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Sample records for wastes experimental property

  1. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  2. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

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    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  3. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  4. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

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    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  5. Thermal properties of simulated Hanford waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Canfield, Nathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rönnebro, Ewa C. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland Washington

    2017-03-20

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will vitrify the mixed hazardous wastes generated from 45 years of plutonium production. The molten glasses will be poured into stainless steel containers or canisters and subsequently quenched for storage and disposal. Such highly energy-consuming processes require precise thermal properties of materials for appropriate facility design and operations. Key thermal properties (heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity) of representative high-level and low-activity waste glasses were studied as functions of temperature in the range of 200 to 800°C (relevant to the cooling process), implementing simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-thermal gravimetry (DSC-TGA), Xe-flash diffusivity, pycnometry, and dilatometry. The study showed that simultaneous DSC-TGA would be a reliable method to obtain heat capacity of various glasses at the temperature of interest. Accurate thermal properties from this study were shown to provide a more realistic guideline for capacity and time constraint of heat removal process, in comparison to the design basis conservative engineering estimates. The estimates, though useful for design in the absence measured physical properties, can now be supplanted and the measured thermal properties can be used in design verification activities.

  6. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  7. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  8. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical...

  9. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical parameters for assessing the waste disposal concept is confirmed. The work shows the novelty of the approach.

  10. Soil physicochemical properties after 10 years of animal waste applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of animal waste to cropland provides a method of waste disposal and benefits both soil and crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of land application of animal waste and inorganic fertilizer on selected soil chemical and physical properties. The animal w...

  11. Evaluation of thermal insulation and mechanical properties of waste rubber/natural rubber composite

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    M.M. Abdel Kader

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influences of waste rubber loading on mechanical and thermal conductivity properties were investigated for NR composite. An experimental investigation was carried out to obtain low cost construction material with desirable mechanical and thermal insulation properties. Natural rubber was loaded with different concentrations of waste rubber (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 phr. The addition of waste rubber leads to a slight increase in thermal conductivity values of composites but it still lies around range of thermal insulating materials. Also addition of waste rubber leads to improvement of mechanical properties of composites. The crosslink density of NR composite increases with the increase of waste rubber loading until 600 phr and after that it decreases due to the stronger the rubber–filler interaction. This leads to the decrease of the swelling index that has the opposite trend of crosslink density. So, the sample with 600 phr waste rubber is considered the optimum concentration from the swelling measurement. Filler loading results in pronounced increase in the tensile modulus and decease in the elongation at fracture which reflects the reinforcement effect of the filler. The yield stress increases with waste rubber loading increment. This delays the permanent disruption of matrix morphology. So, the optimum concentration which is 600 phr waste rubber loading agrees with the swelling and mechanical measurements which has desirable thermal insulation and high mechanical properties and decreases the cost of materials to 82% of the NR cost.

  12. Experimental Investigation in Developing Low Cost Concrete from Paper Industry Waste

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    R. Sirinivasan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in India. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment. Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low-quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and ”stickies” (tape, plastic films, etc. are also washed off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cast concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge. This project is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement

  13. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  14. Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Powder

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    M. Bekhiti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are abundant and alarming waste. The aggregates resulting from the crushing of the waste tires are more and more used in the field of civil engineering (geotechnical, hydraulic works, light concretes, asphaltic concretes, etc.. Depending on the type of the used tires, dimensions and possible separations and treatment, the physical and mechanical characteristics of these aggregates might change. Some physical, chemical and direct shear tests were performed on three gradation classes of waste tire rubber powder. The tests results were combined with data from previous studies to generate empirical relationships between cohesion, friction angle and particle size of waste tire powder rubber. A cubic (third order regression model seems to be more appropriate compared to linear and quadratic models.

  15. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

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    F. B. Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, durability, and compressive strength, microstructure and mineral phases of soil-cement bricks. Microstructural evolution was evaluated via confocal microscopy. The experimental results showed that the solid wastes behave as charge material and influenced both technical properties and microstructure of the soil-cement bricks. It was found that up to 15 wt% of welding flux slag waste and up to 30 wt% of avian eggshell waste could be added into the soil-cement bricks for use as building material.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of quarry dust waste incorporated into fired clay brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Sarani, N. A.; Rahim, A. S. Abdul; Ismail, N.

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of quarry dust waste is dispose into landfills every year. This waste was obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. The increasing value of waste will have significant impact towards health and environment. Recycling such wastes by incorporating them into building materials is a practical solution for pollution problem. Therefore, this research was to examine the possibility of quarry dust to be incorporated in fired clay bricks. In this research, the composition and concentration of heavy metals were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The research also consists of physical and mechanical properties of the fired clay bricks by utilizing quarry dust waste. Brick was manufactured by incorporating different percentages of quarry dust waste which are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. All bricks sample was tested with physical and mechanical properties which were density, shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS) and compressive strength of the fired bricks. Furthermore, the density and shrinkage were also in standard range. All physical and mechanical results were complied with the BS 3921:1985 standard. The comprehensive experimental work described in this research investigated the possibility of incorporating quarry dust into fired clay bricks. These materials could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide a new disposal method for the waste.

  17. Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

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    Omar M. Omar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replacement of sand with limestone waste (LSW, with marble powder (M.P as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were practiced in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% marble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder.

  18. Sound insulation properties of structure designed from apparel cutting waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Trajković, Dušan; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Zafirova, Koleta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an insulation structure from apparel cutting waste was designed and its sound insulation properties were investigated. Shredded polyester apparel cuttings were used as the raw material for an insulation structure. The obtained results show that the insulation structure made from apparel cutting waste has good sound absorption compared to standard sound and thermal insulators. The average sound absorption of the samples was from 54.7% to 74.7%, for a frequency range of 250-2000Hz...

  19. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters.

  20. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

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    Selby, C.L.

    1981-12-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature.

  1. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

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    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  2. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste Disposal Sites in Nigeria. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  3. Evaluation of properties of bitumen modified with waste tyre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the properties of bitumen modified with used tyre. Basic tests such as penetration, softening point, viscosity , flash and fire point and ductility test were carried out by using shredded waste tyre which varied from 0% to 20% by weight of 60/70 penetration grade bitumen at 1600C using dry mix ...

  4. effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... battery (Balfour et al., 2011). Wastes from Automobile Battery Manufacturing. Companies (ABMC) are known to release a high percentage of heavy metals like lead (Pb) on soil, the resultant effects also affect the soil physicochemical and its heavy metal properties (Greenpeace 1993; Catwright et al., 1977).

  5. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Battery wastes were found to be significant sources of Cadmium and Chromium, as none of both was detected in the control soil sample. The daily activities of auto-mechanic battery workshops have negative impacts on soil physicochemical properties. Note, the soil in mechanic battery workshops needs urgent cleanup to ...

  6. Marshall properties of waste polymer and nanoclay modified bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeque Mohammed; Patil K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the important construction materials for flexible pavements. The addition of polymers in bitumen improves the deformational stability and durability of bitumen. Also Montmorillonite nanoclay has been successfully used as additive in polymer to significantly improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties. The present study, the effect of waste low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) obtained...

  7. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to know if and to which extent proximity to waste disposal sites or treatment plants depresses residential property values for many reasons. Whether as a measure of the impact of the sites on health and general welfare of the resident, or to ascertain the degree of monetary depression that would be suffered by ...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF NANOFLUIDS THERMAL PROPERTIES

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    Adnan M. Hussein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles dispersed in a liquid with sizes no larger than 100nm, known as nanofluids, are used to enhance Thermophysical properties compared to the base fluid. Preparations of alumina (Al2O3, titania (TiO2 and silica (SiO2 in water have been experimentally conducted in volume concentrations ranging between 1 and 2.5%. Thermal conductivity is measured by the hot wire method and viscosity with viscometer equipment. The results of thermal conductivity and viscosity showed an enhancement (0.5–20% and 0.5–60% respectively compared with the base fluid. The data measured agreed with experimental data of other researchers with deviation of less than 5%. The study showed that alumina has the highest thermal conductivity, followed silica and titania, on the other hand silica has the highest viscosity followed alumina and titania.

  9. Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De' Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2009-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

  10. Response Surfaces for Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete with E-Waste (HIPS

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    K. Senthil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fresh and hardened properties of concrete with E-waste plastic, that is, high impact polystyrene (HIPS, as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM. Face-centred central composite response surface design was used in this study. The statistical models were developed between the factors (HIPS and water cement ratio and their response variables (slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, spilt tensile strength, and flexural strength. The Design-Expert 9.0.3 software package was used to analyze the experimental values. The relationships were established and final mathematical models in terms of coded factors from predicted responses were developed. The effects of factors on properties for all variables were seen visually from the response surface and contour plot. Validation of experiments has shown that the experimental value closely agreed with the predicted value, which validates the calculated response surface models with desirability = 1. The HIPS replacement influenced all the properties of concrete than water cement ratio. Even though all properties show the decline trend, the experimented values and predicted values give a hope that the E-waste plastic (HIPS can be used as coarse aggregate up to certain percentage of replacement in concrete which successively reduces the hazardous solid waste problem and conserves the natural resources from exhaustion.

  11. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  12. Effect of Using Windows Waste Glass as Fine Aggregate on Some Properties of Concrete

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    Abdelmaseeh Bakos Keryou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to investigate the effect of using waste glass (WG on some mechanical properties of concrete at both fresh and hardened stages. In our study, we used local windows waste glass (WG as partial replacement of fine aggregates with 0, 20, 25, and 30% percentages (by weight. The experimental results obtained from testing specimens prepared from concrete mixes with water/cement ratio equal to 0.5, showed that the optimum percentage of fine waste glass to be used within the concrete mix was 20%. At this percentage of replacement the compressive strength obtained at 28-days age was 39 MPa compared with 30.32 MPa for reference concrete mix.

  13. An experimental study on dissolution kinetics of paraffin waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Jung, C. H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. J.; Kim, C. R. [KNETEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Ninety-day's leaching test of paraffin waste form with boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium was performed. In case that the mixing weight ratio of waste form between boric acid and paraffin was 78/22, which had been adopted in the concentrate waste drying system(CWDS) of domestic nuclear power plants, the cumulative fraction leached(CFL) of boric acid was about 55% after ninety days and the CFLs of cobalt, strontium and cesium were almost same value of 63%. The compressive strengths of waste form before and after the leaching test exhibited 4.53 MPa (666 psi) and 1.38 MPa(203 psi), respectively. The CFL of paraffin waste form was well expressed by diffusion-controlled dissolution model such as Jander kinetics. The cross-sectional area of specimen after the test showed that this unreacted shrinking core model can be applied to the mechanistic analysis of paraffin waste form.

  14. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  15. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Characteristics of Kiwira Coal Waste with Rice Husk Blends for Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatus Kazawadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eminent depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution are the key forces driving the implementation cofiring of fossil fuels and biomass. Cogasification as a technology is known to have advantages of low cost, high energy recovery, and environmental friendliness. The performance/efficiency of this energy recovery process substantially depends on thermal properties of the fuel. This paper presents experimental study of thermal behavior of Kiwira coal waste/rice husks blends. Compositions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% weight percentage rice husk were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer at the heating rate of 10 K/min to 1273 K. Specifically, degradation rate, conversion rate, and kinetic parameters have been studied. Thermal stability of coal waste was found to be higher than that of rice husks. In addition, thermal stability of coal waste/rice husk blend was found to decrease with an increase of rice husks. In contrast, both the degradation and devolatilization rates increased with the amount of rice husk. On the other hand, the activation energy dramatically reduced from 131 kJ/mol at 0% rice husks to 75 kJ/mol at 100% rice husks. The reduction of activation energy is advantageous as it can be used to design efficient performance and cost effective cogasification process.

  16. Experimental biogas research by anaerobic digestion of waste of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, one of the most efficient and prospective methods of biodegradable waste management is anaerobic digestion in a bio-reactor. The use of this method for managing biodegradable waste generating in agriculture and elsewhere would result in the recovery of biogas that could be used as an alternative to natural ...

  17. Survey of creep properties of copper intended for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M. (Swerea KIMAB AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Rolf (Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Creep in copper for application in canisters for nuclear waste disposal is surveyed. The importance of phosphorus doping to obtain adequate properties is demonstrated experimentally as well as explained theoretically. Creep tests results for electron beam and friction stir welds are compared. The latter type of welds has properties that are close to those of parent metal. The relation between slow strain rate tensile and creep is described. Fundamental constitutive equations are presented that are suitable for finite element modelling. These equations are used to simulate creep deformation in canisters

  18. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  19. Effect of waste banner as fiber on mechanical properties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Anis; Saputro, Ida Nugroho

    2017-06-01

    Banner is broadly used as advertisement media and event backdrop that is usually only used at one moment, resulting to a lot of waste banners. Banner made from nylon fiber is covered by polyvinyl. Nylon is well known as a material with high tensile strength. This research was done as a preliminary investigation on the opportunity of using the waste banner as fiber material of concrete by evaluating its mechanical properties, namely compressive and flexural strength. Research conducted by making cylinder shape specimens of 15 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height for the compressive strength test. While the specimen shape for flexural strength test was a rectangular prism with dimension of 150 mm in height, 150 mm in width, and 600 mm in length. Fiber generated from waste banner was added in concrete mixtures with percentage of 0.00%, 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, 0.80%, and 1.00% by weight of concrete. The concrete strength was tested at 28 days after standard moisture and temperature curing. Experimental results indicated that the addition of 0.20% of waste banner obtained the highest compressive strength that was 21.967 Mpa, while 0.40% of waste banner obtained the highest flexural strength of 4.663 Mpa.

  20. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  1. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik, E-mail: odas566@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes, E-mail: d.bhattacharyya@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  3. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  4. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46[degree]C, far below the 250 to 380[degree]C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  5. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  6. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  7. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Assessments of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Fibrous Self-Consolidating Concretes using Ingredients of Plastic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerkan, NG; Tokgoz, DDG; Kowita, OS; Antony, SJ

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental investigation carried out on self-consolidating concrete (SCC) reinforced with micro-steel fiber and hybrid fibers (combination of micro-steel fiber and recycled high density polyethylene fiber derived from municipal wastes). The physical properties of fresh and hardened concrete including flowability, setting time and durability, the mechanical properties, namely, compressive strength and flexural strength, and microstructural analysis were studied. Mic...

  9. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...

  10. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  11. an experimental study on the use of polypropylene waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    PM) asphalt concrete. The specimens were tested for stability, .... engineering properties of asphalt concrete. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 Bitumen ..... Properties of Recycled Low Density Polyethylene and. Polypropylene. Modified. Bitumen”.

  12. Domestic Solid Waste Landfills: Experimental Analysis of Leachate Stripping Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, N. E.; Strelkov, A. K.; Teplykh, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The domestic solid waste (DSW) landfills activity is based on the natural processes of organic substances decomposition through their processing into other substances by micro-organisms. Such micro-organisms can only live in water or, in other words, they exist only in the aquatic environment, both in natural environment and under artificial conditions, e.g. in DSW landfill sites. This paper investigates the problem of DSW landfills leachate preparation for the reuse as irrigation water. Leachate is formed as an inescapable side-product of DSW landfills operation. Leachate is a result of precipitations and artificial irrigation contaminated by substances of microbiological decomposition and destruction of organic substances coming to landfill sites as domestic solid waste. The use of leachate as irrigation water will significantly change the DSW decomposition technology and the safety of landfill sites operations.

  13. Pyrolysis of Municipal Green Waste: A Modelling, Simulation and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Kabir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical conversion of carbonaceous feedstock in the absence of oxygen to produce bio-fuel (bio-oil, bio-char and syn-gas. Bio-fuel production from municipal green waste (MGW through the pyrolysis process has attracted considerable attention recently in the renewable energy sector because it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to energy security. This study analyses properties of MGW feedstock available in Rockhampton city of Central Queensland, Australia, and presents an experimental investigation of producing bio-fuel from that MGW through the pyrolysis process using a short sealed rotary furnace. It was found from the experiment that about 19.97% bio-oil, 40.83% bio-char and 29.77% syn-gas can be produced from the MGW. Then, a four-stage steady state simulation model is developed for pyrolysis process performance simulation using Aspen Plus software. In the first stage, the moisture content of the MGW feed is reduced. In the second stage, the MGW is decomposed according to its elemental constituents. In the third stage, condensate material is separated and, finally, the pyrolysis reactions are modelled using the Gibbs free energy minimisation approach. The MGW’s ultimate and proximate analysis data were used in the Aspen Plus simulation as input parameters. The model is validated with experimentally measured data. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results was found. More specifically, the variation of modelling and experimental elemental compositions of the MGW was found to be 7.3% for carbon, 15.82% for hydrogen, 7.04% for nitrogen and 5.56% for sulphur. The validated model is used to optimise the biofuel production from the MGW as a function of operating variables such as temperature, moisture content, particle size and process heat air–fuel ratio. The modelling and optimisation results are presented, analysed and discussed.

  14. Assesment of hydraulics properties of technosoil constructed with waste material using Beerkan infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Peyneau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beaudet, Laure; Cannavo, Patrice; Sere, Geoffroy

    2017-04-01

    For the characterization of hydraulics soils functions, in situ infiltration experiments are commonly used. The BEST method based on the infiltration through a single ring is well suited for soils containing coarse material. Technosols built from Civil engineering waste material such as brick waste, concrete waste, track ballast and demolition rubble wastes contain large part of coarse material. In this work, different materials made of civil engineering wastes mixed with organic wastes are tested for greening applications in an urban environment using in situ lysimeters. Beerkan infiltrations experiments were performed on these technosols. Experimental data are used to estimate hydraulics properties through the BEST method. The results shows from a hydraulic point of view that studied technosols can achieve the role of urban soil for greening application. Five combinations of artefacts were tested either as "growing material" (one combination) or "structural material" (4 combinations) - as support for traffic. Structural materials consisted in 27 wt.% earth material, 60 wt.% mineral coarse material and 3 wt.% organic material. These constructed technosols were studied in situ using lysimeters under two contrasted climatic conditions in two sites in France (Angers, in northwestern France and Homécourt, in northeastern France). Constructed technosols exhibited high porosities (31-48 vol% for structural materials, 70 vol% for the growing material). The dry bulk density of the growing material is estimated to 0.66 kg/m3 and 1.59 kg/m3 for structural material. The particle size distribution analysis, involving manual sieving (> 2 mm) and complemented by a grain size analysis (method (2006) for the estimation of the shape parameter n of hydraulics functions (Van-Genuchten -Mualem, 1980). This n parameter was estimated to 2.23 for growing materials and 2.29 for structural materials. Beerkan infiltrations experiments data were inversed using the BEST method, the results

  15. Experimental characterization of jet static forces impacting waste tank components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Waters, E.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company plans to install mixer pumps in doubleshell waste tanks to mobilize and suspend settled sludge to allow eventual retrieval for treatment and permanent storage. The mixer pumps produce high momentum, horizontally directed jets that impact and mobilize the sludge and mix it into slurry for removal. There is concern that the force of the jet may damage tank internal components in its path. Scaled experiments were conducted to characterize the velocity profiles of the floor jet and to quantify the drag coefficients and impact forces for three tank components: radiation dry well, air lift circulator, and steam coil. Jet impact forces were measured on the scaled models at a 4 to 1 range of hydraulically scaled flow rates and a scaled range of distances between discharge nozzle and test component. The test were designed to provide hydraulic similarity between test conditions and expected actual waste tank conditions by using equal Reynolds number the jet maximum velocity impacted the test component. Forces measured on the models were used to calculate expected forces on the full scale components. Correlations of force on the test article versus distance from the nozzle were derived for the radiation dry well and air lift circulator based on the velocity correlation and drag parameter. The force data were also used to derive equivalent drag parameters which accounted for component shape factors including variation of jet impact area on the test article with distance from the nozzle. 8 refs., 44 figs., 42 tabs.

  16. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Experimental Programs and Software Advancing DOE’s Waste Disposal/Tank Closure Efforts – 15436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Heather [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Langton, Christine [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, Kevin [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, David [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Samson, Eric [SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (United States); Mallick, Pramod [US DOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Tank Waste Management-sponsored Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is chartered with providing the technical basis for implementing cement-based waste forms and radioactive waste containment structures for long-term disposal. DOE needs in this area include the following to support progress in final treatment and disposal of legacy waste and closure of High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks in the DOE complex: long-term performance predictions, flow sheet development and flow sheet enhancements, and conceptual designs for new disposal facilities. The DOE-EM Cementitious Barriers Partnership is producing software and experimental programs resulting in new methods and data needed for end-users involved with environmental cleanup and waste disposal. Both the modeling tools and the experimental data have already benefited the DOE sites in the areas of performance assessments by increasing confidence backed up with modeling support, leaching methods, and transport properties developed for actual DOE materials. In 2014, the CBP Partnership released the CBP Software Toolbox –“Version 2.0” which provides concrete degradation models for 1) sulfate attack, 2) carbonation, and 3) chloride initiated rebar corrosion, and includes constituent leaching. These models are applicable and can be used by both DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for service life and long-term performance evaluations and predictions of nuclear and radioactive waste containment structures across the DOE complex, including future SRS Saltstone and HLW tank performance assessments and special analyses, Hanford site HLW tank closure projects and other projects in which cementitious barriers are required, the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project which requires source terms from cementitious containment structures as input to their flow simulations, regulatory reviews of DOE performance

  17. Physical properties of sand from the waste water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of selected physical properties of sewage sand from the waste water treatment plants. Sand is transported into wastewater mainly in areas with a combined se­we­ra­ge system – principally in connection with rainfalls, in case of which it is transported through the sewerage system together with rainwater, but also (within smaller extents due to leakages of sewerage systems or bad conduct of natural persons and legal entities. The main attention was focused on basic physical parameters such as content of total solid, ash free dry mass, density and granulometry. These material parameters are very often underestimated so the set of quality data is completly missing, as well as a background for designers of wastewater treatment plants. This paper should be quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design in the region of South Moravia.

  18. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m(3), while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10(-4) and 6.7×10(-3)cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  20. Engineering properties of fibres from waste fishing nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the international project Circular Ocean and focuses on reducing marine plastic waste within the Northern Periphery and Arctic (NPA) region by developing new sustainable solutions for the reuse of discarded waste fishing nets. Recycled plastic fibres from waste fishing nets...

  1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  2. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  3. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

  4. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers. Progress report No. 7, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, Jr, R. M.

    1978-04-01

    Trial solidifications were made using portland type II cement--sodium silicate as the solidification agent. The sodium silicate was found to produce an initial rapid set for all wastes because of the precipitation of relatively insoluble silicate compounds upon reaction with soluble multivalent cations in solution in the cement-waste mixture. Achievement of the ultimate waste form strength required time intervals similar to waste forms produced using portland cement alone. A hard waste form was not obtained within seventy-eight days with formulations used to solidify boric acid waste. The flash points and flame points of Pioneer 221 bitumen and bitumen waste forms were determined using the Cleveland open cup method. The bitumen alone had a flash point of 610 +- 2/sup 0/F and a flame point of 668 +- 4/sup 0/F. The bitumen waste forms exhibited similar flame points but slightly higher (15 to 20/sup 0/F) flash points were measured. Self-irradiation exposure dose curves were calculated for BWR and PWR waste forms. These curves indicate the cumulative waste form exposure dose with time and serve as the basis for radiation stability experiments. Waste form specific activities of 0.01 to 100 Ci/ft/sup 3/ were considered. Bitumen waste forms containing sodium sulfate from the solidification of BWR chemical regenerative waste were prepared and leach tested. These specimens swelled and cracked during leach testing, exposing substantial new surface area to the leachant. The volumetric efficiencies of urea-formaldehyde and portland type II cement for various wastes and waste/binder ratios were calculated from compression test specimen data.

  5. Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, L V; Carr, C M; Rigout, M

    2016-06-25

    This paper investigated the supramolecular properties and accessibility of fibres regenerated from cotton-based waste garments and compared to typical lyocell fibres. The supramolecular and accessibility properties of the cotton-based waste garments fibres regenerated from three sources (waste denim garments, easy care finished cotton fabrics and a blend of cotton-based waste garment with wood pulp) were analysed and compared to the lyocell fibres. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) analyses indicated that the fibres from cotton waste garments had supramolecular properties similar to the typical lyocell fibres. The exception was spun from the cotton pulp reclaimed from easy care treated cotton fabrics and maybe related to increased amorphous cellulose content in its structure. The fibre's accessibility by reagents behaviour correlated well with the supramolecular properties. The results indicate that the waste garment purification process may affect the properties of the pulp and hence the supramolecular properties of the resultant fibres. Further research on the purification and regeneration of fibres from waste garments may lead to the use of cotton waste garments as an alternative feedstock source to the lyocell process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

    2011-08-01

    The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks.

  7. Investigating the Influence of Waste Basalt Powder on Selected Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiszewska, Magdalena; Beycioğlu, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in civil engineering applications. The consumption of cement and thus concrete, increases day by day along with the growth of urbanization and industrialization and due to new developments in construction technologies, population growing, increasing of living standard. Concrete production consumes much energy and large amounts of natural resources. It causes environmental, energy and economic losses. The most important material in concrete production is cement. Cement industry contributes to production of about 7% of all CO2 generated in the world. Every ton of cement production releases nearly one ton of CO2 to atmosphere. Thus the concrete and cement industry changes the environment appearance and influences it very much. Therefore, it has become very important for construction industry to focus on minimizing the environmental impact, reducing energy consumption and limiting CO2 emission. The need to meet these challenges has spurred an interest in the development of a blended Portland cement in which the amount of clinker is reduced and partially replaced with mineral additives – supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Many researchers have studied the possibility of using another mineral powder in mortar and concrete production. The addition of marble dust, basalt powder, granite or limestone powder positively affects some properties of cement mortar and concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of cement paste and mortar containing basalt powder. The basalt powder is a waste emerged from the preparation of aggregate used in asphalt mixture production. Previous studies have shown that analysed waste used as a fine aggregate replacement, has a beneficial effect on some properties of mortar and concrete, i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength and freeze resistance also. The present study shows the results of the research concerning the modification of cement

  8. EFFECT OF PAPER WASTE ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES: SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Asha, Sarvankar Dipti, Palte Rupali, Prof. Patil Prerana

    2017-01-01

    In Construction field is widely developed from day to day. The development is causing the increasing needs of raw materials such as gravel. This high demand is causing the materials becoming extinct. Apart from that, this world also had facing the high amount of waste products which including waste paper. Research has proven that the waste paper can be used as recycled paper in construction field. The construction industry consumes a large amount of non-renewable resources. On the other hand,...

  9. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  10. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  11. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, Despina; Sfakiotakis, Stelios [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Panopoulos, Kyriakos D. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas / Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4th klm. Nat. Rd. Ptolemais-Kozani-P.O. box 95 – GR 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2013-07-01

    Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300 deg C. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300 deg C with high activation energies.

  12. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  13. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  14. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  15. Chemical and mechanical performance properties for various final waste forms -- PSPI scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Larsen, E.D.; Sears, J.W.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is obtaining data on the performance properties of the various final waste forms that may be chosen as primary treatment products for the alpha-contaminated low-level and transuranic waste at the INEL`s Transuranic Storage Area. This report collects and compares selected properties that are key indicators of mechanical and chemical durability for Portland cement concrete, concrete formed under elevated temperature and pressure, sulfur polymer cement, borosilicate glass, and various forms of alumino-silicate glass, including in situ vitrification glass and various compositions of iron-enriched basalt (IEB) and iron-enriched basalt IV (IEB4). Compressive strength and impact resistance properties were used as performance indicators in comparative evaluation of the mechanical durability of each waste form, while various leachability data were used in comparative evaluation of each waste form`s chemical durability. The vitrified waste forms were generally more durable than the non-vitrified waste forms, with the iron-enriched alumino-silicate glasses and glass/ceramics exhibiting the most favorable chemical and mechanical durabilities. It appears that the addition of zirconia and titania to IEB (forming IEB4) increases the leach resistance of the lanthanides. The large compositional ranges for IEB and IEB4 more easily accommodate the compositions of the waste stored at the INEL than does the composition of borosilicate glass. It appears, however, that the large potential variation in IEB and IEB4 compositions resulting from differing waste feed compositions can impact waste form durability. Further work is needed to determine the range of waste stream feed compositions and rates of waste form cooling that will result in acceptable and optimized IEB or IEB4 waste form performance. 43 refs.

