WorldWideScience

Sample records for wastes laboratory studies

  1. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes.

  2. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M A; Mir, Mohsin; Murtaza, Shazad; Bhatti, Zafar I

    2003-05-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr(3+)) and hexavalent (Cr(6+)) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr(3+) is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases. In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100% efficiency in reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+), and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents. Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr(3+) to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100% was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100% efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confined that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  4. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

  5. Clinical laboratory waste management in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Motazedian, Nasrin; Palenik, Charles John

    2012-06-01

    Clinical laboratories are significant generators of infectious waste, including microbiological materials, contaminated sharps, and pathologic wastes such as blood specimens and blood products. Most waste produced in laboratories can be disposed of in the general solid waste stream. However, improper management of infectious waste, including mixing general wastes with infectious wastes and improper handling or storage, could lead to disease transmission. The aim of this study was to assess waste management processes used at clinical laboratories in Shiraz, Iran. One hundred and nine clinical laboratories participated In this cross sectional study, Data collection was by questionnaire and direct observation. Of the total amount of waste generated, 52% (by weight) was noninfectious domestic waste, 43% was non-sharps infectious waste and 5% consisted of sharps. There was no significant relationship between laboratory staff or manager education and the score for quality of waste collection and disposal at clinical laboratories. Improvements in infectious waste management processes should involve clearer, more uniformly accepted definitions of infectious waste and increased staff training.

  6. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  7. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a new Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed lowlevel, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TA-54 Area G. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to ten sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. Three passes of the analysis were required to assess different site scenarios: 1) a fully consolidated CWC with both transfer/storage and LL W disposal in one location (45 acre minimum), 2) CWC transfer/storage only (12 acre minimum), and 3) LLW disposal only (33 acre minimum). The top site choice for all three options is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. TA-54 East, Zone 4 also deserves consideration as a LLW disposal site.

  8. The Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis and the Study of Personnel's Awareness of the Management Strategies of the Wastes of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories of Rasht, in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabizadeh R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Waste produced by health and treatment centers (hospitals including medical diagnostic laboratories is one of the sources of municipal waste production. Waste produced by medical diagnostic laboratories due to the existence of pathogens and infectious materials by high importance is one of the environmental issues. This survey has been done on the qualitative-quantitative analytical bases, and the investigation has focused on the management strategies of the waste material of medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht, Iran in 2009. Methods: In this descriptive study, samples were collected from 19 medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht in 3 consecutive days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday every week, after filling the questionnaire and interviewing with the managers. Then, the samples were separated manually, and divided into 46 different constituents and weighed. Next, the constituents were classified based on characteristics and potentiality of being hazardous.Results: The total amount of annual waste production by the medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht is 25785.143kg. In this study, the share of manufacturing conventional waste (domestic type wastes, especially infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive wastes were 1.16%, 95.34%, 1.42% and 2.08%, respectively. The highest and lowest amount of waste production relates to plastic materials and wood which are 48.37 and 0.43%, respectively. In this study sharp cutting things were calculated to be 10.52%. Furthermore, 84 percent of the managers of the medical diagnostic laboratories had not had enough information of the circulars and instructions on the enforceable management strategies of the medical wastes.Conclusion: Concerning the management of the medical waste production in the medical diagnostic laboratories, it is suggested that the managers and the personnel be trained on the separation, collection, and disinfection techniques and final disposal

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  10. Laboratory Scale Thermal Plasma Arc Vitrification Studies of Heavy Metal-Laden Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, R; Zaghloul, H H; Stephenson, L D; Smith, E D; Wood, J W; Cahil, D G

    1996-11-01

    Plasma processing has been identified as a useful tool for immobilizing heavy metal-contaminated wastes into safe, leach-resistant slag. Although much effort has gone into developing this technology on a pilot scale, not much information has been published on basic research topics. A laboratory-scale plasma arc furnace located at the University of Illinois was operated in cooperation with the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories in an effort to establish an understanding of the chemical and physical processes (such as metal volatilization and resultant gas evolution) that occur during thermal plasma treatment of metal-spiked samples. Experiments were conducted on nickel and chromium using a highly instrumented furnace equipped with a 75 kW transferred arc plasma torch. The volatility of nickel and chromium was examined as a function of varying oxygen partial pressures. Oxidizing conditions reduced the total dust gathered for both the nickel and chromium samples, although each dust sample was found to be metal-enriched. Plasma treating increased the leach-resistance of the slags by at least one order of magnitude when compared to unprocessed specimens. The leach- resistance of the nickel-containing slags increased in the presence of oxygen, whereas chromium samples remained relatively constant.

  11. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-05

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a potential Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed low-level, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Technical Area (TA)-54. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to seven sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. The top site choice is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. The seven sites are as follows. TA-18/36 (62 acres) is located on Potrillo Drive that intersects Pajarito Road at the bottom of a steep grade. It has some blast zone issues on its southwest side and some important archeological sites on the southeast section. TA-60 (50 acres) is located at the end of Eniwetok Road off Diamond Drive, east of TA-3. Most of the site is within a fifty foot-deep ravine (that may have contamination in the drainage), with a small section on the mesa above. TA-63/52/46 (110 acres) lies to the north of Pajarito Road along Puye Road. It is centrally located in a brown field industrial area, with good access to generators on a controlled road. TA-46 (22 acres) is a narrow site on the south side of Pajarito Road across from TA-46 office buildings. TA-48 (14 acres) is also narrow, and is located on the north side of Pajarito Road near the west vehicle access portal (VAP). TA-51 (19 acres) is located on the south side of Pajarito Road at the top of the hill above TA-18 near the current entrance to the TA-54. TA-54 West (16 acres) is just north of the entrance to TA-54 at Pajarito Road and is close to Zone 4. Although it is near the San Ildefonso Pueblo property line, there may be adequate set-back for sight screening.

  12. Investigation of the liquid low-level waste evaporator steam coil failure and supporting laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, S.J.; Keiser, J.R.; Longmire, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    Using a remote video camera, the internals of a low-level waste evaporator tank (termed 2A2, type 304L stainless steel construction, known to have failed steam coils) were inspected. This inspection revealed at least three rather substantial holes as opposed to crack- or pit-like leak sites near the nominal solution level position on one particular steam coil. This section was removed from the evaporator vessel, and subsequent hot cell examination revealed extensive general corrosion on the process side of the coil with little or no attack on the steam side. Hot cell metallography confirmed intense general corrosion on the process side and, in addition, revealed shallow intergranular attack at the leading edge of corrosion. No pits or cracks were detected in this section of the steam coil. Laboratory corrosion tests with coupons of 304L (and other high-alloy materials) isothermally exposed in a range of solutions similar to those expected in the evaporator reveal only very low corrosion rates below 40% sodium hydroxide and the solution boiling point. However, {open_quotes}dried film{close_quotes} experiments revealed that much more dilute solutions became aggressive to stainless steel due to concentrating effects (evaporation and periodic wetting) at the air/solution interface. The high general corrosion rates observed on the failed coil section occurred at or near the air/solution interface and were attributed to such {open_quotes}splash zone{close_quotes} activity.

  13. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  14. Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R & D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R & D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy.

  15. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trussell, S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Spence, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  16. The Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis and the Study of Personnel's Awareness of the Management Strategies of the Wastes of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories of Rasht, in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nabizadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Waste produced by health and treatment centers (hospitals including medical diagnostic laboratories is one of the sources of municipal waste production. Waste produced by medical diagnostic laboratories due to the existence of pathogens and infectious materials by high importance is one of the environmental issues. This survey has been done on the qualitative-quantitative analytical bases, and the investigation has focused on the management strategies of the waste material of medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht, Iran in 2009.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive study, samples were collected from 19 medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht in 3 consecutive days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday every week, after filling the questionnaire and interviewing with the managers. Then, the samples were separated manually, and divided into 46 different constituents and weighed. Next, the constituents were classified based on characteristics and potentiality of being hazardous.

     

    Results: The total amount of annual waste production by the medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht is 25785.143kg. In this study, the share of manufacturing conventional waste (domestic type wastes, especially infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive wastes were 1.16%, 95.34%, 1.42% and 2.08%, respectively. The highest and lowest amount of waste production relates to plastic materials and wood which are 48.37 and 0.43%, respectively. In this study sharp cutting things were calculated to be 10.52%. Furthermore, 84 percent of the managers of the medical diagnostic laboratories had not had enough information of the circulars and instructions on the enforceable management strategies of the medical wastes.

     

    Conclusion: Concerning the management of the medical waste production in the

  17. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  18. Waste management plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This plan defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing waste generated during activities associated with Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 5 is located in Melton Valley, south of the main ORNL plant area. It contains 17 solid waste management units (SWMUs) to be evaluated during the remedial investigation. The SWMUs include three burial areas, two hydrofracture facilities, two settling ponds, eight tanks, and two low-level liquid waste leak sites. These locations are all considered to be within the WAG 5 area of contamination (AOC). The plan contains provisions for safely and effectively managing soils, rock cuttings, development and sampling water, decontamination fluids, and disposable personal protective equipment (PPE) consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance of May 1991 (EPA 1991). Consistent with EPA guidance, this plan is designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public.

  19. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and origina...

  20. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule (in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping). Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report.

  1. Control of Acid Generation from Pyrite Oxidation in a Highly Reactive Natural Waste: A Laboratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory kinetic leach column (KLC tests were carried out to define the conditions required to control acid generation from a highly reactive, potentially acid-forming (PAF iron ore waste rock. It was found that lime addition (0.1 wt % blended plus either blending of silicates (25 wt % K-feldspar and 25 wt % chlorite, or addition of a non-acid forming (NAF top cover containing about 10% dolomite (PAF:NAF = 5:1 wt %, when watered/flushed with lime-saturated water, greatly reduced acid generation as compared to the control KLC (PAF alone, watered/flushed with Milli-Q water, but did not result in circum-neutral pH as required for pyrite surface passivation and effective acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD mitigation. In contrast, the combined use of these treatments—blended lime and silicates with an NAF cover and watering/flushing with lime-saturated water—resulted in leachate pH of 12 (up to 24 weeks. Mass balance calculations for Ca2+ and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses suggest that calcite or gypsum may have formed in the NAF-amended KLCs and lime with added silicate KLC. Although the combined approach in the form trialled here may not be practical or cost-effective, control of a highly reactive natural PAF waste by pyrite surface passivation appears to be possible, and an improved treatment methodology (e.g., slightly increased lime blending without the need for further lime watering/flushing could usefully be examined in the future.

  2. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  3. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  4. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trussell, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  6. 2016 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE), inclusive of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Environmental Management, and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program, which is a component of the overall Pollution Prevention (P2) Program, administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (EPC-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and P2 goals of the Associate Directorate of Environmental Management (ADEM) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. This report includes data for all waste shipped offsite from LANL during fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016). LANS was active during FY2016 in waste minimization and P2 efforts. Multiple projects were funded that specifically related to reduction of hazardous waste. In FY2016, there was no hazardous, mixed-transuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste shipped offsite from the Laboratory. More non-remediation hazardous waste and MLLW was shipped offsite from the Laboratory in FY2016 compared to FY2015. Non-remediation MTRU waste was not shipped offsite during FY2016. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  7. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K)-1. The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  8. Concentration and solidification of liquid radioactive wastes. Laboratory studies; Concentracion e inmovilizacion de residuos liquidos radiactivos. Estudio de Laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuche Vazquez F.; Lora Soria, F. de

    1969-07-01

    Bench scale runs on concentration of intermediate level radioactive wastes, and incorporation of the concentrates in asphalt, are described. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated, with a maximum incorporation of 60 percent of salts into the asphaltic matrix and a volume reduction factor of 10. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. TRANSURANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Betty; Bland, Jesse John

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the history of the TRU program at Sandia, previous and current activities associated with TRU material and waste, interfaces with other TRU waste generator sites and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP), and paths forward for TRU material and waste. This document is a snapshot in time of the TRU program and should be updated as necessary, or when significant changes have occurred in the Sandia TRU program or in the TRU regulatory environment. This paper should serve as a roadmap to capture past TRU work so that efforts are not repeated and ground is not lost due to future inactivity and personnel changes.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan. Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  11. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Bates, L.D.; Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Setaro, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that all DOE facilities handling defense transuranic (TRU) waste develop and implement a program whereby all TRU waste will be contained, stored, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOE certification documents WIPP-DOE-069, 114, 120, 137, 157, and 158. The program described in this report describes how Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intends to comply with these requirements and the techniques and procedures used to ensure that ORNL TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP. This document describes the program for certification of newly generated (NG) contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Previsions have been made for addenda, which will extend the coverage of this document to include certification of stored CH-TRU and NG and stored remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste, as necessary. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Risk assessment and quality improvement of liquid waste management in Taiwan University chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Chung; Chen, Ming-Shu

    2018-01-01

    The policy of establishing new universities across Taiwan has led to an increase in the number of universities, and many schools have constructed new laboratories to meet students' academic needs. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of laboratory accidents from the liquid waste in universities. Therefore, how to build a safety system for laboratory liquid waste disposal has become an important issue in the environmental protection, safety, and hygiene of all universities. This study identifies the risk factors of liquid waste disposal and presents an agenda for practices to laboratory managers. An expert questionnaire is adopted to probe into the risk priority procedures of liquid waste disposal; then, the fuzzy theory-based FMEA method and the traditional FMEA method are employed to analyze and improve the procedures for liquid waste disposal. According to the research results, the fuzzy FMEA method is the most effective, and the top 10 potential disabling factors are prioritized for improvement according to the risk priority number (RNP), including "Unclear classification", "Gathering liquid waste without a funnel or a drain pan", "Lack of a clearance and transport contract", "Liquid waste spill during delivery", "Spill over", "Decentralized storage", "Calculating weight in the wrong way", "Compatibility between the container material and the liquid waste", "Lack of dumping and disposal tools", and "Lack of a clear labels for liquid waste containers". After tracking improvements, the overall improvement rate rose to 60.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTES LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-12-05

    Laboratory studies demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable process for separating Hanford medium-curie waste into high-curie and low-curie fractions. The product salt from the crystallization process qualifies as low-curie feed to a supplemental treatment system (e.g., bulk vitrification). The high-curie raffinate is returned to the double-shell tank system, eventually to be sent as feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Process flowsheet tests were designed with the aid of thermodynamic chemical modeling. Laboratory equipment design and test procedures were developed using simulated tank waste samples. Proof-of-concept flowsheet tests were carried out in a shielded hot cell using actual tank waste samples. Data from both simulated waste tests and actual tank waste tests demonstrate that the process exceeded all of the separation criteria established for the program.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2010-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

  17. Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory (324 building)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammenzind, D.E.

    1997-05-27

    The 324 Facility Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is comprised of twenty functional areas. Two of the twenty functional areas (Decontamination and Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration) were determined as nonapplicable functional areas and one functional area (Research and Development and Experimental Activities) was determined applicable, however, requirements are found in other functional areas and will not be duplicated. Each functional area follows as a separate chapter, either containing the S/RID or a justification for nonapplicability. The twenty functional areas listed below follow as chapters: 1. Management Systems; 2. Quality Assurance; 3. Configuration Management; 4. Training and Qualification; 5. Emergency Management; 6. Safeguards and Security; 7. Engineering Program; 8. Construction; 9. Operations; 10. Maintenance; 11. Radiation Protection; 12. Fire Protection; 13. Packaging and Transportation; 14. Environmental Restoration; 15. Decontamination and Decommissioning; 16. Waste Management; 17. Research and Development and Experimental Activities; 18. Nuclear Safety; 19. Occupational Safety and Health; 20. Environmental Protection.

  18. Radioactive waste study released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.

  19. NNWSI waste from testing at Argonne National Laboratory. Semiannual report, July-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.

    1986-03-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. As part of the waste package development portion of this project, experiments are being performed by the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory to study the behavior of the waste forms under anticipated repository conditions. These experiments include (1) the development and performance of a test to measure waste form behavior in unsaturated conditions and (2) the performance of tests designed to study the behavior of waste package components in an irradiated environment. Previous reports document developments in these areas through 1984. This report summarizes progress in 1985. Reports will be issued semi-annually hereafter.

  20. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created.

  1. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory.

  2. Exploratory study of complexant concentrate waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bray, L.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Morrey, J.R.; Swanson, J.L.; Wester, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, was to determine the effect of applying advanced chemical separations technologies to the processing and disposal of high-level wastes (HLW) stored in underground tanks. The major goals of this study were to determine (1) if the wastes can be partitioned into a small volume of HLW plus a large volume of low-level waste (LLW), and (2) if the activity in the LLW can be lowered enough to meet NRC Class LLW criteria. This report presents the results obtained in a brief scouting study of various processes for separating radionuclides from Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) waste.

  3. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Management Operations Roadmap Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, M.

    1992-04-01

    At the direction of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), the DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) is developing roadmaps for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) activities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). DOE-ID has convened a select group of contractor personnel from EG&G Idaho, Inc. to assist DOE-ID personnel with the roadmapping project. This document is a report on the initial stages of the first phase of the INEL`s roadmapping efforts.

  4. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  5. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  6. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part C, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities at ORNL including waste management and remedial action at the site; also waste processing and disposal; robotics and automation of the laboratory; and regulatory compliance

  8. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  9. Hospital Waste Management - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Edra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of waste management in hospitals is indisputable in preserving the environment and protecting public health, but management models are rarely discussed. This study presents the legal and conceptual frameworks of good waste management practices applicable to hospitals and associated indicators. As a case study, the overall performance of Hospital Centre of São João, in Porto, was analysed based on published reports. Data on the production of waste in their different typologies were collected from 2010 to 2016, enabling a correlation of the waste production with the kg/bed/day indicator. The aim of this study was to gather data and discuss trends in a real scenario of evolution over a six-year period in order to contribute to a future research proposal on indicators that can be used as reference for benchmarking the construction of methodological guides for hospital waste management.

  10. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  11. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  12. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  13. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.J. (comp.)

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  14. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  16. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-14

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

  18. Waste certification program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-09-01

    This document defines the waste certification program (WCP) developed for implementation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The document describes the program structure, logic, and methodology for certification of ORNL wastes. The purpose of the WCP is to provide assurance that wastes are properly characterized and that the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for receiving facilities are met. The program meets the waste certification requirements for mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) and hazardous [including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)] waste. Program activities will be conducted according to ORNL Level 1 document requirements.

  19. Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Honey, F.J.; Franks, L.A.; Pigg, J.L.; Trundle, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable.

  20. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  1. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  2. Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J. [and others

    1997-02-01

    A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

  3. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  4. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  5. Waste reduction program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during CY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-05-01

    Hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The State of Tennessee has requested that ORNL organize the waste streams into approximately 30 generic categories for the CY 1989 report so the information is more manageable. The wide diversity of waste complicates both management and compliance with reporting requirements that are designed to apply to production facilities. In recent years, increased effort has been devoted to the minimization of hazardous and radioactive wastes at ORNL. Policy statements supporting such efforts have been issued by both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and ORNL management. Motivation is found in federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, and limited disposal options and facility capacities. ORNL's waste minimization efforts have achieved some success. However, because of the diversity and predominantly nonroutine nature of ORNL's containerized wastes, goals for their reduction are difficult to establish. Efforts continue to establish goals that account separately for wastes generated from laboratory cleanouts, to avoid a waste minimization penalty'' for this good housekeeping practice. Generator evaluations to prioritize hazardous waste streams for waste minimization opportunities are planned for FY 1990. These are important first steps to enable the waste reduction program to assign realistic goals. 22 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  7. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  8. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  9. Waste-to-Energy Laboratory. Grades 8-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an activity for grades 8-12 students that focuses on the reuse of waste as an energy source by burning and converting it into energy. For this experiment students construct a calorimeter from simple recyclable material. The calorimeter is used to measure the amount of energy stored in paper and yard waste that could be used…

  10. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  11. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  12. Generation and composition of medical wastes from private medical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Makroleivaditis, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulou, Eftychia

    2017-03-01

    A study on the generation rate and the composition of solid medical wastes (MW) produced by private medical microbiology laboratories (PMML) was conducted in Greece. The novelty of the work is that no such information exists in the literature for this type of laboratories worldwide. Seven laboratories were selected with capacities that ranged from 8 to 88 examinees per day. The study lasted 6months and daily recording of MW weights was done over 30days during that period. The rates were correlated to the number of examinees, examinations and personnel. Results indicated that on average 35% of the total MW was hazardous (infectious) medical wastes (IFMW). The IFMW generation rates ranged from 11.5 to 32.5g examinee -1 d -1 while an average value from all 7 labs was 19.6±9.6g examinee -1 d -1 or 2.27±1.11g examination -1 d -1 . The average urban type medical waste generation rate was 44.2±32.5g examinee -1 d -1 . Using basic regression modeling, it was shown that the number of examinees and examinations can be predictors of the IFMW generation, but not of the urban type MW generation. The number of examinations was a better predictor of the MW amounts than the number of examinees. Statistical comparison of the means of the 7PMML was done with standard ANOVA techniques after checking the normality of the data and after doing the appropriate transformations. Based on the results of this work, it is approximated that 580 tonnes of infectious MW are generated annually by the PMML in Greece. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan, fiscal year 1994. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A was promulgated in final form on September 26, 1988. The order requires heads of field organizations to prepare and to submit updates on the waste management plans for all operations under their purview according to the format in Chap. 6, {open_quotes}Waste Management Plan Outline.{close_quotes} These plans are to be submitted by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) in December of each year and distributed to the DP-12, ES&H-1, and other appropriate DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) organizations for review and comment. This document was prepared in response to this requirement for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management mission is reduction, collection, storage, treatment, and disposal of DOE wastes, generated primarily in pursuit of ORNL missions, in order to protect human health and safety and the environment. In carrying out this mission, waste management staff in the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) will (1) guide ORNL in optimizing waste reduction and waste management capabilities and (2) conduct waste management operations in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of this document is compilation and consolidation of information on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what activities are planned for FY 1994, and how all of the activities are documented.

