy was adopted the development of sludge activity fluctuated more largely and its final activity was lower, but the sludge grew faster in the course of start-up.

  15. Wastewater treatment by adsorption onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens Plant as new adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiban, M.; Soudani, A.; Sinan, F.; Persin, M.

    2009-07-01

    Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals must be effectively treated/removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewaters were discharged directly into natural waters, it will constitute a great risk for the aquatic ecosystem, whilst the direct discharge into the sewerage system may affect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment. (Author)

  16. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  17. Determination of the priority indexes for the oil refinery wastewater treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Myshlyavtsev, A. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.; Markelov, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The wastewater biological treatment intensity and effectiveness are influenced by many factors: temperature, pH, presence and concentration of toxic substances, the biomass concentration et al. Regulation of them allows controlling the biological treatment process. Using the Bayesian theorem the link between changes was determined and the wastewater indexes normative limits exceeding influence for activated sludge characteristics alteration probability was evaluated. The estimation of total, or aposterioric, priority index presence probability, which characterizes the wastewater treatment level, is an important way to use the Bayesian theorem in activated sludge swelling prediction at the oil refinery biological treatment unit.

  18. Design of Upelow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor for treatment of organic wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kahalekar, U J; Takalkar, S V

    2003-04-01

    The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor is widely applied anaerobic wastewater treatment method all over the world. Uniform distribution of wastewater at reactor bottom is necessary to establish proper contact between sludge and wastewater. In addition, proper functioning of Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) separator is crucial to ensure maximum sludge retention in the reactor and to achieve maximum COD removal rate in the reactor. Hence, proper design of reactor is necessary for appropriate functioning of various components for a given wastewater flow rate and COD concentration. The design procedure for UASB reactor taking due consideration to the GLS design and design of inlet arrangement is discussed in this paper for various wastewater strength and flow rates. A software is developed to make economical design of UASB reactor for different type of wastewater by adopting maximum loading conditions, based on literature recommendations, and at the same time to satisfy all design recommendation, as far as possible.

  19. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation process for treatment of saline wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoos Dindarloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High concentration of salt makes biological treatment impossible due to bacterial plasmolysis. The present research studies the process of electrochemical oxidation efficiency and optimal levels as important factors affecting pH, salt concentration, reaction time and applied voltage. Methods: The sample included graphite electrodes with specifications of 2.5 cm diameter and 15 cm height using a reactor with an optimum capacity of 1 L. Sixty samples were obtained with the aid of the experiments carried out in triplicates for each factor at 5 different levels. The entire experiments were performed based on standard methods for water and waste water treatments. Results: Analysis of variance carried out on effect of pH, salt concentration, reaction time and flow intensity in elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that they are significant factors affecting this process and reduce COD with a coefficient interval of 95% and test power of 80%. Scheffe test showed that at optimal level, a reaction time of 1 hour, 10 g/L concentration, pH = 9 and 15 V electrical potential difference were obtained. Conclusion: Waste waters containing salt may contribute to the electro-oxidation process due to its cations and anions. Therefore, the process of electrochemical oxidation with graphite electrodes could be a proper strategy for the treatment of saline wastewater where biological treatment is not possible.