  16. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  17. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-08-18

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  18. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sikora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100% to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  19. Properties of Mortar Containing Waste Glass and Limestone Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Karamanoğlu, B; EREN, Özgür

    2008-01-01

    The building material industry has been developed due to the increasing population. This brings chronic shortage of building materials. According to this the civil engineers have been challenged to convert the industrial wastes to useful building and construction materials. The purpose of using ground waste glass is protect the environment by saving more landfills, to increase the cement plant capacity by using more beneficial additives, and to reduce CO2 emission per ton of...

  20. Fiberglass wastes/polyester resin composites: mechanical properties and water sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcleide M. Araújo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of polyester/fiberglass composites were studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of reusing the wastes taken from spray-up processing of Paraíba state Industries as reinforcement in polyester matrix composites. Composites with 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt. (% of recycled fiberglass were prepared by compression molding and compared with polyester/ virgin glass fiber composites. The mechanical properties and water sorption behavior were evaluated. The results showed that fiberglass wastes are promising to be reused in polyester resin composites. The impact strength was excellent. It can be concluded that the reusing of the fiberglass wastes is viable.

  1. Soil mechanical properties of MBT waste from Luxembourg, Germany and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaraporn Pimolthai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT of waste have become well known in Europe and Asia. The maximum particle size of waste is reduced by the removal of larger plastic materials from municipal solid waste during mechanical processing. The mechanical properties of the MBT waste are significantly changed by this process. An effective treatment system can lead to a better quality of output materials which do not cause environmental problems. This paper shows the comparative mechanical properties of MBT wastes from Luxembourg, Germany and Thailand. This research focused on the smaller 10 mm-fraction of MBT samples, in order to describe and evaluate the potential application of the small size material as a cover liner in landfill sites. Therefore the smaller 10 mm-fraction of MBT samples were tested for geotechnical properties. The small size waste particles were analysed in laboratory tests in order to determine their particle size, particle shape, compaction, permeability, shear strength, porosity and water absorption capacity, including comparison with the properties of soil material. The results showed that reduced particles were likely to act as a compact, low permeable material with a high potential for water absorption. The amount of remaining fibre and foil components in the materials cause different mechanical and hydraulic behaviours in the samples. The leachate of MBT samples showed very low concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, and heavy metals, compared to the landfill leachate of untreated waste.

  2. Elastic properties of RCC under flexural loading-experimental and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The codal provisions recommend elastic properties of concrete and steel and these are fairly accurate enough. ... Another method of determining modulus of elasticity of concrete is by flexural test of a beam specimen. The modulus of elasticity ... The experimental results are verified by using 3D finite element techniques.

  3. experimental determination of some thermal properties of raphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    OF RAPHIA VINIFERA GUM by. DAVID C. ONYEJEKWE. Department of Mechanical Engineering,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Abstract. The thermal properties - thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity of raphia gum are studied experimentally. The results show that thermal conductivity varies from 0.0164 ...

  4. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  5. Design of bespoke lightweight cement mortars containing waste expanded polystyrene by experimental statistical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrandiz, V; Sarabia, LA; Ortiz, MC; Cheeseman, CR; Garcia-Alcocel, E

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the reuse of waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) to obtain lightweight cement mortars. The factors and interactions which affect the properties of these mortars were studied by ad-hoc designs based on the d-optimal criterion. This method allows multiple factors to be modified simultaneously, which reduces the number of experiments compared with classical design. Four factors were studied at several levels: EPS type (two levels), EPS content (two levels), admixtures mix (three ...

  6. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  7. Thermal Properties of Cement Based Composites with Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash Accessed by Two Different Transient Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FOŘT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of cement composite with Mixed Fly Ash (MFA from different parts of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI process as a partial replacement of Portland cement are researched in the paper. MFA is applied in the amount of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of the mass of cement, while sand and water quantities are kept constant. For the sake of comparison, a reference mixture with Portland cement as the only binder is studied as well. For the characterization of studied materials, their basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured using gravimetric method combined with helium pycnometry. Among the thermal properties, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity are accessed by two transient methods having different experimental arrangement and time of measurement. The measured data obtained by the particular methods are compared and the applicability of the methods for the measurement of thermal properties of solid building materials is discussed.

  8. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwaleed, A. K.; Nikabdullah, N.; Nor, M. J. M.; Tahir, M. F. M.; Zulkifli, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  9. Effect of Different Organic Wastes on Soil Propertie s and Plant Growth and Yield: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture plays a great role in recycling essential plant nutrients, sustaining soil security as well as protecting the environment from unwanted hazards. This review article deals with the effect of different kinds of organic wastes on soil properties and plant growth and yield. Municipal solid waste is mainly used as a source of nitrogen and organic matter, improving soil properties and microbial activity that are closely related to soil fertility. Biowaste and food waste increase pH, nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, water holding capacity, and microbial biomass in soil. Sewage sludge contains various amounts of organic matter and huge amounts of plant nutrients. Manure is a common waste which improves soil properties by adding nutrients and increases microbial and enzyme activity in soil. It also reduces toxicity of some heavy metals. These organic wastes have a great positive impact on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as stimulate plant growth and thus increase the yield of crops.

  10. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    transportation fuels by using several technologies available such as direct combustion, gasification and pyrolysis [9]. Combustion with energy recovery involves the burning of wood wastes and transferring the heat produced to water for the purpose of generating steam in boiler super-heater tubes. The steam may be used to.

  11. Geotechnical Properties of Waste Engine Oil Contaminated Laterites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface disposal of waste engine oil is common in many parts of Nigeria and this result in the attendant contamination of soils. It is therefore important to investigate the effect of this on laterites which are commonly used as bases for road construction. In this work, laboratory tests were performed on four lateritic soils ...

  12. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  13. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calorific values, moisture contents as well as proximate and ultimate analyses were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood wastes in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials: ASTM E872-82 and ASTM D4442-07. Results from the laboratory experiments and energy ...

  14. Experimental method for testing diffraction properties of reflection waveguide holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Kang, Ming-Wu; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Waveguide holograms' diffraction properties include peak wavelength and diffraction efficiency, which play an important role in determining their display performance. Based on the record and reconstruction theory of reflection waveguide holograms, a novel experimental method for testing diffraction properties is introduced and analyzed in this paper, which uses a plano-convex lens optically contacted to the surface of the substrate plate of the waveguide hologram, so that the diffracted light beam can be easily detected. Then an experiment is implemented. The designed reconstruction wavelength of the test sample is 530 nm, and its diffraction efficiency is 100%. The experimental results are a peak wavelength of 527.7 nm and a diffraction efficiency of 94.1%. It is shown that the tested value corresponds well with the designed value.

  15. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of transport properties of nanofiltration membranes exposed to radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)

  17. Mechanical properties of structural lightweight concrete reinforced with waste steel wires

    OpenAIRE

    Aghaee, K; Yazdi, MA; Tsavdaridis, KD

    2014-01-01

    The study of concrete incorporating different waste fibres has started to increase rapidly due to economic reasons and positive environmental effects. In the study reported here, waste steel wires from steel reinforcement and used formworks were blended with structural lightweight concrete, with the aim of replacing commercial steel fibres of controlled quality with recycled fibres. Compression, tensile, flexural and impact tests were performed to assess the mechanical properties of 28 d old ...

  18. A Preliminary Study on Light Transmittance Properties of Translucent Concrete Panels with Coarse Waste Glass Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Verso, Valerio Roberto Maria; Torta, Annalisa; Pagliolico, Simonetta Lucia

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential reuse of coarse glass wastes as insert in a high performance cement matrix to produce translucent concrete panels for architectural applications such as interior walls. The effects of the addition of glass scraps on chemical and optical properties of concrete were studied. Alkali-silica reactivity resistance tests were carried out to evaluate the reactivity between amorphous waste glass and alkaline concrete pore solution. Light transmittance LT was evalu...

  19. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  20. ENHANCING OF WOOD CHIPPING CONCRETE PROPERTIES BY ADDING WASTE FIBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia S. Kulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of wood chippings, anindustrial waste product, has a potential use in the production of alightweight concrete. In modern countries, the low cost and the proximity ofsupply makes this material a good candidate for local building applications.This study aims to examining the ability of enhancing of a wood fibre lightweightconcrete strength by reinforcing it with lathe scrap from lathe industry. Specimenshave been casted, compressive and split tensile strengths were measured inaddition to the wet and dry weight as per relevant British standardspecifications. The wood chippings are saturated with a water for 24 hours,this is to prevent chippings from sorption the water of the mixture. Testresults indicate that addition of waste fibre from lathe enhances the strengthmarkedly and in the same time increases the weight.

  1. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECTS OF FIBERGLASS AND FIBER WASTE IN CONCRETE MIXES

    OpenAIRE

    Mashair.A.Mohamed1, Mansour Ahmed Moh2, Nuha Moawia Akasha3, Ibrahim.Y.I.Elgady4

    2016-01-01

    In this research concrete mixes were tested to investigate the effect of fiber waste and fiber glass and evaluate the efficiency on fresh and hardened concrete for trying to produce a concrete with high strength. an experimental study was carried out to test for compressive strength of concrete for six types of concrete mixes each mixture were casted in the form of cubes were studied for 7 and 28 days, one of  those mentioned mixes is a (control mix). Finally the results are compared with the...

  3. Operational readiness review for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc., to verify the readiness of WERF to resume operations following a shutdown and modification period of more than two years. It is the conclusion of the ORR Team that, pending satisfactory resolution of all pre-startup findings, WERF has achieved readiness to resume unrestricted operations within the approved safety basis. ORR appraisal forms are included in this report.

  4. Management of waste from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and from future fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Association EURATOM, Nykoeping (Sweden); Lindberg, M. [Association EURATOM, Nykoeping (Sweden); Nisan, S. [The NET Team, Garching (Germany); Rocco, P. [European Commission, Institute for Advanced Materials, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Zucchetti, M. [Energetics Department, Polytechnic of Turin, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Taylor, N. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, UKAEA Fusion, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forty, C. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, UKAEA Fusion, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    An important inherent advantage of fusion would be the total absence of high-level radioactive spent fuel as produced in fission reactors. Fusion will, however, produce activated material containing both activation products and tritium. Part of the material may also contain chemically toxic substances. This paper describes methods that could be used to manage these materials and also methods to reduce or entirely eliminate the waste quantities. The results are based on studies for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and also for future fusion power station designs currently under investigation within the European programme on the safety and environmental assessment of fusion power, long-term. (orig.)

  5. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  6. Engineering properties of cement mortar with pond ash in South Korea as construction materials: from waste to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Among the wastes from coal combustion product, only fly ash is widely used for mineral mixture in concrete for its various advantages. However the other wastes including bottom ash, so called PA (pond ash) are limitedly reused for reclamation. In this paper, the engineering properties of domestic pond ash which has been used for reclamation are experimentally studied. For this, two reclamation sites (DH and TA) in South Korea are selected, and two domestic PAs are obtained. Cement mortar with two different w/c (water to cement) ratios and 3 different replacement ratios (0%, 30%, and 60%) of sand are prepared for the tests. For workability and physical properties of PA cement mortar, several tests like flow, setting time, and compressive strength are evaluated. Several durability tests including porosity measuring, freezing and thawing, chloride migration, and accelerated carbonation are also performed. Through the tests, PA (especially from DH area) in surface saturated condition is evaluated to have internal curing action which leads to reasonable strength development and durability performances. The results show a potential applicability of PA to concrete aggregate, which can reduce consuming natural resources and lead to active reutilization of coal product waste.

  7. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Woven glass fabric reinforced laminates based on polyolefin wastes: Thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pietro; Acierno, Domenico; Simeoli, Giorgio; Lopresto, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Potentialities of polyolefin wastes in place of virgin polypropylene to produce composite laminates have been investigated. Plaques reinforced with a woven glass fabric were prepared by film-stacking technique and systematically analyzed in terms of thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties. In case of PP matrices, the use of a typical compatibilizer to improve the adhesion at the interface has been considered. Thermal properties emphasized the chemical nature of plastic wastes. About mechanical properties, static tests showed an increase of flexural parameters for compatibilized systems due to the coupling effect between grafted maleic anhydride and silane groups on the surface of the glass fabric. These effects, maximized for composites based on car bumper wastes, is perfectly reflected in terms of storage modulus and damping ability of products as determined by single-cantilever bending dynamic tests.

  9. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model; Comportement sous eau des dechets radioactifs bitumes: validation experimentale du modele de degradation Colonbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinner, B

    2004-03-01

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of

  11. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the addition of fibreglass waste on the properties of dried and fired clay bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzlena, S.; Sakale, G.; Certoks, S.; Grase, L.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of fibreglass waste on the properties of the dried and fired clay bricks. Different amounts of waste glass (0 – 10 wt %) were added to the original brick clay and fired at 1000 °C. The effects on the technological properties of the bricks such as compressive strength, water absorption and density after firing were investigated. Also cracks and fibreglass influence in dried and fired samples were analysed by digital camera and SEM-EDX analysis.

  13. Investigation of Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Boron Waste as Mineral Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit GÜRER

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of compounds in the boron mining industry a large quantity of waste boron is produced which has detrimental effects on the environment. Large areas have to be allocated for the disposal of this waste. Today with an increase in infrastructure construction, more efficient use of the existing sources of raw materials has become an obligation and this involves the recycling of various waste materials. Road construction requires a significant amount of raw materials and it is possible that substantial amounts of boron-containing waste materials can be recycled in these applications. This study investigates the usability of boron wastes as filler in asphalt concrete. For this purpose, asphalt concrete samples were produced using mineral fillers containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% and 8% boron waste as well as a 6% limestone filler (6%L as the control sample. The Marshall Design, mechanical immersion and Marshall Stability test after a freeze-thaw cycle and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test were performed for each of the series. The results of this experimental study showed that boron waste can be used in medium and low trafficked asphalt concrete pavements wearing courses as filler.

  14. Analysis of Dielectric Properties On Agricultural Waste for Microwave Communication Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Nurul Ain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of dielectric properties of agricultural waste for microwave communication application such as microwave absorber and antenna. The residues products – rice straw, rice husk, banana leaves and sugar cane bagasse were studied in the range between 1-20GHz. Firstly, the 2 types of resins namely Epoxy der 331 and Polyamine clear hardener were mixed with the agricultural waste materials to produce the small size of agricultural waste sample. Then, the sample were measured using PNA network analyzer. The permittivity and tangent loss of different agricultural waste samples have been measured using dielectric probe technique. Besides, other objectives of this paper is to replace the conventional printed circuit board (PCB using FR4, Taconic, and Roger material with the agricultural waste material. Besides that, the different percentage of filer for each agricultural waste materials were also investigated to specify the best material to be used as the substrate board and as the resonant material. the result shows the average of dielectric constants and the average of the tangent loss of agricultural waste materials.

  15. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW (wood. The experimental measurement of syngas composition was done using a pilot scale gasifier. A numerical model was developed using Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen Plus software. Several Aspen Plus reactor blocks were used along with user defined FORTRAN and Excel code. The model was validated with experimental results. The study found very similar performance between simulation and experimental results, with a maximum variation of 3%. The validated model was used to study the effect of air-fuel and steam-fuel ratio on syngas composition. The model will be useful to predict the various operating parameters of a pilot scale SW gasification plant, such as temperature, pressure, air-fuel ratio and steam-fuel ratio. Therefore, the model can assist researchers, professionals and industries to identify optimized conditions for SW gasification.

  16. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  17. Proposal of concentration limits for determining the hazard property HP 14 for waste using ecotoxicological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre

    2017-12-05

    Different ecotoxicological test batteries and concentration limits have been proposed to assess the hazard property (HP) HP 14 'Ecotoxic' for waste in the European Union and its member states. In test batteries, if the concentration of waste in the culture/dilution medium producing 50% of inhibitory biological effect in one or more test(s) is below the concentration limit of the test, the waste is classified as hazardous. A summarized review of the test batteries proposed since 1998 is presented. The last proposed test battery uses seven aquatic and terrestrial species with standardized methods, but with options and uniform concentration limits of 10% of waste eluate or solid waste in the culture/dilution medium. No attempt was made to match this hazard assessment with the classification made in the European List of Waste (LoW). The aim of this paper is to propose for the same test battery (reduced to 6 tests without options) concentration limits that match with the European List of Waste. This list was taken as reference (despite the fact that waste can be hazardous for other properties than the most frequent HP 14, and its partly political nature for some opinions). The concentration limits (CLs) for tests are the concentrations producing the highest ecotoxicological effects for each test observed in a non-hazardous waste set. Data from Germany, France and Belgium (from in total 5 different sources from 2009 to 2016) with the above-mentioned test battery (without options) were gathered for 81 samples, being the largest set ever published. In total, ten non-hazardous (NH) waste samples (as defined by the LoW and for most of them checked by chemical composition) were used to establish CLs. These CLs were then applied to 13 hazardous (H) waste by the LoW, and all were classified as hazardous. The matching of the resulting classification with the LoW is convincing. For the 58 'mirror entries' in the LoW (hazardous or not depending of the presence of hazardous

  18. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Duff, M.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  19. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Courtney, J.C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Duff, M.J. (Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  20. Tillage and kitchen wastes effect on Peri-Urban soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tillage and kitchen wastes effect on Peri-Urban soil properties and vegetable cowpea (). PC Nnabude, CO Obi, E Onuoha. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science Vol. 16 (1) 2006: pp. 140-144. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Investigation of combined effect of mixture variables on mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of high efficient ways to reuse the recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW) is to consider it as a road base material. The recycled CDW however is mainly a mix of recycled masonry and concrete with a wide variation in composition. This results that the mechanical properties of cement

  2. Experimental determination of the physicochemical properties of lumefantrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, O A; Olaniyi, O O; Adegoke, A O; Babalola, C P

    2013-09-01

    The physicochemical properties of lumefantrine, a first line combination medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria have been determined experimentally rather than theoretically as a guide to understanding its disposition in human. The solubility of lumefantrine in various organic solvents was evaluated by estimating the volume of solvent that completely dissolved 15 mg of the drug. Melting point determination was carried out using a melting point apparatus. Dissociation constant of the drug was determined potentiometrically in 0.1M perchloric acid and partition coefficient was by the method of Leo Hansch, using ratio of the concentration of organic to aqueous phase. Lumefantrine has a melting point of 128-131 degrees C. Its solubility in selected solvents range from 0.013% in acetonitrile (very slightly soluble) to 7.5% in chloroform and dichloromethane (soluble), and it is practically insoluble (0.002%) in water. The ionization constant (pKa), determined in 0.1 M perchloric acid was found to be 9.35. The Log P lies in the range 2.29-3.52, confirming the lipophilicity of lumefantrine. The physicochemical properties of lumefantrine reveal that it is highly lipophilic, weakly basic and readily dissolves in non-polar and/or aprotic organic solvents. While these properties will favour its distribution across cellular membranes, the rate-limiting step will be at the dissolution-absorption stage which will require biopharmaceutical modifications.

  3. Effects of Waste Plastic on the Physical and Rheological Properties of Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Asyiqin Ahmad, Nurul; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Yaacob, Haryati; Rosli Hainin, Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries like Malaysia, at the same time Malaysia needs a large network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. The limited source of bitumen needs a deep thinking to ensure fast road construction. Therefore, the use of plastic waste in road construction not only can help to protect environment but also able to help the road construction industry. The aims of this research are to study the effects of waste plastic on rheological properties of bitumen. Modified bitumen was prepared by using blending techniques. Bitumen was heated and plastic waste was slowly added. Rheological properties of bitumen were performance by penetration, softening point, viscosity and direct shear rheometer test. The results showed that when content of plastic waste increase, the penetration value, softening point and viscosity of bitumen also increase. Generally, plastic waste improves the performance of bitumen when it was added into bitumen. It can be said that the usage helps to improve the performance of the road pavement which also reduces the rutting effect.

  4. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Burdonov; V.V. Barakhtenko; E.V. Zelinskaya; E.O. Suturina; A.V. Burdonova; A.V. Golovnina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will ...

  6. Properties of SYNROC C nuclear-waste form: a state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1982-09-01

    SYNROC C is a titanate ceramic waste form designed to contain the waste generated by the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. The properties of SYNROC C are described with particular emphasis on the distribution of chemical elements in SYNROC, the fabrication of good quality specimens, and the chemical durability of SYNROC. Data obtained from testing of natural mineral analogues of SYNROC minerals are briefly discussed. The information available on radiation effects in SYNROC in relation to structural alteration and changes in chemical durability are summarized. 26 references, 2 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Experimental study on the dielectric properties of polyacrylate dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Junhua; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo

    2012-02-01

    The dielectric constant of elastomeric dielectric material is an essential physical parameter, whose value may affect the electromechanical deformation of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Since the dielectric constant is influenced by several external factors as reported before, and no certain value has been confirmed to our knowledge, in the present paper, on the basis of systematical comparison of recent past literature, we conducted extensive works on the measurement of dielectric properties of VHB films, involving five influencing factors: prestretch (both equal and unequal biaxial), electrical frequency, electrode material, stress relaxation time and temperature. Experimental results directly show that the dielectric response changes according to these factors, based on which we investigate the significance of each factor, especially the interaction of two external conditions on the dielectric constant of deformable dielectric, by presenting a physical picture of the mechanism of polarization.

  8. Thermal properties of light-weight concrete with waste polypropylene aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záleská, Martina; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Thermal properties of a sustainable light-weight concrete incorporating high volume of waste polypropylene as partial substitution of natural aggregate were studied in the paper. Glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP), a by-product of PP tubes production, partially substituted fine natural silica aggregate in 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. In order to quantify the effect of GFPP use on concrete properties, a reference concrete mix without plastic waste was studied as well. For the applied GFPP, bulk density, matrix density, and particle size distribution were measured. Specific attention was paid to thermal transport and storage properties of GFPP that were examined in dependence on compaction time. For the developed light-weight concrete, thermal properties were accessed using transient impulse technique, whereas the measurement was done in dependence on moisture content, from the dry state to fully water saturated state. Additionally, the investigated thermal properties were plotted as function of porosity. The tested light-weight concrete was found to be prospective construction material possessing improved thermal insulation function. Moreover, the reuse of waste plastics in concrete composition was beneficial both from the environmental and financial point of view considering plastics low biodegradability and safe disposal.

  9. Physicochemical properties, nutritional value and techno-functional properties of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) waste powder concise title: Composition of goldenberry juice waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Sayed M; Swailam, Hesham M; Embaby, Hassan El-Sayed

    2018-05-15

    Goldenberry waste powder, contained 5.87% moisture, 15.89% protein, 13.72% fat, 3.52% ash, 16.74% dietary fiber and 61% carbohydrates. Potassium (560 mg/100 g) was the predominant element followed by sodium (170 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (130 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis gave high levels of cystine/methionine, histidine and tyrosine/phenylalanine. Goldenberry waste powder had good levels of the techno-functional properties including water absorption index, swelling index, foaming capacity and stability (3.38 g/g, 5.24 ml/g, 4.09 and 72.0%, respectively). Fatty acids profile showed that linoleic acid was the predominant fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Iodine value (109.5 g/100 g of oil), acid value (2.36 mg KOH/g of oil), saponification value (183.8 mg KOH/g of oil), peroxide value (8.2 meq/kg of oil) and refractive index (1.4735) were comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Goldenberry waste oil exhibited absorbance in the UV range at 100-400 nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composting system for waste treatment coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators in the Experimental Center Kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting process waste coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators (yogurt, whey and yeast. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The values in N are classified medium and high levels the quantities of P, K are classified as middle levels. The value obtained 7.9 pH, EC 12950 µS/cm and 61% organic matter belong to treatment T1. The decomposition time was a period of 105 days corresponds to treatment T3.

  11. Permeation properties of Concrete Added with a Petrochemical Industry Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres-Agredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the permeation properties of concrete added with a residue of a petrochemical industry located in Colombia, called catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FCC. Concrete samples with 10, 20 and 30 % of FCC incorporated as cement replacement were evaluated. As reference materials, concrete without addition and concrete added with 20 % of metakaolin (MK were used. MK is a high performance pozzolan of chemical composition similar to the FCC. The properties studied, in addition to the compressive strength, were: water absorption by total immersion, porosity, surface absorption and capillary sorption. The results showed that the concrete added with FCC and MK had similar behavior, and were slightly higher than the control sample. The total absorption and porosity were below 5 % and 10 % respectively for all samples; this means that the incorporation of the addition reduces the permeability of concrete. In this sense, FCC is considered as a good alternative for producing more durable concrete, being the optimum percentage, 10 % cement replacement.

  12. Physical properties of heat-treated rattan waste binderless particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Maisarah; Ahmad, Zuraida; Halim, Zahurin; Maleque, Md Abd; Ismail, Hanafi; Sarifuddin, Norshahida

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the properties of binderless particleboard (BPB) fabricated via hot-pressing process with pressing temperature, pressing time and pressing pressure of 180°C, 5 minutes and 1 MPa, respectively. The fabricated BPB with density in the range of 0.8-0.95g cm-3 was heated in a temperature-controlled laboratory chamber at 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for period of 2 and 8 hours before underwent physical observation, mass loss measurement and thickness swelling test. The samples had remarkable color changes, mainly with samples of treatment temperature of 160˚C, where the color differences were 9.5 and 20.3. This changed the fabricated BPB samples from yellowish brown to dark brown color when treatment conditions increased. Darker color indicates greater mass loss due to severity of chemical component in the powder. Dimensional stability of fabricated BPB was improved with higher treatment temperature as more cellulose cross-linked and hemicellulose degraded that removed the hygroscopicity behavior of powder. These results revealed that heat treatment helped in improving the BPB physical properties, particularly in dimensional stability of boards.

  13. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  14. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  15. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  16. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    .... The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste...

  17. Tensile properties of chrome tanned leather waste short fibre filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Satariah; Romli, Ahmad Zafir; Saad, Siti Zaleha

    2017-12-01

    Waste leather from industries was commonly disposed via land filling or incineration where the oxidation of Cr III to Cr VI by oxidants (such as peroxides and hypohalide) can easily occur. Cr VI is well known as carcinogenic and mutagenic element where the excessive exposure to this element can be very harmful. As an alternative way, the leather waste from footwear industry was utilised as filler in unsaturated polyester composite (UPC). The leather waste was ground using 0.25 mm mesh size and used without any chemical treatment. The sample was fabricated via castingtechnique and the study was carried out at 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt% filler loading. The leather waste filled composites showed lower tensile strength and Young's modulus than the unfilled composite. The increasing loading amount of leather waste led to the decreased in tensile strength and Young's modulus. The tensile results was supported by the decreasing pattern of density result which indicates the increasing of void content as the filler loading increased. The results of glass transition temperature are also parallel to the tensile properties where the increasing filler loading had decreased the glass transition temperature. Based on the morphological observation on the fractured tensile sample, much severe filler agglomerations and higher amount of voids was observed at higher filler loading compared to the lower filler loading.

  18. Improving mechanical properties of lightweight Porcelanite aggregate concrete using different waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelan M. Hama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete using waste material is the goal of this work to get both structural and environmental advantage besides cost saving. Porcelanite aggregate was used as lightweight aggregate. First plastic bottles were cut into slices and used as fibers with these percentages: 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5% by volume. The results of tests under compression and tensile stress showed that mix 1% plastic fiber (PF gave the best results when compared to reference mix without PF. Eggshell (rich with CaO and glass wastes (rich of silca were crashed and powdered to desired size and used as partial replacement of cement with these percentage: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and modulus of elasticity were tested. Comparison was made with reference mix (without waste powder to figure the efficiency of using these waste in lightweight Porcelanite concrete. The results of tests showed that mixes with 1% PF and 5% eggshell powder (ESP gave results so close to reference mix. Using more than 5% ESP made no improvement in lightweight concrete, while the mix with 1% PF with any glass powder (GP percentages used in this research gave good improvement in the tested properties especially at 20% GP.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemam, Dinberu Molla; Kim, Baek-Joong; Moon, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Chongku

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0-20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increase in epoxy and filler content. Modulus of elasticity also linearly increased with the increase in filler content, but the use of epoxy content beyond 20 wt. % decreased the modulus of elasticity of the mortar. For epoxy content at 10 wt. %, poor bond strength lower than 0.8 MPa was observed, and adding filler at 20 wt. % adversely affected the bond strength, in contrast to the mortars containing epoxy at 15, 20, 25 wt. %. The results indicate that the sand washing waste can be used as potential filler for epoxy resin mortar to obtain better mechanical properties by adding the optimum level of sand washing waste filler.