  14. Laboratory Approaches to Studying Occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Andreas; Andersen, Rune; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments ...

  15. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-03-03

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991.

  17. Direct cementitious waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    1998-02-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target data of 2035. This study investigates the direct grouting of all ICPP calcine (including the HLW dry calcine and those resulting from calcining sodium-bearing liquid waste currently residing in the ICPP storage tanks) as the treatment method to comply with the settlement agreement. This method involves grouting the calcined waste and casting the resulting hydroceramic grout into stainless steel canisters. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for grouting treatment will be from 2013 through 2032, and all the HLW will be treated and in interim storage by the end of 2032.

  18. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the /sup 60/Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as /sup 131/I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  20. Environmental assessment for transuranic waste work-off plan, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rough draft: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-26

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates transuranic (TRU) waste in a variety of programs related to national defense. TRU waste is a specific class of radioactive waste requiring permanent isolation. Most defense-related TRU waste will be permanently disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is a deep geologic repository located in southeastern New Mexico and is now in the testing phase of development. All waste received by Wipp must conform with established Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The purpose of the proposed action is to retrieve stored TRU waste and prepare the waste for shipment to and disposal WIPP. Stored TRU waste LANL is represented by four waste forms. The facilities necessary for work-off activities are tailored to the treatment and preparation of these four waste forms. Preparation activities for newly generated TRU waste are also covered by this action.

  1. Mono-fermentation of shea waste in anaerobic digesters - laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... under mono-fermentation showed process instability and at one point or the other the experiment had to be terminated due to decreasing pH-values of substrate which influenced negatively on the biogas production. However, an interesting observation was the potential of the shea waste to generate substantial amount of ...

  2. Mono-fermentation of shea waste in anaerobic digesters - laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the purpose of understanding the characteristics in performance of the shea waste and to provide the necessary input parameters towards the design of biogas plants, mono-fermentation as an option in anaerobic digestion for energy (methane) generation was investigated. Six horizontal reactors with a liquid volume of ...

  3. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  4. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  5. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  6. Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface technicians had significantly better knowledge about tetanus vaccine than the medical-technical staff (χ2 = 4.976, p=0.047). They had also a significantly higher risk of exposure to accidents due to waste handling than medical-technical (χ2=10.276, p=0.009). The 30-39 age group had a significantly higher risk of ...

  7. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  8. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  9. Laboratory Studies Towards Understanding Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Abou Mrad, Ninette; Blum, Jürgen; Charnley, Steven B.; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cordiner, Martin A.; Mousis, Olivier; Danger, Grégoire; Duvernay, Fabrice; Gundlach, Bastian; Hartogh, Paul; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Simonia, Irakli; Simonia, Tsitsino; Theulé, Patrice; Yang, Rui

    2015-12-01

    This review presents some of the recent advancements in our understanding of comets facilitated by laboratory studies, need for new laboratory simulations, and predictions for future explorations. With the spacecraft Rosetta at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a large volume of science data is expected to follow early results that have been published recently. The most surprising of them being hard ice shell that bounced the lander Philae a couple of times before settling on the comet. Long evaded molecular nitrogen has now been detected in the comet 67P/CG. The observed density of 470 kg m^{- 3} is in line with other comet observations, whereas the nature and composition of hydrocarbons detected on the surface are still a puzzle. Observation of D/H ratio that deviates significantly from Earth's water D/H ratio brings back to the table the long-standing question whether or not water on Earth was delivered by comet impacts. Our review summarizes some of the critical laboratory work that helps improve our understanding of cometary interior (whether amorphous or crystalline or containing clathrates), cometary surface (rich of complex organics), cometary coma and tail (D/H ratio, negative ions, and photoluminescence). Outstanding questions are also discussed.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System rogram Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2008-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  13. On-site laboratory support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory remedial investigation/feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, J.L.E.; Brooksbank, R.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dillener, J.L. [CH2M Hill, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jeskie, T.R. [Peer Consultants, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-10-01

    In 1987, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) was begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL had established a number of waste area groupings (WAGs), each of which was to be studied and characterized separately. Although the nature and extent of contamination at the WAGs vary widely, samples from each WAG might be radiologically and/or chemically contaminated. To comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations regarding the shipment of hazardous and radioactive materials, all samples are screened for radioactivity before shipment to independent laboratories for further analysis. In 1989 a Close Support Laboratory (CSL) was established at the RI/FS Field Operations Facility at ORNL. The CSL began as a screening facility and has evolved into a laboratory where high-quality analytical results on a number of different parameters are usually available within 24 hours of sampling. CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, volatile organic analysis (VOA), and wet chemistry.

  14. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  15. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  16. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  17. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  18. Technology development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory high-level waste management history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Platt, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    During WWII and the post-WWII years, until the late 1950`s, plutonium production was Hanford`s primary mission. This mission produced an enormous legacy of wastes that have themselves become the new mission at Hanford. Waste management, as practiced at Hanford, during the defense production years was in many ways unique to Hanford, taking advantage of the dry climate, distance from the Columbia river and depth to the water table. Near-surface storage in tanks, ion exchange in seepage trenches and cribs, and near surface burial were the norm. Isolation of the wastes by the high and dry nature of the 200 Area plateau, where reprocessing and waste management took place, was one of the reasons Hanford had been selected for it`s nuclear mission. Thus, location was a significant aspect of the initial waste management program at Hanford. Treatment, other than simple chemical steps such as neutralization and ion exchange, had not been considered necessary to the mission and was therefore not developed. To support the development of commercial nuclear power and to provide improved means of handling nuclear wastes, new waste management programs were initiated in the 1950`s by the Atomic Energy Commission. The programs focused on high level waste. They included `spray calcination/vitrification` at Hanford Laboratories. Hanford Labs later became Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) when Battelle Memorial Institute became the Operating Contractor in 1965. In 1996, it was renamed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this paper is to describe the HLW projects and programs that followed from this early HLW R&D at PNNL.

  19. Implementation plan for waste management reengineering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    An intensive reengineering evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management program was conducted from February to July 1997 resulting in the following vision for ORNL waste management: ORNL Waste Management will become an integrated Waste Management/Generator function that: (1) Treats ORNL as a single generator for expert-based waste characterization and certification purposes; (2) Recognizes Generators, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Management and Integration (M&I) contractor as equally important customers; (3) Focuses on pollution prevention followed by waste generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal operations that reflect more cost-effective commercial approaches; and (4) Incorporates new technology and outsourcing of services where appropriate to provide the lowest cost solutions. A cross-functional Core Team recommended 15 cost-effectiveness improvements that are expected to reduce the fiscal year (FY) 1996 ORNL waste management costs of $75M by $10-$15M annually. These efficiency improvements will be realized by both Research and Waste Management Organizations.

  20. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the radionuclides that is volatile in the melter and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 (99Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentrations in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are 129I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 241Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. At this time, these scoping tests did not evaluate the partitioning of the radionuclides to the evaporator condensate, since ample data are available separately from other experience in the DOE complex. Results from the evaporation testing show that the neutral SBS simulant first forms turbidity at ~7.5X concentration, while the alkaline-adjusted simulant became turbid at ~3X concentration. The major solid in both cases was Kogarkoite, Na3FSO4. Sodium and lithium fluorides were also detected. Minimal solids were formed in the evaporator bottoms until a substantial fraction of liquid was removed, indicating that evaporation could minimize storage volume issues. Achievable concentration factors without significant insoluble solids were 17X at alkaline pH, and 23X at neutral pH. In both runs, significant ammonia carried over and was captured in the condenser with the water condensate. Results also indicate that with low insoluble solids formation in the initial testing at neutral pH, the use of Reverse Osmosis is a potential alternate method for concentrating the solution, although an evaluation is needed to identify equipment that can tolerate insoluble solids. Most of the ammonia remains in the

  1. Waste processing cost recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory--analysis and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is implementing full cost recovery for waste processing in fiscal year 2009 (FY2009), after a transition year in FY2008. Waste processing cost recovery has been implemented in various forms across the nuclear weapons complex and in corporate America. The fundamental reasoning of sending accurate price signals to waste generators is economically sound, and leads to waste minimization and reduced waste expense over time. However, Los Alamos faces significant implementation challenges because of its status as a government-owned, contractor-operated national scientific institution with a diverse suite of experimental and environmental cleanup activities, and the fact that this represents a fundamental change in how waste processing is viewed by the institution. This paper describes the issues involved during the transition to cost recovery and the ultimate selection of the business model. Of the six alternative cost recovery models evaluated, the business model chosen to be implemented in FY2009 is Recharge Plus Generators Pay Distributed Direct. Under this model, all generators who produce waste must pay a distributed direct share associated with their specific waste type to use a waste processing capability. This cost share is calculated using the distributed direct method on the fixed cost only, i.e., the fixed cost share is based on each program's forecast proportion of the total Los Alamos volume forecast of each waste type. (Fixed activities are those required to establish the waste processing capability, i.e., to make the process ready, permitted, certified, and prepared to handle the first unit ofwaste. Therefore, the fixed cost ends at the point just before waste begins 'to be processed. The activities to actually process the waste are considered variable.) The volume of waste actually sent for processing is charged a unit cost based solely on the variable cost of disposing of that waste. The total cost recovered each

  2. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  5. Environmental surveillance for Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.C.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Miles, M.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1994 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, performed at Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, INEL Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1994 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  6. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  7. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesh Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100 of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75, nurses (60, laboratory technicians (78, and sanitary staff (70. Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.

  9. The Central Importance of Laboratories for Reducing Waste in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Nikolas

    2016-12-01

    The global biomedical research enterprise is driving substantial advances in medicine and healthcare. Yet it appears that the enterprise is rather wasteful, falling short of its true innovative potential. Suggested reasons are manifold and involve various stakeholders, such that there is no single remedy. In the present paper, I will argue that laboratories are the basic working units of the biomedical research enterprise and an important site of action for corrective intervention. Keeping laboratories relatively small will enable better training and mentoring of individual scientists, which in turn will yield better performance of the scientific workforce. The key premise of this argument is that people are at the heart of the successes and failures of biomedical research, yet the human dimension of science has been unduly neglected in practice. Renewed focus on the importance of laboratories and their constituent scientists is one promising approach to reducing waste and increasing efficiency within the biomedical research enterprise.

  10. EXPEDITING THE PATH TO CLOSURE THE CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL, SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Schofield, D.P.; Davis, M.J.; Methvin, R.; Mitchell, M.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is undergoing closure subject to the requirements of Subtitle C of RCRA. This paper identifies regulatory mechanisms that have and continue to expedite and simplify the closure of the CWL. These include (1) the Environmental Restoration (ER) Programmatic effort to achieve progress quickly with respect to the standard regulatory processes, which resulted in the performance of voluntary corrective measures at the CWL years in advance of the standard process schedule, (2) the management and disposal of CWL remediation wastes and materials according to the risks posed, and (3) the combination of multiple regulatory requirements into a single submittal.

  11. Hydraulic testing of simulated DWPF waste slurries at the Georgia Iron Works Hydraulic Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.P.

    1982-12-31

    Pipeline tests of current simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste slurries were performed during August 1982 at the Georgia Iron Works Hydraulic Laboratory (GIW). Measurements of pressure gradient versus flow in 3-inch pipes and fittings were made for various concentrations of unformated sludge and formated sludge with frit. All slurries were shown to behave generally as Bingham Plastic fluids. Formated sludge/frit slurries behaved generally like unformated sludge slurries of comparable yield stress. No frit settling problems were observed. 8 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  13. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  14. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  15. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Volume 2 consists of nine appendices which contain the Process Team reports and Benchmarking reports.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  17. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    During FY-1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested three vitrification processes on simulated high-level radioactive waste typical of that stored or being produced at US defense facilities. Processes tested included a spray calciner/in-can melter, spray calciner/ceramic melter and direct liquid feeding of a ceramic melter. Tests were made on pilot-scale as well as fullscale equipment. Over 16,000 kg of glass product were produced from 68,000 L of simulated waste. Several compositions were tested, and the glass products were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the processing rates and the ability of the waste to be processed. Off-gas data were collected on several runs. Major conclusions drawn from this test program are divided into processing results, glass-product results, and general information.

  18. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  19. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Results of Retrieval Studies with Waste from Tank 241-C-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' ROURKE, J.F.

    2000-02-08

    Laboratory studies were performed on samples of waste from Tank 241-C-104. Physical property data was gathered to develop engineering plans for retrieval operations. Chemical composition data was collected to verify the ability to meet contract feed specifications.

  1. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Laboratory Study of Till Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, A. P.; Marone, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.

    2005-12-01

    Recent studies show that small-amplitude stress changes can trigger ice sheet motion and subglacial seismicity. Deformation in the subglacial region plays a key role in determining slip behavior, including creep, transient slip, stick-slip motion, and seismicity. However, progress in understanding these phenomena is limited by uncertainty in the rheology and frictional properties of glacial till. We report on detailed laboratory experiments to measure the creep and frictional constitutive properties of till sampled from the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska and Caesar Till from the Scioto Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, sampled in central Ohio. Experiments were conducted in a servo-controlled, double direct shear apparatus with air dried samples at a normal stresses ranging from 50 kPa to 5 MPa. Till was sheared in a three-block arrangement in which two layers are sandwiched between a central forcing block and two stationary blocks. We studied the effect of saturation, initial deformation fabric, stress history, and the boundary conditions of loading. The nominal frictional contact area is 100 cm2 and remains constant during shear. The layer thickness is 1 cm prior to shear. All blocks are grooved perpendicular to the shear direction to ensure that deformation occurs within the layer. The Matanuska till has grains ranging from 6.3 mm to finer than .063 mm with a mean of 2.67 mm whereas the Caesar till has a smaller mean grain size of 0.60 mm, but lacks silt and clay sized particles. We conducted both constant strain rate and constant stress tests. Constant shear stress experiments were employed to study frictional creep. In these tests, stress steps were conducted at 2 % and 5 % steps of the shear strength with strain rate calculated at 20 and 40 minute intervals after the stress steps. Strain rate was calculated by taking a linear fit of strain versus time over two minutes. The stress exponent, n was then calculated from the equation dɛ/dt = bτn. Where ɛ is strain,

  3. Veterinary Laboratory Services Study - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    requirement for special skills in food chemistry and animal disease diagnosis plus the continuing shortage of 92B enlis ted personnel indicate that key...to provide proper supervision and perform required bench ‘work in this major workload area. Sufficient technicians with laboratory skills in...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture

  4. STUDY ON ULTRASONIC DEGREASING OF SHEEPSKIN WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather industry is a relatively large source of waste from raw material, so skin waste recovery is a goal of clean technologies. Capitalization of skin waste aims to obtain: chemical auxiliaries, technical articles, hydrolyzed protein, artificial leather, composite building materials, heat sources and collagen biomaterials with applications in medicine, cosmetics, etc. A first step in the recovery of skin waste is the degreasing operation. Ultrasound is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the conventional degreasing affecting the chemical substances as well as the treated skin. In addition, the processing time is reduced. Ultrasound is known to enhance the emulsification and dispersion of oils/fat. The usual degreasing methods requires more emulsifier/solvent ratio and process time for emulsification and additional solvent for washing out the emulsified fat. This paper investigates the possibility of recovery through ecological processes of leather waste from finishing operations for further capitalization. The present study aims emulsification and subsequent removal of the fat present in the chamois powder waste from polishing operation with the aid of ultrasound by an aqueous ecofriendly method. The study also took into account the ultrasonic treatment of the leather waste using trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet method and via ultrasonication. IR-ATR and optical microscopy highlight both morphological and chemical-structural changes of treated materials by different degreasing methods

  5. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Transuranic Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) specifies the quality of data necessary and the characterization techniques employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) requirements. This QAPJP is written to conform with the requirements and guidelines specified in the QAPP and the associated documents referenced in the QAPP. This QAPJP is one of a set of five interrelated QAPjPs that describe the INEL Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP). Each of the five facilities participating in the TWCP has a QAPJP that describes the activities applicable to that particular facility. This QAPJP describes the roles and responsibilities of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) in the TWCP. Data quality objectives and quality assurance objectives are explained. Sample analysis procedures and associated quality assurance measures are also addressed; these include: sample chain of custody; data validation; usability and reporting; documentation and records; audits and 0385 assessments; laboratory QC samples; and instrument testing, inspection, maintenance and calibration. Finally, administrative quality control measures, such as document control, control of nonconformances, variances and QA status reporting are described.

  6. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  7. Site investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1, Text: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 4 is located south of the main facility along Lagoon Road. WAG 4 consists of three separate areas: Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land-burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; an experimental Pilot Pit Area, which includes a pilot-scale testing pit; and sections of two abandoned underground pipelines used for transporting liquid, low-level, radioactive waste. SWSA 4 is the largest site at WAG 4, covering approximately 23 acres. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low- and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data, collected during monitoring of the tributary to White Oak Creek as part of WAG 2 investigations as well as during previous studies conducted at WAG 4, indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk (DOE 1993). With recent corrective measures the proportion of the release has increased in 1995. A detailed discussion of the site history and previous investigations is presented in the WAG 4 Preliminary Assessment Report, ORNL/ER-271 (Energy Systems 1994b). In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation was initiated to pinpoint those trenches that are the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources.

  8. Laboratory and Space Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ellis

    1996-08-01

    The work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), encompasses a wide range of topics in experimental, computational, and analytical laboratory and space plasma physics. The accomplishments described in this report have been in support of the programs of the Laser Plasma Branch (Code 6730) and other segments of the Plasma Physics Division at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and cover the period 27 September 1993 to August 1, 1996. SAIC's efforts have been supported by sub-contracts or consulting agreements with Pulse Sciences, Inc., Clark Richardson, and Biskup Consulting Engineers, Pharos Technical Enterprises, Plex Corporation, Cornell University, Stevens Institute of Technology, the University of Connecticut, Plasma Materials and Technologies, Inc., and GaSonics International, Inc. In the following discussions section we will describe each of the topics investigated and the results obtained. Much of the research work has resulted in journal publications and NRL Memorandum Reports in which the investigation is described in detail. These reports are included as Appendices to this Final Report.

  9. Development of a method for the analysis of low-level radioactive waste from a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viadero, R.; Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the University of Illinois serves as a research and training center for a number of on-campus, off-campus, and international groups. The analysis activities which follow from such a diverse cross section of scientific interests result in a wide variety of radioactive waste products which must be dealt with properly. Research was initiated to address the need for an accurate, {open_quotes}user-friendly,{close_quotes} waste characterization process. The proposed system was to assay a small to medium volume of radioactive waste, in a highly automated, cost-effective manner. Additionally, the process was to be generic enough to be applied in other laboratories which face similar waste analysis challenges. An extensive computer search revealed no other standardized waste characterization methods which have been customized for use in an NAA laboratory.

  10. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  11. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  12. Integration of National Laboratory and Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System Technology Service Providers - 16435

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Karthik H.; Thien, Michael G.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Herman, Connie C.

    2017-03-08

    The National Laboratories are a critical partner and provide expertise in numerous aspects of the successful execution of the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste Program. The National Laboratories are maturing the technologies of the Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System (LAWPS) consistent with DOE Order 413.3B “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets” expectations. The National Laboratories continue to mature waste forms, i.e. glass and secondary waste grout, for formulations and predictions of long-term performance as inputs to performance assessments. The working processes with the National Laboratories have been developed in procurements, communications, and reporting to support the necessary delivery-based technology support. The relationship continues to evolve from planning and technology development to support of ongoing operations and integration of multiple highly coordinated facilities.