  20. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Krawczykowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  1. An Experimental Study on Effect of Palm – Shell Waste Additive to Cement Strenght Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Novriansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the cement strength through attaching chemical additive has been popular to meet the required condition for a particular well-cementing job. However, due to a low oil-price phenomenon, pouring and additive should be reconsidered because it can raise the cost and make the project become uneconomic. Another additive material in nanocomposite form will be introduced through this experimental study. The nanocomposite material consist of silica nanoparticle, known as “Nanosilica” and a palm-shell-waste, which is abundant in Indonesia. Before making a nanocomposite, the palm-shell should be burned to obtain a charcoal form, ground and sieved to attain a uniform size.   The study focuses on the two parameters, compressive strength and shear bond strength, which can reflect the strength of the cement. These values are obtained by performing a biaxial loading test to the cement sample. Various samples with different concentration of nanocomposite should be prepared and following the mixing, drying, and hardening process before the loading test is carried out. The result from the test shows a positive indication for compressive strength and shear bond strength values, according to the representative well cementing standards. Increasing the nanocomposite concentration on the cement will increase these values. Furthermore, an investigation on the temperature effect confirms that the sample with 700oC burning temperature have highest compressive-strength and shear-bond-strength values. This is a potential opportunity utilizing a waste-based material to produce another product with higher economic value.

  2. Experimental study on waste heat recovery from an IC engine using thermoelectric technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the heat supplied in an IC engine is not realized as work output, but dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. If this waste heat energy is tapped and converted into usable energy, the overall efficiency of the engine can be improved. The percentage of energy rejected to the environment through exhaust gas which can be potentially recovered is approximately 30-40% of the energy supplied by the fuel depending on engine load. Thermoelectric modules (TEM which are used as Thermoelectric generators (TEG are solid state devices that are used to convert thermal energy from a temperature gradient to electrical energy and it works on basic principle of Seebeck effect. This paper demonstrates the potential of thermoelectric generation. A detailed experimental work was carried to study the performance of TEG under various engine operating conditions. A heat exchanger with 18 TEG modules was designed and tested in the engine test rig. Thermoelectric modules were selected according to the temperature difference between exhaust gases side and the engine coolant side. Various designs of the heat exchangers were modeled using CAD and analysis was done using a CFD code which is commercially available to study the flow & heat transfer characteristics. From the simulated results it was found that rectangular shaped heat exchanger met our requirements and also satisfied the space and weight constraint. A rectangular heat exchanger was fabricated and the thermo electric modules were incorporated on the heat exchanger for performance analysis. The study also revealed that energy can be tapped efficiently from the engine exhaust and in near future TEG can reduce the size of the alternator or eliminate them in automobiles.

  3. Effect of boron waste on the properties of mortar and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Iker Bekir; Boga, Ahmet Raif

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of by-products or waste materials in concrete production are important subjects for sustainable development and industrial ecology concepts. The usages as mineral admixtures or fine aggregates improve the durability properties of concrete and thus increase the economic and environmental advantages for the concrete industry. The effect of clay waste (CW) containing boron on the mechanical properties of concrete was investigated. CW was added in different proportions as cement additive in concrete. The effect of CW on workability and strength of concrete were analysed by fresh and hardened concrete tests. The results obtained were compared with control concrete properties and Turkish standard values. The results showed that the addition of CW had a small effect upon the workability of the concrete but an important effect on the reduction of its strength. It was observed that strength values were quite near to that of control concrete when not more than 10% CW was used in place of cement. In addition to concrete specimens, replacing cement with CW produced mortar specimens, which were investigated for their strength and durability properties. The tests of SO( 4) (2-) and Cl(-) effect as well as freeze-thaw behaviour related to the durability of mortar were performed. Consequently, it can be said that some improvements were obtained in durability properties even if mechanical properties had decreased with increasing CW content.

  4. Experimental studies on the psychology of property rights

    OpenAIRE

    El Haji, A.

    2017-01-01

    Property rights determine who owns what. Trade is very difficult if it is unclear who owns what or if property rights are not enforced. For this reason, many scholars argue that property rights and their enforcement are essential to economic prosperity. A distinction can be made between a legal and psychological approach to property rights. A legal approach to property rights considers how the rules of property rights are codified in law while a psychological approach focuses on how humans te...

  5. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  6. Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material on mechanical behavior of different samples were investigated and compared with analytical and FEM method. Effects of skin thickness on strength of honycomb sandwhich panels under shear pull out and moments have also been considerd in this study. According to this investigation, insert strength and flexural test under different load conditions is strongly affected by face thickness, but compression and tearoff (falt wise tensile properties of a sandwich panel depends on core material. The study concludes that the correlation between experimental results and the analytical predictions will enable the designer to predict the mechanical behaviour and strength of a sandwich beam; however, applied formula may lead engineers to unreliable results for shear modulus.

  7. Effect of steatite waste additions on the physical and mechanical properties of clay composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Hallak Panzera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral rock wastes are being widely investigated due to possible damage to the environment when discarded indiscriminately in the nature, but also because of their great potential as ceramic raw materials. This work aims to study the effect of steatite particle additions on the mechanical properties of clay composites. A comprehensive series of experiments have been conducted to assess the influence of: steatite particle size, steatite fraction and compacting pressure on the performance of clay composites. The composite of superior properties was manufactured with 20 wt. (% of steatite, 100-200 US-Tyler of steatite particle size and 30 MPa of compacting pressure.

  8. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  9. Thermal and physical property determination for IONSIV/256 IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River Site waste simulant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-08

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate.

  10. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  11. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm were added to SMA mixtures. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus test was conducted at temperatures of 5, 25, and 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (2000, 2500, and 3000 N. The results show that the stiffness modulus of reinforced SMA samples containing various contents of CRM is significantly high in comparison with that of nonreinforced samples, and the stiffness modulus of reinforced samples is in fact less severely affected by the increased temperature compared to the nonreinforced samples. Further, the results show that CRM reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue lives compared to the nonreinforced mixtures help in and promotion of sustainable technology by recycling of waste materials in much economical and environmental-friendly manner.

  12. Effects of biochar, waste water irrigation and fertilization on soil properties in West African urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häring, Volker; Manka'abusi, Delphine; Akoto-Danso, Edmund K; Werner, Steffen; Atiah, Kofi; Steiner, Christoph; Lompo, Désiré J P; Adiku, Samuel; Buerkert, Andreas; Marschner, Bernd

    2017-09-06

    In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years. The addition of biochar at 2 kg m-2 made from rice husks and corn cobs initially doubled SOC stocks but SOC losses of 35% occurred thereafter. Both biochar types had no effect on soil pH, phosphorous availability and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) but rice husk biochar retained nitrogen (N). Irrigation with domestic waste water increased soil pH and exchangeable sodium over time. Inorganic fertilization alone acidified soils, increased available phosphorous and decreased base saturation. Organic fertilization increased SOC, N and CEC. The results from both locations demonstrate that the effects of biochar and waste water were less pronounced than reported elsewhere.

  13. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE BIO-POLYMER COMPOUND BY HOT COMPRESSION MOLDING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khairul Zaimy A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bio-polymer compound (BPC has attracted attention in various applications from industrial to medical. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal stability properties of recycling industrial waste BPC are very important to investigate. The waste BPC for this study is based on a mixture of hydroxylated waste cooking oil with hardeners to produce waste bio-polymer foam (WBF. The granulate of WBF was cast into the mold until all spaces were evenly filled and compacted into a homogeneous shape and thickness at 30–45 bar for 2 hours using hot compression molding. This method of BPC fabrication results in a tensile and flexural strength of 4.89 MPa and 18.08 MPa respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of laminated BPC was conducted using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA, and the first degradation of the soft segment occurred at 263°C, then subsequently the second degradation occurred at 351°C and the last at 416°C.

  14. Experimental studies on the psychology of property rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haji, A.

    2017-01-01

    Property rights determine who owns what. Trade is very difficult if it is unclear who owns what or if property rights are not enforced. For this reason, many scholars argue that property rights and their enforcement are essential to economic prosperity. A distinction can be made between a legal and

  15. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill.

  16. Determination of physiochemical properties of palm oil methyl ester catalyzed by waste cockle shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurul Fitriah; Latif, Noradila Abdul; Bakar, Sharifah Adzila Syed Abu; Rahman, Mohd Nasrull Abdul; Selamat, Siti Norhidayah; Nasharudin, Nurul Nadirah

    2017-04-01

    Waste cockle shell can be used as a source of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). This aim of this paper is to determine the physicochemical properties of (FAME) which utilize waste cockle shells in the transesterification reaction process. In this study, the catalyst was prepared using high temperature furnace (700°C) for 4 h. The molar ratio of methanol to oil was fixed at 9:1 and the reaction temperature and catalyst concentration were varied from 65 -70 °C, and 10-30 wt. %, respectively for transesterification reaction. The reaction time was also fixed at 3 h. The analyzed physicochemical properties were density, viscosity, flash point and net heat of combustion. The results obtained from the analysis found that reaction temperature 65°C with 30% of catalyst concentration has produced the physical properties of FAME that comply the biodiesel standards. The results suggest that reaction temperature and catalyst concentration have influence on the value of physicochemical properties of FAME produced.

  17. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  18. Experimental assessment of non-treated bentonite as the buffer material of a radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Kang, C H; Whang, J

    2001-05-01

    The bentonite-based material being evaluated in several countries as potential barriers and seals for a nuclear waste disposal system is of mostly sodium type, whereas most bentonite available in Korea is known to be of calcium type. In order to investigate whether local Korean bentonite could be useful as a buffer or sealing material in an HLW repository system, raw bentonites sampled from the south-east area of Korea were examined in terms of their physicochemical properties such as surface area, CEC, swelling rate, and distribution coefficient. The diffusion behavior of some radionuclides of interest in compacted bentonite was also investigated. Considering that HLW generates decay heat over a long time, the thermal effect on the physicochemical properties of bentonite was also included. Four local samples were identified as Ca-bentonite through XRD and chemical analysis. Of the measured values of surface area, CEC and swelling rate of the local samples, Sample-A was found to have the greatest properties as the most likely candidate barrier material. The distribution coefficients of Cs-137, Sr-85, Co-60 and Am-241 for Sample-A sample were measured by the batch method. Sorption equilibrium was reached in around 8 to 10 days, but that of Sr was found to be reached earlier. Comparing the results of this study with the reference data, domestic bentonite was found to have a relatively high sorption ability. For the effect of varying concentration on sorption, the values of Kd peaked at 10(-9)-10(-7) mol/l of radionuclide concentration. In XRD analysis, the (001) peak of Sample-A was fully collapsed above 200 degrees C. The shoulder appearing at about 150 degrees C in the DSC curve was found to be evidence that Sample-A is predominated by Ca-montmorillonite. The loss of swelling capacity and CEC of Sample-A started at about 100 degrees C. The swelling data and the (001) peak intensity of the heat-treated sample showed that they were linearly interrelated. The measured

  19. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K)-1. The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  20. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  1. Reversed combustion of waste in a grate furnace - an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, Miladin; Brem, Gerrit; Bramer, Eduard A.

    2012-01-01

    Most widely used concept for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is combustion on a moving grate with energy recovery. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Ignition front

  2. Composition, morphology, properties of coal fly ash microspheres and their application for conditioning liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anshits, N.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, SB RAS (ICCT SB RAS), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: anshits@icct.ru; Salanov, A.N.; Vereshchagina, T.A.; Kruchek, D.M.; Bajukov, O.A.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Anshits, A.G

    2006-07-01

    Using methods of the Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermodynamic analysis of phase formation in silicate multi-component melts, the detailed study of composition, morphology, and properties of fly ash microspheres resulting from combustion of three coals (Irsha-Borodinskii, Kuznetskii and Ekibastuzskii) was carried out. About 60 microspherical products with an iron content of 2-94 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were obtained. The ranges of microsphere composition, suitable for liquid radioactive waste solidification in the forms of iron phosphate (36-94 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and aluminosilicate (2-20 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ceramics were determined. The possibility of producing porous materials and specific microspherical sorbents, based on coal fly ash cenospheres and their application for mobilisation of liquid radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated. (author)

  3. Fabrication and Properties of Technetium-Bearing Pyrochlores and Perovskites as Potential Waste Forms - 13222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Alaniz, Ariana J. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Antonio, Daniel J. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 4002, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Technetium-99 (t{sub 1/2}= 2.13x10{sup 5} years) is important from a nuclear waste perspective and is one of the most abundant, long-lived radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel (UNF). As such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies such as UREX+, for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for storage in a nuclear repository. We report here results regarding the incorporation of Tc-99 into ternary oxides of different structure types: pyrochlore (Nd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), perovskite (SrTcO{sub 3}), and layered perovskite (Sr{sub 2}TcO{sub 4}). The goal was to determine synthesis conditions of these potential waste forms to immobilize Tc-99 as tetravalent technetium and to harvest crystallographic, thermophysical and hydrodynamic data. The objective of this research is to provide fundamental crystallographic and thermophysical data on advanced ceramic Tc-99 waste forms such as pyrochlore, perovskite, and layered perovskite in support of our current efforts on the corrosion of technetium-bearing waste forms. The ceramic Tc-99-bearing waste forms exhibit good crystallinity. The lattice parameters and crystal structures of the technetium host phases could be refined with high accuracies of ±3, ±4, and ±7 fm (10{sup -15} m), for Nd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}, SrTcO{sub 3}, and Sr{sub 2}TcO{sub 4}, respectively. The associated refinement residuals (R{sub Wp}) for the patterns are 4.1 %, 4.7 % and 6.7 %, and the refinement residuals for the individual phases (R{sub Bragg}) are 2.0 %, 2.4 % and 3.9 %, respectively. Thermophysical properties of the oxides SrTcO{sub 3}, Sr{sub 2}TcO{sub 4}, and Nd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} were analyzed using AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to further harvest information on the critical temperature (T{sub c}) for superconductivity. In our experiments the strontium technetates, SrTcO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}TcO{sub 4}, show superconductivity at rather high critical temperatures of T{sub c} = 7.8 K and 7 K, respectively. On the

  4. Experimental Study on Desalination System Using the Waste Heat of Nuclear Power Plants and Solar Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaswneh, Khalid; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study a new desalination system using the waste heat of nuclear power plant or solar energy system is under consideration. An experiment study will performed to evaluate the performance of the system. In this paper, the experimental design of the system and steady-state and transient analysis, using MATLAB and MARS code respectively, will be presented. A new desalination system using the waste heat from nuclear power plants or solar energy was proposed and the design of an experimental facility to evaluate the system's performance was presented. The analytical steady-state analysis using MATLAB and transient MARS calculations have been performed. An Experiment will be performed to verify the model. Moreover a feasibility study for the proposed design and a comparison with the conventional desalination system will be performed.

  5. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  7. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon B Mitchell

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, remains prevalent in North American elk, white-tailed deer and mule deer. A natural case of CWD in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus has not been reported despite potential habitat overlap with CWD-infected deer or elk herds. This study investigates the experimental transmission of CWD from elk or white-tailed deer to reindeer by the oral route of inoculation. Ante-mortem testing of the three reindeer exposed to CWD from white-tailed deer identified the accumulation of pathological PrP (PrP(CWD in the recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT of two reindeer at 13.4 months post-inoculation. Terminal CWD occurred in the two RAMALT-positive reindeer at 18.5 and 20 months post-inoculation while one other reindeer in the white-tailed deer CWD inoculum group and none of the 3 reindeer exposed to elk CWD developed disease. Tissue distribution analysis of PrP(CWD in CWD-affected reindeer revealed widespread deposition in central and peripheral nervous systems, lymphoreticular tissues, the gastrointestinal tract, neuroendocrine tissues and cardiac muscle. Analysis of prion protein gene (PRNP sequences in the 6 reindeer identified polymorphisms at residues 2 (V/M, 129 (G/S, 138 (S/N and 169 (V/M. These findings demonstrate that (i a sub-population of reindeer are susceptible to CWD by oral inoculation implicating the potential for transmission to other Rangifer species, and (ii certain reindeer PRNP polymorphisms may be protective against CWD infection.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Production from Kitchen Waste Mixed with Chicken Manure

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mousa; A. Obaidat; H.B. Khaled; A. Alawaneh; A. Tarawneh

    2016-01-01

    ogas produced from solid kitchen waste (KW) mixed with chicken manure (M) at different mass ratios was investigated. The effect of the ratio of the amount of water to the mixed solid waste on the amount of biogas produced was studied. The results showed that at a fixed ratio of water-to-solid waste, the amount of biogas increased as the amount of chicken M increased. At a fixed M-to-KW ratio, the amount of biogas produced increased as the solid content increased and then decreased, reaching i...

  9. Elastic properties of RCC under flexural loading-experimental and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plain concrete is taken into consideration whereas effects of reinforcement bars and concrete confined by stirrups are neglected. The aim of study is to determine elastic properties of reinforced cement concrete material. Two important stiffness properties such as AE and EI play important role in analysis of high rise RCC ...

  10. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated.

  11. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35° for fresh MSW to 28° for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1° to 9°, respectively, while the effective strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle varied from 18 to 56 kPa and from 1° to 11°, respectively. Similar to direct shear test results, as the waste degrades an increase in cohesion and slight decrease in friction angle was observed. Decreased friction angle and increased cohesion with increased degradation is believed to be due to the highly cohesive nature of the synthetic MSW. Variation of synthetic MSW properties from this study also suggests that significant changes in geotechnical properties of MSW

  12. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  13. The Effect of Mineral Powders Derived From Industrial Wastes on Selected Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galińska, Anna; Czarnecki, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, concrete has been the most popular construction material. The main component of the concrete is cement. However, its production and transport causes significant emissions of CO2. Reports in the literature show that many laboratories are attempting to modify the composition of the concrete using various additives. These attempts are primarily designed to eliminate parts of cement. The greater part of the cement will be replaced with the selected additive, the more significant is the economic and ecological effect. Most attempts are related to the replacement of the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement. Mineral powders, which are waste material producing crushed aggregate, are increasingly used for this purpose. Management of the waste carries significant cost related to their storage and disposal. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral powders derived from industrial wastes on selected mechanical properties of concrete. In particular, the aim was to determine the effect of quartz and quartz-feldspar powders. For this purpose, 40, 50, 60% by weight of the cement was replaced by the selected powders. The results obtained were analysed and compared with previous attempts to replace the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement.

  14. Experimental econophysics properties and mechanisms of laboratory markets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ji-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Experimental Econophysics describes the method of controlled human experiments, which is developed by physicists to study some problems in economics or finance, namely, stylized facts, fluctuation phenomena, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, hedge behavior, cooperation, business cycles, partial information, risk management, and stock prediction. Experimental econophysics together with empirical econophysics are two branches of the field of econophysics. The latter one has been extensively discussed in the existing books, while the former one has been seldom touched. In this book, the author will focus on the branch of experimental econophysics. Empirical econophysics is based on the analysis of data in real markets by using some statistical tools borrowed from traditional statistical physics. Differently, inspired by the role of controlled experiments and system modelling (for computer simulations and/or analytical theory) in developing modern physics, experimental econophysics specially relies on controlle...

  15. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel M. RINDLER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason exclusively fibers of spruce were used for the trials. Wet white (WW leather particles and wet blue (WB leather particles were mixed with the wooden materials for the production of high density fibreboards. Besides the mechanical properties such as the internal bond (IB the bending strength (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE was analyzed. Further physical property as thickness swelling after 24h watering was investigated. To analyze how the density influences the behavior under thermal conditions, fiberboards with the densities 500, 700 and 900 kg/m³ were tested. The results of the material properties were influenced by the leather content of the panels. The results for the UF-bonded HDF boards show enhancement of the transverse IB with increasing wet blue leather content, whereas the other mechanical properties decline meanwhile. The thickness swelling showed higher values compared to the wood fibreboard. The results of this study underline the usefulness of integrating leather shavings to HDF and give an overview of their influence in wood fiber materials. The combination of the natural resource wood fiber and the leather waste products (Wet Blue and Wet White gives a very interesting new material, its mechanical properties allow a variety of possible application in future applications.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Production from Kitchen Waste Mixed with Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ogas produced from solid kitchen waste (KW mixed with chicken manure (M at different mass ratios was investigated. The effect of the ratio of the amount of water to the mixed solid waste on the amount of biogas produced was studied. The results showed that at a fixed ratio of water-to-solid waste, the amount of biogas increased as the amount of chicken M increased. At a fixed M-to-KW ratio, the amount of biogas produced increased as the solid content increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum value at a solid waste-to-water ratio of 1:1. The pH of the bioreactor containing the KW-M mixture dropped with time, resulting in a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. Controlling the pH value by titrating with NaOH solution improved the production of biogas. Investigating biogas produced from sludge showed that the pH of the reactor slightly decreased and then increased slightly. The results also showed that the amount of biogas produced from sludge containing 3% solid waste was larger than the amount produced from sludge containing 6% solid waste.

  17. The effect of pulping concentration treatment on the properties of microcrystalline cellulose powder obtained from waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwonna, Okumneme O

    2013-10-15

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was isolated from three grades of waste paper: book, Groundwood/Newsprint and paperboard, through the processes of pulping and hydrolysis. Pulping treatment on these grades of waste paper was done using varying concentrations of caustic soda. Effects of the concentration of the pulping medium on the thermal and kinetic properties were investigated. Also determined were the effects of this on the physico-chemical properties. The chemical structure was characterized using an infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed these properties to be affected by the concentration of the pulping medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of demolition/construction wastes on the properties of alkali activated slag cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayieda R. Zedan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The key point of this investigation is to study the effect of demolition and building wastes on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of alkali activated slag (AAS. In this study, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS was activated by mixture of 3:3 wt.% sodium hydroxide:liquid sodium silicate (NaOH:Na2SiO3 ratio by weight of GGBFS. AAS was individually replaced by 10 wt.% ceramic, red clay brick and concrete wastes (CW, RCBW and CoW. The results showed that, significant shorter setting times were observed when AAS was replaced by CW, RCBW or CoW. The AAS-CoW showed the shortest setting times compared to other all mixes. The chemically combined water and pH decreased in the direction of AAS-CoW > AAS > AAS-RCBW > AAS-CW. CoW has a positive effect on the compressive strength development at one day of curing, while, CW and RCBW have a negative effect at the same time (1 day. At later ages of curing, the AAS-RCBW showed the highest compressive strength values as compared with AAS-CW, AAS-CoW and AAS. The crystallinity degree of hydration products enhanced when AAS was replaced by these wastes. Also, the Fe2O3 present in waste played an important role on the development of compressive strength. The hydration products were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the results were compared with the development in compressive strength.

  19. Intellectual Property Experimentalism By Way Of Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wu

    2013-01-01

    Competition law and Intellectual Property have divergent intellectual cultures–the former more pragmatic and experimentalist; the latter influenced by natural law and vested rights. Tim Wu (US Federal Trade Commission)

  20. Effect of textile waste on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of polymer concrete reinforced with textile trimming waste was investigated. Two series of polymer concrete formulations were studied, with different resin/sand (i.e. binder/fine aggregate weight ratios. In each series, recycled textile chopped fibers at 1 and 2% of the total weight was used. Flexural and compressive tests were performed at room temperature and load vs. displacement curves were plotted up to failure. In the study, both the influence of fiber content and resin/sand weight ratio were considered relative to the behavior of polymer concrete reinforced with textile fibers. A decrease in properties was observed as function of textile fibers content. When specific properties were considered, this tendency was kept. However, higher textile fibers content lead to a smoother failure, unlike brittleness failure behavior of unreinforced polymer concrete.

  1. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2017-12-23

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E4/E6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Properties of the platinoid fission products during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Matlack, K. S.; Pegg, I. L.

    2006-05-01

    the prototypical off-gas treatment system. In the course of several weeks of testing, a total mass of 28,500 kg of glass was produced and sampled. The effect of operating conditions on the behavior of the platinoids was evaluated, including mixing the melt by bubbling with air vs. not bubbling, and the effects of reducing conditions (by adding sugar to the feed). Tests were conducted with Ru, Rh, Pd (0.17% total oxides) or Ru only (0.09 wt%) in the final glass product. The fractions of the platinoids discharged with the glass, deposited in the melter, and/or released to the off-gas were calculated from the analytical data. In addition, mathematical modeling of the distribution and movement of platinoid crystals within the melt was conducted for various furnace operating conditions. This modeling captured the flow, electrical, and thermal fields within the melt and included coupling of the local material properties to the local temperature. The experimental data on platinoid particle size and morphology were used to provide input for modeling their flow and sedimentation behavior with the objective of estimating accumulation rates and spatial distributions. The modeled deposition of the crystals was found to be uneven, with piles in the corners and thicker layers on slanted bottom surfaces. Consequently, contiguous electrical shorting paths could develop more quickly than what would be assumed based on uniform deposition. This paper will present the results from the experimental and modeling work and discuss their implications for melter lifetime estimation.

  3. Sorting efficiency and combustion properties of municipal solid waste during bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2009-11-01

    One aerobic and two combined bio-drying processes were set up to investigate the quantitative relationships of sorting efficiency and combustion properties with organics degradation and water removal during bio-drying. Results showed that the bio-drying could enhance the sorting efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW) up to 71% from the initial of 34%. The sorting efficiency was correlated with water content negatively (correlation coefficient, r=-0.89) and organics degradation rate positively (r=0.92). The higher heating values (HHVs) were correlated with organics degradation negatively for FP (i.e. the sum of only food and paper) (r=-0.93) but positively for the mixing waste (MW) (r=0.90), whereas the lower heating values (LHVs) were negatively correlated with water content for both FP (r=-0.71) and MW (r=-0.96). Other combustion properties depended on organics degradation performance, except for ignition performance and combustion rate. The LHVs could be greatly enhanced by the combined process with insufficient aeration during the hydrolytic stage. Compared with FP, MW had higher LHVs and ratios of volatile matter to fixed carbon. Nevertheless, FP had higher final burnout values than MW.

  4. Mix proportions and properties of CLSC made from thin film transition liquid crystal display optical waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Her-Yung; Chen, Jyun-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In this study, controlled low-strength concrete (CLSC) is mixed using different water-to-binder (W/B) ratios (1.1, 1.3 and 1.5) and various percentages of sand substituted by waste LCD glass sand (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). The properties of the fresh concrete, including compressive strength, electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, permeability ratio and shrinking of the CLSC, are examined. Results show that increases in amount of waste glass added result in better slump and slump flow, longer initial setting time and smaller unit weight. Compressive strength decreases with increasing W/B ratio and greater amounts of waste glass added. Both electrical resistivity and ultrasonic pulse velocity increase with increases in amount of waste glass and decreases in W/B ratio. On the contrary, the permeability ratio increases with increases in W/B ratio, but decreases with greater amounts of waste glass added. CLSC specimens cured for different durations show little changes in length with shrinkage below 0.025%. Our findings reveal that CLSC mixed using waste LCD glass in place of sand can meet design requirements. Recycling of waste LCD glass not only offers an economical substitute for aggregates, but also an ecological alternative for waste management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in various industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and afterwards ...

  6. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in vari- ous industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and ...