  13. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  14. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  15. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  16. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Cost benefit analysis of waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents a cost benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors, or, of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. The cost benefit analysis was conducted to determine if increased compaction capacity at HWM might afford the potential for significant waste volume reduction and annual savings in material, shipping, labor, and disposal costs. In the following cost benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of increased HWM compaction capabilities are considered. Recurring costs such as operating and maintenance costs are estimated based upon detailed knowledge of system parameters. When analyzing the economic benefits of enhancing compaction capabilities, continued use of the existing HWM compaction units is included for comparative purposes. In addition, the benefits of using commercial compaction services instead of procuring a new compactor system are evaluated. 31 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  18. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

  19. Uncertainty analysis for low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Yambert, M.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    A performance assessment of the operating Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) facility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been prepared to provide the technical basis for demonstrating compliance with the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A, Chapter 111.2 An analysis of the uncertainty incorporated into the assessment was performed which addressed the quantitative uncertainty in the data used by the models, the subjective uncertainty associated with the models used for assessing performance of the disposal facility and site, and the uncertainty in the models used for estimating dose and human exposure. The results of the uncertainty analysis were used to interpret results and to formulate conclusions about the performance assessment. This paper discusses the approach taken in analyzing the uncertainty in the performance assessment and the role of uncertainty in performance assessment.

  20. Laboratory tests on heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Lee Siang, Hing; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri Bin; Ismail, Nasrudin Bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman Bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif Bin; Wan Nik, W B

    2017-05-07

    Waste heat recovery from shipboard machineries could be a potential source for heat treatment of ballast water. Similar to a shipboard schematic arrangement, a laboratory-scale engine-heat exchanger set-up harvesting waste heat from jacket water and exhaust gases was erected to test the level of species' mortalities. Mortalities were also assessed under experimental conditions for cultured and natural plankton communities at laboratory level. Effect of pump impellers on species' mortalities were also tested. Exposures between 60°C and 70°C for 60 sec resulted in 80-100% mortalities. Mortalities due to pump impeller effects were observed in the range of 70-100% for zooplankton. On the laboratory-scale arrangement, >95% mortalities of phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were recorded. It was demonstrated that the temperature of tropical sea waters used as secondary coolant can be raised to cause species' mortalities, employing engine exhaust gases. The results also indicated that pump impeller effects will enhance species' mortalities. The limitations of the shipboard application of this method would be the large ballast volumes, flow rates and time for treatment.

  1. ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION - LABORATORY SCALE VALIDATION ON WASTE SIMULANTS TEST REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS T; HAGERTY K

    2011-01-27

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  2. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

    2007-08-27

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the

  3. Chemical waste risk reduction and environmental impact generated by laboratory activities in research and teaching institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact caused by teaching and research with regard to chemical waste is of increasing concern, and attempts to solve the issue are being made. Education and research-related institutions, in most laboratory and non-laboratory activities, contribute to the generation of small quantities of waste, many of them highly toxic. Of this waste, some is listed by government agencies who are concerned about environmental pollution: disposal of acids, metals, solvents, chemicals and toxicity of selected products of synthesis, whose toxicity is often unknown. This article presents an assessment of the problem and identifies possible solutions, indicating pertinent laws, directives and guidelines; examples of institutions that have implemented protocols in order to minimize the generation of waste; harmonization of procedures for waste management and waste minimization procedures such as reduction, reuse and recycling of chemicals.O impacto ambiental acarretado por atividades de pesquisa e ensino no que se refere aos resíduos químicos vem sendo cada vez mais discutido e tentativas de solucionar a questão vêm sendo apresentadas. As instituições de ensino e pesquisa, em quase todas as atividades e não somente as laboratoriais, contribuem para a geração de pequenas quantidades de resíduos, muitos deles altamente tóxicos. Destes, alguns constam em listas de agências governamentais que se preocupam com a qualidade do meio ambiente: descartes de ácidos, metais, solventes, agentes químicos de elevada toxicidade e ainda os produtos de síntese, cuja toxicidade é frequentemente desconhecida. Este artigo apresenta uma avaliação do problema identificando possíveis soluções, a partir da apresentação de legislações pertinentes, exemplos de instituições que vêm implantando protocolos que minimizam a geração de resíduos, sistemas de harmonização de processos de gerenciamento de resíduos e procedimentos de minimização de

  4. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  5. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  6. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  7. Military Solid Waste Reformer: A Pilot Study to Convert Military Waste to Logistics Fuel in the Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Duane

    2004-01-01

    The Military Solid Waste Reformer project was a laboratory validation of conventional gasification and/or pyrolysis processes for the conversion of military field waste to liquid fuels in the field...

  8. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated.

  9. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  10. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  11. Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia`s Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93.

  12. A system dynamics approach for healthcare waste management: a case study in Istanbul Metropolitan City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli; Barton, John R

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare waste consists of various types of waste materials generated at hospitals, medical research centres, clinics and laboratories. Although 75-90% of this waste is classified as 'domestic' in nature, 20-25% is deemed to be hazardous, which if not disposed of appropriately, poses a risk to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the whole community. As long as healthcare waste is mixed with municipal waste and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. In this study, healthcare waste increases along with the potential to decrease the amounts by implementing effective segregation at healthcare facilities are projected to 2040. Our long-term aim is to develop a system to support selection and planning of the future treatment capacity. Istanbul in Turkey was used as the case study area. In order to identify the factors affecting healthcare waste generation in Istanbul, observations were made and interviews conducted in Istanbul over a 3 month period. A system dynamics approach was adopted to build a healthcare waste management model using a software package, Vensim Ple Plus. Based on reported analysis, the non-hazardous municipal fraction co-disposed with healthcare waste is around 65%. Using the projected waste generation flows, reducing a municipal fraction to 30% has the potential to avoid some 8000 t year(-1) of healthcare waste by 2025 and almost 10 000 t year(-1) by 2035. Furthermore, if segregation practices ensured healthcare waste requiring incineration was also selectively managed, 77% of healthcare waste could be diverted to alternative treatment technologies. As the throughput capacity of the only existing healthcare waste treatment facility in Istanbul, Kemerburgaz Incinerator, has already been exceeded, it is evident that improved management could not only reduce overall flows and costs but also permit alternative and cheaper treatment systems (e.g. autoclaving) to be adopted for the healthcare waste.

  13. Waste Plastic-Modified Bitumen: Rheological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdel-Goad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen blends were prepared for road applications by the introduction of 9% of waste Polyethylene by weight (9 wt%. The relaxation stress, relaxation and retardation spectrum and viscosity of bitumen blends were studied at different temperatures and compared to those of the original pure bitumen. These properties were tested using an ARESRheometer (Rheometric Scientific, Co. equipment. The measurements were performed in the dynamic mode, plate-plate geometry of 8 mm diameter over the temperature range from -10 to 60°C and angular frequency (ω varied from 10-1 to 102 radian/s. The relaxation stress and viscosity were modified by the addition of waste PE. The results also indicate that the incorporation of the waste PE enhances stability of the bitumen blends.

  14. Environmental assessment: Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to close the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). The WCF is a surplus DOE facility located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six facility components in the WCF have been identified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Ace (RCRA)-units in the INEL RCRA Part A application. The WCF is an interim status facility. Consequently, the proposed WCF closure must comply with Idaho Rules and Standards for Hazardous Waste contained in the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA) Section 16.01.05. These state regulations, in addition to prescribing other requirements, incorporate by reference the federal regulations, found at 40 CFR Part 265, that prescribe the requirements for facilities granted interim status pursuant to the RCRA. The purpose of the proposed action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment, and to comply with the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act (HWMA) requirements.

  15. Draft environmental assessment -- Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.B.; Irving, J.S.; Staley, C.S.; Stanley, N.

    1996-04-01

    The DOE-Idaho Operations Office has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the environmental impacts of closing the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of radioactive and hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce these risks to human health and the environment and to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements. The WCF closure project is described in the DOE Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement (Programmatic EIS). DOE determined in the Programmatic EIS Record of Decision (ROD) that certain actions would be implemented and other actions deferred. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations. Based on the analysis in the EA, the action will not have a significant effect on the human environment.

  16. Radioactive wastes management in a radiochemistry laboratory; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos em um laboratorio de radioquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana C.A., E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Curso de Bacharelado em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pereira, Wagner de S; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Antunes, Ivan M., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ivan@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: kelecom@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Marinha. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    The Laboratorio de Monitoracao Ambiental (AMB) of the Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM) belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil is a chemical, radiochemical and radiometric laboratory, that analyses the natural radionuclides present in samples coming from the various installation of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB). To minimize the radiological environmental impact, that laboratory has adopted a washing system of the chapel exhausting, that recirculate the washing water. These water can accumulate the radionuclides coming from the samples, that are liberated together the exhaustion gases from the chapels. Also, the water coming from the analyses and the sample releases (environmental and of the process) represent the liquid effluents of the AMB. The release of this effluent must pass by chemical and radiological criteria. From the radiological viewpoint, that release must be based on the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) regulations. This work try to establish the monitoring frequency, the radionuclides to be analysed, the form of liberation of those effluents, and the analytical techniques to be used. The radionuclides to be analysed will be U-nat, Ra-226 and Pb-210, of the uranium series, and the Th-232 and Ra-228, of the thorium series. The effluents must be monitored either before the release or, at least, twice a year. The effluents considered radioactive wastes, will be send to waste dam by the radioprotection service, or to the effluent treatment for controlled liberation for the environment

  17. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  18. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting...... virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  19. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  20. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  1. Laboratory investigation of the performance properties of hot mix asphalt containing waste glass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CSIR is currently undertaking a study on potential utilization of crushed glass as a substitute material to natural aggregate in asphalt mixes. As part of the study, laboratory investigation is needed to determine the performance characteristics...

  2. Bodies in flowing plasmas - Laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of early rudimentary laboratory studies of bodies in flowing, rarefied plasmas is presented (e.g., Birkeland, 1908), along with a discussion of more recent parametric studies conducted in steady plasma wind tunnels, which includes the study by Hall et al. (1964), in which a strong ion density enhancement in the center of the ion void created downstream from the body was observed. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations which omit ion thermal motion. Examples in which in situ data on the interaction between satellites and the ionospheric plasma have been elucidated by the laboratory results are presented, and include evidence for a midwake axial ion peak, and ion current density in the near-wake region. The application of the ionospheric laboratory to basic space plasma physics is discussed, and its application to some types of solar system plasma phenomena is illustrated.

  3. A study of 6S workplace improvement in Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, AD; Suryoputro, MR; Rahmillah, FI

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses 6S implementation in Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research is improvement project of 5S implementation in Ergonomic laboratory. Referring to the 5S implementation of the previous year, there have been improvements from environmental conditions or a more organized workplace however there is still a lack of safety aspects. There are several safeties problems such as equipment arrangement, potential hazards of room dividers that cause injury several times, placement of fire extinguisher, no evacuation path and assembly point in case of fire, as well as expired hydrant condition and lack of awareness of stakeholders related to safety. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 6S kaizen method to the Ergonomic laboratory to facilitate the work process, reduce waste, improve work safety and improve staff performance. Based on the score 6S assessment increased audit results by 32 points, before implementation is 75 point while after implementation is 107 point. This has implications for better use for mitigate people in laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials, safe workplace, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘6S’ on staff due to better and safetier working environment.

  4. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-10-26

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  5. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  7. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete.

  8. Clinical laboratory automation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Archetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents a case study of an automated clinical laboratory in a large urban academic teaching hospital in the North of Italy, the Spedali Civili in Brescia, where four laboratories were merged in a unique laboratory through the introduction of laboratory automation. Materials and Methods. The analysis compares the preautomation situation and the new setting from a cost perspective, by considering direct and indirect costs. It also presents an analysis of the turnaround time (TAT. The study considers equipment, staff and indirect costs. Results. The introduction of automation led to a slight increase in equipment costs which is highly compensated by a remarkable decrease in staff costs. Consequently, total costs decreased by 12.55%. The analysis of the TAT shows an improvement of nonemergency exams while emergency exams are still validated within the maximum time imposed by the hospital. Conclusions. The strategy adopted by the management, which was based on re-using the available equipment and staff when merging the pre-existing laboratories, has reached its goal: introducing automation while minimizing the costs.

  9. Single-laboratory validation of EPA Method 8150 for determination of chlorinated herbicides in hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurka, D.F.; Shore, F.L.; Pan, S.T.; Amick, E.N.

    1986-11-01

    Method 8150, published in the second edition of Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Manual SW-846, required optimization, ruggedness testing, linearity determinations, precision tests, bias testing, gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation, and quality control guidelines for validation of the protocol. This single-laboratory validation, which is applicable to the determination of the herbicides dicamba, silvex, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, 2,4,5-T, dinoseb, MCPP, MCPA, and dichlorprop in hazardous waste extracts, was completed and is described in this report. Final ruggedness testing of the optimized procedure gave a mean recovery of 89.3% with a standard deviation of 4.3%. Percent relative standard deviations are less than 10 (n = 20, each analyte) over a 10(2) linear range of concentration for MCPP and MCPA and over a 10(3) linear range of concentration for the other target herbicide esters. Instrumental detection limits for electron capture detection and mass spectrometric identity confirmation were determined and found to be matrix-dependent.

  10. STUDY ON PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scortar Lucia-Monica

    2013-07-01

    It is very important to mention that individuals and businesses can often save a significant amount of money through waste prevention: waste that never gets created doesn't have management costs (handling, transporting, treating and disposing of waste. The rule is simple: the best waste is that which is not produced.

  11. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  12. Laboratory tests of purifying coking plant waste water using coke dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Burmistrz, P.; Rozwadowski, A. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)

    1993-04-01

    Studies suitability of coke dust from dry coke quenching for cleaning waste water. Sorptive properties were compared to those of powdered Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. The following factors were evaluated: chemical oxygen demand, total content of organic carbon, content of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene. Amount of dust used was optimized in a series of experiments. Coke sedimentation was also studied within the range of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g/dm[sup 3] concentrations, showing that the dust separates well after absorption. Special attention was paid to removal of phenols. Coke dust was found to have 38 to 98% of the sorptive power of activated carbon. Both adsorption materials made waste water lose its color and odor. Findings are provided in 5 tables. 2 refs.

  13. Human Laboratory Studies on Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mohamed; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most compelling evidence supporting an association between cannabinoid agonists and psychosis comes from controlled laboratory studies in humans. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory studies demonstrate that cannabinoid agonists, including phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, produce a wide range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms and psychophysiologic deficits in healthy human subjects that resemble the phenomenology of schizophrenia. These effects are time locked to drug administration, are dose related, and are transient and rarely necessitate intervention. The magnitude of effects is similar to the effects of ketamine but qualitatively distinct from other psychotomimetic drugs, including ketamine, amphetamine, and salvinorin A. Cannabinoid agonists have also been shown to transiently exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in laboratory studies. Patients with schizophrenia are more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to the acute behavioral and cognitive effects of cannabinoid agonists and experience transient exacerbation of symptoms despite treatment with antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, laboratory studies have failed to demonstrate any "beneficial" effects of cannabinoid agonists in individuals with schizophrenia-challenging the cannabis self-medication hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests that polymorphisms of several genes related to dopamine metabolism (e.g., COMT, DAT1, and AKT1) may moderate the effects of cannabinoid agonists in laboratory studies. Cannabinoid agonists induce dopamine release, although the magnitude of release does not appear to be commensurate to the magnitude and spectrum of their acute psychotomimetic effects. Interactions between the endocannabinoid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate systems and their individual and interactive effects on neural oscillations provide a plausible mechanism underlying the psychotomimetic effects of

  14. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  17. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  18. The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory. A scientific research tool for the study of deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes; Le Laboratoire de Recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne. Un outil de recherche scientifique pour etudier le stockage geologique profond de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory, is an essential scientific tool for the achievement of one of the ANDRA's mission defined in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991 about the long-term management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes. This document presents this laboratory: site characterization, characteristics of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, and laboratory creation, coordinated experiments carried out at the surface and in depth, and the results obtained (published in an exhaustive way in the 'Clay 2005' dossier). (J.S.)

  19. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  20. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  1. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 4, Preliminary analysis of DWPF process laboratory capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  3. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-16

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario.

  6. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  7. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  8. Energy from wood waste - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, R.; Daughtrey, K.

    1980-01-01

    A joint study has been conducted by NASA and Army installations collocated in a dense forest in southwestern Mississippi in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using wood waste as a renewable energy source. The study has shown that, with proper forest management, the timber on government lands could eventually support the total energy requirements of 832 billion Btu/yr. Analysis of the current conversion technologies indicates that the direct combustion spreader stoker approach is the best demonstrated technology for this specific application. The economics of the individual powerplants reveal them as attractive alternatives to fossil fueled plants. Environmental aspects are also discussed.

  9. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial solid waste is a serious health concern in Aba, South East Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess the approaches of some industries toward some aspects of waste management in Aba. Interviews, observation and questionnaires administered to industry executives and waste managers were used to ...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  11. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  12. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes 1 through 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  13. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Sections 4 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  14. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  15. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  16. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  17. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  18. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-10-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  20. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  1. Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory measure-ments of the magnetic susceptibility were done using the Bartington MS2 metre and the MS2B dual frequency sensor for the soil samples, and ... Thus, notwithstanding the lithology of the area studied, the presence of heavy metals and other chemical waste materi-als form the Uadara barracks garbage ...

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  3. Investigation of leaching of radionuclides and hazardous materials from low-level wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, H.A.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    Leaching of both radioactive contaminants and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous material contaminants from representative low-level radioactive wastes generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was investigated using two different leaching methodologies: the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Waste Extraction Procedure (EP) and a proposed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). Cesium, both /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs, was present in many of the waste samples. The average fraction leached for cesium was only approx.0.4. Since much of the cesium handled is in the form of CsCl, the limited leaching observed was surprising. Cobalt, as /sup 60/Co, was present in many samples; the fraction leached ranged from about 0.2 to 0.7 for various samples. Strontium, as /sup 90/Sr, was present in all but one waste sample. Strontium was readily leached from most samples; this result seemed reasonable because much of the strontium handled at ORNL is in the form of SrCl/sub 2/. Selenium, present as /sup 75/Se, was identified in one-half the samples tested. This observation was surprising because selenium is not currently listed as a radioactive waste component in ORNL low-level wastes. The selenium fraction leached was only approx.0.2. Chromium, cadmium, and lead were the only inorganic elements identified in a few waste samples at sufficient concentrations to be of potential environmental concern. In no case, however, did the leach extract exceed the EPA toxicity characteristic limit. For a number of the wastes tested, the proposed TCLP leach methodology was more effective in extracting contaminants than was the current EP method. 11 refs., 4 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peace, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  6. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  7. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogle, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  8. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  9. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  10. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume II: Field and laboratory reports, Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Volume II (part 2 of 2) of ''Retrofit of Waste-to-energy Facilities Equipped with Electrostatic Precipitators'' contains the field and laboratory reports, including: (1) field reports, (2) analytic laboratory reports, (3) chain of custody forms, and (4) TCLP laboratory reports.

  11. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.R.; Lewis, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complex sequence of layered basalt flows, cinders, and sediment underlies the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. Wells drilled to 700 ft penetrate a sequence of 10 basalt-flow groups and 7 major sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 100,000 to 600,000 years old. The 10 flow groups consist of 22 separate lava flows and flow-units. Each flow group is made up of from one to five petrographically similar flows that erupted from common source areas during periods of less than 200 years. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and wind-blown deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated during periods of volcanic inactivity ranging from thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. Flows and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 600 ft. Flows and sediment below a depth of 600 ft are saturated and make up the uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The areal extent of flow groups and interbeds was determined from well cuttings, cores, geophysical logs, potassium-argon ages, and geomagnetic properties. Stratigraphical control was provided by four sequential basalt flows near the base of the unsaturated zone that have reversed geomagnetic polarity and high emission of natural gamma radiation compared to other flows. Natural gamma logs were used as a primary correlation tool. Natural-gamma emissions, which are generally uniform in related, petrographically similar flows, increase or decrease between petrographically dissimilar flows of different age and source. (USGS)

  12. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  14. Transport of contaminants from energy-process-waste leachates through subsurface soils and soil components: laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, L.E.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.

    1982-08-01

    The subsurface transport and attenuation of inorganic contaminants common to a variety of energy process waste leachates are being studied using laboratory column methods. Anionic species currently being emphasized are As, B, Mo, and Se. Transport of the cations Cd and Ni is also being studied. The solid adsorbents consist of three soil mineral components (silica sand, kaolinite, and goethite), and four subsurface soils (a dunal sand, an oxidic sandy clay loam, an acidic clay loam, and an alkaline clay loam). Breakthrough patterns of these species from packed soil columns are followed by monitoring eluent concentrations vs time under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. This report describes the experimental methods being used, the results of preliminary batch adsorption studies, and the results of column experiments completed through calendar year 1981. Using column influent concentrations of about 10 mg/l, adsorption (mmoles/100 g) has been determined from the eluent volume corresponding to 50% breakthrough. On silica sand, kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, these are 2.0 x 10/sup -4/, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.31 for cadmium, 4.4 x 10/sup -4/, 0.039, 0.020, and 0.98 for nickel. On kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, adsorption values (mmoles/100 g) are As (0.24, 0.019, and 20.5), B (0.041, 0.0019, and 1.77), Mo (0.048, 0.0010, and 5.93), and Se (0.029, 0.00048, and 1.30). Arsenic is the most highly adsorbed contaminant species and goethite has the largest adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  15. Waste Area Grouping 4 Site Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. WAG 4 is located along Lagoon Road south of the main facility at ORNL. WAG 4 is a shallow-waste burial site consisting of three separate areas: (1) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; (2) an experimental Pilot Pit Area, including a pilot-scale testing pit; and (3) sections of two abandoned underground pipelines formerly used for transporting liquid, low-level radioactive waste. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low-and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk. In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation is being implemented to locate the trenches containing the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources. This investigation has been designed to gather site-specific data to confirm the locations of {sup 90}Sr sources responsible for most off-site releases, and to provide data to be used in evaluating potential interim remedial alternatives prepared to direct the site investigation of the SWSA 4 area at WAG 4.

  16. Study on Waste Composition at Taman Pura Kencana, Batu Pahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is a major challenge due to the increase in population and the development of a country. The problems also arise when the lifespan of the landfills available are shorten than estimated. The aim of this study is to determine waste composition at Taman Pura Kencana. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted based on Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data collected is recorded. The result showed the moisture content was approximately ranging between 25% – 30%. The density for each waste has been calculated and the result was recorded accordingly. The highest density is metal followed by organic waste, glass, napkins, household hazardous waste, textiles, paper, plastic rigid, plastic film, rubber and tetrapek. The waste collected also were categorized and consisted of food waste/organic (43.75%, paper (17.97%, plastics rigid (13.58%, plastic film (10.62%, napkins (4.43%, glass (3.10%, household hazardous waste (1.68%, metal (1.67%, tetrapek (1.34% , rubber (0.93%, and textiles (0.92%. Results from the analysis illustrated that waste generation in Taman Pura Kencana may influenced by sudden changes in lifestyles, incomes, household size and also increase of population.

  17. Compatibility studies for the waste packaging program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1969-03-01

    A program is now underway by Battelle-Northwest to develop the technology required for a waste packaging plant. Cesium chloride and strontium fluoride have been selected as the prime candidates for packaging. Cesium diuranate and strontium pyrophosphate have been selected as backup compounds for packaging in case either or both of the prime candidates should be rejected for any reason. No detailed studies of CsCl compatibility have been reported and long term data are needed. As in the case with CsCl, no detailed studies have been made on SrF{sub 2} compatibility. As a result of the lack of pertinent compatibility data, it is readily apparent that detailed studies are required on CsCl and SrF{sub 2} compatibility and at least scouting studies must be made on the compatibility of the backup packaging compounds. This report summarizes the compatibility studies that are underway at PNL using non-radioactive compounds. Capsule fabrication procedures and tests schedules are outlined.

  18. Laboratory study of mini-magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhislamov, Ildar; Zakharov, Yuri; Posukh, Vitaly; Melekhov, Aleksandr; Antonov, Vladimir; Boyarintsev, Eduard; Ponomarenko, Arnold

    Laboratory study of mini-magnetosphere Magnetosphere at ion kinetic scales, or mini-magnetosphere, which is observed above lunar magnetic anomalies or might be discovered around magnetized asteroids in future missions, possesses unusual features as predicted by numerical simulations. However, there are practically no data on the subject from space observations and the data which is available is far too incomplete. In the present work we describe results of laboratory experiment on interaction of plasma flow with magnetic dipole with parameters such that ion inertia length is smaller than a size of observed magnetosphere. A detailed structure of non-coplanar or out-of-plane component of magnetic field has been obtained in meridian plane. Independence of this component on dipole moment reversal, as was reported in previous works (Shaikhislamov et al 2013, 2014), has been verified. In the tail distinct lobes and central current sheet have been observed. It was found that lobe regions adjacent to boundary layer are dominated by non-coplanar component of magnetic field. Tail-ward oriented electric current in plasma associated with that component appears to be equal to ion current in the frontal part of magnetosphere and in the tail current sheet implying that electrons are stationary in those regions while ions flow by. Obtained data strongly support the proposed model of mini-magnetosphere based on two-fluid effects as described by the Hall term and suggest that spacecraft crossing the tail of magnetized asteroid might observe, instead of simple reversion of tail-ward field, a complex 3-D rotation of magnetic field vector. Acknowledgements This work was supported by SB RAS Research Program grant II.8.1.4, Russian Fund for Basic Research grant 12-02-00367, OFN RAS Research Program 15 and Presidium RAS Research Program 22. References Shaikhislamov, I. F., Antonov, V. M., Zakharov, Yu. P., Boyarintsev, E. L., Melekhov, A. V., Posukh, V. G. and Ponomarenko, A. G. Mini

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Sister Laboratory Collaborations on Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. L.; Sinkule, B. J.; Apt, K. E.

    2003-02-25

    The DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) ''Sister Laboratory'' program allows for bilateral technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy for developing nations. The program establishes a direct line of communication between U.S. scientists and the nuclear research and scientific communities in participating countries.

  20. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  2. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  3. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PORT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, solid waste management in Port Harcourt Metropolis, it causes, effect and possible solutions ranging from waste generation, storage, segregation, collection, treatment and disposal has been investigated. Primary and secondary sources of investigation were used to obtain the required data for the study.

  4. Organic Waste Diversion in Columbia, South Carolina, Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study found that a variety of methods are technically and economically feasible for diverting food wastes and providing a positive return on investment for the source. Potential barriers and considerations for food waste diversion are identified in the study. Given the E...

  5. Integrated study for automobile wastes management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Despite the overwhelming advantages of mechanic villages, their heavy metal pollution of soil due to poor waste management is ... Key words: Soil contamination, storm water treatment, emission testing, EPR, heavy metals. INTRODUCTION ...... system; Civil and Environmental Engineering Texas Technical. University.

  6. Bacteriological studies on dairy waste activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, A.D.

    1966-01-01

    Dairy-waste activated sludge was examined for bacterial composition and response to different conditions. Strains isolated were classified mainly into three groups: predominantly coryneform bacteria (largely Arthrobacter), some Achromobacteraceae and a small groups of Pseudomonadaceae.

  7. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  9. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

  11. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  12. An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1997-09-30

    LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

  13. HWMA closure plan for the Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) calcined and evaporated aqueous wastes generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The calciner operated from 1963 to 1981, primarily processing high level waste from the first cycle of spent fuel extraction. Following the calciner shutdown the evaporator system concentrated high activity aqueous waste from 1983 until 1987. In 1988, US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) requested interim status for the evaporator system, in anticipation of future use of the evaporator system. The evaporator system has not been operated since it received interim status. At the present time, DOE-ID is completing construction on a new evaporator at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) and the evaporator at the WCF is not needed. The decision to not use the WCF evaporator requires Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) and DOE-ID to close these units. After a detailed evaluation of closure options, LITCO and DOE-ID have determined the safest option is to fill the voids (grout the vessels, cells and waste pile) and close the WCF to meet the requirements applicable to landfills. The WCF will be covered with a concrete cap that will meet the closure standards. In addition, it was decided to apply these closure standards to the calcining system since it is contained within the WCF building. The paper describes the site, waste inventory, closure activities, and post-closure care plans.

  14. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  15. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  16. Retrobulbar diversion of aqueous humor: laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Oscar R; Sponsel, William E; Sponse, William E; Swann, F Beau; Margo, Curtis E; Groth, Sylvia L; Ayyala, Ramesh S

    2014-12-01

    This laboratory-based surgical and histopathologic study evaluates the efficacy and explores the mechanism of action of a new form of glaucoma tube shunt for glaucoma. Existing polymeric implants frequently become encapsulated between the sclera and tenons capsule and become impervious to aqueous humor. This pilot study analyzes histologic and tonometric changes after retrobulbar diversion of aqueous directly from anterior chamber (AC) into the retrobulbar space (RS) versus standard subtenons scleral reservoir diversion. This was an IACUC-approved 6-month masked comparative animal study. Front-to-back 1-piece (AC-to-RS) shunts (n=4) and standard Ahmed FP8 shunts (n=3) were implanted unilaterally in a total of 7 rabbits. Operative eyes were serially monitored throughout the trial period and underwent postmortem histologic assessment 24 hours after in vivo intracameral India ink dye injection to discern the pathway for retrobulbar aqueous reuptake. Sustained intraocular pressure reduction occurred in these normotensive rabbits with AC-RS shunts, from preoperative mean 13.5±0.3 to mean 10.6±0.3 mm Hg through 6 months, significantly lower than with the standard FP8 (Phumor. Retrobulbar shunts can divert aqueous from the AC into the RS, potentially overcoming plate encapsulation associated with standard subtenons scleral reservoir placement. Elimination of the bleb from the periequatorial globe may substantially simplify surgery and obviate the risks of bleb leak.

  17. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  18. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  19. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  20. Study on waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannee Adsavakulchai

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation depends on numerous factors such as established waste management methods, type of hospital establishment, hospital specialization, proportion of reusable items employed in hospital, and proportion of patients treated on a day-care basis. This study surveyed the waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok and found the average daily waste generated as general, medical and hazardous waste from all hospitals in Phitsanulok Province at 1.751, 0.284 and 0.013 kg/bed respectively and at 0.323, 0.041 and 0.002 kg/bed respectively from all clinics in Phitsanulok Province. Medical waste from all hospitals consisted of needles, gloves, drain tubes, cottons and gauze, napkins, plastic syringes, swap and body parts with total daily generation at 0.452, 0.480, 0.390, 0.404, 0.018, 0.355, 0.004 and 0.382 kg/bed respectively. Information about proper waste management process is needed to improve hospital waste management. Hospital waste management is an important and necessary component of environmental health protection.

  1. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  2. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management in Aba. Interviews, observation and questionnaires administered to industry executives and waste managers were used to generate data for the study. The result from ... commitment of the industries and the general public toward industrial solid waste management. ..... unauthorized persons pose health risk.

  3. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  4. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  5. A Comparative Kinetic Study of Acidic Hydrolysis of Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    of acid hydrolysis of cellulose isolated from banana skin, cowpea shells, maize stalks and rice husk (agricultural waste) were studied at temperature ranging ... Many of these agro-wastes are allowed to rot away not utilized (Obot et al., 2008). ..... sustainable supply of liquid fuel in china. Biotechnol J. 1:1235. Rahman, S.H.A. ...

  6. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  7. Waste management technology development and demonstration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Two thermoplastic processes for improved treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes were developed from bench scale through technology demonstration: polyethylene encapsulation and modified sulfur cement encapsulation. The steps required to bring technologies from the research and development stage through full scale implementation are described. Both systems result in durable waste forms that meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory criteria and provide significant improvements over conventional solidification systems such as hydraulic cement. For example, the polyethylene process can encapsulate up to 70 wt pct. nitrate salt, compared with a maximum of about 20 wt pct. for the best hydraulic cement formulation. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing as much as 43 wt pct. incinerator fly ash were formulated, whereas the maximum quantity of this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt pct.

  8. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015–October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Permit required groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  9. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  10. A laboratory study of floating lenticular anticyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Patrice; de La Rosa, Hector; Cros, Anne; Cruz-Gomez, Raúl; Le Bars, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Oceanic vortices play an important role in the redistribution of heat, salt and momentum in the oceans. Among these vortices, floating lenses or rings are often met in the meanders of warm currents. For instance the North Brazil Current rings are among the most intense and large anticyclonic vortices on Earth. In order to better describe these vortices, we propose here a laboratory study of these floating anticyclonic lenses. A blob of fresh water is slowly injected near the surface of a rotating layer of homogeneous salted water. Because of the opposite effects of rotation that tends to generate columnar structures and density stratification that spreads light water on the surface, the vortices take a finite size three dimensionnal typical shape. Visualization and PIV measurements of the shape, aspect ratios and vorticity profiles are compared to analytical predictions that use first a simple solid body rotation model and then a more realistic isolated Gaussian vorticity field inside the anticyclones. This work was carried out within the framework of a bilateral cooperation between CNRS (France) and CONACYT (Mexico).

  11. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  12. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  13. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  14. [Wastes in nursing practice: findings from a phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Mecugni, Daniela; Moga, Maria Mirela; Graceffa, Giuseppina; Palese, Alvisa

    2015-01-01

    the International economic crisis has challenged the sustainability of health care systems imposing reforms aimed to reduce costs and increase production efficiency. At the international level, waste reduction is considered to be the basis to ensure the heath care systems sustainability. To reduce waste and increase production efficiency is required to document the types, the extent and the level were they occur. The purpose of this paper is to document the experience of waste in nurses clinical practice. a descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. Clinical nursing operating in different care settings of the National Heath Care Service were recruited adopting a maximum variation purposeful sampling. Data saturation was considered as the finish line for the participants recruitment. thirty nurses participated in the study. They were mainly female (n = 28, 93.3%) and with an average age of 41.4 ± 7.3 years. For nurses waste means inadequate allocation of resources. Wastes are caused by individual and organizational choices determining improper, inefficient or ineffective use of material, human or virtual heath care resources and time as well as the incorrect application of clinical pathways, the inadequate use of electricity, food, and the improper disposal of the hospital waste. Wastes generates negative emotional impact on nurses such as frustration, anger and sense of impotence. Avoidable wastes were identified. They were mainly related to the expiration date, the use and the type of drugs and materials. Also unavoidable wastes were identified and they were related to established practices to ensure patients safety and changes in treatment choices due to the clinical instability of the patients. within the limits of the qualitative approach, in this study have been identified different types of waste present in clinical practice as perceived by nurses. National Health Service policies could focus on this evidences to improve production efficiency. To

  15. Application of Lean-Six Sigma Approach in a Laboratory Experimental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Raza Rizvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments are a conventional activity performed at academic institutions, government and private organizations. These experimental studies provide the basis for new inventions in the field of science and engineering. Laboratory experiments are conducted on the basis of provided guidelines, already established by different standard organizations like ASTM, AASHTO etc. This article is based on a case study in which the process of an experiment is examined on the basis of Value Stream Maps (VSM and potential improvement possibilities have been identified. After determining the potential waste, appropriate Lean tools are selected to implement and observe the improvements. The process is examined after application of the Lean tools and a comparison is performed. University laboratory environment can be improved considerably by applying Lean Tools. MUDA application reduced the total work time from 90.75 hours and 10-CD to 63.75 hours and 7-CD hence saving, 27 hours and 3-CD for one experiment. This is remarkable achievement of this application. Heijunka application provided the students equal workload and they performed explicitly better than they used to. 5-S tool provided the students the opportunity to manage the laboratory in an effective and clean way. Safety of the students is a very major concern at university laboratory environment. 5-S not only upgraded the laboratory overall performance, but it significantly raised the safety standards of the laboratory. More application of the Lean Tools should be exercised explored to have more effective and efficient university laboratory experimental environment.

  16. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  19. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    of this study, two plastic waste bins of 60 L each were placed in the kitchens: organic waste bins and mixed waste bins. Organic waste and mixed waste from these kitchens were collected and weighed separately, on a daily basis, during 133 working days (29 weeks). However, waste was not sampled during weekends...... potential. They also suggest that recycling target for source-segregated organic waste might be achievable with reasonable logistical ease in institution areas....

  20. Uranium mill tailings: nuclear waste and natural laboratory for geochemical and radioecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings (UMT) are a high volume, low specific activity radioactive waste typically disposed in surface impoundments. This review focuses on research on UMT and related earth materials during the past decade relevant to the assessment of: (1) mineral hosts of radionuclides; (2) the use of soil analogs in predicting long-term fate of radionuclides; (3) microbial and diagenetic processes that may alter radionuclide mobility in the surficial environment; (4) waste-management technologies to limit radionuclide migration; and (5) the impact of UMT on biota.

  1. Aggradational and erosional history of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechert, T.V.; McDaniel, P.A.; Falen, A.L. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Long-term performance of the low-level waste disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is partially dependent on the stability of the land surface with respect to erosion of cover materials. This document discusses the aggradational and erosional history of the naturally occurring sediments and soils in and around the RWMC, focusing on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Other related issues include the ages of the various deposits, the extent to which they have been altered by soil formation and other processes, their relationships to the basalt flows in the area, and the impact of human activity on the materials at the RWMC.

  2. Case Studies in Sustainability Used in an Introductory Laboratory Course to Enhance Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, Stephanie; Hargrove-Leak, Sirena; Gibson, Willietta; Leak, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This educational research seeks to develop novel laboratory modules by using Case Studies in the Science Teaching method to introduce sustainability and environmental engineering laboratory concepts to 21st century learners. The increased interest in "going green" has led to a surge in the number of engineering students studying…

  3. The DoD Laboratory Utilization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-28

    title 5, USC; Civil Service Commission regulations are promulgated in the Federal Personnel Manual ; and agency policy and regulationr are issued by...requested statistics and is forwarded in accordance with reference (a). JAMES H’ PROBUS D’:Oeotor of Navy LaboratoriOs (AotinZ) Copy to: ASN (R&D) tNI

  4. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  5. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  6. studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste 115

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    , 2008. Accepted: February, 2009. STUDIES ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FRUITS AND VEGETABLE. WASTE. 1*Sagagi, B. S., B. Garba and N. S. Usman. Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.

  7. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  8. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis B. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  9. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982. [831 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff.

  10. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  11. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  12. Forecasting waste compositions: A case study on plastic waste of electronic display housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Jef R; Vanegas, Paul; Kellens, Karel; Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid succession of technological developments, the architecture and material composition of many products used in daily life have drastically changed over the last decades. As a result, well-adjusted recycling technologies need to be developed and installed to cope with these evolutions. This is essential to guarantee continued access to materials and to reduce the ecological impact of our material consumption. However, limited information is currently available on the material composition of arising waste streams and even less on how these waste streams will evolve. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology to forecast trends in the material composition of waste streams. To demonstrate the applicability and value of the proposed methodology, it is applied to forecast the evolution of plastic housing waste from flat panel display (FPD) TVs, FPD monitors, cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and CRT monitors. The results of the presented forecasts indicate that a wide variety of plastic types and additives, such as flame retardants, are found in housings of similar products. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed methodology allows the identification of trends in the evolution of the material composition of waste streams. In addition, it is demonstrated that the recycling sector will need to adapt its processes to deal with the increasing complexity of plastics of end-of-life electronic displays while respecting relevant directives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  14. Electrical and Electronical Waste Generation in Turkey: Bursa Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray SALİHOĞLU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and electronical equipment that gradually take more place in our daily life, spend their service life in short times and become an e-waste problem to be solved.  Because of the hazardous components they contain, e-waste can cause environmental and human health threats if they are not properly managed. If they are managed properly, they can be a valuable raw material source, since they contain valuable metals such as copper, silver, gold, palladium and recyclable components such as plastics and metals. According to a research conducted in 2014, the global e-waste amount accounts to a source worth 52 billion $; however, only 16% of this source has been properly recycled. It is important to know the potential e-waste amount and the behaviors of people in the production of e-waste to realize a proper e-waste management in our country. The amount and property of electrical and electronic equipment and e-waste generation potential per person in Bursa was investigated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to a group of people including 31 families (100 person. The questions were to investigate the behaviors in the use, replacement, and management of electrical and electronical equipment. The findings showed that usage of lamps (fluorescent and others were higher than the other equipment, and usage of mobile phones were found to be highest in terms of devices. It was also found that when the mobiles become e-waste since the owners do not want to use them, they are not just thrown away and kept at homes instead. E-waste generation potential of a person from the families investigated was estimated to be 8.14 kg/year.