  7. Application of statistical experimental designs for the optimization of medium constituents for the production of citric acid from pineapple waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Somalanka, Subba Rao; Bandaru, Sita Ramalakshmi; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2008-07-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied for the optimization of medium constituents for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 in solid state fermentation (SSF) using pineapple waste as the sole substrate. Using Plackett-Burman design, yeast extract, moisture content of the substrate, KH(2)PO(4) and Na(2)HPO(4) were identified as significant variables which highly influenced citric acid production and these variables were subsequently optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found to be yeast extract 0.34 (%w/w), moisture content of the substrate 70.71 (%), KH(2)PO(4) 0.64 (%w/w) and Na(2)HPO(4) 0.69 (%w/w). Citric acid production at these optimum conditions was 202.35 g/kg ds (g citric acid produced/kg of dried pineapple waste as substrate).

  8. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This work is the first assessment of colloids in waste leachates. • Analytical methods are proposed and discussed. • All the waste have at least one element in colloidal form, and some elements are always colloidal. • Man-made nanoparticles are observed. • It can change the interpretation of leachate elemental concentration. - Abstract: The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO{sub 2} capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM–EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μg l{sup −1}. If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration > 1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μg l{sup −1}. In particular

  10. Marble wastes and pig slurry improve the environmental and plant-relevant properties of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, S; Faz, A; Acosta, J A; Arocena, J M; Zornoza, R; Martínez-Martínez, S; Carmona, D M

    2014-02-01

    Poor soil fertility is often the biggest challenge to the establishment of vegetation in mine wastes deposits. We conducted field trials in the El Gorguel and El Lirio sites in SE Spain, two representative tailing ponds of similar properties except for pH, to understand the environmental and plant-relevant benefits of marble waste (MW) and pig slurry (PS) applications to mine tailings. Low pH (5.4) tailings (El Lirio) exhibit reduction of up to fourfold in bio-availability of metals as shown by the DTPA-Zn, Pb, water-soluble Zn, Pb and up to 3× for water-soluble Cd. Tailings in El Gorguel have high pH (7.4) and did not exhibit significant trends in the reductions of water-extractable Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. Improvements to the edaphic (plant-relevant) properties of tailings after the amendments are not as sensitive to pH compared to the environmental characteristics. The two sites had increases in aggregate stability, organic matter (total N and organic C) although total N is higher in the El Gorguel (up to 212 μg N kg(-1)) than the El Lirio (up to 26 μg N kg(-1)). However, cation exchange capacities are similar in both sites at 15.2 cmol(+) kg(-1). We conclude that the characteristics, especially pH, of tailing materials significantly influence the fate of metals but not improvements to plant-relevant properties such as cation exchange capacity and aggregate stability 1 year after the application of MW and PS amendments.

  11. Experimental Properties of Phase Transitions in Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, B. S.; Rehborn, H.

    1997-11-01

    Investigations of a great number of measurements of traffic flow on German highways show that there are some common macroscopic properties of phase transitions between free flow, synchronized flow, and traffic jams. In particular, it is shown that a short-time localized perturbation is able to cause a local phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow and that synchronized flow of slow moving vehicles can further be self-maintained on a highway for several hours.

  12. Experimental studies of electromagnetic properties of few body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosted, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    An overview is given of some recent and planned experiments which have or will substantially increase our knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of few body systems. Specific examples include the proton and neutron elastic form factors, the deuteron elastic form factors, deuteron threshold electrodisintegration and quasi-elastic scattering, deuteron photodisintegration, and finally measurements of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering from hydrogen, deuterium, and iron. 47 refs., 13 figs. (DWL)

  13. An Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Ganesan, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanical properties of unidirectional hybrid reinforcements formed from continuous fibres impregnated with a fibre binding material which are used for reinforcing the concrete. Recently FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) manufacturers and suppliers have been increased all over the world because of the superior performance of FRP products in the construction industry. Its non-corrosive nature has turned the attention of many researchers to make several studies on different type of FRP products. Through a vast research, several standards also have been formulated. In this regard a new combination of FRP materials is tried in this paper and its properties have been derived. Carbon fibre and glass fibres fuse in this study to form a new hybrid rebar. The design properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, and compressive strength have been studied as per ASTM standards and it has been identified that the Hybrid rebar show a superior performance in comparison with GFRP (Glass FRP) and Steel rebars. This extraordinary performance of hybrid composite material increases the extensive engineering applications such as transport industry, aeronautics, naval, automotive industries.

  14. An experimental study on thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste using a continuous pyrolyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxilio, Anthony R; Choo, Wei-Lit; Kohli, Isha; Chakravartula Srivatsa, Srikanth; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2017-09-01

    A bench scale, two-stage, thermo-catalytic reactor equipped with a continuous feeding system was used to pyrolyse pure and waste plastics. Experiments using five zeolitic and clay-based catalysts of different forms (pellet and powders) and different plastic feedstocks - virgin HDPE, HDPE w1aste and mixed plastic waste (MPW) were compared to the control experiments - pyrolysis without catalyst. Results indicated that the two pelletized catalysts were the most promising for the conditions employed. Of these two, one with higher acidity and surface area was highly selective for the gasoline fraction (C5-C11) giving 80% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. It also produced the least amount of olefins (17% for virgin HDPE, 4% for HDPE waste and 2% for MPW) and coke (waste and 5% for MPW), and the highest aromatics content (22% for virgin HDPE from un-distilled medium distillate, 5% for HDPE and 13% for MPW both from distilled medium distillate). The second pelletized catalyst exhibited high selectivity for the diesel fraction (C12-C25) giving 63% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. The amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface depended mainly on the mesopore volume, with less coke deposited as the mesopore volume increased. The variation in catalyst selectivity with acidity strength due to Lewis sites on the catalyst surface controls selectivity towards carbon chain length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental validation of a dynamic waste heat recovery system model for control purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Kupper, F.; Rojer, C.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Scappin, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Smits, J.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the identification and validation of a dynamic Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system model. Driven by upcoming CO2 emission targets and increasing fuel costs, engine exhaust gas heat utilization has recently attracted much attention to improve fuel efficiency, especially for

  16. Physical and hydraulic properties of sediments and engineered materials associated with grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Heller, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    Numerical models are used to predict the fate of contaminants in the environment for durations of 10,000 years and more. At the Hanford Site, these models are being used to evaluate the potential health effects and environmental impacts associated with the disposal of double-shell tank waste in grouted vaults. These models require information on the properties of the earthen and manufactured materials that compose the vault system and its surroundings. This report documents the physical and hydraulic properties of the materials associated with burial of grouted double-shell tank waste at the Hanford Site.

  17. An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supeni, E.E.; Megat Mohd, M.H.; Mohd Sapuan, S.; Nor Maria, A.; Ismail, M.Y.; Thoguluva, R.V. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)]. E-mail: eris@eng.upm.edu.my; Chuah, T.G. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

  18. An Experimental Investigation on Utilization of Waste Plastic as a Modifier in Rigid Pavements for Improving Strength

    OpenAIRE

    M.Chandu; Dr.N.C.Anil; P.Hanitha

    2016-01-01

    The percent study investigates the effective use of waste plastic as a modifier for cement concrete roads. Civilization produces waste products disposals issue of the waste products is a challenge. Solid waste management is the thrust area. The various waste materials, plastic waste and principle solid waste are of great concern these leads to disposal crisis and environmental pollution. On the other side, road traffic is increasing. The load bearing capacity of the roads are to be increased....

  19. Properties Improvement of Cast Stone Produced Using Recycled Glass Waste and Lightweight Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abd AL-Majeed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cast stone (CS is a form of pre-cast concrete widely, used in architectural applications for decorating and building face in place of natural stone due its superior features. The present study was an attempt in using of local lightweight aggregate materials (LWAM as an alternative to percentage of coarse aggregate, and glass wastes as alternatives to percentages of fine aggregate in cast stone normal mixtures with white cement and plasticizer admixture. The CS products were cured after 24 hrs using of two different processes: water curing (at 23 C° for 3 days and steam curing (at 60 C° for 14 hrs. Then the products were characterized by tests of compressive strength, design, absorption, flexure strength and liner drying shrinkage. The addition of alternative materials was done by trial mixes (M0-M3 through 3 groups (A, B, and C according to standards. Group A: design of reference mixtures of CS with compressive strength of 46.3 MPa and the absorption of 6.19%, Group B: design of mixtures containing 50% LWA were 16% lighter than those of Group A with compressive strength of 43.6 MPa and 11% improvement in the absorption, Group C: design of mixtures containing (50 and 75% glass waste with compressive strength of (47.5-44.3 MPa and the absorption of (5.3-4.7%, respectively. The modified steam curing process (curing after 24 hrs casting done in this study could prove its effectiveness in the achievement of the required compressive strength in comparison with the normal process (direct curing after casting due to the effect of such new process in providing the more uniform distribution of the cement gel with good physical properties. Results from the flexural strength test could prove the achievement of the required levels (6.9 – 6.3 at 50 – 75% glass waste addition recorded in the standard.

  20. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO(2) capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM-EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μgl(-1). If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration>1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μgl(-1). In particular, the colloidal forms of Zn were always by far more concentrated than its dissolved form. The TEM-EDS method showed various particles, including manufactured nanoparticles (organic polymer, TiO(2), particles with Sr, La, Ce, Nd). All the waste had at least one element detected as colloidal. The solid waste leachates contained significant amount of colloids different in elemental

  1. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppert, Martin; Pavlík, Zbysek; Tydlitát, Vratislav; Volfová, Petra; Svarcová, Silvie; Syc, Michal; Cerny, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Fly ashes generated by power and heating plants are commonly used in the production of building materials in some countries, mainly as partial replacement of cement or aggregates in concrete. The ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators can be applied in a similar way. However, their chemical and mineralogical composition, granulometry and toxic constituents have to be taken into account. In this paper, four types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes produced by the modern MSWI facility in Liberec, Czech Republic, were investigated. The relationship between the particular ash properties (morphology, chemical composition) and its separation temperature in the incinerator line is discussed. A coal fly ash (class F) is characterized as well, for a comparison because its utilization in building industry is more developed. The studied MSWI ashes exhibit high concentration of chlorides and sulfates which is an unfavourable feature for a potential concrete admixture. On the other hand, three of four ashes are found to be pozzolanic active and certain hydration reactions are indicated.

  2. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  3. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Agro-waste biosorbents: Effect of physico-chemical properties on atrazine and imidacloprid sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera; Nain, Lata

    2017-09-02

    Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with KF values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values imidacloprid sorption parameter [KF.(1/n)] with the physicochemical properties of the biosorbents suggested that atrazine adsorption correlated significantly to the aromaticity, polarity, surface area, fractal dimension, lacunarity and relative C-O band intensity parameters of biosorbents. Probably, both physisorption and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the pesticide sorption. The eucalyptus bark can be exploited as low cost adsorbent for the removal of these pesticides as well as a component of on-farm biopurification systems.

  5. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  6. Rheological properties of a reclaimed waste tire rubber through high-pressure high-temperature sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Yunus, N. A.; Aziz, S. A. A.; Wahab, N. A. A.; Mazlan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) sintering method has successfully revulcanized waste tire rubber (WTR) without any additional virgin rubber. The crumb rubber cleaned from its fabric and metals was reclaimed by applying high pressure (25 MPa) and high temperature (200 °C) for an hour along with common vulcanization agents such as sulfur, zinc oxide, and stearic acid. Dynamic properties of reclaimed WTR were assessed through shear rheology test on MCR302 Rheometer, Anton Paar, Austria. The results indicated that under steady test, the yield stress occurred at 31 kPa at 5% linear viscoelastic limit. The storage modulus ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa under excitation frequency of 0.1 to 100 Hz and 1% strain amplitude. Under ramp strain amplitude, the storage modulus showed Payne Effect phenomenon at 0.8 to 1 % strain amplitude and 1 Hz excitation frequency. In general, the resulted dynamic properties was comparable with non-reclaimed rubber based on a literature survey. The results confirmed that HPHT sintering method was capable of reclaiming 100% WTR without an additional virgin rubber and achieving acceptable dynamic properties.

  7. Water sorption and water permeability properties of edible film made from potato peel waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar OTHMAN

    Full Text Available Abstract The water sorption and permeability properties of edible film produced from potato peel waste was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (23, 33, 43, 57, 75% RH and temperatures (5, 30, 50 °C. The water sorption behaviour and isotherms of the film were investigated by fitting water sorption data to the Peleg model and the Guggenheim, Anderson de Boer model (GAB model. The amount of moisture content, time required for the moisture content of the film to reach equilibrium, water sorption rate, and water sorption capacity increased when the relative humidity increased. The effect of temperature on moisture content, water sorption rate, water sorption capacity, and monolayer moisture content is complex and related to the water activity as well as the moisture content. Based on R2 and RMSE values, the Peleg and GAB models were respectively determined as excellent models to predict the water sorption properties of the films, thus supporting the reliability of water sorption behaviour prediction. The water vapour transmission rate and water vapour permeability increased with an increase in relative humidity and temperature. The sorption and permeability properties of the film are worth investigation since the final application of the film as food packaging is ultimately dependent on these behaviours.

  8. Experimental study on compression property of regolith analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Tomomi; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2017-12-01

    The compression property of regolith reflects the strength and porosity of the regolith layer on small bodies and their variations in the layer that largely influence the collisional and thermal evolution of the bodies. We conducted compression experiments and investigated the relationship between the porosity and the compression using fluffy granular samples. We focused on a low-pressure and high-porosity regime. We used tens of μm-sized irregular and spherical powders as analogs of porous regolith. The initial porosity of the samples ranged from 0.80 to 0.53. The uniaxial pressure applied to the samples lays in the range from 30 to 4 × 105 Pa. The porosity of the samples remained at their initial values below a threshold pressure and then decreased when the pressure exceeded the threshold. We defined this uniaxial pressure at the threshold as "yield strength". The yield strength increased as the initial porosity of a sample decreased. The yield strengths of samples consisting of irregular particles did not significantly depend on their size distributions when the samples had the same initial porosity. We compared the results of our experiments with a previously proposed theoretical model. We calculated the average interparticle force acting on contact points of constituent particles under the uniaxial pressure of yield strength using the theoretical model and compared it with theoretically estimated forces required to roll or slide the particles. The calculated interparticle force was larger than the rolling friction force and smaller than the sliding friction force. The yield strength of regolith may be constrained by these forces. Our results may be useful for planetary scientists to estimate the depth above which the porosity of a regolith layer is almost equal to that of the regolith surface and to interpret the compression property of an asteroid surface obtained by a lander.

  9. Experimental Study on the Porosity Creep Properties of Broken Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shun-cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the underground engineering, the long-term stability of the surrounding rocks (especially the broken rocks containing water and the ground settlement resulted from the seepage-creep coupling above goaf have been the important research subjects concerning the deep mining. For the broken rock, its porosity is an important structural parameter determining its creep properties, and the porosity change rate is more superior to describe the creep characteristics compared with the strain change rate at a certain direction. In this paper, MTS815.02 Rock Mechanics Test System is used to carry out the creep experiments on water-saturated broken limestone, and then the time curves of porosity and of the porosity change rate are obtained. By regression, we have got the relation equation between the porosity change rate with the instant porosity and the stress level during the creep. The study indicates that when the stress retains a constant level, the relation between the porosity change rate and the instant porosity can be fitted with a cubical polynomial. The obtained creep relation equation between the porosity change rate and the instant porosity and the instant stress provides a necessary state equation for studying the coupling between the seepage and the creep of the broken rock. Furthermore, the seepage in the broken rock has been verified to satisfy the Forchheimer’s non-Darcy flow according to our previous studies, and its seepage properties, k, β and ca can all be expressed respectively as the polynomial of the porosity, so, by combining with these three state equations we have obtained the four essential state equations for solving the coupling problems of the seepage and the creep for the broken rocks.

  10. Survival time and stability properties of disease-associated prion protein in chronic wasting disease of elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene exhibits amino acid polymorphism at codon 132, with 132L (leucine) and 132M (methionine) allelic variants present in the population. We have previously shown that following experimental oral challenge with chronic wasting...

  11. Study on Development of GeopolymerBinder from Terracotta Roof Tile Waste by Experimental and Statistical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, S.; Nair, Deepa G.; Vishnudas, Subha

    2017-08-01

    Alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials produces geopolymers at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures by geopolymerization process. The reaction product is an amorphous aluminosilicate gel having a structure similar to that of zeolitic precursors. In this paper study on development of geopolymer binder from terracotta tile waste was carried out through experimental and statistical analysis. Compressive strength test was conducted with sixteen combinations of specimens by varying four identified parameters. A 24 full factorial design was adopted for the experimental study with each parameter having two levels. The significance of parameter effect on geopolymerization has been investigated using full factorial design. The influence of the parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide, alkali activator to binder ratio and elevated curing temperature on geopolymerization are found significant where as influence of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide solution ratio was insignificant at 5% level of significance. The interaction effect among the parameters are studied and found to be negligible.

  12. Exploring experimental fitness landscapes for chemical synthesis and property optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Katharine Moore; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-02-08

    Optimization is a central goal in the chemical sciences, encompassing diverse objectives including synthesis yield, catalytic activity of a material, and binding efficiency of a molecule to a target protein. Considering the enormous size of chemical space and the expected large numbers of experiments necessary to search through it in any particular application, optimization in chemistry is surprisingly efficient. This good fortune has recently been explained by analysis of the fitness landscape, i.e., the functional relationship between a target objective J (e.g., percent yield, catalytic activity) and a suitable set of variables (e.g., resources such as reactant concentrations and processing conditions). Mathematical analysis has demonstrated that, upon satisfaction of reasonable physical assumptions, the fitness landscape contains no local sub-optimal "traps" that preclude identification of the globally best value of J, in a development called the "OptiChem" theorem. One of the key assumptions behind the theorem is that sufficient resources are available to achieve the posed optimization goal. This work assesses the validity of this assumption underlying the OptiChem theorem through examination of experimental data from the recent literature. In order to explore fitness landscapes in high dimensions where the landscape cannot be visualized, a high dimensional model representation (HDMR) of experimental data is used to construct a model landscape amenable to topology assessment via gradient algorithm search. This method is shown to correctly capture the trap-free topology of a four-dimensional landscape where the objective is to optimize the composition of a solid state material (subject to an elemental mole-fraction constraint) for catalytic activity towards the oxygen evolution reaction. Analysis of a six-dimensional landscape for the objective of maximizing the photoluminescence of rare-earth solid state materials subject to two elemental mole

  13. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Chemistry and Properties of Slags from Navy Solid Waste Destruction in the Plasma Arc System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talmy, Inna

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Navy is currently developing a highly efficient shipboard system which employs a plasma torch to process Navy solid wastes primarily consisting of cardboard, paper, steel, aluminum, glass, and food waste...

  15. Role of Brine Chemistry and Sorption in Potential Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste in Geologic Salt Formations: Experimental Evaluation of Sorption Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Emerson, H. P.; Michael, D. P.; Reed, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bedded geologic salt formations have been shown to have many favorable properties for the disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., reducing conditions, fracture healing). Performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM have predicted an extremely low risk of radioactive material reaching the surrounding environment after the 100 year period required for creep to seal the waste panels and access shafts. Human intrusion caused by drilling operations for oil and gas exploration is the main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactive material due to pressurized brine pockets located within the salt formation below the repository. Our work focuses on the long-term capability of salt repositories and the associated geologic media to safely isolate stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment, even in the event of a human intrusion scenario such as a direct brine release (DBR) due to a drilling operation intersecting a brine pocket. In particular, we are revisiting the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in the PA model based on complementary batch and column experimental methods (Dittrich and Reimus, 2016). The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected in the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will present (1) a conceptual overview of Kd use in the PA model, (2) background and evolution of the Kd ranges used, and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP-relevant geologic media. We will also briefly discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the presence of ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA

  16. Effect of ceramic dental waste in thermo-physical properties of materials composed with polyester resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martínez-Maldonado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermophysical properties at room temperature of a composite material based on polyester resins and powders obtained from dental ceramic residues for mixtures with percentage by weight of 50-50, 60-40, 70- 30, 80-20 and 90-10 are recorded, where the minority phase are dental ceramic powders with particle size through sieve No. 200 (75 um, and the majority of pre-accelerated polyester resin brand P-2000, and as catalyst (Meck-Peroxide. The manufacturing process of the specimens was by casting them into cylindrical molds of diameter 3 cm and 6 cm long. The properties of conductivity (k and thermal diffusivity (α and the specific heat per unit volume (ρc, were found using the KD2 Pro® system which operates on the physical principle of linear transient heat flow. Thermal effusivity (ε was determined using data from k and α, and the expression ε = k/√ α. The results show that as the percentage of the ceramic powder is increased, the density of the samples increases, and thus the thermal conductivity (k, which is directly proportional to both heat diffusion rate (α and the amount of heat that the material can store or release (ρc. These results suggest a new material for technological applications, as well as they help to mitigate the environmental impact due to the recycling process of dental ceramic waste.

  17. Changes in some soil properties at different incubation periods after tobacco waste application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulser, Coskun; Demir, Zeynep; Ic, Serkan

    2010-09-01

    In this study changes in organic carbon (OC), basal soil respiration (BSR), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), electrical conductivity (EC) and aggregate stability (AS) of a clay loam soil due to tobacco waste (TOW) application were monitored for 240 days. After incorporating 5% TOW into soil according to oven dry weight basis, soil samples were incubated at field capacity for 20, 40, 80, 140 and 240 days under a greenhouse condition. TOW application significantly increased all soil properties over the control treatment Soil OC and AS values had significant positive correlations each other and with the other soil properties. Soil OC, BSR and AS values significantly increased from 0.12%, 0.03 microg CO2-C g(-1) dry soil 24 hr and 20.7% in control treatment to 1.13%, 3.7 microg CO2-C g(-1) dry soil 24 hr and 54.4% in TOW treatment, respectively in 20 days. While the highest NO3-N (1780 ppm) was found in 40 days, the highest EC (3.35 dS m(-1)) was in 240 days after TOW application. Disaggregation occurred in all treatments after 20 days of incubation due to probably the more substrate demands of microorganisms in soil.

  18. Reactive Extrusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste and Investigation of Its Thermal and Mechanical Properties after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Mohsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates treating polyethylene terephthalate (PET waste water bottles with different mass of ethylene glycol (EG using reactive extrusion technique at a temperature of 260°C. The study puts emphases on evaluating the thermal, mechanical, and chemical characteristics of the treated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the treated PET from the extruder were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, DSC, and nanoindentation. The melt flow indexes (MFI of both treated and untreated PET were also measured and compared. Thermal properties such as melting temperature (Tm for treating PET showed an inversely proportional behavior with the EG concentrations. The FT-IR analysis was used to investigate the formation of new linkages like hydrogen bonds between PET and EG due to the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. Nanoindentation results revealed that both the mechanical characteristics, elastic modulus and hardness, decrease with increasing EG concentration. On the other hand, the melt flow index of treated PET exhibited an increase with increasing EG concentration in the PET matrix.

  19. [Physico-chemical and microbial properties in thermophilic composting processes of different biological solid wastes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-chun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Zhang, Guan-hui

    2007-05-01

    Characterization on the physico-chemical and microbial properties were carried out in thermophilic composting processes of 3 different biological solid wastes: manure, garbage and sludge. pH increased to above 8 and C/N ratio decreased during the process. The effect of different bulking agents on the composting process is smaller compared to different raw materials. Among the 3 different materials, garbage composting shows highest composting activity, and the mass reduction rate is 47.2%-56.8% after 14 days. Quinone content, representative of microbial biomass, increases to 359.7-472.3 mol x kg(-1) at the late composting period. However quinone diversity index only increases to 6.1-6.7, suggesting lower microbial diversity. The composting activity of cattle manure is only high at initial period and then decreases. The quinone content is high at middle period of cattle manure composting with the value of 36.3-117.0 molx kg(-1). DQ is 10.3-12.8 at initial, and increases to 18.1-22.7 during cattle manure composting. The properties of sludge composting fall in the range between cattle manure and garbage. It is suggested that the differences of the composting processes are mainly caused by organic component level in different raw materials. Suggestions on the control of composting process are also proposed based on this study.

  20. Study on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Plastic Waste as an Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaivignesh, B.; Sofi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Disposal of large quantity of plastic causes land, water and air pollution etc.., so a study is conducted to recycle the plastic in concrete. This work investigates about the replacement of natural aggregate with non-biodegradable plastic aggregate made up of mixed plastic waste in concrete. Several tests are conducted such as compressive strength of cube, split tensile strength of cylinder, flexural strength test of prism to identify the properties and behavior of concrete using plastic aggregate. Replacement of fine aggregate weight by 10%, 15%, 20% with Plastic fine (PF) aggregate and for each replacement of fine aggregate 15%, 20%, 25% of coarse aggregate replacement also conducted with Plastic Coarse(PC) aggregate. In literatures reported that the addition of plastic aggregate in concrete causes the reduction of strength in concrete due to poor bonding between concrete and plastic aggregate, so addition of 0.3% of steel fiber by weight of cement in concrete is done to improve the concrete strength. Totally 60 cubes, 60 cylinders and 40 prisms are casted to identify the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Casted specimens are tested at 7 and 28 days. The identified results from concrete using plastic aggregate are compared with conventional concrete. Result shows that reduction in mechanical properties of plastic aggregate added concrete. This reduction in strength is mainly due to poor bond strength between cement and plastic aggregate.

  1. Mechanical properties of waste paper/jute fabric reinforced polyester resin matrix hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sekhar

    2017-09-15

    Hybrid composites were prepared with jute fabric and un-shredded newspaper in polyester resin matrix. The experiment was designed 1:2 weights ratio jute and unshredded newspaper to have 42 (w/w)% fibre content hybrid composites and two different sequences jute/paper/jute and paper/jute/paper of waste newspaper and jute fabric arrangement. Reinforcing material is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength and fracture surface morphology of composites were evaluated and compared. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composite are higher than that of pure paper-based composite but less than pure woven jute composite. The hybridization effect of woven jute fabric and layering pattern effect on mechanical properties of newspaper/woven jute fabric hybrid composites were studied. The test results of composites were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α=0.05), it showed significant differences among the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidation of hazardous waste in supercritical water: Part 1, A comparison of modeling and experimental results for methanol destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.B. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergan, N.E.; Bramlette, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories conducted in conjunction with MODEC Corporation have demonstrated successful clean-up of contaminated water in a supercritical water reactor. These experiments targeted wastes of interest to Department of Energy (DOE) production facilities. In this paper we present modeling and experimental results for a surrogate waste containing 98% water, 2% methanol, and parts per million of chlorinated hydrocarbons and laser dyes. Our initial modeling results consider only methanol and water. Experimental data are available for inlet and outlet conditions (composition, flow rate, and temperature), and axial temperature profiles along the outside reactor wall. The purpose of our model is to study the chemical and physical processes inside the reactor. We are particularly interested in the parameters that control the location of the reaction zone. The laboratory-scale reactor operates at 25 MPa., between 300 K and 900 K; it is modeled as a plug-flow reactor with a specified temperature profile. We use Chemkin Real-Gas to calculate mixture density, with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The elementary reaction set for methanol oxidation and reactions of other C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} hydrocarbons is based on previous models for gas-phase kinetics. Results from our calculations show that the methanol is 99.99% destroyed at 1/3 the total reactor length. Although we were not able to measure composition of the fluid inside the experimental reactor, this prediction occurs near the location of the high reactor temperature. This indicates that the chemical reaction is triggered by thermal effects, not kinetic rates. Results from ideal-gas calculations show nearly identical chemical profiles inside the reactor in dimensionless distance. However, reactor residence times are overpredicted by nearly 150% using an ideal-gas assumption.