  15. Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study: are you management material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Many clinical laboratory scientists find themselves in a management position during their career, but have limited training to assume this role. The Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study was designed to submerge students into the laboratory business by having the participant act as a laboratory manager with the capacity to make all the decisions about his or her own lab. The student participant completed a set of modules that each related to varying aspects of managing a laboratory including selecting what tests to offer, hiring employees, marketing the services, setting goals, budgeting, and evaluating overall success. This Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study was used to instruct clinical laboratory science students in a university based clinical laboratory science program as part of their seminar in teaching, research, and management course. The size of these classes range from ten to twenty students and results reported in this paper are collected from a class size of sixteen students. The study could also be adapted for use in a hospital based program or as continuing education for laboratory employees. At the conclusion of the study, the student participants reported what they had learned during their time as managers and how their perspective changed. Student participants reported that they gained an understanding and appreciation for the responsibilities of the laboratory manager. For some, this study helped to define career goals.

  16. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  17. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopčić, Nina, E-mail: nkopcic@fkit.hr; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Apple and tobacco waste mixture was efficiently composted during 22 days. • Physical–chemical and microbiological properties of the mixture were suitable the process. • Evaluation of selected mathematical model showed good prediction of the temperature. • The temperature curve was a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve. • The peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption. - Abstract: Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical–chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min{sup −1}. During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption.

  18. Review of the transport of selected radionuclides in the interim risk assessment for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Landa, Edward R.; Nimmo, John R.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Curtis, Gary P.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Anderson, Steven R.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Bossong, Clifford R.; Orr, Brennon R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent technical review of the Interim Risk Assessment (IRA) and Contaminant Screening for the Waste Area Group 7 (WAG-7) Remedial Investigation, the draft Addendum to the Work Plan for Operable Unit 7-13/14 WAG-7 comprehensive Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS), and supporting documents that were prepared by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Inc. The purpose of the technical review was to assess the data and geotechnical approaches that were used to estimate future risks associated with the release of the actinides americium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium to the Snake River Plain aquifer from wastes buried in pits and trenches at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex in southeastern Idaho within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Radionuclides have been buried in pits and trenches at the SDA since 1957 and 1952, respectively. Burial of transuranic wastes was discontinued in 1982. The five specific tasks associated with this review were defined in a ?Proposed Scope of Work? prepared by the DOE, and a follow-up workshop held in June 1998. The specific tasks were (1) to review the radionuclide sampling data to determine how reliable and significant are the reported radionuclide detections and how reliable is the ongoing sampling program, (2) to assess the physical and chemical processes that logically can be invoked to explain true detections, (3) to determine if distribution coefficients that were used in the IRA are reliable and if they have been applied properly, (4) to determine if transport model predictions are technically sound, and (5) to identify issues needing resolution to determine technical adequacy of the risk assessment analysis, and what additional work is required to resolve those issues.

  19. Disaster waste management in Italy: Analysis of recent case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Francesco; Amato, Alessia; Balducci, Susanna; Magi Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Beolchini, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Italian territory causes the incidence of many disasters like earthquakes and floods, with the consequent production of large volumes of waste. The management of such huge flows, produced in a very short time, may have a high impact on the whole emergency response. Moreover, historical data related to disaster waste management are often not easily accessible; on the other hand, the availability of data concerning previous events could support the emergency managers, that have to take a decision in a very short time. In this context, the present paper analyses four relevant recent case studies in Italy, dealing with disaster waste management after geologic and hydrologic natural events. Significant differences have been observed in the quantity and types of generated wastes, and, also, in the management approach. Such differences are mainly associated with the kind of disaster (i.e. earthquake vs. flood), to the geographical location (i.e. internal vs. coastal area), to the urbanisation level (i.e. industrial vs. urban). The study allowed the identification of both strengths and weaknesses of the applied waste management strategies, that represent "lessons to learn" for future scenarios. Even though it deals with Italian case studies, this manuscript may have a high impact also at international level, making available for the first-time emergency waste management data, that are considered an indispensable support for decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  2. Guidance document for the preparation of waste management plans for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A project waste management (WM) plan is required for all Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program remedial investigation, decommission and decontamination (D&D), and remedial action (RA) activities. The project WM plan describes the strategy for handling, packaging, treating, transporting, characterizing, storing, and/or disposing of waste produced as part of ORNL ER Program activities. The project WM plan also contains a strategy for ensuring worker and environmental protection during WM activities.

  3. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  4. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwate Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report, First and Second Quarters 1998, Volumes I, II, & III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-10-30

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah river Site (SRS) during first and second quarters 1998. This program is required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Report requirements are described in the 1995 RCRA Renewal Permit, effective October 5, 1995, Section IIIB.H.11.b for the M-Area HWMF and Section IIIG.H.11.b for the Met Lab HWMF.

  5. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  6. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  7. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: USDOE Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in Niskayuna, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Knolls site is located at 2401 River Road in the Town of Niskayuna, Schenectady County, New York, on the south bank of the Mohawk River. Construction of the site began in 1948 and laboratory operations began in 1949. The site consists of 170 acres of

  8. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  9. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  10. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

  11. Heterogeneous processes: Laboratory, field, and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lamont R.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Jones, Rod L.; Wahner, Andreas; Calvert, Jack G.; Leu, M.-T.; Fried, A.; Molina, Mario J.; Hampson, Robert F.; Pitts, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiencies of chemical families such as ClO(x) and NO(x) for altering the total abundance and distribution of stratospheric ozone are controlled by a partitioning between reactive (active) and nonreactive (reservoir) compounds within each family. Gas phase thermodynamics, photochemistry, and kinetics would dictate, for example, that only about 1 percent of the chlorine resident in the lower stratosphere would be in the form of active Cl or ClO, the remainder existing in the reservoir compounds HCl and ClONO2. The consistency of this picture was recently challenged by the recognition that important chemical transformations take place on polar regions: the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASA). Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, Solomon et al. suggested that the heterogeneous chemical reaction: ClONO2(g)+HCl(s) yields Cl2(g)+HNO3(s) could play a key role in converting chlorine from inactive forms into a species (Cl2) that would rapidly dissociate in sunlight to liberate atomic chlorine and initiate ozone depletion. The symbols (s) and (g) denote solid phase, or adsorbed onto a solid surface, and gas phase, respectively, and represent the approach by which such a reaction is modeled rather than the microscopic details of the reaction. The reaction was expected to be most important at altitudes where PSC's were most prevalent (10 to 25 km), thereby extending the altitude range over which chlorine compounds can efficiently destroy ozone from the 35 to 45 km region (where concentrations of active chlorine are usually highest) to lower altitudes where the ozone concentration is at its peak. This chapter will briefly review the current state of knowledge of heterogeneous processes in the stratosphere, emphasizing those results obtained since the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) conference. Sections are included on laboratory investigations of heterogeneous reactions, the

  12. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  13. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Brenda Ringe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie Kae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  14. Health and Safety Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Manis, L.W.; Barre, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S&H) issues. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water This plan explains additional site-specific health and safety requirements such as Site Specific Hazards Evaluation Addendums (SSHEAs) to the Site Safety and Health Plan which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  15. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  16. A Study on removal of chromium from tannery effluent treatment of chrome tanning waste water using tannery solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahaman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the process of removal of chromium from chrome tanning waste-water by fly ash which was drive from chrome shaving dust. This experiment was carried out in a batch process with laboratory prepared adsorbent samples and chrome tanning water collected from local tanneries. The influence of various factors likes adsorbent doses, contact time, and initial concentration of chromium on the removal of chromium from effluent was investigated. FTIR analysis was done to identify the functional groups presents in the fly ash. The maximum removal of chromium and absorption capacity was found to be 97.86%. And 23.11 mg/g at chromium concentration of 1000.3mg/l and 1291 mg/l respectively. Total dissolve solid, turbidity, and conductivity were reduced significantly. Waste water samples containing several interfering ions like Na, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn etc. The langmuir absorption isotherm was also used to explain the nature of adsorption. This result indicates that chrome shaving dust ash can be successfully used to treat chrome tanning wastewater.

  17. The remedial investigation/feasibility study process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), manages and operates the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under a cost-plus-award-fee contract administered by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (Operations Office). Energy Systems` environmental restoration program is responsible for eliminating or reducing the risk posed by inactive and surplus sites and facilities that have been contaminated with radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. The remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted as part of Energy Systems` environmental restoration program. The objective of the audit was to determine if the proposed interim source control action identified in the ``Proposed Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 Interim Remedial Action`` had been adequately justified. The audit disclosed that the proposed source control interim remedial action, three flexible membrane caps estimated to cost $140 million for waste area grouping 6, was not adequately justified. We recommended that DOE justify the proposed action before agreeing to proceed. The Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office, generally concurred with the audit recommendations.

  18. Removal of technetium-99 from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly-Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.E.; Osborne, P.E.; Bunch, D.H.; Fellows, R.L.; Sellers, G.F.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bowser, K.T. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Bostick, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We report laboratory investigations on treatment options for the removal of the radionuclide {sup 99}{Tc} (as the pertechnetate anion, {Tc}O{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste. The waste stimulant is alkaline (pH 12-13), containing sodium carbonate ({approximately}0.10 mot/L) and sodium hydroxide ({approximately} 0.125 mol/L), plus a modest concentration of sodium nitrate ({approximately}0.06 mol/L). Several organic resin anion exchange media were tested; Dowex{trademark} 1-X-8 and Reillex{trademark} HPQ resins were notably effective (with equilibrium distribution coefficients {approximately}2,000 mL/g, as-received basis). We also tested steel wool as a reagent to chemically reduce and sorb {sup 99}Tc. At pH values above {approximately}10, the iron surface was passivated and became ineffective as a reagent for technetium; however, as the test solution pH value was adjusted to near-neutrality (e.g., pH 8-9), the steel was noted to be more effective than the organic resins tested. In dynamic flow conditions, steel wool packed in a column was noted to continuously leak {approximately}1--3% of the amount of {sup 99}{Tc} activity in the feed solution, although no additional increase in eluent activity was noted for the duration of the testing ({approximately}1200 bed volumes of {approximately}0.11 mg/L {sup 99}{Tc} flowed at a rate equivalent to {approximately}0.5 gal/min/ft{sup 2} of column cross sectional area). Although no breakthrough was noted (other than the 1--3 % continuous ``bleed`` noted previously) during the column operation ({approximately} 2 weeks), the steel in the column was deteriorated, causing plugging and erratic flow toward the end of the testing interval.

  19. Solid waste management : a case study of National Refinery Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.H.; Syed, Z.R. [National Refinery Ltd., Karachi (Pakistan); NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to quantify and classify the waste generated at the National Refinery Limited (NRL). This refinery, located in Karachi, Pakistan, produces naphtha, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils and much more. Various units such as crude oil storage, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and others were surveyed to assess the source and nature of the pollution. It was found that the major contributor to air pollution was the sulfur released through the burning of fuel oil during day-to-day operations. It was determined that approximately 2000 metric tons of solid waste were produced each day, along with 0.55 million gallons of waste water. In addition, sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were also released in the atmosphere. The solid waste was composed of municipal waste, sludges from the API and other discarded materials. The authors then proceeded to determine the heavy metals contents in samples obtained from combined sludge dumping areas on the premises. The sludges contained sulfur (0-1.26 wt per cent), lead (0-0.156 wt per cent), iron (0.01-3.4 wt per cent), chromium (0-0.159 per cent), copper (0-0.05 wt per cent), cadmium (0-0.0034 wt per cent), nickel (0-0.168 wt per cent), and manganese (0.0015-0.0776 wt per cent). It was recommended that hazardous and non-hazardous wastes be segregated, that a separate feasibility study be undertaken to determine the best possible course of action to dispose of solid waste, and that government guidelines be established on the same topic. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L. (.); Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  1. Belgian R and D program on waste of medium or high activity carried on in the underground laboratory Hades in Boom clay; Programme de R et D belge relatif aux dechets de moyenne et de haute activite. Experiences menees dans le laboratoire souterrain Hades dans l'argile de Boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, A.; Gens, R. [ONDRAF / NIRAS - Organisme National des Dechets Radioactifs et des Matieres Fissiles Enrichies, Nationale Instelling voor Radioactief Afval en verrijkte Splijstoffen, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-05-01

    The HADES underground laboratory sits in the Boom clay geological formation selected in Belgium for the study of radioactive waste disposal. The experimental work carried out in the laboratory includes the following: study of the effects of vitrified waste on the surrounding materials (projects CERBERUS and CORALUS), tests on the behaviour of some radionuclides (tritiated water, {sup 134}Cs percolation during seven years), 3D migration, percolation of americium and technetium, geochemical characterization (projects ARCHIMEDE, ORPHEUS, MORPHEUS, PEGASUS). The in situ experimentation is supplemented by surface laboratory experimentation as well as by modelling studies. (authors)

  2. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose and mannitol on growth of banana ... l-1 of laboratory grade sucrose, table sucrose and mannitol was used with no sugar as a control treatment. ..... of banana plantlets under in vitro condition at a level of 30g x l-1. However, reducing sugar ...

  3. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  4. Preferential flow in municipal solid waste and implications for long-term leachate quality: valuation of laboratory-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosqvist, N H; Dollar, L H; Fourie, A B

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we study and quantify pollutant concentrations after long-term leaching at relatively low flow rates and residual concentrations after heavy flushing of a 0.14 m3 municipal solid waste sample. Moreover, water flow and solute transport through preferential flow paths are studied by model interpretation of experimental break-through curves (BTCs), generated by tracer tests. In the study it was found that high concentrations of chloride remain after several pore volumes of water have percolated through the waste sample. The residual concentration was found to be considerably higher than can be predicted by degradation models. For model interpretations of the experimental BTCs, two probabilistic model approaches were applied, the transfer function model and the Lagrangian transport formulation. The experimental BTCs indicated the presence of preferential flow through the waste mass and the model interpretation of the BTCs suggested that between 19 and 41% of the total water content participated in the transport of solute through preferential flow paths. In the study, the occurrence of preferential flow was found to be dependent on the flow rate in the sense that a high flow rate enhances the preferential flow. However, to fully quantify the possible dependence between flow rate and preferential flow, experiments on a broader range of experimental conditions are suggested. The chloride washout curve obtained over the 4-year study period shows that as a consequence of the water flow in favoured flow paths, bypassing other parts of the solid waste body, the leachate quality may reflect only the flow paths and their surroundings. The results in this study thus show that in order to improve long-term prediction of the leachate quality and quantity the magnitude of the preferential water flow through a landfill must be taken into account.

  5. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  6. Study on solidification for municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.; Liu, Q.; Yang, J.; Xi, W. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Huang, B. [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2008-07-01

    The appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental issues, despite the significant efforts to prevent, reduce, reuse and recycle waste. Two primary options can be used for managing MSW incineration fly ash. These are landfill disposal or incineration. Incineration is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction and energy recovery, as compared with landfill. MSW fly ash generally contains higher content of easily leachable heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and zinc. In China, source separation of municipal solid wastes is not well practiced and has resulted in high concentrations of heavy metals being detected in the MSW fly ash. This paper presented a preliminary study to examine the properties of MSW fly ash and the fixing abilities of ordinary Portland cement and hydrated time on heavy metals. The paper discussed the effects of experimental parameters on the properties of solidified fly ash and the optimal technology conditions. The fly ash used in the study was collected from solid waste incineration plants in Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Chongqing, China. It was concluded that the effect on solidification got better and the leaching quantities of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, cadmium, or chromium decreased with the addition of cement used as adhesive. The optimal proportion of cement was 8 per cent. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  8. Cold laboratory test on nuclide removal from Low-Level Radioactive Liquid Waste by lanthanum phosphate reduction coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, T. [Nuclear Technology and Engineering Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukumoto, Masahiro; Murata, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Ikeda, Satoshi

    1999-02-01

    Low Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) for the removal of radionuclides contained in Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste (LLLW) from reprocessing plant in JNC Tokai Works is now under construction. The primary process has now been designed to be complex processes: removal of iodine, of carbonic acid in solution, of lanthanides coprecipitated with ferric hydroxide and of remaining radionuclides such as strontium can cesium. However, the study on the behavior of ruthenium in the coprecipitation process revealed that it is insufficient for removal of ruthenium. As an alternative process, coprecipitation with lanthanum phosphate method substituting for ferric hydroxide was studied. As the result of test, it was confirmed that the method is practical to remove ruthenium with other lanthanides from LLLW except strontium. In this report, the preliminary cold test was described briefly. (H. Itami)

  9. Food Waste in School Catering: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falasconi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food losses and waste are currently at the heart of academic debates, civil society initiatives, and political agendas. This paper investigates food waste in school catering services focusing on six schools located in the municipality of Verona (Italy. It aims to quantify food waste, as a measure of food catering inefficiency, to identify the main causes, and to suggest a set of prevention and reduction interventions. For these purposes food waste is defined as all the products discarded from the food chain while still preserving their nutritional value and complying with safety standards. The work shows a significant level of inefficiency in the school catering services, measured by the amount of food processed and still perfectly edible, but not served during the meals. On average more than 15% of the overall processed food is wasted. Among the causes identified in this study, four of them were more relevant than others because of their implications and impact on prevention: the lack of attention to dietary habits, the rigid food procurement specifications, the menu composition, and the meal presentation.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  11. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    211 single-family houses in Denmark. The residual waste from each household was collected and sorted separately to obtain a representative variation of the quantity and composition of food waste among households. The main fractions contributing to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food......Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...

  12. Strategic planning for waste management: A case study of Shiraz waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangi Abadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are several reports indicating on reduction on renewable resources. On the other hand, there is an increase on the population, which increases production of garbage in the world. With limitation on governmental budget, there is growing concern on having efficient strategic planning for waste management. The proposed study of this paper performs a SWOT analysis to find all strength, weakness, opportunities as well as possible threats associated with waste management organization located in city of Shiraz, located in south west of Iran. Based on the results, appropriated locating strategies for burying garbage, training and increasing awareness regarding production and collection, attracting foreign investment in the field of recycling garbage, reconsidering environmental rules and burying garbage and its separation standards are the most important strategies.

  13. In-situ containment of buried waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heiser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stewart, W.; Phillips, S. [Applied Geotechnical Engineering and Construction, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale {open_quotes}cold test{close_quotes} demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL.

  14. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  15. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  16. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  17. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment of the retrieval of transuranic waste: Pads 1, 2, and 4, Technical Area-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbert, K.A.; Lyon, B.F.; Hutchison, J.; Holmes, J.A.; Legg, J.L.; Simek, M.P.; Travis, C.C.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Risk Assessment for the Retrieval of Transuranic Waste is a comparative risk assessment of the potential adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to contaminants during retrieval and post-retrieval aboveground storage operations of post-1970 earthen-covered transuranic waste. Two alternatives are compared: (1) Immediate Retrieval and (2) Delayed Retrieval. Under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative, retrieval of the waste is assumed to begin immediately, Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, retrieval is delayed 10 years. The current risk assessment is on Pads 1, 2, and 4, at Technical Area-54, Area-G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Risks are assessed independently for three scenarios: (1) incident-free retrieval operations, (2) incident-free storage operations, and (3) a drum failure analysis. The drum failure analysis evaluates container integrity under both alternatives and assesses the impacts of potential drum failures during retrieval operations. Risks associated with a series of drum failures are potentially severe for workers, off-site receptors, and general on-site employees if retrieval is delayed 10 years and administrative and engineering controls remain constant. Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, an average of 300 drums out of 16,647 are estimated to fail during retrieval operations due to general corrosion, while minimal drums are predicted to fail under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative. The results of the current study suggest that, based on risk, remediation of Pads 1, 2, and 4 at LANL should not be delayed. Although risks from incident-free operations in the Delayed Retrieval Alternative are low, risks due to corrosion and drum failures are potentially severe.

  19. COLAB: A Laboratory Environment for Studying Analyst Sensemaking and Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Clayton T; Cohen, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    COLAB is a laboratory for studying tools that facilitate collaboration and sensemaking among groups of human analysts as they build interpretations of unfolding situations based on accruing intelligence data...

  20. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1983-06-01

    This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

  1. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Kadir Aeslina; Azhari Nur Wahidah; Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2017-01-01

    Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs) called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy) and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut). The objective of the study was to determine the waste generatio...

  2. Data sharing report characterization of the surveillance and maintenance project miscellaneous process inventory waste items Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  3. Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of Indonesia. The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was established in 1997 with the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development (as defined nationally) and industrialized countries achieve compliance ...

  4. Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS): A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Karen S.; Auping, Judith V.; Megargle, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    In the late 70's, a refurbishment of the analytical laboratories serving the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was to be included. Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the best choice in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled down version of the original design has been in operation since 1984. The LIMS, a combination of computer hardware, provides the chemical characterization laboratory with an information data base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved in designing and implementing that LIMS.