  3. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J

    2007-03-02

    This report provides a summary of the results on the properties of cementitious waste forms obtained as part of the International Program. In particular, this report focuses on the results of Task 4 of the Program that was initially entitled ''Improved Retention of Key Contaminants of Concern in Low Temperature Immobilized Waste Forms''. Task 4 was a joint program between Khlopin Radium Institute and the Savannah River National Laboratory. The task evolved during this period into a study of cementitious waste forms with an expanded scope that included heat of hydration and fate and transport modeling. This report provides the results for Task 4 of the International Program as of the end of FY06 at which time funding for Task 4 was discontinued due to the needs of higher priority tasks within the International Program. Consequently, some of the subtasks were only partially completed, but it was considered important to capture the results up to this point in time. Therefore, this report serves as the closeout report for Task 4. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 within the Saltstone waste form was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.8 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol which is comparable with values obtained for tank closure grouts using a dilute salt solution. The leaching results show that, in the presence of concentrated salt solutions such as those that will be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. Leaching tests were also initiated to determine the degree of immobilization of selenium in the Saltstone waste form. Results were obtained for the upper bound of projected selenium concentration ({approx}5 x 10{sup -3} M) in the salt solution that will be treated at Saltstone. The ANSI/ANS 16.1 leaching tests provided a value for the

  4. Geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste at Orchard Hills Landfill, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Parakalla, Naveen S; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from the working phase of Orchard Hills Landfill located in Davis Junction (Illinois, USA). Laboratory testing was conducted on shredded MSW to determine the compaction, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and shear strength properties at in-situ gravimetric moisture content of 44%. In addition, the effect of increased moisture content during leachate recirculation on compressibility and shear strength of MSW was also investigated by testing samples with variable gravimetric moisture contents ranging from 44% to 100%. Based on Standard Proctor tests, a maximum dry density of 420 kg/m(3) was observed at 70% optimum moisture content. The hydraulic conductivity varied in a wide range of 10(-8)-10(-4)m/s and decreased with increase in dry density. Compression ratio values varied in a close range of 0.24-0.33 with no specific trend with the increase in moisture content. Based on direct shear tests, drained cohesion varied from 31 to 64 kPa and the drained friction angle ranged from 26 to 30 degrees. Neither cohesion nor friction angle demonstrated any correlation with the moisture content, within the range of moisture contents tested. The consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests on saturated MSW showed the total strength parameters (c and phi) to be 32 kPa and 12 degrees, and the effective strength parameters (c' and phi') to be 38 kPa and 16 degrees. The angle of friction (phi) decreased and cohesion (c) value increased with the increase in strain. The effective cohesion (c') increased with increase in strain; however, the effective angle of friction (phi') decreased first and then increased with the increase in strain. Such strain-dependent shear strength properties should be properly accounted in the stability analysis of bioreactor landfills.

  5. Experimental investigation of ash deposits on convection heating surfaces of a circulating fluidized bed municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhi; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Daoyin; Zhuang, Yaming; Ye, Minghua; Sheng, Hongchan; Xu, Shaojuan

    2016-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction, as well as a source of renewable energy. During MSW combustion, increased formation of deposits on convection heating exchanger surfaces can pose severe operational problems, such as fouling, slagging and corrosion. These problems can cause lower heat transfer efficiency from the hot flue gas to the working fluid inside the tubes. A study was performed where experiments were carried out to examine the ash deposition characteristics in a full-scale MSW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, using a newly designed deposit probe that was fitted with six thermocouples and four removable half rings. The influence of probe exposure time and probe surface temperature (500, 560, and 700°C) on ash deposit formation rate was investigated. The results indicate that the deposition mass and collection efficiency achieve a minimum at the probe surface temperature of 560°C. Ash particles are deposited on both the windward and leeward sides of the probe by impacting and thermophoretic/condensation behavior. The major inorganic elements present in the ash deposits are Ca, Al and Si. Compared to ash deposits formed on the leeward side of the probe, windward-side ash deposits contain relatively higher Ca and S concentrations, but lower levels of Al and Si. Among all cases at different surface temperatures, the differences in elemental composition of the ash deposits from the leeward side are insignificant. However, as the surface temperature increases, the concentrations of Al, Si, K and Na in the windward-side ash deposits increase, but the Ca concentration is reduced. Finally, governing mechanisms are proposed on the basis of the experimental data, such as deposit morphology, elemental composition and thermodynamic calculations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150{degrees}C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  7. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  9. Flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Joo; Jung, Won-Chang; Oh, Seunghan; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and to evaluate their potential use as posts. Experimental FRC posts were fabricated with glass, aramid, and UHMWP fibers. Commercial FRC posts were used for comparison. A three-point bending test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Experimental glass fiber posts showed significantly higher flexural strengths and moduli than aramid and UHMWP posts. Experimental UHMWP posts demonstrated superior toughness to the commercial posts. The glass fiber posts displayed stiff, strong and brittle features, while the UHMWP posts were flexible, weak and ductile. The flexural properties of the aramid posts fell between those of the glass and UHMWP posts. In conclusion, the glass fiber posts proved excellent in flexural strengths and moduli. However, the superior toughness of UHMWP fibers suggests the possibility of their use as posts in combination with glass fibers.

  10. Properties of Cement Mortar Produced from Mixed Waste Materials with Pozzolanic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang; Tseng, Dyi-Hwa; Wu, Yue-Ze

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Waste materials with pozzolanic characteristics, such as sewage sludge ash (SSA), coal combustion fly ash (FA), and granulated blast furnace slag (GBS), were reused as partial cement replacements for making cement mortar in this study. Experimental results revealed that with dual replacement of cement by SSA and GBS and triple replacement by SSA, FA, and GBS at 50% of total cement replacement, the compressive strength (Sc) of the blended cement mortars at 56 days was 93.7% and 92.9% of the control cement mortar, respectively. GBS had the highest strength activity index value and could produce large amounts of CaO to enhance the pozzolanic activity of SSA/FA and form calcium silicate hydrate gels to fill the capillary pores of the cement mortar. Consequently, the Sc development of cement mortar with GBS replacement was better than that without GBS, and the total pore volume of blended cement mortars with GBS/SSA replacement was less than that with FA/SSA replacement. In the cement mortar with modified SSA and GBS at 70% of total cement replacement, the Sc at 56 days was 92.4% of the control mortar. Modifying the content of calcium in SSA also increased its pozzolanic reaction. CaCl2 accelerated the pozzolanic activity of SSA better than lime did. Moreover, blending cement mortars with GBS/SSA replacement could generate more monosulfoaluminate to fill capillary pores. PMID:22783062

  11. Properties of Cement Mortar Produced from Mixed Waste Materials with Pozzolanic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang; Tseng, Dyi-Hwa; Wu, Yue-Ze

    2012-07-01

    Waste materials with pozzolanic characteristics, such as sewage sludge ash (SSA), coal combustion fly ash (FA), and granulated blast furnace slag (GBS), were reused as partial cement replacements for making cement mortar in this study. Experimental results revealed that with dual replacement of cement by SSA and GBS and triple replacement by SSA, FA, and GBS at 50% of total cement replacement, the compressive strength (Sc) of the blended cement mortars at 56 days was 93.7% and 92.9% of the control cement mortar, respectively. GBS had the highest strength activity index value and could produce large amounts of CaO to enhance the pozzolanic activity of SSA/FA and form calcium silicate hydrate gels to fill the capillary pores of the cement mortar. Consequently, the Sc development of cement mortar with GBS replacement was better than that without GBS, and the total pore volume of blended cement mortars with GBS/SSA replacement was less than that with FA/SSA replacement. In the cement mortar with modified SSA and GBS at 70% of total cement replacement, the Sc at 56 days was 92.4% of the control mortar. Modifying the content of calcium in SSA also increased its pozzolanic reaction. CaCl(2) accelerated the pozzolanic activity of SSA better than lime did. Moreover, blending cement mortars with GBS/SSA replacement could generate more monosulfoaluminate to fill capillary pores.

  12. Engineering Properties and Microstructural Performance of Low Energy Super-Sulfated Cement Using Industrial Waste Anhydrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tsung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at proposing the mix proportions of low energy super-sulfated cement (SSC concrete from industrial waste anhydrite from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC fly ash (CFA as an alternative sulfate activator of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS/slag. The optimized mix proportion of the SSC was carried out by using mixture of different amounts of CFA in range of 25—45 wt.% and various quantities of ordinary Portland cement (OPC in range of 0 — 10 wt.% to trigger the hydration of slag. Experimental results showed that with the expected slump at values of 190 — 220 mm, the 28-day compressive strengths of the concrete with low energy SSC reached 43.69 MPa which can be feasibly applied for widely advanced construction materials. The OPC in range of 3 — 5 wt.% and 25 wt.% of CFA were considered as the optimum ingredients of the activator and was suggested to be used for fabricating the low energy SSC concrete with the good performance on compressive strength, dynamic Young’s modulus, UPV measurement, and stabilized change of length. The OPC additive up to 10 wt.% was encouraged to be used for producing the SSC concrete with significant reduction on creep.

  13. Experimental study of thermophysical properties of thin-film coatings based on hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Gaskov, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes results of an experimental study of thermal properties of energy-efficient thin-film coatings based on hollow glass microspheres MS-V2L in a styrene acrylic dispersion binder «Akrilan 101». A value of energy-efficient paint thermal conductivity depending on its composition and temperature and a value of the thermal diffusivity of the paint were experimentally determined. Data on the energy saving paint density and specific heat capacity were also obtained.

  14. Concrete Waste as a Cement Replacement Material in Concrete Blocks for Optimization of Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of the natural environment and eco-systems is of great importance. Waste generated from construction forces mankind to find new dumping grounds and at the same time, more natural resources are required for use as construction materials. In order to overcome this problem, this study was conducted to investigate the use of concrete waste in concrete blocks with a special focus on the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting products. Three varieties of concrete mixtures were prepared, whereby they each contained different amounts of concrete waste of 0%, 5% and 15%, respectively. These mixtures were formed into cube specimens and were then analysed for data on their compressive strength, density and ultrasonic pulse. Thermal investigations were carried out on each admixture as well as on a control concrete block of model design. The thermal data results indicated that the 15% concrete waste mixture had the lowest temperature in comparison to the surrounding air. For density and compressive strength, the highest readings came from the control mixture at 2390 kg/m3 and 40.69 N/mm2, respectively, at 28 days. In terms of pulse velocity, the 5% concrete waste mixture indicated medium quality results of 4016 m/s.

  15. [Clinical and experimental aspects of investigation of biomechanical properties of corneoscleral shell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Bubnova, I A; Antonov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of long-term clinical and experimental studies on biomechanical properties of corneoscleral shell performed over the last few years in the Research Institute of Eye Diseases of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. A total of 2432 patients (4775 eyes) were assessed. Dynamic bidirectional pneumatic corneal applanation, dynamic pneumatic corneal impression, and elastotonometry were used for in vivo evaluation. A new method of biomechanical assessment--luminescent polariscopy--was studied experimentally. The findings allow correct judgment on biomechanical properties of fibrous tunic in norm and pathology, such as ectatic cornea, glaucoma or previous refractive surgery.

  16. PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF WASTE PLASTIC OIL AND SIZE MEASUREMENT OF NANO PARTICLE (ALUMINIUM OXIDE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashin J C*, P Vijayabalan, Viswanath K Kaimal

    2016-01-01

    Environment concerns and depletion of petroleum fuels have created a need for the search fuels for internal combustion engines. Transformation of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as another fuel for internal combustion engines. Plastics are vitally necessary materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. In this context, waste plastic are currently receiving renewed in...

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of injection moulded 316L stainless steel using waste rubber binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabilah, Rosniza; Wahab, Nor â.€˜Aini; Omar, Mohd Afian; Jaafar, Talib Ria; Budin, Salina; Hashim, Siti Mardini; Sauti, Rosliza; Razak, Mustaqim Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) is a cost-effective method in producing a variety of small and high performance parts. This paper investigates the influence of waste rubber binder combined with polyethylene binder on the properties of injection moulded 316L stainless steel. Feedstock formulation was prepared using 32 µm 316L SS powder and mixed with binder system containing 55 wt.% paraffin wax, 35 wt.% PE/WR and 10 wt.% stearic acid. The feedstock was then successfully injection moulded at powder loading of 0.65. The specimens were immersed in n-heptane for five hours at 60 °C in order to remove the paraffin wax and stearic acid. Debinding process produced the defect-free green parts. The parts were then sintered in vacuum atmosphere at temperature ranges of 1320 °C to 1360 °C. The results showed that the highest density achieved was 7.612 g/cm3 at temperature of 1360 °C with tensile strength of 497 MPa while the highest hardness was achieved at 274.8 HV.

  18. Mechanical properties of trays based on starch of native plant species and fiber of agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural fibers derived from agro-industrial waste in density, weight and mechanical properties of the termoprensadas foams made of starch native species, such as sweet potatoes, oca and arracacha. The thermoforming process was carried out at a temperature of 145 ° C and a pressure of 60 bar. The baking time was 10-15 min depending on water content in the mixture. The trays were characterized by their density, weight, impact test, deflection tests, colorimetry, hardness, and fracturability values. The trays prepared by thermopressure based on sweet potato starch-bagasse fiber from sugar cane at 15%, and arracacha starch -peladilla asparagus fiber at 30% had higher values in flexural strength versus those made with other types of starches and fibers, including blank tests. Generally, the hardness of the trays is favored with increasing fiber, however fracturability decreases or does not improve the integrity of the polymeric matrix. The results shown in this study allow the preparation of biodegradable trays for various industrial applications.

  19. Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-07-18

    A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

  20. Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2002-07-01

    A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

  1. Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunge, Sneha; Thakre, Dilip; Kamble, Sanjay; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2012-10-30

    A new alumina supported carbon composite material called "Eggshell Composite" (EC) was synthesized from eggshell waste as calcium source for selective fluoride adsorption from water. The effect of various synthesis parameters like eggshell (ES): Eggshell membrane (ESM) ratio, aluminium loading, mixing time and calcinations temperature to optimize the synthesis conditions for selective fluoride removal has been studied. It was observed that the synthesis parameters have significant influence on development of EC and in turn on fluoride removal capacity. EC synthesized was characterized for elemental composition, morphology, functionality and textural properties. Results showed that EC obtained from eggshell modified with alumina precursor is more selective and efficient for fluoride removal. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were used to obtain ultimate fluoride removal capacity. The calcium and alumina species in EC shows synergistic effect in fluoride adsorption process. Fluoride sorption studies were carried out in synthetic, groundwater and wastewater. EC proved to be a potential, indigenous and economic adsorbent for fluoride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical constituents and technological functional properties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. waste flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse. Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  4. Effects of Clear and Amber Cullet on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glass-Ceramics Containing Zinc Hydrometallurgy Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpongpun, Wilasinee; Jiemsirilers, Sirithan; Thavorniti, Parjaree

    The effect of glass cullet on physical and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics developed from zinc hydrometallurgy waste and glass cullet was investigated. The glass-ceramics were prepared by mixing zinc hydrometallurgy waste with glass cullet through vitrification process. Two difference types of glass cullet (clear and amber cullet) were used. The parent glasses were ground and pressed into bars and sintered at low temperature (850°C) for 2 hours. The obtained glass-ceramics had low porosity. The glass-ceramics with clear cullet exhibited higher density and strength, comparing with the glass-ceramics with amber cullet. The type and the amount of the glass cullet present in the glass-ceramics have strong effect on their properties.

  5. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  6. The influence of waste chromia-alumina catalyst and burning temperature on physicomechanical properties of ceramics based on fusible clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Airat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of waste Cr/Al2O3 catalyst addition to fusible charge and firing temperature on the basic properties of the fired ceramics is studied. The dependence of strength, density and water absorption on firing temperature on 960, 1060 and 1160°C is established. It is proven that increasing firing temperature up to 1160°C provides less leachability of Cr(VI from samples and increased environmental safety of ceramics.

  7. DFT/TDDFT and Experimental Studies of Natural Pigments Extracted from Black Tea Waste for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. R. N. Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of black tea waste extract (BTE as a potential sensitizer for TiO2-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. UV-vis absorption data revealed that BTE contains theaflavin. DSSC sensitized with pigment complexes of BTE showed a photon-energy conversion efficiency of %, while a significant increase (% is observed when pH of the pigment solution was lowered. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using experimental data of UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry. These calculations revealed a reduction of the band gap by 0.17 eV and more negativity of HOMO level of acidified pigment, compared to that of original pigment. Combined effect of these developments caused the enhanced efficiency of DSSC. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT computational calculations were carried out to study the four theaflavin analogues which are responsible for the dark colour of BTE. According to the calculations, two theaflavin analogues, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate, are the most probable sensitizers in this dye-sensitized solar cell system.

  8. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Philip D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  9. Experimental Enhancement for Electric Properties of Polyethylene Nanocomposites under Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer properties can be experimentally tailored by adding small amounts of different nanoparticles for enhancing their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The work in this paper investigates enhancing the electric and dielectric properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE, and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE polymer materials with cheap nanoparticles. Certain percentages of clay and fumed silica nanoparticles are used to enhance electric and dielectric properties of polyethylene nanocomposites films. By using the Dielectric Spectroscopy; the electric and dielectric properties of each polyethylene nanocomposites have been measured with and without nanoparticles at various frequencies up to 1kHz under different thermal conditions (20°C and 60°C. And so, we were successful in specifying the optimal nanoparticles types and their concentrations for the control of electric and dielectric characterization.

  10. Physical and optical properties of DCJTB dye for OLED display applications: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurban, Mustafa; Gündüz, Bayram

    2017-06-01

    In this study, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) was achieved using the experimental and theoretical studies. The electronic, optical and spectroscopic properties of DCJTB molecule were first investigated by performing experimental both solution and thin film techniques and then theoretical calculations. Theoretical results showed that one intense electronic transition is 505.26 nm a quite reasonable and agreement with the measured experimental data 505.00 and 503 nm with solution technique and film technique, respectively. Experimental and simple models were also taken into consideration to calculate the optical refractive index (n) of DCJTB molecule. The structural and electronic properties were next calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) basis set. UV, FT-IR spectra characteristics and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals, and band gap energy (Eg) of DCJTB were also recorded time-dependent (TD) DFT approach. The theoretical Eg value were found to be 2.269 eV which is consistent with experimental results obtained from solution technique for THF solvent (2.155 eV) and literature (2.16 eV). The results herein obtained reveal that solution is simple, cost-efficient and safe for optoelectronic applications when compared with film technique.

  11. Thermodynamic and Microstructural Mechanisms in the Corrosion of Advanced Ceramic Tc-bearing Waste Forms and Thermophysical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc, t1/2 = 2.13x105 years) is a challenge from a nuclear waste perspective and is one of the most abundant, long-lived radioisotopes found in used nuclear fuel (UNF). Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, technetium volatilizes at typical glass melting temperature, is captured in the off-gas treatment system and recycled back into the feed to eventually increase Tc-loadings of the glass. The aim of this NEUP project was to provide an alternative strategy to immobilize fission technetium as durable ceramic waste form and also to avoid the accumulation of volatile technetium within the off gas melter system in the course of vitrifying radioactive effluents in a ceramic melter. During this project our major attention was turned to the fabrication of chemical durable mineral phases where technetium is structurally bond entirely as tetravalent cation. These mineral phases will act as the primary waste form with optimal waste loading and superior resistance against leaching and corrosion. We have been very successful in fabricating phase-pure micro-gram amounts of lanthanide-technetium pyrochlores by dry-chemical synthesis. However, upscaling to a gram-size synthesis route using either dry- or wet-chemical processing was not always successful, but progress can be reported on a variety of aspects. During the course of this 5-year NEUP project (including a 2-year no-cost extension) we have significantly enhanced the existing knowledge on the fabrication and properties of ceramic technetium waste forms.

  12. Investigation on Chemical Properties and the Maturation Degree of Vermicompost Obtained from Button Mushroom Production Process Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ranaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduaction: Development of mushroom cultivation in Iran is considered and its production level is reached to Ninety tons per year. About five kg of waste is generated by producing one kilogram of button mushroom which can be refined by using vermicompost technology. This waste can be converted into valuable organic fertilizer and reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and reach to sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to convert the button mushroom production process waste to manure and investigate the chemical properties and quality of the fertilizer. Methods: Wastes such as rotten mushroom, spent mushroom compost and peat are generated in cultivation process of Button mushroom that is large amounts of waste, and say it (SMC. In this study, SMC was vermicomposted in optimized process with treatment of wood chips, rotten mushrooms, carrots scum and leaves. Quantitative and qualitative indicators and its changes have been studied during the six weeks and the results achieved were compared with the national standard vermicompost (No. 13724 and its quality was determined in final product. Then by Using SPSS software, Pearson correlation test at a significance level of 0.05 were used to examine the relationship between inorganic materials and changes in other parameters and linear regression test were used to find relationships between one variable and the other variables. Results: The results showed that the Total Organic Carbon (TOC, potassium and total nitrogen in all treatments, increased during the time, however, pH and EC levels decreased during the vermicomposting process. Also significant increase in C/N ratio was observed in all treatments at the end of the six weeks and all the fertilizers were classified as one grade. Conclusion: Results of this research showed that vermicompost process Lead to improvement in indicators of organic fertilizers derived from vermicompost beds and is one of the management suitable methods

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the spectroscopic and electronic properties of pyrazolyl ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

    2014-12-10

    The electronic and spectroscopic properties of seven pyrazole derivatives are presented in order to give a clear understanding of their distinguishing features. Four out of the seven ligands are synthesised and are also characterised experimentally. A very high correlation was observed between the experimental and the theoretical IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, which help in the characterisation of the ligands. The excitation properties computed using the TDDFT shows that most of experimentally observed absorptions of the ligands are predominantly form either the HOMO or HOMO-1 to LUMO or LUMO+1. The characteristic features of the (*)N atoms (i.e. metal available coordinating centre) shows that the carboxylic unit may possibly decrease the metal affinity of the pyrazole unit while the pyridine unit will increase the affinity. The conductivity properties of the seven ligands are found to be in the order of bdmpzpy>bpzpy>bphpza>bdcpzpy>phpz>dcpz. The J-coupling of (*)NN can give an insight into the variation in their bond distance, bond stretch and bond strength in the ligands. Also the atomic properties of the (*)N atoms and their (*)NN bonds can help in the molecular characterisation, differentiation and in prediction of the non-linear optical properties of the ligands as conductive materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Composite Waste Material Based Styrofoam, Baggase and Eggshell Powder for Application of Drone Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Mastariyanto; Prastiawan; Hadi, Syafrul

    2017-12-01

    The garbage issue becomes a very serious problem at the moment. Much research has been done to make waste into useful materials. One of the utilization of waste is as the basic material of composite material that can be applied in the field of engineering. Some of the wastes generated are styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be applied to a composite material. Styrofoam serves as a composite binder material while the bagasse and eggshells serve as a reinforcement. Volume fraction between styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell are 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25%. The aims of research are determine the mechanical properties of composite material based waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Mechanical properties tested in this study are bending strength and toughness of composite materials. The results showed bending strength of composite for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 5.07 MPa, 8.45 MPa, 8.68 MPa, and 11.01 MPa, respectively. Toughness of composite materials for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 0.33 J/mm2, 0.42 J/mm2, 0.75 J/mm2, and 0.75 J/mm2, respectively. Composite materials based on waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be used as an alternative material for drone frames.

  15. Experimental and theoretical assessment of flexural properties of hybrid natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2014-01-01

    The concept of hybridization of natural fibre composites with synthetic fibres is attracting increasing scientific attention. The present study addresses the flexural properties of hybrid flax/glass/epoxy composites to demonstrate the potential benefits of hybridization. The study covers both...... experimental and theoretical assessments. Composite laminates with different hybrid fibre mixing ratios and different layer configurations were manufactured, and their volumetric composition and flexural properties were measured. The relationship between volume fractions in the composites is shown to be well...... predicted as a function of the hybrid fibre mixing ratio. The flexural modulus of the composites is theoretically assessed by using micromechanical models and laminate theory. The model predictions are compared with the experimentally determined flexural properties. Both approaches show that the flexural...

  16. Experimental testing of focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves using exposure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    An exposure method is proposed to test the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves. To solve the problems caused by the subwavelength photon sieves (such as short focal length and small focal spot size), a grating moiré fringe phase detection technique and a microcontact sensor with lead zirconium titanate (PZT) stepping hybrid technique are used in the experimental setup. The focusing properties of the subwavelength photon sieves are tested by this setup. The results show that the focal length and the focal spot size are close to the designed value. Finally, the intensity distribution of the focal spot is proposed. This research result will be beneficial for understanding the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves, will help us to improve the imaging quality, and will provide a good experimental basis for practical applications in the nanolithography field.

  17. Experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab is presented. This method is specifically intended for measuring the inertia properties of irregular rigid bodies, and it has the potential to be applied to the measurement of the inertia properties of vehicle bodies, such as the cab, engine, and gearbox. This article, based on CATARC moment of inertia measurement system test rig, develops an accurate measuring method to identify inertia parameters of heavy truck cab. First, corresponding tests are carried out, and the lever principle and moments of inertia parallel theorem are employed to calculate and analyse the test results, which leads to the accurate value of inertia parameters. Second, the performance analysis of the proposed method is verified through the measurement error analysis. As a result, the proposed method shows high accuracy, which provides an experimental basis for accurate inertia parameter measurement of heavy truck cab.

  18. The Experimental Study of Heat Waste Conversion into Useful Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALOTA Horea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the practical results ofthe design solutions, executing and experimentaltesting of a prototype model of o thermoelectricgenerator, based on the conversion of residualthermical energy into electric power, by improving theSeebeck effect. To this purpose, high performancethermoelectric modules have been used, taken from therecent production of the American Corporation Hi-ZTechnology. The prototype thermoelectric generatorbuilt for a demonstrative purposes has got the lowefficiency category. The results taken from the testsand experimental measurements have showntheimportance of the constructive solution of materialsand technologies that have been used. These resultsdirect the functional reliability growth and energyconversion efficiency. The functional performance andconversion capability evolution are directly conditionedby progress that will be registered through heavyresearch for the performance of the semiconductivematerials with thermoelectric characteristics stressedout by the so-called high figure of merit.

  19. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  20. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  1. Impact of gas injection on the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic property of waste activated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, Veena; Baudez, Jean Christophe; Evans, Geoffery; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2017-05-01

    Gas injection is known to play a major role on the particle size of the sludge, the oxygen transfer rate, as well as the mixing efficiency of membrane bioreactors and aeration basins in the waste water treatment plants. The rheological characteristics of sludge are closely related to the particle size of the sludge floc. However, particle size of sludge floc depends partly on the shear induced in the sludge and partly on physico-chemical nature of the sludge. The objective of this work is to determine the impact of gas injection on both the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic property of sludge. The apparent viscosity of sludge was investigated by two methods: in-situ and after sparging. Viscosity curves obtained by in-situ measurement showed that the apparent viscosity decreases significantly from 4000 Pa s to 10 Pa s at low shear rate range (below 10 s-1) with an increase in gas flow rate (0.5LPM to 3LPM); however the after sparging flow curve analysis showed that the reduction in apparent viscosity throughout the shear rate range is negligible to be displayed. Torque and displacement data at low shear rate range revealed that the obtained lower apparent viscosity in the in-situ method is not the material characteristics, but the slippage effect due to a preferred location of the bubbles close to the bob, causing an inconsistent decrease of torque and increase of displacement at low shear rate range. In linear viscoelastic regime, the elastic and viscous modulus of sludge was reduced by 33% & 25%, respectively, due to gas injection because of induced shear. The amount of induced shear measured through two different tests (creep and time sweep) were the same. The impact of this induced shear on sludge structure was also verified by microscopic images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new class of magnetorheological elastomers based on waste tire rubber and the characterization of their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Li, Yancheng; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Sutrisno, Joko; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Yahya, Iwan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a new type of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) using rubber from waste tires and describes its performance characteristics. In this work, scrap tires were utilized as a primary matrix for the MRE without incorporation of virgin elastomers. The synthesis of the scrap tire based MRE adopted a high-temperature high-pressure sintering technique to achieve the reclaiming of vulcanized rubber. The material properties of the MRE samples were investigated through physical and viscoelastic examinations. The physical tests confirmed several material characteristics—microstructure, magnetic, and thermal properties-while the viscoelastic examination was conducted with a laboratory-made dynamic compression apparatus. It was observed from the viscoelastic examination that the proposed MRE has magnetic-field-dependent properties of the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent at different excitation frequencies and strain amplitudes. Specifically, the synthesized MRE showed a high zero field modulus, a reasonable MR effect under maximum applied current, and remarkable damping properties.

  3. Experimental and numerical study on mechanical properties of aluminum alloy under uniaxial tensile test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Daghfas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to model the behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy and built an experimental database to identify the model parameters. The first part of the paper presents an experimental database on 7075 aluminum alloy. Thus, uniaxial tensile tests are carried in three loading directions relative to the rolling direction, knowing that the fatigue of aircraft structures is traditionally managed based on the assumption of uniaxial loads. From experimental database, the mechanical properties are extracted, particularly the various fractures owing to pronounced anisotropy relating to material. In second part, plastic anisotropy is then modeled using the identification strategy which depends on yield criteria, hardening law and evolution law. In third part, a comparison with experimental data shows that behavior model can successfully describe the anisotropy of the Lankford coefficient.

  4. PURIFICATION OF CRUDE GLYCEROL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE: EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN NOR ROSLAM WAN ISAHAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the purification of crude glycerol as a by-product of transesterification reaction was investigated. The first purification stage of the crude glycerol was achieved by employing the neutralization method, followed by microfiltration using 0.45µm filter membrane. Only glycerol peak could be detected by high performance liquid chromatography analysis which indicating that the neutralization step enabled to removal of excess homogeneous catalyst as well as the unreacted free fatty acids from crude glycerol samples. However, the free ions from salt and catalyst were then eliminated through an ion exchange process using two types of Amberlite resins to produce higher glycerol purity up to 99.4%. The purity of glycerol was confirmed by the other analysis such as the Fourier transform infrared, United States Pharmacopoeia and American society for testing and materials methods. The simulation studies were applied using Super-Pro-Designer 7.0 software which can provide the data for scale up to industrial scale. The P2 and P5 simulation process gives a higher purity of pure glycerol of 98.35 wt.% and 99.27 wt%, respectively were generated after through several combinatorial purification steps. The combination between the experimental and simulation process showed a good way to investigate the laboratory experiment input for possible industry scale in future.

  5. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass...

  6. Thermophysical properties of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius: experimental determination and effect of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Augusto Perussello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about thermophysical properties of foods is especially important in thermal processing, influencing the design, optimization and cost reduction of the process, as well as the quality and safety of the final product. This article deals with the determination of some thermophysical properties of yacon, namely, specific mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity during the osmo-convective drying. Yacon is a root with approximately 90% w.b. of moisture content, whose high concentration of fructooligosacharydes and antioxidants has gained attention in the food research field. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 hours in a sucralose solution and then dried in a convective tray dryer for 2 hours, varying the osmotic solution’s temperature and stirring rate and temperature of the drying air. All thermophysical properties were determined during the drying process at 30-minute intervals. The thermophysical properties were determined not only experimentally but also calculated by models available in literature based on the product’s centesimal composition. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted results was obtained. Further, empirical models obtained by nonlinear regression were successfully fitted to the experimental data, as a function of moisture content, within a 94% - 3% w.b. range.

  7. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomer with Circular Honeycomb Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eYu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance adjustable mechanical properties of a specific magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, this study presents a new exterior structure of MRE by punching circular honeycomb holes on the MRE samples. Seven silicone rubber MRE samples with the same component are fabricated and then punched holes with different numbers and diameters. The influence of different porosities on the mechanical properties of MRE under various magnetic fields is experimentally investigated by using a rheometer with electromagnetic suite. It is shown from experimental investigation that the porosity of MRE samples has a significant impact on the performance of MRE; the shear storage modulus (MR effect and the loss factor is greatly increased. It is also observed that all the field-induced mechanical properties of the samples attain their respective maximum performance when the porosity increases to a critical value. The experimental results presented in this work directly indicate that high performances of the field-dependent mechanical and rheological properties can be achieved by means of external alternative structures such as honeycomb holes.

  8. Experimental Research for the Application of Mining Waste in the Trench Cutting Remixing Deep Wall Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of fly ash (FA or ground granulated blast slag (GGBS and reactive lime blends for cement-stabilized Nanjing clay, comparing them with Portland cement (PC for enhanced technical performance. A range of tests were conducted to investigate the properties of stabilized soils, including macrostrength (UCS, permeability, and microstructure analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The influence of PC : (FA + lime ratio, PC : (GGBS + lime ratio and curing time was addressed. The UCS and permeability results revealed that PC-FA-lime was more efficient than PC-GGBS-lime as a binder for soil stabilization, with an optimum proportion of PC : (FA + lime = 3 : 7 at 25% binder content, varying with curing time. The microstructure analysis reveals that fly ash mainly changes the pore volume distribution, which ranges between 0.01 μm and 1 μm, and produces more CSH/CASH bonding and fissures due to the secondary hydration and pozzolanic reactions. Based on the favourable results obtained, it can be concluded that the soft soils can be successfully stabilized by the combined action of cement, fly ash, and lime. Since fly ash is much cheaper than cement, the addition of fly ash and lime in cement-soil mix may particularly become attractive and can result in cost reduction of construction.

  9. Improvement of soil properties and nitrogen utilisation of sunflower by amending municipal solid waste compost

    OpenAIRE

    Montemurro, Francesco; Maiorana, Michele; Convertini, Grazia; Fornaro, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We studied the effects of municipal solid waste compost applied to soil on sunflower nitrogen (N) uptake, N utilisation, yield, soil mineral N deficit and soil characteristics. One unfertilised control was compared with the optimal N dose for the sunflower crops in the test area (100 kg N ha-1) supplied as: organic fertilisation, with municipal solid waste compost; mineral fertilisation, with ammonium nitrate; and mixed fertilisation, with 50 kg N ha-1 from compost and...

  10. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  11. Evaluation of tuff as a medium for a nuclear waste repository: interim status report on the properties of tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.; Wolfsberg, K. (eds.)

    1980-07-01

    This report is the second in a series of summary briefings to the National Academy of Science`s (NAS) Committee on Radioactive Waste Management dealing with feasibility of disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in silicic tuff. The interim status of studies of tuff properties determined on samples obtained from Yucca Mountain and Rainier Mesa (G-tunnel) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed. In particular, progress is described on resolving issues identified during the first briefing to the NAS which include behavior of water in tuff when heated, the effect of the presence or absence of water and joints on the thermal/physical properties of tuff and the detailed/complex sorptive properties of highly altered and unaltered tuff. Initial correlations of thermal/physical and sorptive properties with the highly variable porosity and mineralogy are described. Three in-situ, at-depth field experiments, one nearly completed and two just getting underway are described. In particular, the current status of mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, thermal and mechanical, radiation effects and water behavior studies are described. The goals and initial results of a Mine Design Working Group are discussed. Regional factors such as seismicity, volcanism and hydrology are not discussed.

  12. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of fin-tube exchanger and PSHE for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Bae, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Oh Kyung

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer characteristics of fin-tube heat exchanger and primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE) used in waste heat recovery were investigated experimentally. The flow in the fin-tube heat exchanger is cross flow and in PSHE counter flow. The variations of friction factor and Colburn j factor with air mass flow rate, and Nu number with Re number are presented. Various comparison methods are used to evaluate heat transfer performance, and the results show that the heat transfer rate of the PSHE is on average 17.3% larger than that of fin-tube heat exchanger when air mass flow rate is ranging from 1.24 to 3.45 kg/min. However, the PSHE causes higher pressure drop, and the fin-tube heat exchanger has a wider application range which leads to a 31.7% higher value of maximum heat transfer rate compared to that of the PSHE. Besides, under the same fan power per unit frontal surface, a higher heat transfer rate value is given in the fin-tube heat exchanger.

  13. Improved microbial conversion of de-oiled Jatropha waste into biohydrogen via inoculum pretreatment: process optimization by experimental design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study various pretreatment methods of sewage sludge inoculum and the statistical process optimization of de-oiled jatropha waste have been reported. Peak hydrogen production rate (HPR and hydrogen yield (HY of 0.36 L H2/L-d and 20 mL H2/g Volatile Solid (VS were obtained when heat shock pretreatment (95 oC, 30 min was employed. Afterwards, an experimental design was applied to find the optimal conditions for H2 production using heat-pretreated seed culture. The optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature were determined by using response surface methodology as 205 g/L, 6.53 and 55.1 oC, respectively. Under these circumstances, the highest HPR of 1.36 L H2/L-d was predicted. Verification tests proved the reliability of the statistical approach. As a result of the heat pretreatment and fermentation optimization, a significant (~ 4 folds increase in HPR was achieved. PCR-DGGE results revealed that Clostridium sp. were majorly present under the optimal conditions.

  14. Spectral-statistics properties of the experimental and theoretical light meson spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, L., E-mail: laura@nuc5.fis.ucm.es [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villa Tambosi, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, Villazzano, I-38123 (Italy); Fernandez-Ramirez, C., E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villa Tambosi, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, Villazzano, I-38123 (Italy); Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Relano, A., E-mail: armando.relano@gmail.com [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Retamosa, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-29

    We present a robust analysis of the spectral fluctuations exhibited by the light meson spectrum. This analysis provides information about the degree of chaos in light mesons and may be useful to get some insight on the underlying interactions. Our analysis unveils that the statistical properties of the light meson spectrum are close, but not exactly equal, to those of chaotic systems. In addition, we have analyzed several theoretical spectra including the latest lattice QCD calculation. With a single exception, their statistical properties are close to those of a generic integrable system, and thus incompatible with the experimental spectrum.

  15. Propriedades químicas de um Argissolo tratado sucessivamente com composto de lixo urbano Chemical properties of an Ultisol successively treated with municipal waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Diehl Krob

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações em algumas propriedades químicas do solo sob adição sucessiva de composto de lixo urbano, conduziu-se um experimento a campo, em um solo Argissolo Vermelho de textura média na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco doses de composto (0, 20, 40, 80 e 160t ha-1, de um tratamento com adubo mineral e uma testemunha (Calagem e NPK, com aplicações sucessivas por um período de quatro anos. A adição de composto no solo aumentou o pH, CTC, C orgânico, N total, P e Na extraíveis, bem como da relação de adsorção de sódio (RAS, Ca e Mg trocáveis e o teor de K extraível após a terceira aplicação. O Al trocável teve os seus teores diminuídos após aplicações sucessivas de composto. Os resultados permitiram concluir que aplicação de até 80t ha-1 por ano de composto de lixo urbano pode ser considerada como adequada para melhorar e, ou, manter as propriedades químicas do solo.In order to assess the changes in some chemical properties of soil under the successive addition of urban waste compost, it was conducted a field experiment in an Ultisol soil at Agronomic Experimental Station of UFRGS. The treatments consisted of five successive applications of different doses of municipal solid waste compost (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160t ha-1 for a period of four years and a comparative treatment with mineral fertilizer and a control (without compost and fertilization. The addition of the compost increased soil pH, CEC, organic C, total N, extractable P and Na and the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, calcium, and magnesium and extractable K after the third application. The exchangeable Al had their levels reduced by successive applications of compost. The results showed that application of up to 80t ha-1 yr-1 of urban waste compost can be the dose recommended to improve and maintain the chemical properties of soil.

  16. Experimental studies on effect of Date Seed Ash (DSA) on strength properties of cement sand mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarani, G. I.; Chakkravarthy, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The need for alternative material for the cement is arising and being compromised by many engineering researchers. However, the growing demand and surging prices of raw materials challenges the constructional field. India, being one of the largest agricultural economy, produces a quantitative volume of agro-waste that is being dumped. In the conventional concrete production, coarse aggregate (CA) plays an important filler material. The initial study on date seed as a replacement for CA was not successful. This study primarily focuses on Date seed ash as a replacement material for ordinary Portland cement. OPC was replaced by Date Palm Seed Ash (DPSA) in the ratio up to 10% in terms of 2% interval. The main objective of this paper was to study the variation of strength properties of mortar by DPSA in specified ratio along with curing period of 3,7,14 and 28 days. The stress strain behavior has indicated a significant improvement. The overall results indicated the increase in replacing ratio, decreases the strength properties. However the physical, chemical and mechanical properties increased gradually in strength in minimal ratio.

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Crushed and Expanded Waste Glass Aggregates on the Material Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using Image-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeop Chung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the recycling of waste glass has become a worldwide issue in the reduction of waste and energy consumption. Waste glass can be utilized in construction materials, and understanding its effects on material properties is crucial in developing advanced materials. In this study, recycled crushed and expanded glasses are used as lightweight aggregates for concrete, and their relation to the material characteristics and properties is investigated using several approaches. Lightweight concrete specimens containing only crushed and expanded waste glass as fine aggregates are produced, and their pore and structural characteristics are examined using image-based methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray computed tomography (CT, and automated image analysis (RapidAir. The thermal properties of the materials are measured using both Hot Disk and ISOMET devices to enhance measurement accuracy. Mechanical properties are also evaluated, and the correlation between material characteristics and properties is evaluated. As a control group, a concrete specimen with natural fine sand is prepared, and its characteristics are compared with those of the specimens containing crushed and expanded waste glass aggregates. The obtained results support the usability of crushed and expanded waste glass aggregates as alternative lightweight aggregates.

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Crushed and Expanded Waste Glass Aggregates on the Material Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using Image-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Yeop; Abd Elrahman, Mohamed; Sikora, Pawel; Rucinska, Teresa; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Stephan, Dietmar

    2017-11-25

    Recently, the recycling of waste glass has become a worldwide issue in the reduction of waste and energy consumption. Waste glass can be utilized in construction materials, and understanding its effects on material properties is crucial in developing advanced materials. In this study, recycled crushed and expanded glasses are used as lightweight aggregates for concrete, and their relation to the material characteristics and properties is investigated using several approaches. Lightweight concrete specimens containing only crushed and expanded waste glass as fine aggregates are produced, and their pore and structural characteristics are examined using image-based methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and automated image analysis (RapidAir). The thermal properties of the materials are measured using both Hot Disk and ISOMET devices to enhance measurement accuracy. Mechanical properties are also evaluated, and the correlation between material characteristics and properties is evaluated. As a control group, a concrete specimen with natural fine sand is prepared, and its characteristics are compared with those of the specimens containing crushed and expanded waste glass aggregates. The obtained results support the usability of crushed and expanded waste glass aggregates as alternative lightweight aggregates.

  19. The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone: A DFT/TD-DFT and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud; Al-Balawi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone (NIF), a pyrazole-nicotinamide drug, were experimentally and computationally investigated in several neat solvents and in hydro-organic binary systems such as water-acetonitrile and water-dioxane systems. The bathochromic spectral shift observed in NIF absorption spectra when reducing the polarity of the solvent was correlated with the orientation polarizability (?f). Unlike aprotic solvents, a satisfactory correlation bet...

  20. The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone: a DFT/TD-DFT and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud; Al-Balawi, Mona

    2014-08-07

    The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone (NIF), a pyrazole-nicotinamide drug, were experimentally and computationally investigated in several neat solvents and in hydro-organic binary systems such as water-acetonitrile and water-dioxane systems. The bathochromic spectral shift observed in NIF absorption spectra when reducing the polarity of the solvent was correlated with the orientation polarizability (Δf). Unlike aprotic solvents, a satisfactory correlation between λ(max) and Δf was determined (linear correlation of regression coefficient, R, equal to 0.93) for polar protic solvents. In addition, the medium-dependent spectral properties were correlated with the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, and π*) by applying a multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA). The results obtained from this analysis were then employed to establish MLRA relationships for NIF in order to estimate the spectral shift in different solvents, which in turn exhibited excellent correlation (R > 0.99) with the experimental values of ν(max). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT theory calculations coupled with the integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) were performed to investigate the solvent-dependent spectral and geometrical properties of NIF. The calculations showed good and poor agreements with the experimental results using the CAM-B3LYP and B3LYP functionals, respectively. Experimental and theoretical results confirmed that the chemical properties of NIF are strongly dependent on the polarity of the chosen medium and its hydrogen bonding capability. This in turn supports the hypothesis of the delocalization of the electron density within the pyrazole ring of NIF.

  1. Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Miyamoto, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first direct experimental evidence of the local properties of optical vortices in a random laser speckle field. We have observed the Berry anisotropy ellipse describing the anisotropic squeezing of phase lines close to vortex cores and quantitatively verified the Dennis angular mom...... momentum rule for its phase. Some statistics associated with vortices, such as density, anisotropy ellipse eccentricity, and its relation to zero crossings of real and imaginary parts of the random field, are also investigated by experiments....

  2. Spectroscopic Properties of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Technetium-99 (Tc) exists predominately in soluble forms in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, attempts to remove Tc from the Hanford tank waste using ion-exchange processes specific to TcO4- only met with limited success, particularly processing tank waste samples containing elevated concentrations of organic complexants. This suggests that a significant fraction of the soluble Tc can be present as non-pertechnetate low-valent Tc (oxidation state < +7) (non-pertechnetate). The chemical identities of these non-pertechnetate species are poorly understood. Previous analysis of the SY-101 and SY-103 tank waste samples provided strong evidence that non-pertechnetate can be comprised of [Tc(CO)3]+ complexes containing Tc in oxidation state +1 (Lukens et al. 2004). During the last two years, our team has expanded this work and demonstrated that high-ionic-strength solutions typifying tank waste supernatants promote oxidative stability of the [Tc(CO)3]+ species (Rapko et al. 2013; Levitskaia et al. 2014). It also was observed that high-ionic-strength alkaline matrices stabilize Tc(VI) and potentially Tc(IV) oxidation states, particularly in presence organic chelators, suggesting that the relevant Tc compounds can serve as important redox intermediates facilitating the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(I). Designing strategies for effective Tc processing, including separation and immobilization, necessitates understanding the molecular structure of these non-pertechnetate species and their identification in the actual tank waste samples. To-date, only limited information exists regarding the nature and characterization of the Tc(I), Tc(IV), and Tc(VI) species. One objective of this project is to

  3. Nutritional Content and Antioxidant Properties of Pulp Waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, B N; Jamuna, P

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulp waste from two vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Different in vitro assays used for determining antioxidant potential of extracts of pulp wastes were: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method. Total polyphenols, tannins and antioxidative components such as vitamin C, total carotenoids and β-carotene were analysed in the samples. The moisture content of samples ranged from 79 - 84%. The protein content was high in beetroot (13.23 mg/100g) and low in carrot (6.21mg/100g). Total polyphenols were higher in methanol extracts of samples (220-250 mg/100g) compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method exhibited 40% and 78% activity in methanol extracts of carrot and beetroot pulp waste (20 mg) respectively. Overall, the results suggest that carrot and beetroot pulp wastes can be exploited for their nutrients and antioxidant components and used for value addition in food formulations. Hence, these results pave the way for utilisation of bio-wastes from the food industry.

  4. Experimental Comparison of the Tribological Properties of Selected Surfaces Created by Thermal Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tóth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article titled “Experimental comparison of the tribological properties of selected surfaces created by thermal spraying technology” deals with the surface condition of selected pairs working within the mixed friction before and after experimental tests. Based on the chosen methodology, the experimental tests were performed on the Tribotestor M’06 testing machine. The ecological oil MOGUL HEES 46 (manufactured by Paramo was used as a lubricant. The tests were performed on selected material pairs. The first friction element was a shaft of steel 14 220. The second friction element was a steel plate of steel 11 373 with a friction surface created by two materials, i.e. CuSn10 and NP 40. The results are statistically elaborated and illustrated in figures and tables.

  5. Method of experimental and calculation determination of dissipative properties of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, Olga I.; Smolin, Igor Yu.; Bezmozgiy, Iosif M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the process of definition of relations between the damping ratio and strain/state levels in a material. For these purposes, the experimental-calculation approach was applied. The experimental research was performed on plane composite specimens. The tests were accompanied by finite element modeling using the ANSYS software. Optimization was used as a tool for FEM property setting and for finding the above-mentioned relations. A difference between the calculation and experimental results was accepted as objective functions of this optimization. The optimization cycle was implemented using the pSeven DATADVANCE software platform. The developed approach makes it possible to determine the relations between the damping ratio and strain/state levels in the material, which can be used for computer modeling of the structure response under dynamic loading.

  6. Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of modal properties for the gearbox in wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pengxing; Huang, Peng; Shi, Tielin

    2016-12-01

    Wind turbine gearbox (WTG), which functions as an accelerator, ensures the performance and service life of wind turbine systems. This paper examines the distinctive modal properties of WTGs through finite element (FE) and experimental modal analyses. The study is performed in two parts. First, a whole system model is developed to investigate the first 10 modal frequencies and mode shapes of WTG using flexible multibody modeling techniques. Given the complex structure and operating conditions of WTG, this study applies spring elements to the model and quantifies how the bearings and gear pair interactions affect the dynamic characteristics of WTGs. Second, the FE modal results are validated through experimental modal analyses of a 1.5 WM WTG using the frequency response function method of single point excitation and multi-point response. The natural frequencies from the FE and experimental modal analyses show favorable agreement and reveal that the characteristic frequency of the studied gearbox avoids its eigenfrequency very well.

  7. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation on the spectroscopic properties of indigo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Anna; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Fantacci, Simona

    2011-05-01

    The spectroscopic properties of indigo, one of the most important natural dyes present in nature, have been investigated by means of DFT and TD-DFT calculations and Raman and IR spectroscopies. The absorption spectra of this dye, in vacuo and in different solvents, have been computed. The formation of aggregates in solvent have been investigated by computing the electronic absorption spectra of the dimer and the trimer, thus evaluating the effects of the aggregation on the optical properties of indigo. The IR and Raman spectra have been measured and computed. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical spectra and the potential energy distribution (PED) of the computed normal modes have been used to perform the assignment of the experimental features in terms of functional group displacements. Finally, the effects of the intermolecular hydrogen bond present in the solid state have been evaluated by computing the vibrational spectra of the dimer. The intention of the present work is to give an insight into both the vibrational and optical properties of indigo as well as to evaluate DFT and TD-DFT potentialities in the study of organic dyes' spectroscopic properties of interest in the cultural heritage field.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the shape memory properties of an ionic polymer-metal composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang J.; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is typically based on a Nafion membrane with electrode plating on both sides and has a promising potential for biomimetic robotics, biomedical devices and human affinity applications. In this paper, the shape memory properties of IPMC were theoretically and experimentally studied. We presented the multiple shape memory properties of a Nafion cylinder. A physics based model of the IPMC was proposed. The free energy density theory was utilized to analyze the shape properties of the IPMC. To verify the model, IPMC samples with Nafion as the base membrane were prepared and experiments were conducted. A simulation of the model was performed and the results were compared with the experimental data. It was successfully demonstrated that the theoretical model can well explain the shape memory properties of the IPMC. The results showed that the reheat glass transition temperature of the IPMC is lower than the programming temperature. It was also found that the back-relaxation of the IPMC decreases as the programming temperature increases. The current study may be useful in order to better understand the shape memory effect of IPMC.

  10. Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Maria; Serrano, Mercedes; Bravo, Vicente; Jurado, Encarnación; Nikolaeva, Iana; Martos, Vanessa; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2010-02-01

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties.

  11. Experimental data on the properties of natural fiber particle reinforced polymer composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the development of polymer bio-composites. The powdered coconut shell, walnut shells and Rice husk are used as reinforcements with bio epoxy resin to form hybrid composite specimens. The fiber compositions in each specimen are 1:1 while the resin and hardener composition 10:1 respectively. The fabricated composites were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength are evaluated in both with moisture and without moisture. The result of test shows that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under mechanical loads. However it is found that the incorporation of walnut shell and coconut shell fibre can improve the properties.

  12. Experimental Study on the Fire Properties of Nitrocellulose with Different Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruichao; He, Yaping; Liu, Jiahao; He, Yu; Mi, Wenzhong; Yuen, Richard; Wang, Jian

    2017-03-20

    In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC) mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter. Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity (HRRI) is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption (OC) calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry (TC) method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation. HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency.

  13. Experimental Study on the Fire Properties of Nitrocellulose with Different Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruichao; He, Yaping; Liu, Jiahao; He, Yu; Mi, Wenzhong; Yuen, Richard; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC) mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter. Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity (HRRI) is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption (OC) calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry (TC) method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation. HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency. PMID:28772675

  14. Temporal evolution of mechanical properties of skeletal tissue regeneration in rabbits. An experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Mokoko, Didier; Chabrand, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Various mathematical models represent the effects of local mechanical environment on the regulation of skeletal regeneration. Their relevance relies on an accurate description of the evolving mechanical properties of the regenerating tissue. The object of this study was to develop an experimental model which made it possible to characterize the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties during unloaded enchondral osteogenesis in the New Zealand rabbit, a standard animal model for studies of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. A 25mm segment of tibial diaphysis was removed sub-periosteally from rabbits. The defect was repaired by the preserved periosteum. An external fixator was applied to prevent mechanical loading during osteogenesis. The regenerated skeletal tissues were studied by CT scan, histology and mechanical tests. The traction tests between 7 to 21 days post-surgery were done on formaldehyde-fixated tissue allowing to obtain force/displacement curves. The viscoelastic properties of ...

  15. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH)2, KCl and SiO2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  16. Experimental Study on Feasibility of Non Potable Water with Lime on Properties of Ppc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Babu, G.; Madhusudana Reddy, B.; Ramana, N. V.; Sudharshan Reddy, B.

    2017-08-01

    This research aimed to investigate feasibility of outlet water of water treatment plant and limewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Twenty water treatment plants were found out in the Bhimavaram municipality region in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, each plant supplying potable water about 4000 to 5000 L/day. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. At outlet, huge quantity of wasted water is being discharged into side drains in Bhimavaram municipality. One typical treatment plant was selected, and water at outlet was collected and Physical and chemical analysis was carried out as per producer described in APHA. The effect of plant outlet water(POW), lime water(LM), and plant outlet water with lime (POWL) on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were studied in laboratory and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time in POW, LW, and (POWL) as compared with reference specimens made with distilled water (DW). Compressive strength was significantly increased with LW and (POWL) specimens compared to that of reference specimens. XRD technique was employed to study the mineralogical analysis.

  17. Experimental Study on the Properties of Concrete Mixed with Iron Ore Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-xi Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the modified performance of concrete with mixing of iron ore tailings in order to solve the shortage of natural sand and make full use of industrial waste. Firstly, the raw materials of mixing were analyzed, and the test ratio was determined. Secondly, the workability and mechanical property of concrete specimens with different amounts of iron ore tailings as replacement were tested. Results show that 35% replacement of natural aggregate by iron ore tailings is optimal. Finally, tests of impermeability, frost resistance, and carbonation resistance were further performed for the concrete specimens with optimal amount of iron ore tailings. The compression performance of the specimens after a durability test was determined. The change in the mechanical properties of the specimens was obtained after seepage, freezing-thawing, and carbonation. Findings showed that the performance of the concrete with 35% replacement of iron ore tailings is basically equivalent to that of natural sand concrete. Hence, it can be utilized in engineering applications.

  18. Effect of carbide waste on the properties of rice husk ash concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of carbide waste,CW on the strength of concrete made with cement partially replaced with Rice Husk Ash,RHA for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Oxide composition analysis of CW and RHA confirm their status as non pozzolanic material rich in CaO component and pozzolanic materials, respectively.

  19. Purification, Characterization, and Prebiotic Properties of Pectic Oligosaccharides from Orange Peel Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, B.; Gullón, B.; Remoroza, C.A.; Schols, H.A.; Parajó, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3–21), GalOS (DP 5–12), and OGalA (DP 2–12, with variable DM) were identified in POS

  20. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  1. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  2. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Pavlík, Z.; Tydlitát, V.; Volfová, P.; Švarcová, Silvie; Šyc, Michal; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2012), s. 1041-1048 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * fly ash * municipal solid waste incinerator * pozzolanic activity * hydration heat * separation temperature * building industry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  3. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  4. Enhancement of concrete properties for pavement slabs using waste metal drillings and silica fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Arjmandi, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of steel fibres and waste metal drillings on the mechanical/physical behaviour of conventional and silica fume concrete. The amount of silica fume used was 10% of cement by mass and the amount of steel fibres and metal drillings used in both concrete mixtures was 0.5% by concrete volume for steel fibres and 0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% for metal drillings, respectively. In total, 10 different mixtures were made and tested for compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and toughness. Our data reveal the significant impact of the effect of silica fume, steel fibres and industrial waste metal drillings on the mechanical and physical characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results also show that mixtures with steel fibres and waste metal drillings have comparable behaviour. Hence, there is a potential for use of waste metal drillings as an alternative to steel fibres for specific cases such as concrete pavement slabs.