  5. Standardization of Laboratory Methods for the PERCH Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karron, Ruth A.; Morpeth, Susan C.; Bhat, Niranjan; Levine, Orin S.; Baggett, Henry C.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Feikin, Daniel R.; Hammitt, Laura L.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Kotloff, Karen L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Thea, Donald M.; Adrian, Peter V.; Ahmed, Dilruba; Alam, Muntasir; Anderson, Trevor P.; Antonio, Martin; Baillie, Vicky L.; Dione, Michel; Endtz, Hubert P.; Gitahi, Caroline; Karani, Angela; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Maiga, Abdoul Aziz; McClellan, Jessica; Mitchell, Joanne L.; Morailane, Palesa; Mugo, Daisy; Mwaba, John; Mwansa, James; Mwarumba, Salim; Nyongesa, Sammy; Panchalingam, Sandra; Rahman, Mustafizur; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Tamboura, Boubou; Toure, Aliou; Whistler, Toni; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Murdoch, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study was conducted across 7 diverse research sites and relied on standardized clinical and laboratory methods for the accurate and meaningful interpretation of pneumonia etiology data. Blood, respiratory specimens, and urine were collected from children aged 1–59 months hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia and community controls of the same age without severe pneumonia and were tested with an extensive array of laboratory diagnostic tests. A standardized testing algorithm and standard operating procedures were applied across all study sites. Site laboratories received uniform training, equipment, and reagents for core testing methods. Standardization was further assured by routine teleconferences, in-person meetings, site monitoring visits, and internal and external quality assurance testing. Targeted confirmatory testing and testing by specialized assays were done at a central reference laboratory. PMID:28575358

  6. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  7. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  8. Elementary study on evaluation of environmental loads and costs for waste treatment system in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    INAZUMI, Shinya; OHTSU, Hiroyasu; SHIOTANI, Tomoki; KATSUMI, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    It is very important for waste to be controlled and appropriately treated in a waste treatment system because of its impact on the environment. This study quantitatively evaluates the current waste treatment system and suggests countermeasures based on their impact on reducing the environmental and treatment costs in order to solve waste treatment problems in Bangkok, Thailand. Evaluation models are applied to estimate the treatment and environmental costs in the current waste treatment syste...

  9. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ozone is often used in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes.

  10. Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ruane Fernandes; Danilevicz, Ângela de Moura Ferreira; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2017-09-01

    The construction industry is well-known for producing waste detrimental to the environment, and its impacts have increased with the development process of cities. Although there are several studies focused on the environmental impact of residential and commercial buildings, less knowledge is available regarding decreasing construction waste (CW) generation in urban infrastructure projects. This study presents best practices to reduce waste in the said projects, stressing the role of decision-making in the design stage and the effective management of construction processes in public sector. The best practices were identified from literature review, document analysis in 14 projects of urban infrastructure, and both qualitative and quantitative survey with 18 experts (architects and engineers) playing different roles on those projects. The contributions of these research are: (i) the identification of the main building techniques related to the urban design typologies analyzed; (ii) the identification of cause-effect relationships between the design choices and the CW generation diagnosis; (iii) the proposal of a checklist to support the decision-making process, that can be used as a control and evaluation instrument when developing urban infrastructure designs, focused on the construction waste minimization (CWM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  13. STUDY OF WASTE IN THE CITY OF ITABUNA-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josessira Galy Farias Barreto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the expansion of cities eventually endanger the quality of life and the environment, as occurred without adequate urban and environmental planning which contributed to the increased generation of construction waste. With this research we intended to contribute to the analysis of impacts to the environment and quality of life that cause construction waste in city Itabuna. This study consists of a field survey of exploratory and descriptive nature, aimed at identifying areas of irregular deposition and discarded materials for the construction industry as well as scoring alternatives to minimize the impacts resulting from irregular depositions. It was found that although the recycling of construction and demolition waste are a favorable solution to mitigate environmental impacts due to irregular depositions in the city, there is a need to highlight the importance of education, in order to clarify and teach the public how deal with RCD's about the generation, deposition, transport and disposal, making a structured and efficient within the actions of the government, for change of habit and culture in the city of Itabuna regarding these types of waste and its implications.

  14. The quality study of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Chen, Guan-Hao; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Cin-Fu; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2017-02-01

    To study the feasibility and quality of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED packaging, the experiments were conducted to compare optical characteristics between fresh color conversion layer and that made of recycled waste. The fresh color conversion layer was fabricated through sintering pristine mixture of Y.A.G. powder [yellow phosphor (Y3AlO12 : Ce3+). Those recycled waste glass phosphor re-melted to form Secondary Molten Glass Phosphor (S.M.G.P.). The experiments on such low melting temperature glass results showed that transmission rates of S.M.G.P. are 9% higher than those of first-sintered glass phosphor, corresponding to 1.25% greater average bubble size and 36% more bubble coverage area in S.M.G.P. In the recent years, high power LED modules and laser projectors have been requiring higher thermal stability by using glass phosphor materials for light mixing. Nevertheless, phosphor and related materials are too expensive to expand their markets. It seems a right trend and research goal that recycling such waste of high thermal stability and quality materials could be preferably one of feasible cost-down solutions. This technical approach could bring out brighter future for solid lighting and light source module industries.

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  16. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

  19. The studies on waste biodegradation by Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As cities are growing in size with a rise in the population, the amount of plastic waste generated is increasing and becoming unmanageable. The treatment and disposal of plastic waste is an urgent need of our present and future. It has been proved recently that mealworms, the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, are able eat styrofoam, a common polystyrene product. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several million tons per year. Tenebrio molitor is one of the largest pests found in stored-grain products. The insect is indigenous to Europe, but is currently cosmopolitan in distribution. The styrofoam is efficiently degraded in the larval gut by microorganisms. We have used the larvae of T. molitor to biodegrade three types of food packaging plastics: polystyrene (PS, polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polylactide (PLA. PVC is a thermoplastic made of 57% chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt and 43% carbon (derived predominantly from oil /gas via ethylene. It is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, which is not biodegradable easily. On the other hand, PLA is an easily biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from corn and tapioca starch or sugarcane. Three groups of larvae were fed selected types of polymers as an only food, while a control population was fed on oatmeal. The mass loss, dry matter content and biochemical composition of mealworms were assessed in the performed laboratory experiments. The protein concentration in homogenates of the larvae was determined by the Bradford method. To determine the level of hydrolized carbohydrates we used anthrone method. The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA was used to quantitate total lipids in mealworms. The results allowed to compare the decomposition efficiency of selected polymer materials by mealworms and to recognize the mechanism of decomposition contributing to the future

  20. Waste Preparation and Transport Chemistry: Results of the FY 2001 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.

    2002-03-25

    of researchers from AEA Technology, Florida International University (FIU), Fluor Hanford, Mississippi State University (MSU), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate various aspects of the waste preparation and transport chemistry. The majority of this effort was focused on saltcake dissolution and saltwell pumping. The results of the AEA Technology, FIU, and MSU studies of saltcake dissolution and slurry transfers for Hanford are discussed in detail in a companion report prepared by T. D. Welch in 2001 (ORNIJTM-2001097). Staff members at Fluor Hanford have continued to conduct saltcake dissolution tests on actual tank waste (documented in reports prepared by D. L. Herting in 2000 and 2001). It should be noted that full-scale saltcake dissolution at Hanford is scheduled to begin in FY 2002. While the Hanford effort is focused on the transfer of waste from one tank to another, the objective of the SRTC study is the formation of aluminosilicates at elevated temperatures, which are present in the waste evaporator.

  1. INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

    2008-09-11

    The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

  2. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  3. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  4. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  5. Spatial issues when optimising waste treatment and energy systems – A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Petrovic, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the challenge of including geographical information related to waste resources, energy demands and production plants, and transport options in the optimization of waste management. It analyses how waste may serve as an energy source through thermal conversion and anaerobic...... digestion. The relation to the energy sector is taken into account. The geographically specific potentials and utilization possibilities of waste are taken into account. Thus, the relative location of the resources (in this study waste and manure for codegestion) is accounted for. Also the location...... of the year. The study provides an analysis of the Danish waste and energy systems with a spatial and temporal resolution....

  6. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  7. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  8. The Essential Role for Laboratory Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, James B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Abbatt, Jonathan P. D. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Barnes, Ian [Univ. of Wuppertal (Germany); Roberts, James M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Melamed, Megan L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ammann, Markus [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bertram, Allan K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Cappa, Christopher D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Carlton, Annmarie G. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Carpenter, Lucy J. [Univ. of York (United Kingdom); Crowley, John N. [Max Planck Inst. of Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Dubowski, Yael [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel); George, Christian [Univ. of Lyon (France); Heard, Dwayne E. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Herrmann, Hartmut [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Keutsch, Frank N. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ng, Nga Lee [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nizkorodov, Sergey A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Orlando, John J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Percival, Carl J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte [Inst. Pierre-Simon Laplace, Creteil (France); Rudich, Yinon [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Seakins, Paul W. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Surratt, Jason D. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tanimoto, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Thornton, Joel A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tong, Zhu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Tyndall, Geoffrey S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany); Weschler, Charles J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ziemann, Paul J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This paper highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues. Finally, laboratory studies provide rich opportunities to expand our understanding of the atmosphere via collaborative research with the modeling and field measurement communities, and with neighboring disciplines.

  9. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  11. Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Modeling Metallic Waste Form Release Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poineau, Frederic [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tamalis, Dimitri [Florida Memorial Univ., Miami Gardens, FL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The isotope 99Tc is an important fission product generated from nuclear power production. Because of its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 ∙ 105 years) and beta-radiotoxicity (β⁻ = 292 keV), it is a major concern in the long-term management of spent nuclear fuel. In the spent nuclear fuel, Tc is present as an alloy with Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd called the epsilon-phase, the relative amount of which increases with fuel burn-up. In some separation schemes for spent nuclear fuel, Tc would be separated from the spent fuel and disposed of in a durable waste form. Technetium waste forms under consideration include metallic alloys, oxide ceramics and borosilicate glass. In the development of a metallic waste form, after separation from the spent fuel, Tc would be converted to the metal, incorporated into an alloy and the resulting waste form stored in a repository. Metallic alloys under consideration include Tc–Zr alloys, Tc–stainless steel alloys and Tc–Inconel alloys (Inconel is an alloy of Ni, Cr and iron which is resistant to corrosion). To predict the long-term behavior of the metallic Tc waste form, understanding the corrosion properties of Tc metal and Tc alloys in various chemical environments is needed, but efforts to model the behavior of Tc metallic alloys are limited. One parameter that should also be considered in predicting the long-term behavior of the Tc waste form is the ingrowth of stable Ru that occurs from the radioactive decay of 99Tc (99Tc → 99Ru + β⁻). After a geological period of time, significant amounts of Ru will be present in the Tc and may affect its corrosion properties. Studying the effect of Ru on the corrosion behavior of Tc is also of importance. In this context, we studied the electrochemical behavior of Tc metal, Tc-Ni alloys (to model Tc-Inconel alloy) and Tc-Ru alloys in acidic media. The study of Tc-U alloys has also been performed in order to better understand the

  12. Using a visual plate waste study to monitor menu performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla L; Rozell, Sarah B

    2004-01-01

    Two visual plate waste studies were conducted in 1-week phases over a 1-year period in an acute care hospital. A total of 383 trays were evaluated in the first phase and 467 in the second. Food items were ranked for consumption from a low (1) to high (6) score, with a score of 4.0 set as the benchmark denoting a minimum level of acceptable consumption. In the first phase two entrees, four starches, all of the vegetables, sliced white bread, and skim milk scored below the benchmark. As a result six menu items were replaced and one was modified. In the second phase all entrees scored at or above 4.0, as did seven vegetables, and a dinner roll that replaced sliced white bread. Skim milk continued to score below the benchmark. A visual plate waste study assists in benchmarking performance, planning menu changes, and assessing effectiveness.

  13. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe, E-mail: vine@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus [Econet AS, Omøgade 8, 2.sal, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  14. A case study: biomedical waste management practices at city hospital in Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Akansha; Pathak, Aishwarya; Bajaj, Prasad; Singh, Harvinder; Kumar, Sudhir

    2011-06-01

    Proper management of biomedical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study was conducted by visiting a near by hospital in order to get acquainted with the generation of the biomedical waste and their disposal strategies. The study includes an assortment of details about the quantity of different types of waste generated, their handling, treatment, final disposal and various management strategies adopted by the hospital. The survey was conducted by asking various questions regarding the issue by the waste management team and the workers involved in managing the waste.

  15. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  16. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recommended that there should be source segregation of waste within each hospital as all wastes are often mixed in the same waste basket. It further recommended that government and the relevant agents should be at alert to their responsibilities of regulating the waste management practices among the hospitals in the ...

  17. Laboratory Demonstration of Abiotic Technologies for Removal of RDX from a Process Waste Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    al. 2006; Naja et al. 2008; Kim and Strathmann 2007). The current study investigated two additional methods of RDX destruction in water, alkaline...complexed iron(ii) species in the reductive transformation of RDX in anoxic environments. Env. Sci. Tech. 41:1257–64. Naja , G., A. Halasz, S. Thiboutot

  18. Microbiological Studies of Abattoir wastes in Ipata Market, Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physicochemical studies of abattoir waste was conducted within a period of 12 weeks. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from 4.0x108 to 5.6x108 cfu/ml with cow dung yielding the highest count. Total coliform counts ranged from 1.0x108 to 9.0x108 while total faecal coliform counts ranged from ...

  19. Attitudes of Preservice Social Studies Teachers towards Solid Wastes and Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir; Merey, Zihni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of preservice social studies-teachers towards solid wastes and recycle. This study used the screening model, In order to determine the attitudes of preservice teachers towards solid wastes and recycle, we used the "Scale for the Attitudes of Preservice Teachers towards Solid Wastes and…

  20. Laboratory Oxidation Stability Study on B10 Biodiesel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelen, B. [and others

    2013-11-15

    A laboratory oxidation stability study has been completed jointly by CONCAWE and DGMK on three biodiesel blends containing 10% v/v (B10) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). The results of the study are compared to measurements from an in-vehicle storage stability study on similar B10 diesel fuels that had been conducted previously in a Joint Industry Study. This laboratory study monitored the oxidation stability of the three B10 blends during six weeks of laboratory storage under ambient (25C) and elevated temperature (43C) conditions. Various test methods were used to monitor oxidation stability changes in the B10 diesel fuel blends including electrical conductivity, viscosity, Rancimat oxidation stability (EN 15751), PetroOxy oxidation stability (EN 16091), acid number (EN 14104), Delta Total Acid Number (Delta TAN), and peroxide number (ISO 3960). Elemental analyses by ICP were also completed on the FAME and B10 blends at the start and end of the laboratory study. The concentrations of dissolved metals were very low in all cases except for silicon which was found to be between about 600-700 ppb in the B10 blends. A limited study was also conducted on one neat FAME sample (B100) to investigate the effect of air/oxygen exposure on the rate of decrease in oxidation stability.

  1. Investigation of Poultry Waste for Anaerobic Digestion: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Christopher R.

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological conversion technology which is being used to produce bioenergy all over the world. This energy is created from biological feedstocks, and can often use waste products from various food and agricultural processors. Biogas from AD can be used as a fuel for heating or for co-generation of electricity and heat and is a renewable substitute to using fossil fuels. Nutrient recycling and waste reduction are additional benefits, creating a final product that can be used as a fertilizer in addition to energy benefits. This project was conducted to investigate the viability of three turkey production wastes as AD feedstock: two turkey litters and a material separated from the turkey processing wastewater using dissolved air flotation (DAF) process. The DAF waste contained greases, oils and other non-commodity portions of the turkey. Using a variety of different process methods, types of bacteria, loading rates and food-to-microorganism ratios, optimal loading rates for the digestion of these three materials were obtained. In addition, the co-digestion of these materials revealed additional energy benefits. In this study, batch digestion tests were carried out to treat these three feedstocks, using mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, using loading rates of 3 and 6 gVS/L They were tested separately and also as a mixture for co-digestion. The batch reactor used in this study had total and working volumes of 1130 mL and 500 mL, respectively. The initial organic loading was set to be 3 gVS/L, and the food to microorganism ratio was either 0.6 or 1.0 for different treatments based on the characteristics of each material. Only thermophilic (50 +/- 2ºC) temperatures were tested for the litter and DAF wastes in continuous digestion, but mesophilic and thermophilic batch digestion experiments were conducted. The optimum digestion time for all experiments was 14 days. The biogas yields of top litter, mixed litter, and DAF waste under

  2. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste

  3. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda V.; Drljača Dijana

    2004-01-01

    According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The p...

  4. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  5. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  6. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-11-29

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  7. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  9. Managing healthcare waste in Ghana: a comparative study of public and private hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abor, Patience Aseweh

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the healthcare waste management practices of selected hospitals in Ghana. The study adopted a multiple case approach, using two public and two private hospitals. Findings indicate that both public hospitals and one private hospital have a waste management policy. Public and private hospitals have waste management plans and waste management teams. Public hospitals were found to generate more waste than the private hospitals. One private hospital and the public hospitals segregate their waste into different categories. This is done by first identifying the waste type and then separating non-infectious or general waste from infectious waste. Both public and private hospitals have internal storage facilities for temporarily storing the waste before they are finally disposed off-site. On-site transportation in the public hospitals is done by using wheelbarrows, while covered bins with wheels are used to transport waste on-site in the private hospitals. In public and private hospitals, off-site transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by Municipal Assemblies with the use of trucks. Both public and private hospitals employ standard methods for disposing of healthcare waste. The article provides insights into healthcare waste management from a Ghanaian perspective.

  10. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  11. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement, Summary

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1995-01-01

    This document analyzes (at a programmatic level) the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. F...

  12. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 3, Part B

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1995-01-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For...

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 1, Appendix E

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a DOE-wide programmatic evaluation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management alternatives in order to determine the appropriate means of managing existing and projected quantities of SNF from now until the year 2035. At the same time, the DOE is performing a site-specific assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in order to determine how to manage environmental restoration, waste management, and SNF at the INEL. Sites curr...

  14. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Part B

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1995-01-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For...

  15. A Simpl~ Laboratory Experiment for Studying the.. Relaxation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 12. A Simple Laboratory Experiment for Studying the Relaxation Oscillations in a Diode Laser. Shalini Mishra Alika Khare. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 12 December 2004 pp 55-66 ...

  16. Laboratory Study of Dispersion of Buoyant Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory a study on surface dispersion of buoyant plumes in open channel turbulence in made, where the buoyancy is due to both salinity and heat. The measured parameters are the downstream derivative of a plume width and height, which are integral-characteristics of the distributions of density...

  17. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  18. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  19. Corrosion of carbon steel in clay environments relevant to radioactive waste geological disposals, Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necib, S. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne, Center RD 960, Bure (France); Diomidis, N. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Keech, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organisation NWMO, Toronto (Canada); Nakayama, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency JAEA, Horonobe-Cho (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Carbon steel is widely considered as a candidate material for the construction of spent fuel and high-level waste disposal canisters. In order to investigate corrosion processes representative of the long term evolution of deep geological repositories, two in situ experiments are being conducted in the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The iron corrosion (IC) experiment, aims to measure the evolution of the instantaneous corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with Opalinus Clay as a function of time, by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The Iron Corrosion in Bentonite (IC-A) experiment intends to determine the evolution of the average corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with bentonite of different densities, by using gravimetric and surface analysis measurements, post exposure. Both experiments investigate the effect of microbial activity on corrosion. In the IC experiment, carbon steel showed a gradual decrease of the corrosion rate over a period of 7 years, which is consistent with the ongoing formation of protective corrosion products. Corrosion product layers composed of magnetite, mackinawite, hydroxychloride and siderite with some traces of oxidising species such as goethite were identified on the steel surface. Microbial investigations revealed thermophilic bacteria (sulphate and thiosulphate reducing bacteria) at the metal surface in low concentrations. In the IC-A experiment, carbon steel samples in direct contact with bentonite exhibited corrosion rates in the range of 2 µm/year after 20 months of exposure, in agreement with measurements in absence of microbes. Microstructural and chemical characterisation of the samples identified a complex corrosion product consisting mainly of magnetite. Microbial investigations confirmed the limited viability of microbes in highly compacted bentonite. (authors)

  20. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  1. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  2. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  3. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  4. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  5. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  6. Preliminary study for the management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, B; Papadopoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Stylianou, M; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper refers to the management of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste since, according to the EU Waste Strategy, C&D waste is considered to be one of the priority waste streams and appropriate actions need to be taken with respect to its effective management. Initially, the paper presents the state-of-the-art of the problem of C&D waste, including the amount and composition of C&D waste in EU countries, differences in the characteristics of this waste stream depending on its origin, as well as collection and management practices that are applied. A methodology is described for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since in most cases quantitative primary data is not available. Next, the fundamentals for the development of an integrated scheme for the management of C&D waste are presented and discussed, such as appropriate demolition procedures and location of waste management (off-site waste management, on-site waste management, direct on-site recovery, centralized on-site recovery). Finally, taking into consideration all relevant parameters, alternative systems that could be applied for the management of the C&D waste are suggested.

  7. Construction and Demolition Waste Management (Tehran Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rouhi Broujeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing building construction raises concerns about construction and demolition (C&D waste management. To assess this issue the building components, the collection schemes, their recycling and disposal should be investigated. In order to manage C&D wastes, paying attention to how this kind of wastes is disposed is imperative for their correct identification. Inattention, lack of organization and proper transport and sanitary disposal of construction and demolition waste lead to problems such as accumulation of construction waste in the streets. However, more than 90 percent of the potential for recycling and re-using as raw materials is provided. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA has classified C&D wastes into three categories: non-dangerous waste, hazardous wastes and semi-hazardous wastes. Currently in Tehran, an average of about 50,000 tons per day of construction and demolition wastes are produced from which over 30,000 tons per day are dumped in landfills. According to this research more than 57% of these wastes are placed in the first category (non-dangerous waste and have the potential for being recycled and reused. On the other hand, items that are placed in the second category shall be managed based on the existing laws. This article provides some management solutions including proposing methods for collecting and reusing construction waste in accordance with current market needs in Iran.

  8. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  9. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  10. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  11. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fast growing use of Information and Communication Technology has created a new environmental problem, electronic-waste (e-waste).Addressing this concern requires proper management plans and strategy, which in turn requires reliable estimates of e-waste generation in the present as well as future. In this study, a ...

  12. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  13. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    stratification parameter. Separating food leftovers from food packaging during manual sorting of the sampled waste did not have significant influence on the proportions of food waste and packaging materials, indicating that this step may not be required. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub...

  14. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Jadea S. Alshammari; Fatma K. Gad; Ahmed A.M. Elgibaly; Abdul R. Khan

    2008-01-01

    The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common ...

  15. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  16. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  17. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Christen, J. (1996). Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries. Sweden: Icon Publishers. Cointreau, S.J (1997). Waste Issues: Urban Problems. England: Lowden. Publications. Coker, A.O, Ogunlowo, O.O. and Sangodoyin, A.Y. (1998). Managing. Hospital Waste in Nigeria. 24th WEDC Conference: Sanitation and.

  18. Studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that the highest weekly individual production rate is recorded for the cow dung (control) slurry with average production of 1554 cm3, followed by pineapple waste which had 965 cm3 of biogas, then by orange waste which had 612cm3 of biogas, lastly, pumpkin and spinach wastes had 373 cm3 and ...

  19. Summary Report of Comprehensive Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of adding zeolite currently planned for implementation at LANL’s Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF). The course of this work verified the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that WypAlls, cheesecloth, and Celotex absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). Sensitivity testing and an analysis were conducted to evaluate the waste form for reactivity. Tests included subjecting surrogate material to mechanical impact, friction, electrostatic discharge and thermal insults. The testing confirmed that the waste does not exhibit the characteristic of

  20. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  1. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  2. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  3. Studies on adsorption of phenol from wastewater by agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C R; Ramachandramurty, V

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, preliminary investigation of various agricultural wastes-Rice mill residue (RM), Wheat mill reside (WM), Dall mill residue (DM) and the Banana peels (BM) was carried out to study their ability to be used as adsorbents for phenol-removal from wastewater. This study reports the feasibility of employing dal mill residue waste (DM) as an adsorbent for removing phenol from wastewater. The performance of DM was compared with the commercially available activated carbon (CAC). Batch mode experiments were conducted with activated DM to study the effects of initial concentration of phenol, pH and the temperature of aqueous solution on adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models and the isotherm data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.189 mg/g. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second- order equation. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of phenol. Finally, the DM was found to be a promising adsorbent for phenol adsorption as compared to activated carbon.

  4. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Technical Support Program; Owens, C.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  5. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  6. Laboratory and Field Studies of Fracture Flow and Its Extension in Underground Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Hudson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Basic studies of fracture flow, such as the cubic law, were widely cited for over four decades and used in understanding processes in fractured media. We evaluate the fracture flow law implications and its extensions. The understanding of fluid flow through fractured rocks is important for progress in the many existing and proposed engineering projects dedicated to the support of mankind. Moreover, the characterization of this understanding is crucial during the use of the supporting computer modeling—which is becoming evermore ambitious and ubiquitous. The calculations and resultant outputs need to be validated, both in order to ensure appropriate engineering decisions and because there is increasing emphasis on the use of the Earth's resources, their sustainability and more accountability of engineers' decisions. Within this context, there remain many unknowns: how do we establish the geometrical and hydro-geological properties of fractures in a specific rock mass?; how do we establish the link between the hydro-geological fracture properties and other variables such as the in situ stress state?; and how do we validate the results at the full scale? Concurrently with the laboratory and numerical studies of fracture flows, we have made progresses in developing underground research laboratories (URLs) in both hard and soft rocks, in housing large halls for particle detections at great depths, and in testing the energy and resource recovery capacities and the waste disposal potentials through borehole complexes. In addition to existing worldwide networks for radioactive wastes, we initiate comparisons of different underground laboratories and facilities, including also physics laboratories and borehole complexes. The 2011-2012 findings of a Commission for the International Society for Rock Mechanics on URL Networking are summarized. Side drifts of roadway tunnels, dedicated facilities with tunneling and shafting to reach desired depths, and levels in active and

  7. Enhanced On-Site Waste Management of Plasterboard in Construction Works: A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Rivero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On-site management of construction waste commonly determines its destination. In the case of plasterboard (PB, on-site segregation becomes crucial for closed-loop recycling. However, PB is commonly mixed with other wastes in Spain. In this context, the involvement of stakeholders that can contribute to reversing this current situation is needed. This paper analyzes on-site waste management of PB in Spain through a pilot study of a construction site, with the main objective of identifying best practices to increase waste prevention, waste minimization, and the recyclability of the waste. On-site visits and structured interviews were conducted. The results show five management stages: PB distribution (I; PB installation (II; Construction waste storage at the installation area (III; PB waste segregation at the installation area (IV and PB waste transfer to the PB container and storage (V. The proposed practices refer to each stage and include the merging of Stages III and IV. This measure would avoid the mixing of waste fractions in Stage III, maximizing the recyclability of PB. In addition, two requisites for achieving enhanced management are analyzed: ‘Training and commitment’ and ‘fulfilling the requirements established by the current regulation’. The results show that foremen adopted a more pessimistic attitude than installers towards a joint commitment for waste management. Moreover, not all supervisors valued the importance of a site waste management plan, regulated by the Royal Decree 105/2008 in Spain.

  8. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  9. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Two types of projects in the spent nuclear fuel and environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described. These are: foreseeable proposed projects where some funding for preliminary planning and/or conceptual design may already be authorized, but detailed design or planning will not begin until the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act process for the project have been completed; planned or ongoing projects not yet completed but whose National Environmental Policy Act documentation is already completed or is expected to be completed before the Record of Decision for this Envirorunental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. The section on project summaries describe the projects (both foreseeable proposed and ongoing).They provide specific information necessary to analyze the environmental impacts of these projects. Chapter 3 describes which alternative(s) each project supports. Summaries are included for (a) spent nuclear fuel projects, (b) environmental remediation projects, (c) the decontamination and decommissioning of surplus INEL facilities, (d) the construction, upgrade, or replacement of existing waste management facilities, (e) infrastructure projects supporting waste management activities, and (f) research and development projects supporting waste management activities.

  10. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Sections 1 through 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    WAG 6 comprises a shallow land burial facility used for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) and, until recently, chemical wastes. As such, the site is subject to regulation under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). To comply with these regulations, DOE, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), developed a strategy for closure and remediation of WAG 6 by 1997. A key component of this strategy was to complete an RFI by September 1991. The primary objectives of the RFI were to evaluate the site's potential human health and environmental impacts and to develop a preliminary list of alternatives to mitigate these impacts. The WAG 6 one of three solid waste management units evaluated Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) existing waste disposal records and sampling data and performed the additional sampling and analysis necessary to: describe the nature and extent of contamination; characterize key contaminant transport pathways; and assess potential risks to human health and the environment by developing and evaluating hypothetical receptor scenarios. Estimated excess lifetime cancer risks as a result for exposure to radionuclides and chemicals were quantified for each hypothetical human receptor. For environmental receptors, potential impacts were qualitatively assessed. Taking into account regulatory requirements and base line risk assessment results, preliminary site closure and remediation objectives were identified, and a preliminary list of alternatives for site closure and remediation was developed.

  11. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  12. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  13. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Sarah L; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K; Rothberg, Michael B

    2013-10-01

    To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers. Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion. U.S. academic tertiary care hospital. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists. A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analysed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and subthemes. Twenty-one participants (nine women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasised time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilisation (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (eg, individual/ward), meso-level (eg, institution) and macro-level (eg, payor/public policy). The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  15. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the

  16. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  17. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  18. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  19. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  20. An experimental study on dissolution kinetics of paraffin waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Jung, C. H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. J.; Kim, C. R. [KNETEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Ninety-day's leaching test of paraffin waste form with boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium was performed. In case that the mixing weight ratio of waste form between boric acid and paraffin was 78/22, which had been adopted in the concentrate waste drying system(CWDS) of domestic nuclear power plants, the cumulative fraction leached(CFL) of boric acid was about 55% after ninety days and the CFLs of cobalt, strontium and cesium were almost same value of 63%. The compressive strengths of waste form before and after the leaching test exhibited 4.53 MPa (666 psi) and 1.38 MPa(203 psi), respectively. The CFL of paraffin waste form was well expressed by diffusion-controlled dissolution model such as Jander kinetics. The cross-sectional area of specimen after the test showed that this unreacted shrinking core model can be applied to the mechanistic analysis of paraffin waste form.

  1. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  3. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  4. Evaluation of Attitudes & Knowledge Regarding Municipal Waste among Students. Case study: Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina TÂRŢIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As Maloney and Ward (1973 noted thirty eight years ago, “determining what the population knows regarding ecology, the environment and pollution; how they feel about it; what commitments they are willing to make and what commitments they do make are necessary steps that must be made before adopting any strategy that modifies behaviour and habits”. Taking into account that Romania is facing a great challenge to bring its waste management system in line with EU Directives and the key role of education in this process, the paper aims to explore through a questionnaire based survey: (1 the level of knowledge and awareness regarding municipal waste among students, their attitudes and willingness to act in waste related activities, (2 if there are significant differences regarding students awareness, knowledge and concern according to their gender, age, affiliation (faculty or job status. The paper is structured in four parts, namely: introduction, research methodology, results analysis and conclusions. The findings of this research study showed that the majority of students are generally aware of waste problems. It is important to note, however, that many respondents called for more information, frequent updates and reminders about waste management practices. Pro-environmental and recycling attitudes were shown to be generally positive among students from BAES. Used in the right way such findings might be essential in achieving the overall goal of improving waste management systems, whether it is a recycling scheme, composting scheme or refers to the improvement of environmental awareness process.

  5. Studies on the toxicity of industrial waste to Macrobrachium dayanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Mathur, R.P.

    1974-01-01

    The toxic substances in industrial wastes, if discharged untreated into the stream can rapidly harm the aquatic life. It is, therefore, necessary to know the permissible concentration of various wastes. This paper presents data obtained from a series of static bioassay experiments conducted to establish the median tolerance limits (TL/sub m/). The distillery waste and the mixed pulp and paper waste were taken and the range of their toxicity was evaluated. Macrobrachium dayanum, a crustacean, was chosen as the test animal because of experimental convenience and suitability. The results on toxicity indicate that distillery waste is more toxic than the mixed pulp and paper factory waste. The toxicity of distillery waste is due to sulphides and H/sub 2/S. The mixed pulp and paper waste contain colloidal particles of cellulose and lignin which are lethal. The statistical analysis shows that both of the wastes are lethal to the animals separately in their natural form. The difference in survival rates is highly significant.

  6. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  7. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  8. The changing face of waste management – considerations when conducting a waste characterisation study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available are investigating AWTT options whereas a joint effort might have resulted in a more sustainable and financially viable solution benefiting all three metropolitan municipalities. Proceedings of the 23rd WasteCon Conference 17-21 October 2016,Emperors Palace..., but the feedstock in Australia proved to be too contaminated (Serpo, 2014). After eight years of repairs and upgrades, the plant was re-opened in 2012 and is now operational. Proceedings of the 23rd WasteCon Conference 17-21 October 2016,Emperors Palace...

  9. An experimental study of tether reel system: A laboratory model

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Shoichi; Okamoto, Osamu; 吉村 庄市; 岡本 修

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory prototype model of a reel system has been made as the first step of an in-house hardware study of the tether system in space. The model is consisted of two main parts, i. e., a Reel Drum Driving (RDD) unit (25 kg weight) and a Power Supply/Signal Processing (PSSP) unit (32 kg weight). The tether (0.8 mm in diameter and 300 m long) consists of a Kevlar fiber core and a nylon fiber jacket. Following the preliminary functional test, a computer-controlled functional test has been car...

  10. Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Min

    This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50

  11. Baseline for food waste generation – A case study in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. R.; Mokhlis, N. A. Mohd; Zainun, N. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing population and economy status have contributed to the increasing volume of solid wastes produced in Malaysia and it creates problems on the existing solid waste management system. Ineffective waste management system was one of the issues that often discussed. The purpose of this study was to suggest the best method for managing food waste in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) cafeterias. The scope of the study was to identify the type and quantity of waste generated in each cafeteria. The study area was carried out at six cafeteria in UTHM including residential college cafeteria which are Tun Dr. Ismail (TDI), Tun Fatimah (TF) and Tun Syed Nasir (TSN), G3’s cafeteria, Arked, and Dr. Munie’s cafeteria located at the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering (FKAAS). In this study, food waste was quantified in unit of kilogram (kg). Results of the study showed that total food waste in selected UTHM’s cafeterias was 6197.5 kg for two months. Food waste generated in G3’s cafeteria was the highest value with 1823.5 kg among another cafeteria. This is due to strategic location for students and staff to take meals, the variety of food sold and reasonable price were major factors of generating food waste. Meanwhile, the Dr. Munie's Cafeteria located in FKAAS recorded the least total production of food waste as staffs and students take their meals at others cafeterias. Through literature review, there are list of methods on waste management were identified and composting method was suggested for food waste management in UTHM since the waste was produce in very large quantity.

  12. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed H. Javed; Umair Aslam; Mohsin Kazmi; Masooma Rustam; Sheema Riaz; Zahid Munir

    2015-01-01

    Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW) such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) technique...

  13. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  14. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (p<0.002) between the performance of the group of laboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (p<0.047). The performance of the results provided by the laboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  15. OSPW contamination transport through peat soils : laboratory and greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Price, J.S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Rochefort, L.; Pouliot, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Andersen, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large portions of northern Canada are covered by peatlands, and the majority of post-mined landscapes have increased salinity, heavy metals and naphthenic acids (NA). This PowerPoint presentation discussed laboratory and greenhouse studies conducted to determine oil sands process water (OSPW) contamination transport through peat soils. Peat is a highly complex porous media. The presence of sodium and NA has a toxic effect on aquatic life. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the changes caused by OSPW in the microbial community of a peat matrix over 2 growing seasons. The study showed that peat has an exceptional ability to absorb the contaminants in OSPW water. NA and sodium transport through peat was significantly delayed by sorption, and by diffusion into immobile water contained in the peat matrix. The vegetation in the study was healthy and tolerant to the contaminants in the OSPW. tabs., figs.

  16. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Management: a Case Study of Khazra Industrial Park, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Increasing hazardous industrial wastes and lack of necessary regulations for management of them have led to serious problems in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of collection, transportation, recycling, and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes in the Khazra Industrial Park of Kerman, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was done using questionnaires and local visits during year 2009. In this questionnaire, some information about the industrial wastes, production, storage on site , collection, transformation, sorting, recycling, and disposal were recorded. Results:   In the Khazra Industrial Park, 71,600 kg/day of different industrial waste is produced. The biggest proportion of waste includes metals, and construction and demolition waste which are about 16,500 tons a year. The smallest proportion is non-iron metal waste, which is produced at a rate of 8 tons per year. 88.7 percent of the active industries at the Khazra Industrial Park produce solid industrial waste. Most of the industrial units do not use a united and coordinated system for storing waste and have no specific place for temporary storage inside the industrial park. The majority of industrial waste collection, which is about 59.8%, is done by private contractors. The industrial units transfer their waste separately, and just 9 industrial units recycle their waste. Disposal of these wastes is mainly done by selling to trading agencies. Each day, 3 tons of hazardous industrial waste is produced in this park. The highest production belongs to the oil factory (Keyhan Motor. Conclusions: According to the results, the Khazra Industrial Park needs a unified system for storing, transporting and collecting the sorted waste, and it also needs to have a transportation station with basic facilities. The wastes of most industrial units at the Khazra Industrial Park have the

  17. Comparative study of isotherm parameters of lead biosorption by two wastes of olive-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, G; Ronda, A; Martín-Lara, M A; Pérez, A; Calero, M

    2015-01-01

    Batch isotherm studies were carried out on a laboratory scale: (i) to investigate the effectiveness to remove lead of two wastes (olive stone (OS) and olive tree pruning (OTP)), untreated and chemically treated; and (ii) to examine the applicability of various adsorption isotherms to fit the experimental data. Results from tests were analyzed using seven equilibrium isotherm correlations (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, and Toth equations). The sum of the squares of the errors was determined for each isotherm and the Langmuir equation provided the best fit. Chemical treatments increased the biosorption properties of these materials. The maximum biosorption capacities were: 6.33, 49.13, 14.83, and 38.93 mg g(-1) for untreated OS, HNO3-OS, H2SO4-OS, and NaOH-OS, respectively, and 26.72, 86.40, 72.78, and 123.80 mg g(-1) for untreated OTP, HNO3-OTP, H2SO4-OTP, and NaOH-OTP, respectively. Finally, the loss of mass for each waste (13.9, 14.3, and 36.8% for HNO3-OS, H2SO4-OS, and NaOH-OS and 35.1, 27.5, and 46.7% for HNO3-OTP, H2SO4-OTP, and NaOH-OTP, respectively) was taken into account and an effectiveness coefficient was determined for each adsorbent material.

  18. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as animal feeds and reduce the pollution effects of these wastes during maize seasons, they were fermented using Aspergillus niger for 72 hours. The fermented residues were analyzed with regard to proximate ...

  20. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  1. feasibility study on solid waste management in port harcourt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Results shows that the composition of waste generated included garbage (41%), paper and plastic (35%), scrap metal. (15%), construction ..... recycling of waste. No treatment, no recycling. No treatment, no recycling No treatment, no recycling. 12 Landfill supervision. No supervision. No supervision. No supervision. 13.

  2. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [" Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis...... in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate (15N, 17O, and 18O) provide...... additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters...

  4. Clinical Laboratory Stressors Used to Study Alcohol–Stress Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne; Bacon, Amy K.; Sinha, Rajita; Uhart, Magdalena; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the biologic systems that underlie the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption may lead to better prevention efforts and more effective treatments for alcoholism. Clinical laboratory studies offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships by using a controlled environment to study how an acute stressor affects alcohol drinking and alcohol craving, how individuals in recovery or those at risk for alcoholism may respond differently to stressors relative to control subjects, and how alcohol differentially affects stress reactivity in these groups. This article reviews some of the most common physical, psychological, and pharmacological stressors used in stress-induction studies designed to reveal details about the relationship between stress reactivity and alcohol use and abuse. PMID:23584112

  5. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  6. Site characterization summary report for Waste Area Grouping 10 Wells at the Old Hydrofracture Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). As part of its DOE mission, ORNL has pioneered waste disposal technologies throughout the years of site operations since World War II. In the late 1950s, efforts were made to develop a permanent disposal alternative to the surface impoundments at ORNL at the request of the National Academy of Sciences. One such technology, the hydrofracture process, involved forming fractures in an underlying geologic host formation (a low-permeability shale) at depths of up to 1000 ft and subsequently injecting a grout slurry containing low-level liquid waste, cement, and other additives at an injection pressure of about 2000 psi. The objective of the effort was to develop a grout slurry that could be injected as a liquid but would solidify after injection, thereby immobilizing the radioisotopes contained in the low-level liquid waste. The scope of this site characterization was the access, sampling, logging, and evaluation of observation wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) in preparation for plugging, recompletion, or other final disposition of the wells.