  5. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  6. Experimental and numerical study on the optical properties and agglomeration of nanoparticle suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otanicar, Todd, E-mail: todd-otanicar@utulsa.edu; Hoyt, Jordan; Fahar, Maryam [University of Tulsa, Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); Jiang, Xuchuan [University of New South Wales, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Australia); Taylor, Robert A. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Nanoparticles have garnered significant interest because of their ability to enhance greatly the optical properties of the base fluid in which they are suspended. The optical properties of nanoparticles are sensitive to the materials used, as well as to the host medium. Most fluids exhibit refractive indices that are highly temperature-dependent, resulting in nanoparticle suspensions which also exhibit temperature-dependent optical properties. Previous work has shown that temperature increases result in decreased absorption in nanoparticle suspensions. Here, we expand previous work to include core–shell particles due to the potential spectral shifts in optical properties that will arise from the base fluid with temperature changes and the role of agglomeration under temperature cycling through both experimental and numerical efforts. Thermal cycling tests for silica and gold, the constituents of the core–shell nanoparticles used in this study, were tested to determine the extent of particle agglomeration resulting from up to 200 accelerated heating cycles. Optical properties were recorded after heating two base fluids (water and ethylene glycol) with multiple surfactants for silver nanospheres and silica–gold core–shell nanoparticles. It was found that the temperature results in a small increase in the transmittance for both particle types and a blue shift in the spectral transmittance for core–shell nanoparticles. Further, the coupling effect of temperature and agglomeration played a significant role in determining both the spectral properties—particularly the resulting transmittance—of the silver nanoparticle suspensions.

  7. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: properties and hydration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Henghu; Li, Longtu

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, (27)Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Investigation and Taguchi Optimisation of Drilling Properties on Teak Wood Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly Mercy, J.; Shaqir Tanvir, Mohamed; Swaroopkanth, K.

    2017-05-01

    The drilling properties of teak reinforced epoxy resin composite are explored in this work. The thrust force and temperature during the drilling process was found and optimised. Nine holes were drilled in accordance with L9 orthogonal array on Medium Density Fibre board and Teak wood reinforced epoxy composite board and the thrust force and temperature induced during drilling is measured. Drilling experiments were conducted using CNC Vertical drilling machine and the thrust force was measured using dynamometer and temperature using infra-red thermometer. The experiments were conducted with varying levels of spindle speed and feed rate and optimised using Taguchi optimisation. It was observed that higher thrust and temperature were observed while drilling teak wood composite due to the high mechanical strength of teak wood. The hard and brittle properties of the resin seemed to be more pronounced in the composite. The experimental results were optimised to find the best combination of input parameters for reduced thrust and temperature. When speed increases, thrust force decreases and temperature increases. When feed increases, thrust force increases and temperature decreases. Experimental findings encouragesto use teak wood reinforced epoxy resin as a substitute for the traditionally used Medium Density Fibre Board. The percentage of mixing of teak dust can be increased with various resin combinations to arrive at the best suitable combination for obtaining optimal mechanical properties.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  10. Mining the structural genomics pipeline: identification of protein properties that affect high-throughput experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chern-Sing; Lan, Ning; Douglas, Shawn M; Wu, Baolin; Echols, Nathaniel; Smith, Andrew; Milburn, Duncan; Montelione, Gaetano T; Zhao, Hongyu; Gerstein, Mark

    2004-02-06

    Structural genomics projects represent major undertakings that will change our understanding of proteins. They generate unique datasets that, for the first time, present a standardized view of proteins in terms of their physical and chemical properties. By analyzing these datasets here, we are able to discover correlations between a protein's characteristics and its progress through each stage of the structural genomics pipeline, from cloning, expression, purification, and ultimately to structural determination. First, we use tree-based analyses (decision trees and random forest algorithms) to discover the most significant protein features that influence a protein's amenability to high-throughput experimentation. Based on this, we identify potential bottlenecks in various stages of the structural genomics process through specialized "pipeline schematics". We find that the properties of a protein that are most significant are: (i.) whether it is conserved across many organisms; (ii). the percentage composition of charged residues; (iii). the occurrence of hydrophobic patches; (iv). the number of binding partners it has; and (v). its length. Conversely, a number of other properties that might have been thought to be important, such as nuclear localization signals, are not significant. Thus, using our tree-based analyses, we are able to identify combinations of features that best differentiate the small group of proteins for which a structure has been determined from all the currently selected targets. This information may prove useful in optimizing high-throughput experimentation. Further information is available from http://mining.nesg.org/.

  11. Simulated and Experimental Damping Properties of a SMA/Fiber Glass Laminated Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, S.; Bassani, P.; Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; Loconte, A.; Previtali, B.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, an advanced laminated composite is developed, combining the high damping properties of shape memory alloy (SMA) with mechanical properties and light weight of a glass-fiber reinforced polymer. The composite is formed by stacking a glass-fiber reinforced epoxy core between two thin patterned strips of SMA alloy, and two further layers of fiber-glass reinforced epoxy. The bars of the laminated composite were assembled and cured in autoclave. The patterning was designed to enhance the interface adhesion between matrix and SMA inserts and optimally exploit the damping capacity of the SMA thin ribbons. The patterned ribbons of the SMA alloy were cut by means of a pulsed fiber laser source. Damping properties at different amplitudes on full scale samples were investigated at room temperature with a universal testing machine through dynamic tension tests, while temperature dependence was investigated by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) on smaller samples. Experimental results were used in conjunction with FEM analysis to optimize the geometry of the inserts. Experimental decay tests on the laminated composite have been carried out to identify the adimensional damping value related to their first flexural mode.

  12. Integration of experimental and computational methods for identifying geometric, thermal and diffusive properties of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weres, Jerzy; Kujawa, Sebastian; Olek, Wiesław; Czajkowski, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of physical properties of biomaterials is important in understanding and designing agri-food and wood processing industries. In the study presented in this paper computational methods were developed and combined with experiments to enhance identification of agri-food and forest product properties, and to predict heat and water transport in such products. They were based on the finite element model of heat and water transport and supplemented with experimental data. Algorithms were proposed for image processing, geometry meshing, and inverse/direct finite element modelling. The resulting software system was composed of integrated subsystems for 3D geometry data acquisition and mesh generation, for 3D geometry modelling and visualization, and for inverse/direct problem computations for the heat and water transport processes. Auxiliary packages were developed to assess performance, accuracy and unification of data access. The software was validated by identifying selected properties and using the estimated values to predict the examined processes, and then comparing predictions to experimental data. The geometry, thermal conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of water diffusion, equilibrium water content and convective heat and water transfer coefficients in the boundary layer were analysed. The estimated values, used as an input for simulation of the examined processes, enabled reduction in the uncertainty associated with predictions.

  13. The impact of hazardous waste on property values: The effect of lead pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Affuso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of lead pollution on property values in Anniston, Alabama, one of the most polluted cities in the US. A hedonic house price analysis enabled us to examine the extent of lead contamination’s effect on property values there, as well as property value losses due to the presence of an army depot. We estimated that lead cleanup would provide an increased property value of $1,140 per household and found that living 1 km closer to the polluting sites reduces property values by approximately 2%, a figure consistent with previous research regarding the connection between environmental disamenities and property values.

  14. Effect of curing time on selected properties of soil stabilized with fly ash, marble dust and waste sand for road sub-base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Seyhan; Khatib, Jamal M; Yilmaz, Gulgun; Comert, A T

    2017-07-01

    The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries. In this work, the existing excavated soil is stabilized with waste materials. The wastes consisted of fly ash, marble dust and waste sand. The percentage addition of waste materials was 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (by mass) of the existing soil. The soil/waste specimens were cured for 1, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 112 days before testing. Testing included the dry unit weight and unconfined compressive strength ( qu) as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observation. Also, the California Bearing Ratio values were obtained and are reported in this investigation. The results showed that the qu values increased with the increase in waste materials content. Also, there is tendency for the dry unit weight to increase with the increase in waste materials.

  15. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  16. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Axel M. RINDLER; Pia SOLT; Marius C. BARBU; Thomas SCHNABEL

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason e...

  17. Effect of porcelain polishing addition of waste in properties blocks ceramic; Efeito da adicao do residuo de polimento de porcelanato nas propriedades de blocos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, G.L.; Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Campos, L.F.; Macedo, D.A; Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: geovanalira1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of the technological properties of ceramic blocks with addition of residue porcelain polishing. The test samples are produced with clay base, where the waste is introduced in concentrations of 10% and 20% by mass, to evaluate its influence on the properties of the ceramic block. All these materials were characterized by determining their chemical composition (XRF) and X-ray diffraction Sintering was performed at temperatures of 850 ° C, 950 ° C and 1100 ° C with a heating rate of 2 ° C / me and 60 minutes of landing. After this, there was obtained the technological properties of the samples such as: Loss on fire, the burning linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and density, as well as, mechanical strength properties through the flexural strength test. The results show that the addition of waste influenced both the technological properties, the mechanical properties evaluated in this study. (author)

  18. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  19. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  20. Potential nutraceutical food beverage with antioxidant properties from banana plant bio-waste (pseudostem and rhizome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Kandasamy; Aradhya, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna

    2011-10-01

    Banana plant biomass waste, viz. pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), contribute 30.81 and 12.67 per cent respectively. A negligible percentage of these were used for fresh consumption, otherwise they are waste and incinerated. In order to utilize these bio-wastes in a bioactive perspective, nutritional and nutraceutical components were studied from the juices and its Ready-To-Serve (RTS) beverage. When compared to BPS juice, BR juice showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 341.44 mgGAE and 87.60 mgCE/200 μL, respectively, and concomitantly exhibited high antioxidant activity (AOA) in all the assays tested, viz. DPPH radical scavenging activity (82.93%), superoxide radical scavenging activity (49.45%), metal chelation activity (48.32%) total reducing power (0.846 OD at 700 nm) and total antioxidant capacity (928 mmol ascorbic acid equivalents). High quantity of polyphenols present in BR juice resulted high AOA. Strong positive correlations were observed between TPC and TFC of BPS and BR juice with AOA assays. Among the different concentrations of RTS beverages prepared, 25% BPS juice and 20% BR juice with 15°brix TSS and 0.3% acidity were adjudged as best by sensory panelists. Thus, BPS and BR juice can be effectively used to produce new generation functional beverages.

  1. An experimental study on mechanical properties of GFRP braid-pultruded composite rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a conventional textile braiding machine was modified and added to a pultrusion line in order to produce glass fiber reinforced composite rods by braiding-pultrusion technique. Braid-pultruded (BP rods were produced with three braid roving linear densities and also with three different braid angles. To study the influence of overbraiding on mechanical properties of pultruded rods, unidirectional (UD rods, without braided fabric, were produced, as well. All rod types were subjected to tensile, bending and torsion tests. The experimental results showed that BP rods have considerably higher shear modulus, but lower tensile modulus and flexural rigidity than those of UD pultruded rods, when fiber volume fraction is kept constant. Moreover, rods produced with higher braid roving linear densities had better torsional, but lower tensile and flexural properties. The highest shear modulus was observed in BP rods with braid angle of 45°.

  2. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R SANJAY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Properties of Foam Concrete for Industrial Floors in Testing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Jozef; Drusa, Marian; Scherfel, Walter; Sedlar, Bronislav

    2017-12-01

    Foam concrete (FC), as a mixture of cement, water, additives and technical foam, is well known for more than 30 years. It is building material with good mechanical properties, low thermal conductivity, simple and even high technological treatment. Foam concrete contains closed void pores, what allows achieving low bulk density and spare of raw materials. Thanks to its properties, it is usable as a replacement of conventional subbase layers of the industrial floors, the transport areas or as a part of the foundation structures of the buildings. Paper presents the preparation of the testing field (physical model) which was created for experimental investigation of the foam concrete subbase layer of the industrial floor in a real scale.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of PVC Polymer under Different Heating and Cooling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt Rostam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a widely increasing usage of polymers in various industrial applications, there should be a continuous need in doing research investigations for better understanding of their properties. These applications require the usage of the polymer in different working environments subjecting the material to various temperature ranges. In this paper, an experimental investigation of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer under heating and cooling conditions is presented. For this purpose standard samples are prepared and tested in laboratory using universal material testing apparatus. The samples are tested under different conditions including the room temperature environment, cooling in a refrigerator, and heating at different heating temperatures. It is observed that the strength of the tested samples decreases with the increasing of heating temperature and accordingly the material becomes softer. Meanwhile the cooling environments give a clear increasing to the strength of the material.

  5. Experimental investigations on radiative properties of two kinds of open-cell porous ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaosheng; Huang, Pingrui; Chen, Lin; Xu, Chao; Du, Xiaoze

    2017-06-01

    Open-cell porous ceramic is an ideal volumetric heat absorbing material, and understanding in detail the thermal properties of the material, particularly its radiative properties, is of primary importance for the design and improvement of volumetric solar receivers. This work investigates the radiative properties of open-cell porous ceramic through experiment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to measure the spectral transmittance of open-cell porous ceramic samples with different porosities and cell densities in infrared wavelengths between 2.5 and 25 µm. The results were analyzed to determine the spectral extinction coefficient and Rosseland extinction coefficient, which showed that the radiative properties of porous ceramic are strongly dependent on its microstructure parameters, while the type of material has little influence. The spectral extinction coefficient and Rosseland extinction coefficient both increased with increasing cell density and decreasing porosity. Based on the experimental results, two empirical correlations related to the window diameter and porosity were proposed to predict the Rosseland extinction coefficient of open-cell porous ceramics. Finally, the radiative thermal conductivities of different porous ceramics were studied.

  6. Understanding the physical properties controlling protein crystallization based on analysis of large-scale experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W. Nicholson; Chen, Yang; Handelman, Samuel K.; Neely, Helen; Manor, Philip; Karlin, Richard; Nair, Rajesh; Liu, Jinfeng; Baran, Michael; Everett, John; Tong, Saichiu N.; Forouhar, Farhad; Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Acton, Thomas; Xiao, Rong; Luft, Joseph R.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George T.; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization has proven to be the most significant bottleneck to high-throughput protein structure determination using diffraction methods. We have used the large-scale, systematically generated experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. Datamining of crystallization results combined with explicit folding studies lead to the conclusion that crystallization propensity is controlled primarily by the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes capable of mediating interprotein interactions and is not strongly influenced by overall thermodynamic stability. These analyses identify specific sequence features correlating with crystallization propensity that can be used to estimate the crystallization probability of a given construct. Analyses of entire predicted proteomes demonstrate substantial differences in the bulk amino acid sequence properties of human versus eubacterial proteins that reflect likely differences in their biophysical properties including crystallization propensity. Finally, our thermodynamic measurements enable critical evaluation of previous claims regarding correlations between protein stability and bulk sequence properties, which generally are not supported by our dataset. PMID:19079241

  7. Experimental investigations on thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite-sand mixture using as buffer materials

    OpenAIRE

    XU, L.; Ye, Wei-min; Chen, Bao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite-sand mixture has been proposed as engineered barriers for high-level waste disposal in many countries. For investigation of the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite-sand mixture, swelling pressure, hydraulic thermal conductivity tests were conducted in this paper. Results show that addition of sand will increase the thermal conductivity of the mixture. However, depending on the dry density water content of the specimen, the increasing rate of thermal condu...

  8. Experimental validation of new empirical models of the thermal properties of food products for safe shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hanan H.; Mitchell, Mark; Jahangiri, Amirreza; Thiel, David V.

    2017-11-01

    Temperature controlled food transport is essential for human safety and to minimise food waste. The thermal properties of food are important for determining the heat transfer during the transient stages of transportation (door opening during loading and unloading processes). For example, the temperature of most dairy products must be confined to a very narrow range (3-7 °C). If a predefined critical temperature is exceeded, the food is defined as spoiled and unfit for human consumption. An improved empirical model for the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of a wide range of food products was derived based on the food composition (moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash). The models that developed using linear regression analysis were compared with the published measured parameters in addition to previously published theoretical and empirical models. It was found that the maximum variation in the predicated thermal properties leads to less than 0.3 °C temperature change. The correlation coefficient for these models was 0.96. The t-Stat test (P-value >0.99) demonstrated that the model results are an improvement on previous works. The transient heat transfer based on the food composition and the temperature boundary conditions was found for a Camembert cheese (short cylindrical shape) using a multiple dimension finite difference method code. The result was verified using the heat transfer today (HTT) educational software which is based on finite volume method. The core temperature rises from the initial temperature (2.7 °C) to the maximum safe temperature in ambient air (20.24 °C) was predicted to within about 35.4 ± 0.5 min. The simulation results agree very well (+0.2 °C) with the measured temperature data. This improved model impacts on temperature estimation during loading and unloading the trucks and provides a clear direction for temperature control in all refrigerated transport applications.

  9. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 1 - mechanical properties of FRP piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 1, Mechanical Properties of FRP Piles. : Mechanical and geotechnic...

  10. Chemical and Charge Imbalance Induced by Radionuclide Decay: Effects on Waste Form Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jaffe, John E.; Jiang, Weilin; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-04-01

    This is a milestone document covering the activities to validate theoretical calculations with experimental data for the effect of the decay of 90Sr to 90Zr on materials properties. This was done for a surragate waste form strontium titanate.

  11. SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Choi, A.; Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2011-02-07

    Collaborative work between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and SIA Radon in Russia was divided among three tasks for calendar year 2010. The first task focused on the study of simplified high level waste glass compositions with the objective of identifying the compositional drivers that lead to crystallization and poor chemical durability. The second task focused on detailed characterization of more complex waste glass compositions with unexpectedly poor chemical durabilities. The third task focused on determining the structure of select high level waste glasses made with varying frit compositions in order to improve models under development for predicting the melt rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glasses. The majority of these tasks were carried out at SIA Radon. Selection and fabrication of the glass compositions, along with chemical composition measurements and evaluations of durability were carried out at SRNL and are described in this report. SIA Radon provided three summary reports based on the outcome of the three tasks. These reports are included as appendices to this document. Briefly, the result of characterization of the Task 1 glasses may indicate that glass compositions where iron is predominantly tetrahedrally coordinated have more of a tendency to crystallize nepheline or nepheline-like phases. For the Task 2 glasses, the results suggested that the relatively low fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron and the relatively low concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} available to form [BO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} and [AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} tetrahedral units are not sufficient to consume all of the alkali ions, and thus these alkali ions are easily leached from the glasses. All of the twelve Task 3 glass compositions were determined to be mainly amorphous, with some minor spinel phases. Several key structural units such as metasilicate chains and rings were identified, which confirms the current modeling

  12. Physical Properties and Characterization of Cassava Peel Waste Modified by Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Susanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch (Manihot esculenta is polysaccharide compound which comprises of amylose and amylopectin. This paper demonstrated the characterization result of cassava peel waste modified by esterification with acetic acid and oleic acid. The products were analyzed by FT-IR, PSA, SEM, and XRD. FT-IR results represented carbonyl compound. DS value of acetic acid and oleic acid modification is 0.63 and 0.56, respectively. Characterization by PSA found the distribution frequency was 358.19 mm. SEM analysis was obtained rigid structure. From XRD result, the crystallinity of modified flour better than without modification.

  13. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitka, Martin; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  14. Material properties of Eleana argillite: extrapolation to other argillaceous rocks, and implications for waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A.R.; Olsson, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a near-surface heater test in the Eleana argillite suggest the possibility that the high-temperature (> 100/sup 0/C) thermomechanical response of argillaceous rocks to waste emplacement may be dominated by behavior of expandable clays. Enough expandable clay is probably present in most argillaceous rocks to cause a similar response. In situ thermal conductivities may be markedly reduced by even small amounts of clay contraction, compensated by opening of pre-existing joints. A simple model predicts that such opening behavior may continue to operate for disposal at considerable depths, through several factors affecting this depth remain poorly defined at present.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Charging Properties of Interstellar Type Silica Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. Incident low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grains, leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available classical theoretical models for calculations of SEE yields are generally applicable for neutral, planar, or bulk surfaces. These models, however, are not valid for calculations of the electron impact charging properties of electrostatically charged micron/submicron-size dust grains in astrophysical environments. Rigorous quantum mechanical models are not yet available, and the SEE yields have to be determined experimentally for development of more accurate models for charging of individual dust grains. At the present time, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly for low energy electron impact. The experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated carried out by us in a unique facility at NASA-MSFC, based on an electrodynamic balance, indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (Abbas et al, 2010, 2012). In this paper, we discuss SEE charging properties of individual micron-size silica microspheres that are believed to be analogs of a class of interstellar dust grains. The measurements indicate charging of the 0.2m silica particles when exposed to 25 eV electron beams and discharging when exposed to higher energy electron beams. Relatively large size silica particles (5.2-6.82m) generally discharge to lower equilibrium potentials at both electron energies

  16. Experimental study on the mechanical properties of simulated columnar jointed rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-min; Deng, Rong-gui; Zhong, Zhi-bin; Fu, Xiao-min; Wang, Cong-yan

    2015-02-01

    Columnar jointed rock mass is a kind of structural rock mass commonly encountered in igneous rocks. Due to the effects of columnar joint networks, anisotropy is the typical mechanical property of columnar jointed rock mass, i.e. deformation and strength varying with loading direction. Correct understanding of the mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed rock mass is a key problem that should be solved for demonstration and design of large scale rock mass projects such as dams and underground cavern excavations constructed in it. Plaster simulated columnar jointed rock mass specimens at dip angles varying from 0° to 90° with respect to the axial stress were tested under uniaxial compression conditions to investigate the mechanical anisotropy and failure modes. Based on analyses of experimental results, it was found that the strength and deformation of columnar jointed rock masses had pronounced ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy. In the anisotropic curves, the maximum and minimum values occurred at β = 90° and β = 45°, respectively. It was also shown that the lateral strain ratio was relatively high, especially when the dip angle was close to (45° - φj/2), where φj was the joint friction angle. An empirical expression was adopted to predict the ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy of deformation and strength and the predicted anisotropic curves agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Furthermore, four types of failure modes were summarized based on experimental results and corresponding mechanisms were also discussed.

  17. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude [MRC - Microgravity Research Centre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP165/62, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Shevtsova, Valentina, E-mail: vshev@ulb.ac.be [MRC - Microgravity Research Centre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP165/62, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. > Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. > Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible ({lambda} = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared ({lambda} = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  18. Valorization of soy waste through SSF for the production of compost enriched with Bacillus thuringiensis with biopesticide properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardo, Cindy; Abraham, Juliana; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-03-15

    There is a growing generation of biodegradable wastes from different human activities from industrial to agricultural including home and recreational activities. On the other hand, agricultural and horticultural activities require significant amounts of organic amendments and pesticides. In this framework, the present study evaluates the viability of soy fiber residue valorization as organic soil amendment with biopesticide properties through aerobic solid-state fermentation (SSF) in the presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The experiments were performed first under sterile and non-sterile conditions at lab scale using 115 g of sample and controlled temperature (30 °C). Bt growth was successful in sterile conditions, obtaining 6.2 × 10(11) CFU g(-1) DM and 8.6 × 10(10) spores g(-1) DM after 6 days. Bt survived on solid culture under non-sterile conditions (3.8 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.3 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM). Further, the valorization process was scaled-up to 10 L reactors (2300 g) under non-sterile conditions obtaining a final stabilized material with viable Bt cells and spores (9.5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.1 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM in average) after 9 days of SSF. These results confirm the possibility of managing biodegradable wastes by their transformation to a waste derived soil amendment with enhanced biopesticide effect, in comparison to traditional compost using a valuable and low-cost technique (SSF). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties; Validacion de nuevos materiales ceramicos a partir de rocas de desecho de mineria. Propiedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  20. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  1. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  2. The Effect of Compost and the Ripe Fruit Waste of Fig on some Physical Properties of Surface Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra dianat maharluei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In arid and semi-arid soils, low organic matter is one of the barriers to achieving optimal performance. The soils with more organic matter have a better structure and are more resistant to erosive factors such as water and wind. Soil organic matter has a particular importance and has significant impact on the stability of soil aggregates, the extension of plant root system, carbon and water cycles and soil resistance to erosion. This substance acts as a cementing agent and plays an important role in soil flocculation and formation of resistant aggregates.Also, the addition of organic matter to the soil increases soil porosity and decreases soil bulk density. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effect of the two types of organic matter (compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig on some soil physical properties was studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, including the four levels of compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig (0, 1, 2 and 4 by weight % and three soil types (loamy sand, loam and silty clay loam with three replications was carried out. The soil samples were collected from the three territories of Fars Province: loamy sand soil from Shiraz, loamy soil from Maharlu and Silty clay loam soil from Zarghan area. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The physical properties including the bulk density, particle density, porosity, moisture content and soil crust strength was measured. In this research, the soil texture by hydrometer method, Electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract by electrical conductivity meter, saturated paste pH by pH meter, seedling emergence test, soil crust strength by a pocket penetrometer (HUMBOLDT MFG.CO. bulk density by cylindrical sample and particle density by pycnometer method were measured. The fig fruit treatments were prepared by thoroughly mixing the dried powder of ripe fig fruit passed through a 2 mm sieve (with

  3. An Experimental Study to Measure the Mechanical Properties of the Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad

    2017-10-31

    Since the liver is one of the most important organs of the body that can be injured during trauma, that is, during accidents like car crashes, understanding its mechanical properties is of great interest. Experimental data is needed to address the mechanical properties of the liver to be used for a variety of applications, such as the numerical simulations for medical purposes, including the virtual reality simulators, trauma research, diagnosis objectives, as well as injury biomechanics. However, the data on the mechanical properties of the liver capsule is limited to the animal models or confined to the tensile/compressive loading under single direction. Therefore, this study was aimed at experimentally measuring the axial and transversal mechanical properties of the human liver capsule under both the tensile and compressive loadings. To do that, 20 human cadavers were autopsied and their liver capsules were excised and histologically analyzed to extract the mean angle of a large fibers population (bundle of the fine collagen fibers). Thereafter, the samples were cut and subjected to a series of axial and transversal tensile/compressive loadings. The results revealed the tensile elastic modulus of 12.16 ± 1.20 (mean ± SD) and 7.17 ± 0.85 kPa under the axial and transversal loadings respectively. Correspondingly, the compressive elastic modulus of 196.54 ± 13.15 and 112.41 ± 8.98 kPa were observed under the axial and transversal loadings respectively. The compressive axial and transversal maximum/failure stress of the capsule were 32.54 and 37.30 times higher than that of the tensile ones respectively. The capsule showed a stiffer behavior under the compressive load compared to the tensile one. In addition, the axial elastic modulus of the capsule was found to be higher than that of the transversal one. The findings of the current study have implications not only for understanding the mechanical properties of the human capsule tissue under tensile

  4. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun'e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-22

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m²), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S.

  5. Experimental Study on the Fire Properties of Nitrocellulose with Different Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruichao Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter. Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity (HRRI is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption (OC calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry (TC method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation. HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency.

  6. Correlation of experimentally measured atomic scale properties of EUV photoresist to modeling performance: an exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Yudhishthir; Chandonait, Jonathan; Melvin, Lawrence S.; Marokkey, Sajan; Yan, Qiliang; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Painter, Benjamin; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm stands at the crossroads of next generation patterning technology for high volume manufacturing of integrated circuits. Photo resist models that form the part of overall pattern transform model for lithography play a vital role in supporting this effort. The physics and chemistry of these resists must be understood to enable the construction of accurate models for EUV Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). In this study, we explore the possibility of improving EUV photo-resist models by directly correlating the parameters obtained from experimentally measured atomic scale physical properties; namely, the effect of interaction of EUV photons with photo acid generators in standard chemically amplified EUV photoresist, and associated electron energy loss events. Atomic scale physical properties will be inferred from the measurements carried out in Electron Resist Interaction Chamber (ERIC). This study will use measured physical parameters to establish a relationship with lithographically important properties, such as line edge roughness and CD variation. The data gathered from these measurements is used to construct OPC models of the resist.