  7. Summary Report of Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Gretchen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Terusaki, Stan H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment is required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for Miscellaneous Units subject to 22 CCR 66270.23. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL collected soil samples and used the resulting data to produce a scoping-level ecological risk assessment pursuant to the Department of Toxic Substances Control, Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessment at Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities, Part A: Overview, July 4, 1996. The scoping-level ecological risk assessment provides a framework to determine the potential interaction between ecological receptors and chemicals of concern from hazardous waste treatment operations in the area of EWTF. A scoping-level ecological risk assessment includes the step of conducting soil sampling in the area of the treatment units. The Sampling Plan in Support of the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, (Terusaki, 2007), outlines the EWTF project-specific soil sampling requirements. Soil samples were obtained and analyzed for constituents from four chemical groups: furans, explosives, semi-volatiles and metals. Analytical results showed that furans, explosives and semi-volatiles were not detected; therefore, no further analysis was conducted. The soil samples did show the presence of metals. Soil samples analyzed for metals were compared to site-wide background levels, which had been developed for site -wide cleanup activities pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Total metal concentrations from 28 discrete soil samples obtained in the EWTF area were all below CERCLA-developed background levels. Therefore, following DTSC 1996

  8. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimi Ann Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening.

  9. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Nimi Ann; Shivashankar, R; Lokesh, K N; Jacob, Jinu Mary

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement) in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening.

  10. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  11. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  13. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  14. Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; He, Xin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns on resource depletion and environmental pollution have largely obliged electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) should be tackled in an environmentally sound manner. Recycling process development is regarded as the most effective and fundamental to solve the e-waste problem. Based on global achievements related to e-waste recycling in the past 15 years, we first propose a theory to design an e-waste recycling process, including measuring e-waste recyclability and selection of recycling process. And we summarize the indicators and tools in terms of resource dimension, environmental dimension, and economic dimension, to examine the e-waste recycling process. Using the sophisticated experience and adequate information of e-waste management, spent lithium-ion batteries and waste printed circuit boards are chosen as case studies to implement and verify the proposed method. All the potential theory and obtained results in this work can contribute to future e-waste management toward best available techniques and best environmental practices.

  15. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Regulatory Assessment Dept.] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.

  16. Laboratory study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, F.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Manchado, A.; Kwok, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper are reviewed some research works dedicated to the study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest. First of all it is discussed the carbon arc through which it is possible to produce carbon soot and fullerenes under helium but also many other different products just changing the arcing conditions. For example, when the carbon arc is struck in an hydrocarbon solvent it is possible to produce and trap polyynes in the solvent. Monocyanopolyynes and dicyanopolyynes can be produced as well by selecting the appropriate conditions. Amorphous carbon soot or partially graphitized carbon black can be produced with the carbon arc. Fullerenes were found in space thanks to the reference infrared spectra and the absorption cross sections which were determined in laboratory. Fullerenes are readily reactive with hydrogen yielding fulleranes the hydrogenated fullerenes. Furthermore fullerenes react with PAHs and with iron carbonyl yielding adducts. All these fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their reference spectra recorded in laboratory. It was proposed that petroleum fractions can be used as model substrates in the explanation of the carriers of the AIB (Aromatic Infrared Bands) observed in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae and the UIE (Unidentified Infrared Bands) found in the interstellar medium.

  17. Physical Sciences Laboratory 1 Rooftop Stack Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    To address concerns about worker exposures on the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) rooftop, a tracer study was conducted to measure gaseous tracer concentrations downwind of six stacks on the southern half of the PSL building (PSL-1). These concerns were raised, in part, due to the non-standard configuration of the stacks on this building. Five of the six stacks were only about 8 feet tall, with one shorter stack that was essentially level with the roof deck. These stacks were reconfigured in August 2016, and these exhaust points on PSL-1 are now 18 feet tall. This report describes the objectives of the tracer tests performed on PSL-1, provides an overview of how the tests were executed, and presents results of the tests. The tests on the PSL rooftop were a follow-on project from a similar study performed on the LSL-II ventilation exhaust (Flaherty and Antonio, 2016).

  18. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  19. Reclamation chain of waste concrete: A case study of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Ma, Zhiming; Ding, Tao

    2016-02-01

    A mass of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated in Shanghai every year, and it has become a serious environment problem. Reclaiming the waste concrete to produce recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an effective method to reduce the C&D waste. This paper develops a reclamation chain of waste concrete based on the researches and practices in Shanghai. C&D waste management, waste concrete disposition, RA production and RAC preparation are discussed respectively. In addition, technical suggestions are also given according to the findings in practical engineering, which aims to optimize the reclamation chain. The results show that the properties of RA and RAC can well meet the requirement of design and practical application through a series of technical measures. The reclamation chain of waste concrete is necessary and appropriate for Shanghai, which provides more opportunities for the wider application of RA and RAC, and it shows a favorable environmental benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2012-02-01

    As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

  1. Solid Waste Composition Study at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sani, M. S. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Solid waste management is recognised as one of the most challenging issues confronted by both the developed and developing countries. The problems rise due to growing population in current years which results in increased generation of waste with various compositions. The aim of this study was to determine the waste compositions at Taman Universiti. Taman Universiti is a mix residential and commercial area which a preferred residential location amongst students and lecturers due to its proximate location to UTHM main campus. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted according to Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data was collected and recorded The result showed that the average generation rate of household waste at Taman Universiti was 0.16kg/person/day and the moisture content was approximately ranging from 61%-68%. Household wastes collected were categorized and it consisted of food and organic, paper, rigid plastics, plastics film, baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, garden waste and leather. The proportion of each wastes were approximately 64.67%, 9.36%, 9.22%, 5.33%, 3.51%, 2.53%, 1.37%, 1.05%, 0.84%, 0.85%, 0.80%, 0.27%, and 0.23%, respectively. Results from the analyses indicated that the food and organic waste are the major composition of household waste at Taman Universiti followed by the paper, rigid plastics, and plastic film. Meanwhile, the proportion of baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, and garden decreasing accordingly. In addition, leather was recognized as the least category that contributed to the household waste.

  2. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  3. Municipal-waste combustion study: recycling of solid waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheverly, D.

    1987-06-01

    In this report, background information on recycling, its status in the United States and abroad, and its technical feasibility are examined. Also, because recycling is expected to be an integral part of a solid-waste management plan that includes combustion, potential effects on combustion of removing materials from the waste are considered. The report is designed to convey a sense of the current status of recycling and its technical feasibility, rather than to embody comprehensive authoritative reference material. Subjects addressed in the report include the current extent of recycling in the United States and in several other countries; feasibility of recycling; methods for separation of materials; information on uses and markets for recovered materials; and questions concerning the effects of recycling activities on combustion processes.

  4. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  5. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Bloomer, P.E.; Chantaraprachoom, N.; Gong, M.; Lamar, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated {sup 238}Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry.

  6. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  7. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  8. Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangyao, Komsilp; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.

  9. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  10. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  11. Louis Stokes Laboratories, Building 50, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the new laboratories in Building 50 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, include extensive use of daylighting, variable-air-volume control of the ventilation air supply and exhaust air system, and a unique energy recovery system that makes use of large desiccant energy wheels. With nearly 300,000 gross square feet, the building is estimated to use much less energy than traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  12. Louis Stokes Laboratories, Building 50, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-12-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the new laboratories in Building 50 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, include extensive use of daylighting, variable-air-volume control of the ventilation air supply and exhaust air system, and a unique energy recovery system that makes use of large desiccant energy wheels. With nearly 300,000 gross square feet, the building is estimated to use much less energy than traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  13. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  14. Laboratory aging studies for the HERA-B muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Danilov, M; Titov, M; Zaitsev, Y

    2002-01-01

    The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum accumulated charge on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm wire. For operation in this high-intensity environment, the main criteria for the gas choice turned out to be stability against aging. We report recent results of laboratory aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with Ar/CF sub 4 /CH sub 4 (74:20:6), Ar/CF sub 4 /CH sub 4 (67:30:3), and Ar/CF sub 4 /CO sub 2 (65:30:5) mixtures. The penetration of water and oxygen through the walls of plastic tubes has also been investigated. Water can be introduced indirect to the gas mixture by using polyamide (nylon) pipes for gas supply lines.

  15. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  16. Partnering at the National Laboratories: Catalysis as a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON,NANCY B.

    1999-09-14

    The role of the national laboratories, particularly the defense program laboratories, since the end of the cold war, has been a topic of continuing debate. The relationship of national laboratories to industry spurred debate which ranged from designating the labs as instrumental to maintaining U.S. economic competitiveness to concern over the perception of corporate welfare to questions regarding the industrial globalization and the possibility of U.S. taxpayer dollars supporting foreign entities. Less debated, but equally important, has been the national laboratories' potential competition with academia for federal research dollars and discussions detailing the role of each in the national research enterprise.

  17. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  18. Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration and washing steps. In all cases little or no foam formed during normal operations of precipitation, concentration and washing. Foam was produced by purposely-introducing gas sub-surface into the slurry. Once produced, the IIT B52 antifoam was effective in defoaming the slurry. In separate foam column tests, all antifoam/defoam agents were effective in mitigating foam formation and in defoaming a foamed 10 wt % insoluble solids slurry. Based on the results in this report as well as foam column studies at IIT, it is recommended that IIT B52 antifoam at the 1000 ppmV level be used in subsequent STTPB work where foaming is a concern. This study indicates that the addition of antifoam agent hinders the recovery of NaTPB during washing. Washing precipitate with no antifoam agent added had the highest level of NaTPB recovery, but had the shortest overall washing time ({approximately}19 hours) compared to 26-28 hours for antifoam runs. The solubilities of the three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were measured in a 4.7 M sodium salt solution. The Surfynol DF-110D defoamer was essentially insoluble while the two IIT antifoamers; Particle Modifier (PM) and B52 were soluble to at least the 2000 ppmV level.

  19. Monitoring CCS Sites: Lessons Learned Studying Natural Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarello, M. C.; Beaubien, S. E.; Graziani, S.; Lombardi, S.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring is one of the most important aspects of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), both for early recognition of leaks from the reservoir and for public safety. Natural analogues could be useful to understand the potential impact of a leakage on the local ecosystem and to develop new techniques of monitoring. These sites, called also "natural laboratories", are characterized by natural, geologically-produced CO2 constantly leaking from the seafloor or from the groundsurface. In the last 10 years, our group as partner of some EC funded projects focused on CCS (NASCENT (2000-2003), CO2GeoNet (2004-2009), CO2ReMoVe (2006-2011), RISCS (2010-2013), and ECO2 (2011-2015)), studied gas migration mechanisms in these "natural laboratories", applying near-surface geochemistry to monitoring. This method provides one of the most powerful tools to assess whether a CCS site is leaking and, if it is, to quantify that leakage. This is because rather than being a remote method that estimates amounts based on proxy associations, such as some geophysical tools, it is an exact measurement of the item of interest (in this case CO2) in the accessible biosphere where there is concern regarding its potential impact. In particular, we have been studied two sites in Italy, characterized by significant emissions of CO2, related to volcanic emissions: the Latera Caldera (in Central Italy) and the offshore emissions near Panarea Island. We combined continuous and discontinuous monitoring, structural surveys and gas flux measurements. The results show a strong correlation between fault architecture and leakage rates. Moreover, the monitoring of an area for long periods allows defining the baseline, which is the fluctuation of gas concentrations both spatially and temporally as a function of biological, chemical, geological, land-use and meteorological processes.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D.; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G.; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J. Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution.

  1. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Diagnosis, Hospital, Infectious wastes, Generation,. Segregation, Management, Pathogenic organisms. ... personally controlled. Nevertheless, in the absence of appropriate intervention measures ..... Children ward/rooms, Emergency/Treatment rooms/Out. Patient Department, Operating rooms/Theatre, Delivery.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  3. Comparative study of solid waste management system based on building types in Palembang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmyanto, Hendrik; Dahlan, Hatta; Zahri, Imron

    2017-11-01

    Most of the solid waste generation sources come from housing activities. The types of house buildings located in the Palembang is a traditional building which made from wood construction and a permanent house which made from concrete construction. The aim of this study is to calculate the amount of waste generation and to study the community behavior in waste management. The research used an observation and questionnaires that took place in 3 location of the traditional housing and 3 location of the permanent housing with 20 respondents for each location. The results showed that the waste generation in the traditional housing was 1.51 liters/person/day and the permanent housing was 1.63 liters/person/day. The collecting system in traditional housing was taken by the garbage cart every 1 days, while in permanent housing was taken by motorcycle, pick-up car, or dump truck every 1 or 2 days. The questionnaire results showed that 96,67% of the traditional housing and 91,67% of the permanent housing disposed of the waste in a mix condition. Amount of 6,67 % from the traditional housing and 0% of permanent housing managed their waste into compost. Amount of 15 % from traditional housing and 3,33% of permanent housing sold their waste. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the permanent housing has the largest number of waste generation and the people in traditional housing had a tendency to manage the waste better than the permanent housing.

  4. A Study of Rapid Biodegradation of Oily Wastes through Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    effective method for large-scale composting of organic wastes. This research project was based on the principles of the forced aeration technique. The...Process Parameters Affecting Composting The bioconversion of wastes into compost is greatly affected by several key parameters. These influence the...investigated the effect of composting on the degradation of hydrocarbons in sewage sludge. Sludge extracts were fractionated into classes of compounds and a

  5. Advanced tests for durability studies of concrete with plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Savoikar, Purnanand; Orr, John; Borkar, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature available on utilisation of waste materials in concrete and its effect on the strength and behaviour of concrete. Considering the effect of over-exploitation of natural sand from river beds for ever increasing concrete production, alternatives to natural sand are being explored. One such alternative discussed in this paper is shredded/pulverised recycled plastic waste which has been used as a partial replacement for natural sand (replacements up to 20-40 % by...

  6. Study on construction method of concrete in the underground research laboratory. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriya, Keishiro; Mikami, Tetsuji; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Uegaki, Yoshiaki [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The underground research laboratory, which will be constructed in Horonobe, plays a role of demonstration of construction technique upon nuclear waste repositories. Low alkalinity cement is one of candidates for repositories as a cementitious material in order to prevent alteration of bentonite and rock by hyper alkaline solution. JNC has developed a low alkalinity cement (HFSC) which contains a lot of fly ash, and has studied the physical and chemical properties by laboratory test. However workability which is required for construction procedure of repositories has not been studied enough yet. This study shows if requirements in actual construction, such as shotcreting, self-compacting, and, grouting, are fulfilled, and if the workability is preferable for tunneling construction. It is demonstrated that HFSC is applicable for shotcreting by testing in a modeled tunnel. It is pointed out that re-bars have a possibility of corrosion in low alkalinity cement. In-site test for saline water which may accelerate corrosion is started by setting specimen made in last year. Analyzing and assessing will be done next year. Construction method of tunnel lining is investigated in case of applying pre-cast segments. Self-compacting concrete is adopted, since added silica-fume needs superplasticizer and its workability is very flowable. Two piece of segment were made for the section which designed for a ordinary urban tunnel. It is noted that pre-casting concrete can be made by HFSC. Super fine cement powder for grouting which indicate low alkalinity can be selected by combination of grinned lime stone powder and silica fume with grinned ordinary Portland cement. The items to be improved toward using in Horonobe construction are pointed out by results of this study and summarized a study plan is described. Major problem to be solved is delaying compressive strength generation of HFSC. It is recognized in shotcrete and self-compacting concrete. Selecting types of fly ash and

  7. SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Choi, A.; Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2011-02-07

    Collaborative work between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and SIA Radon in Russia was divided among three tasks for calendar year 2010. The first task focused on the study of simplified high level waste glass compositions with the objective of identifying the compositional drivers that lead to crystallization and poor chemical durability. The second task focused on detailed characterization of more complex waste glass compositions with unexpectedly poor chemical durabilities. The third task focused on determining the structure of select high level waste glasses made with varying frit compositions in order to improve models under development for predicting the melt rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glasses. The majority of these tasks were carried out at SIA Radon. Selection and fabrication of the glass compositions, along with chemical composition measurements and evaluations of durability were carried out at SRNL and are described in this report. SIA Radon provided three summary reports based on the outcome of the three tasks. These reports are included as appendices to this document. Briefly, the result of characterization of the Task 1 glasses may indicate that glass compositions where iron is predominantly tetrahedrally coordinated have more of a tendency to crystallize nepheline or nepheline-like phases. For the Task 2 glasses, the results suggested that the relatively low fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron and the relatively low concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} available to form [BO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} and [AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} tetrahedral units are not sufficient to consume all of the alkali ions, and thus these alkali ions are easily leached from the glasses. All of the twelve Task 3 glass compositions were determined to be mainly amorphous, with some minor spinel phases. Several key structural units such as metasilicate chains and rings were identified, which confirms the current modeling

  8. Qualitative and quantitative study on drainage networks at laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveto, G.; Palma, D.; di Domenico, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on drainage network evolution were carried out in 1977 at REF (Rainfall Erosion Facility) of Colorado State University by Schumm and co-workers. This study deals with an analysis of physical experiments simulating the evolution and the development of drainage networks. To this purpose, some experiments were carried out at University of Basilicata by using a 1.5 m by 1.5 m box-basin-simulator with an outlet incised in the middle of the downslope-end side. The experimental landscape was made of a weakly cohesive soil mainly constituted by clay and silt. A system of microsprinklers generated an almost uniform artificial precipitation. Simulations were performed at a constant rainfall rate with intensity of 100 mm/h. In total four experiments were carried out. Three of those were conducted by ensuring consistent initial conditions except for the initial landscape planar slope of 9%, 5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The remaining experiment was performed with a landscape slope of 9% again, but with the (surface) base-level coinciding with the base of the outlet (i.e. streams could not erode below the base-level). Despite the central outlet constraint, the generated stream system for the 9% plane exhibited trellis-like drainage patterns with many short tributaries joining the main stream at nearly right angles. For the 5% experiment still sub-parallel drainage patterns were formed but mainly in the centre of the watershed. Channels were clearly shallower than those of the 9% experiment. For the gentler slope of 0.6% dendritic drainage

  9. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  10. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The problem is in a satisfying chromium separation from collagen fibers. Common hydrolysis processes-alkaline or acidic-give gelatins containing residual chromium (III. By using an oxidation agent (H2O2 before alkaline hydrolysis, in was demonstrated that chromium from chromium-containing leather wastes can be almost fully recovered by the previous oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI. This chromium can be reused in the tanning process. That would represent an economic saving. The best result of the dechroming process was a gelatin hydrolyzate with only 1.11 in respect to the initial amount.

  11. Laboratory study on the leaching potential of spent alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda N; Almeida, Manuel F; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-07-01

    Four different leaching tests were carried out with spent alkaline batteries as an attempt to quantify the environmental potential burdens associated with landfilling. The tests were performed in columns filled up with batteries either entire or cross-cut, using either deionized water or nitric acid solution as leachant. In a first set of tests, the NEN 7343 standard procedure was followed, with leachant circulating in open circuit from bottom to top through columns. These tests were extended to another leaching step where leachant percolated the columns in a closed loop process. Leachate solutions were periodically sampled and pH, conductivity, density, redox potential, sulphates, chlorides and heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were determined in the samples. The results showed that the total amount of substances leached in tests with cross-cut batteries was higher than with entire ones; zinc and sulphates were the substances found the most in the leachate solutions. In general, the amount of substances dissolved in open circuit is higher than in closed loop due to the effect of solution saturation and the absence of fresh solution addition. Results were compared with metal contents in the batteries and with legal limits for acceptance in landfill (Decision 2003/33/CE and Decree-Law 152/2002). None of the metals were meaningfully dissolved comparatively to its content in the batteries, except Hg. Despite the differences in the experiment procedure used and the one stated in the legislation (mixing, contact time and granulometry), the comparison of results obtained with cross-cut batteries using deionized water with legal limits showed that batteries studied could be considered hazardous waste.

  12. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  13. ECLSS Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) Metal Materials Compatibility Study- Electrochemical and Crevice Corrosion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical and crevice corrosion laboratory test results are presented for three noble metal candidates with possible application on the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The three metal candidates, which included Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276 and Titanium 6Al-4V, were evaluated in two solutions representative of the acidic pretreatment formulations utilized during processing of waste liquids within the ECLSS. Final test results and data analysis indicated that the passive layer on all three metals provides excellent corrosion protection in both solutions under standard test conditions.

  14. Key parameters for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste: A case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Huong, Luong Thi Mai

    2017-03-01

    Proper management of food waste, a major component of municipal solid waste (MSW), is needed, especially in developing Asian countries where most MSW is disposed of in landfill sites without any pretreatment. Source separation can contribute to solving problems derived from the disposal of food waste. An org