  7. Thermal Properties of Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams Based on Poly(ethylene terephthalate Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena VITKAUSKIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PU-PIR foams synthesized from PET-waste-derived aromatic polyester polyols (APP was studied using thermogravimetric analysis, Cone calorimeter and burning tests. The effect of chemical structure of the APP containing fragments of glycerol, adipic acid, poly(propylene glycol or hexanediol on thermal stability and flame resistance of the PU-PIR foams was elucidated. PU-PIR foams prepared from APP containing fragments of glycerol and/or adipic acid had higher thermal stability and lower weight loss at 330 °C. The foams based on APP derived from industrial PET waste were characterized by relatively low heat release and low smoke production. The presence of the fragments of the functional additives glycerol and/or adipic acid in the structure of APP used for production of PU-PIR foams, marginally decreased the heat release and slightly increased the smoke production.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.588

  8. Properties of residual marine fuel produced by thermolysis from polypropylene waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Miknius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics with the aim of producing liquid fuel is one of the alternative solutions to landfill disposal or incineration. The paper describes thermal conversion of polypropylene waste and analysis of produced liquid fuel that would satisfy ISO 8217-2012 requirements for a residual marine fuel. Single pass batch thermolysis processes were conducted at different own vapour pressures (20-80 barg that determined process temperature, residence time of intermediates what resulted in different yields of the liquid product. Obtained products were stabilized by rectification to achieve required standard flash point. Gas chromatography and 1H NMR spectrometry show aliphatic nature of the liquid product where majority of the compounds are isoalkanes and isoalkenes. Only lightest fractions boiling up to a temperature of 72 oC have significant amount of n-pentane. Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons is not even along the boiling range. The fractions boiling at a temperature of 128 oC and 160 oC have the highest content of monocyclic arenes – 3.16 % and 4.09 % respectively. The obtained final liquid residual product meets all but one requirements of ISO 8217-2012 for residual marine fuels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6105

  9. The Acoustical Properties of the Polyurethane Concrete Made of Oyster Shell Waste Comparing Other Concretes as Architectural Design Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erni; Hardiman, Gagoek; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to determine the acoustical properties of concrete material made of polyurethane and oyster shell waste as both fine aggregate and coarse aggregate comparing to other concrete mortar. Architecture needs aesthetics materials, so the innovation in architectural material should be driven through the efforts of research on materials for building designs. The DOE methods was used by mixing cement, oyster shell, sands, and polyurethane by composition of 160 ml:40 ml:100 ml: 120 ml respectively. Refer to the results of previous research, then cement consumption is reduced up to 20% to keep the concept of green material. This study compared three different compositions of mortars, namely portland cement concrete with gravel (PCG), polyurethane concrete of oyster shell (PCO) and concrete with plastics aggregate (PCP). The methods of acoustical tests were conducted refer to the ASTM E413-04 standard. The research results showed that polyurethane concrete with oyster shell waste aggregate has absorption coefficient 0.52 and STL 63 dB and has a more beautiful appearance when it was pressed into moulding. It can be concluded that polyurethane concrete with oyster shell aggregate (PCO) is well implemented in architectural acoustics-components.

  10. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: environmental and recycling-related properties; Muellverbrennungsschlacken: umwelt- und verwertungsrelevante Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, H. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany). Josef-Vogt-Technikum

    2004-07-01

    Re-utilisation of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in civil engineering requires compliance with quality standards defined in term of bulk and leachate concentrations. In addition, solid phase properties comparable to natural construction materials are necessary. Addressing the perspectives and possible constraints of bottom ash recycling, this study includes the results of laboratory analyses, a field leaching experiment, and a survey of several construction projects in which MSWI bottom ash was used as a grounding material. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen zweier Forschungsvorhaben wurden die umwelt- und verwertungsrelevanten Eigenschaften von Muellverbrennungsschlacke (MV-Schlacke) eingehend untersucht. Aufbau, Schadstoffgehalt und Auslaugverhalten von Schlacke sowie die Eignung von Schlacke fuer den Einsatz bei Bauvorhaben standen als zwei Schwerpunkte im Vordergrund. Der Einsatz von MV-Schlacke als Sekundaerrohstoff z.B. in Bauvorhaben stellt entsprechend der Untersuchungsergebnisse eine sinnvolle Verwertungsmoeglichkeit dar. (orig.)

  11. The effect of chromium oxide on the properties of simulated nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, O.; Sussmilch, J.; Urbanec, Z. [and others

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effect of chromium on the properties of selected glasses was performed in the frame of a Contract between Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Nuclear Research Institute, ReZ. In the period from July 1994 to June 1995 two borosilicate glasses of special composition were prepared according to the PNL procedure and their physical and structural characteristics of glasses were studied. This Final Report contains a vast documentation on the properties of all glasses studied. For the preparation of the respective technology more detailed study of physico-chemical properties and crystallinity of investigated systems would be desirable.

  12. An Experimental Investigation towards Improvement of Thermoelectric Properties of Strontium Titanate Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash

    The direct energy conversion between heat and electricity based on thermoelectric effects is a topic of long-standing interest in condensed matter materials science. Experimental and theoretical investigations in order to understand the mechanisms involved and to improve the materials properties and conversion efficiency have been ongoing for more than half a century. While significant achievements have been accomplished in improving the properties of conventional heavy element based materials (such as Bi2Te 3 and PbTe) as well as the discovery of new materials systems for the close-to-room temperature and intermediate temperatures, high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics is still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe. Recently, oxides have exhibited great potential to be investigated for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation. The objective of this dissertation is to synthesize and investigate both electronic and thermal transport in strontium titanate (SrTiO3) ceramics in order to experimentally realize its potential and to ultimately investigate the possibility of further improvement of the thermoelectric performance of this perovskite oxide for mid- to high temperature applications. Developing a synthesis strategy and tuning various synthesis parameters to benefit the thermoelectric transport form the foundation of this study. It is worth mentioning that the results of this study has been employed to prepare targets for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) to study the thermoelectric properties of corresponding thin films and superlattice structures at Dr. Husam Alshareef's group at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. Considering the broad range of functionality of SrTiO3, the findings of this work will surely benefit other fields of research and application of this functional oxide such as photoluminescence, ferroelectricity or mixed-ionic electronic conductivity. This dissertation will ultimately

  13. Effect of annealing on intrinsic magnetic properties in experimentally shocked magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Agnes; Reznik, Boris; Boubnov, Alexey; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Magnetite is an important magnetic carrier on planetary bodies and one of the most significant magnetic minerals in shocked crustal rocks on Earth. This study focuses on the intrinsic magnetic properties and chemical stability of magnetite, shocked experimentally between 5 and 30 GPa and subsequently heated in argon atmosphere up to 700°C. From pre-shocked, shocked and afterwards annealed samples temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal magnetization as well as the Curie and Verwey transition temperature were measured. Shocked magnetite used for the heating experiments is characterized by decreasing magnetic susceptibility, increasing SIRM, a multidomain to pseudo single domain transition, and a decrease in apparent crystallite size seen in X-ray diffraction pattern with increasing shock pressure (Reznik et al., 2016). All these features are in agreement with magnetic domain size reduction caused either by grain fragmentation or a pinning of domain walls at crystal defects and dislocations. However, an increasing width and temperature of the Verwey transition, along with a very small expansion in the lattice cell parameter indicates also distortion of the tetrahedral and octahedral crystal sites. Annealing of the shocked samples strongly modifies the intrinsic magnetic properties and suggests a significant amount of non-permanent magnetic changes in impacted rocks. Therefore, special attention was given to the identification of the iron oxidation state and its coordination geometry in shocked and annealed magnetite using synchrotron-assisted X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition to defect healing, the ordering of ferric and ferrous iron on tetrahedral and octahedral sites seems to play a crucial role in the interpretation of the intrinsic magnetic properties modifications in shocked and annealed magnetite. Reznik, B., Kontny, A., Fritz, J., Gerhards, U., 2016, Shock-induced deformation phenomena in magnetite and their

  14. Numerical and Experimental Characterizations of Damping Properties of SMAs Composite for Vibration Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; LoConte, A.; Previtali, B.

    2012-12-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very interesting smart materials not only for their shape memory and superelastic effects but also because of their significant intrinsic damping capacity. The latter is exhibited upon martensitic transformations and especially in martensitic state. The combination of these SMA properties with the mechanical and the lightweight of fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FGRP) is a promising solution for manufacturing of innovative composites for vibration suppression in structural applications. CuZnAl sheets, after laser patterning, were embedded in a laminated composite between a thick FGRP core and two thin outer layers with the aim of maximizing the damping capacity of the beam for passive vibration suppression. The selected SMA Cu66Zn24Al10 at.% was prepared by vacuum induction melting; the ingot was subsequently hot-and-cold rolled down to 0.2 mm thickness tape. The choice of a copper alloy is related to some advantages in comparison with NiTiCu SMA alloys, which was tested for the similar presented application in a previous study: lower cost, higher storage modulus and consequently higher damping properties in martensitic state. The patterning of the SMA sheets was performed by means of a pulsed fiber laser. After the laser processing, the SMA sheets were heat treated to obtain the desired martensitic state at room temperature. The transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The damping properties were determined, at room temperature, on full-scale sheet, using a universal testing machine (MTS), with cyclic tensile tests at different deformation amplitudes. Damping properties were also determined as a function of the temperature on miniature samples with a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). Numerical modeling of the laminated composite, done with finite element method analysis and modal strain energy approaches, was performed to estimate the corresponding total damping capacity and then

  15. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  16. Viscosity of ashes from energy production and municipal solid waste handling: A comparative study between two different experimental setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Folkedahl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high-temperature rot...

  17. The effect of colouring agent on the physical properties of glass ceramic produced from waste glass for antimicrobial coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juoi, J. M.; Ayoob, N. F.; Rosli, Z. M.; Rosli, N. R.; Husain, K.

    2016-07-01

    Domestic waste glass is utilized as raw material for the production of glass ceramic material (GCM) via sinter crystallisation route. The glass ceramic material in a form of tiles is to be utilized for the deposition of Ag-TiO2 antimicrobial coating. Two types of soda lime glass (SLG) that are non-coloured and green SLG are utilised as main raw materials during the batch formulation in order to study the effect of colouring agent (Fe2O3) on the physical and mechanical properties of glass ceramic produced. Glass powder were prepared by crushing bottles using hammer milled with milling machine and sieved until they passed through 75 µm sieve. The process continues by mixing glass powder with ball clay with ratio of 95:5 wt. %, 90:10 wt. % and 85:15 wt. %. Each batch mixture was then uniaxial pressed and sintered at 800°C, 825 °C and 850 °C. The physical and mechanical properties were then determined and compared between those produced from non-coloured and green coloured SLG in order to evaluate the effect of colouring agent (Fe2O3) on the GCM produced. The optimum properties of non-coloured SLG is produced with smaller ball clay content (10 wt. %) compared to green SLG (15 wt. %). The physical properties (determined thru ASTM C373) of the optimized GCM produced from non-coloured SLG and green SLG are 0.69 % of porosity, 1.92 g/cm3 of bulk density, 0.36 % of water absorption; and 1.96 % of porosity, 2.69 g/cm3 of bulk density, 0.73 % of water absorption; respectively. Results also indicate that the most suitable temperature in producing GCM from both glasses with optimized physical and mechanical properties is at 850 °C.

  18. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  19. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  20. Comparison of mechanical properties of glass-bonded sodalite and borosilicate glass high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Holleran, T. P.; DiSanto, T.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.

    2000-05-09

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a glass-bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of 75 vol.% crystalline sodalite and 25 vol.% glass. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on this material and borosilicate glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confined for the glass-bonded sodalite waste form, while median-radial cracking occurred in the borosilicate glass. The elastic modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and elastic modulus values are reported for both waste forms.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of isomeric iso-butoxybenzoic acids: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Sporzyński, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland); Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Department of Physical Chemistry and Department, Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of butoxy benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Vaporization, sublimation and fusion enthalpies were derived. • Molar enthalpies of formation were measured by calorimetry. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Simple additivity method suggested for prediction thermochemical properties. - Abstract: Standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation at the temperature T = 298.15 K of the 2-, 3-, and 4-iso-butoxybenzoic acids were measured using the combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were derived from the vapor pressure temperature dependencies measured by the transpiration method. Molar enthalpies of the solid state phase transitions were measured by the DSC. Thermodynamic data on alkoxy substituted benzoic acids available in the literature were collected and combined with own experimental results. This data set on alkoxybenzoic acids was evaluated by using quantum-chemical and group-additivity methods.

  2. Optical and vibrational properties of phosphorylcholine-based contact lenses-Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipecka, Katarzyna; Miedziński, Rafał; Sitarz, Maciej; Filipecki, Jacek; Makowska-Janusik, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    The Raman, MIR and UV-vis spectroscopy have been used to characterize Omafilcon A material constructing the one of the Proclear family contact lenses. The Omafilcon A is hydrogel material composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (PC) polymers crosslinked with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Vibrational and electronic properties of the Omafilcon A material were also investigated by quantum chemical calculations. Experimentally obtained Raman, MIR and optical spectra were compared to the theoretical ones calculated applying RHF and DFT methodology. The quantum chemical calculations were performed for isolated monomers of lenses compounds as well as for their dimers and trimers to elucidate the effect of Omafilcon A polymerization and the role of an individual components.

  3. Experimental investigation into the effects of meteoritic impacts on the spectral properties of phyllosilicates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Ninagawa, K.; Gucsik, A.; Hasegawa, S.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosilicates have been identified in some of the most highly cratered Noachian terrains on Mars. To study the effects of such impacts on the properties of phyllosilicates, we experimentally shocked six phyllosilicate minerals relevant to the Martian surface: montmorillonite, nontronite, kaolinite, prehnite, chlorite, and serpentine. The shock-treated samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL), and the shock pressures and temperatures in some were modeled using Autodyn modeling software. XRD data show that the structure of each mineral, except prehnite, underwent partial structural deformation or amorphization. We also found that while the NIR spectra of shocked samples were very similar to that of the original sample, the MIR spectra changed significantly. This may explain some of the discrepancies between CRISM/OMEGA data (NIR) and TES/THEMIS (MIR) observations of phyllosilicates on Mars. Quartz was identified as a secondary phase in the XRD of shocked chlorite.

  4. Influence of ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA based experimental resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LMP, Campos; Boaro, LC; LKG, Santos; Parra, DF; Lugão, AB

    2015-10-01

    Dental restorative composites are activated by visible light and the polymerization process, known as direct technique, is initiated by absorbing light in a specific wavelength range (450-500 nm). However this technique presented some disadvantages. If light is not inserted correctly, layers uncured can cause countless damage to restoration, especially with regard to mechanical properties. A clinical alternative used to reduce the shortcomings of direct application is the use of composite resins for indirect application. These composites are adaptations of resins prepared for direct use, with differences mainly in the healing process. Besides the traditional photoactivation, indirect application composites may be submitted to particular curing conditions, such as a slow curing rate, heating, vacuum, and inert-gas pressure leading to an oxygen-free environment. However few studies have been conducted on the process of post-curing by ionizing radiation at low doses. On this sense the purpose of this study was to evaluate possible interactions of ionizing radiation in the post-curing process of the experimental composites based on BisGMA/TEGDMA filled with silica Aerosil OX-50 silanized. Characterization of the experimental composites was performed by thermogravimetry analysis, infrared spectroscopy, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Statistical analysis of results was calculated by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test. Cross-linking of the polymeric matrix caused by ionizing radiation, influenced the thermal stability of irradiated specimens. FTIR analysis showed that the ionizing radiation induced a post-cure reaction in the specimens. The irradiation dose influenced directly the mechanical properties that showed a strong positive correlation between flexural strength and irradiation and between modulus strength and irradiation.

  5. FE and experimental study on how the cortex material properties of synthetic femurs affect strain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vitor M M; Neto, Maria A; Amaro, Ana M; Roseiro, Luis M; Paulino, M F

    2017-08-01

    The primary aim of this work was to validate the "numerical" cortex material properties (transversely isotropic) of synthetic femurs and to evaluate how the strain level of the cancellous bone can be affected by the FE modeling of the material's behavior. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find out if the parameters of the cortex material affect global strain results more than the Polyurethane (PU) foam used to simulate cancellous bone. Standard 4th generation composite femurs were made with 0.32g/cm3 solid PU foam to model healthy cancellous bone, while 0.2g/cm3 cellular PU was used to model unhealthy cancellous bone. Longitudinal and transversal Young's moduli of cortical bone were defined according the manufacturer data, while shear modulus and Poisson's ratios were defined from the literature. All femurs were instrumented with rosette strain gauges and loaded according to ISO7206 standards, simulating a one-legged stance. The experimental results were then compared with those from finite element analysis. When cortical bone was modelled as transversely isotropic, an overall FE/experimental error of 11% was obtained. However, with isotropic material the error rose to 20%. Strain field distributions predicted inside the two bone models were similar, but the strain state of a healthy cancellous bone was much more a compression state than that of unhealthy bone, the compression state decreased about 90%. Strain magnitudes show that average strain-levels of cancellous bone can be significantly affected by the properties of the cortical bone material and, therefore, simulations of femur-implanted systems must account for the composite behavior of the cortex, since small shear strains would develop near isotropic cancellous bone-implant interfaces. Moreover, the authors suggest that changing the volume fraction of glass fibers used to manufacture the cortical bone would allow a more realistic osteoporotic synthetic femurs to be produced. Copyright © 2017 IPEM

  6. Bacterial viability and physical properties of antibacterially modified experimental dental resin composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the antibacterial effect and the effect on the material properties of a novel delivery system with Irgasan as active agent and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan when added to experimental dental resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A delivery system based on novel polymeric hollow beads, loaded with Irgasan and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan as active agents were used to manufacture three commonly formulated experimental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as standard (ST. Material A contained the delivery system providing 4 % (m/m Irgasan, material B contained 4 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan and material C 8 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan. Flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, water sorption (WS, solubility (SL, surface roughness Ra, polymerization shrinkage, contact angle Θ, total surface free energy γS and its apolar γS (LW, polar γS (AB, Lewis acid γS (+and base γS (- term as well as bacterial viability were determined. Significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The materials A to C were not unacceptably influenced by the modifications and achieved the minimum values for FS, WS and SL as requested by EN ISO 4049 and did not differ from ST what was also found for Ra. Only A had lower FM than ST. Θ of A and C was higher and γS (AB of A and B was lower than of ST. Materials A to C had higher γS (+ than ST. The antibacterial effect of materials A to C was significantly increased when compared with ST meaning that significantly less vital cells were found. CONCLUSION: Dental resin composites with small quantities of a novel antibacterially doped delivery system or with an antibacterial monomer provided acceptable physical properties and good antibacterial effectiveness. The sorption material being part of the delivery system can be used as a vehicle for any other active agent.

  7. Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpa, Orhan [Dicle University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Yumrutas, Recep [University of Gaziantep, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gaziantep (Turkey); Argunhan, Zeki [University of Batman, Mechanical Engineering Department, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank, thermostats and control panel is designed and manufactured. The DLF is produced by using the system and applying pyrolitic distillation method. Characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions tests of the produced DLF are carried out at the end of the production. The characteristic tests such as density, viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulfur content and distillation of the DLF sample are performed utilizing test equipments presented in motor laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Gaziantep, Turkey. Performance and exhaust emission tests for the DLF are performed using diesel test engine. It is observed from the test results that about 60 cc out of each 100 cc of the waste oil are converted into the DLF. Characteristics and distillation temperatures of the DLF are close to those values of a typical diesel fuel sample. It is observed that the produced DLF can be used in diesel engines without any problem in terms of engine performance. The DLF increases torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency and decreases brake specific fuel consumption of the engine for full power of operation. (author)

  8. Cross-linked Polyelectrolyte and Its Function in Adsorption of Fluid and Excess Nitrogen Waste Products: an Experimental Study on Dialysate Effluent Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Khosroshahi, Hamid; Abedi, Behzad; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Alizadeh, Effat; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadreza; Abedi, Yaghoub

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important issues in patients with chronic kidney disease is fluid retention and volume overload accompanied by retention of nitrogenous waste products and some electrolytes. Bowel fluid contains high levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and electrolytes, which make it a potential candidate for intestinal excretion of nitrogen wastes and electrolytes. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte (CLP) is a polymer that, given orally, absorbs excess fluid, electrolyte, and nitrogenous waste products. In an experimental study on 30 hemodialysis patients, the effect of CLP on adsorption of fluid, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium were evaluated. For this purpose, 500 mL of effluent fluid of each patient were collected at the 1st hour of dialysis. The concentrations of the abovementioned products were measured by standard methods. Then the dialysate effluent samples were treated with 6 g of CLP and incubated for 4 hours at 37°C. Up to 80% of effluent fluid water was adsorbed by CLP. There were significant reductions in urea, creatinine, uric acid, and sodium levels in the remaining effluent fluid (P substitute for conventional dialysis methods, especially hemodialysis.

  9. Full-scale experimental investigation of deposition and corrosion of pre-protector and 3rdsuperheater in a waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Wenga, Terrence; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Guanyi; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Zhihua; Wu, Xiao

    2017-12-13

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is widely adopted as a waste management strategy and for the energy production. However, this technology experience grave deposition and corrosion of the boiler tubes due to high chlorine (~1.09wt.%) and alkali metal (Na, K) content in MSW. Little is known about the concentration profile of these corrosive elements in the deposits at different boiler locations. Therefore, a full-scale experimental investigation was conducted to determine the concentration profile of Cl, K, Na, S, and Ca in the deposits at pre-protector and compare with those at 3 rd superheater during MSW combustion at a 36 MWe waste incineration plant (WIP) in Chengdu, China. The deposit samples were analyzed using wet chemical techniques, scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The concentrations of Na, K, and Cl were high in the deposits at pre-protector while S and Ca concentrations were high on the 3 rd superheater. The pre-protector was severely corroded than the 3 rd superheater. The governing mechanisms for the deposition and corrosion on these boiler locations were elucidated.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study on field emission properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Wei-Man; Liu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Li

    2015-05-01

    Field emission properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. CNTs are in situ decorated with ZnO NPs during the growth process by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from the iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The experimental field emission test shows that the ZnO NP decoration significantly improves the emission current from 50 μA to 275 μA at 550 V and the reduced threshold voltage from 450 V to 350 V. The field emission mechanism of ZnO NPs on CNTs is theoretically studied by the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the Penn-Plummer method. The ZnO NPs reconstruct the ZnO-CNT structure and pull down the surface barrier of the entire emitter system to 0.49 eV so as to reduce the threshold electric field. The simulation results suggest that the presence of ZnO NPs would increase the LDOS near the Fermi level and increase the emission current. The calculation results are consistent with the experiment results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91123018, 61172040, and 61172041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7277).

  11. Experimental Study On Fracture Property Of Double Cantilever Beam Specimen With Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate double cantilever beam specimen with aluminum foam bonded by spray adhesive to investigate the fracture strength of the adhesive joint experimentally. The fracture energy at opening mode is calculated by the formulae of British Engineering Standard (BS 7991 and International Standard (ISO 11343. For the static experiment, four types of specimens with the heights (h of 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm and 40 mm are manufactured and the experimental results are compared with each other. As the height becomes greater, the fracture energy becomes higher. After the length of crack reaches 150 mm, the fracture energy of the specimen (h=35 mm is greater than that of the specimen (h=40 mm. Fatigue test is also performed with DCB test specimen. As the height decreases, the fracture energy becomes higher. By the result obtained from this study, aluminum foam with adhesive joint can be applied to actual composite structure and its fracture property can possibly be anticipated.

  12. Experimental characterization of mechanical properties of the cement pasteaggregate interface in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebli, M.; Jamin, F.; Malachanne, E.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; El Youssoufi, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Granular materials are extensively used in the field of civil engineering. These materials are either used in their dry state, or mixed with water or with a binder. In the case of concrete, the binder could be cement or mortar. For ordinary concretes, it is generally admitted that there is a thin heterogeneous zone of paste, with a thickness of about 15-60 μm, surrounding the aggregates surface. This zone, commonly named the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ), is characterized by a higher porosity than the bulk paste and a high concentration of the portlandite crystals. Some of these crystals react with the aggregates' surface (limestone aggregates), leading to a good adhesion. In this work, the mechanical properties of the cement paste and of the cement-aggregate interface are experimentally analyzed. Experimental tensile and shear tests are performed on parallelipipedic samples. These samples are made by linking limestone aggregates with Portland cement paste using a water / cement ratio of 0.5. The results show that the cement-aggregate interface is the weak zone in the composite.

  13. Experimental Study on Tribological Properties of Laser Textured 45 Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of pits’ size parameters on the tribological properties of textured friction pairs, using the Nd:YAG laser micro machining system and the “single pulse at the same point, interval more times” processing technics to process the pits on the surface of 45 steel. The dimension parameters of pits texture were obtained by orthogonal experimental design. The tribological experiment of GCr15 pin/45 steel disc was carried out by UMT-2 test machine. The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the pits texture on the surface of 45 steel can effectively reduce the friction coefficient and the wear on the condition of oil-rich lubrication. The textured specimen with diameter 60μm, depth 6μm and surface density 10% has the lowest friction coefficient, and the friction coefficient is reduced by 21% compared with the smooth specimen. By analyzing the wear morphology on the surface of 45 steel, it is found that the surface of pits texture can obviously reduce the wear.

  14. Predicting experimental properties of integral membrane proteins by a naive Bayes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Galiano, Antonio J; Smialowski, Pawel; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2008-03-01

    Integral membrane proteins (iMPs) are challenging targets for structure determination because of the substantial experimental difficulties involved in their sample preparation. Accordingly, success rates of large-scale structural genomics consortia are much lower for this class of molecules compared to globular targets, underscoring the pressing need for predictive strategies to identify iMPs that are more likely to overcome laboratory bottlenecks. On the basis of the target status information available in the TargetDB repository, we describe the first large-scale analysis of experimental behavior of iMPs. Using information on recalcitrant and propagating iMP targets as negative and positive sets, respectively, we present naive Bayes classifiers capable of predicting, from sequence alone, those proteins that are more amenable to cloning, expression, and solubilization studies. Protein sequences are represented in the space of 72 features, including amino acid composition, occurrence of amino acid groups, ratios between residue groups, and hydrophobicity measures. Taking into account unequal representation of main taxonomic groups in the TargetDB, sequence database had a beneficial effect on the prediction results. The classifiers achieve accuracies of 70%, 63-70%, and 61% in predicting the amenability of iMPs for cloning, expression, and solubilization, respectively, thus making them useful tools in target selection for structure determination. Our assessment of prediction results clearly demonstrates that classifiers based on single features do not possess acceptable discriminative power and that the experimental behavior of iMPs is imprinted in their primary sequence through relationships between a restricted set of key properties. In most cases, sets of 10-20 protein features were found actually relevant, most notably, the content of isoleucine, valine, and positively-charged residues. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The strength of plants: theory and experimental methods to measure the mechanical properties of stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshil U; Reynolds, Thomas P S; Ramage, Michael H

    2017-07-20

    From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour. Then, we critically evaluate various methods to test structural properties of stems, including flexural bending (two-, three-, and four-point bending) and axial loading (tensile, compressive, and buckling) tests. Recommendations are made on best practices. This review is relevant to fundamental studies exploring plant biomechanics, mechanical phenotyping of plants, and the determinants of mechanical properties in cell walls, as well as to application-focused studies, such as in agro-breeding and forest management projects, aiming to understand deformation processes of stem structures. The methods explored here can also be extended to other elongated, rod-shaped organs (e.g. petioles, midribs, and even roots). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Preparation of Antibacterial Polyvinylcholoride-Zno Nanocomposite with Improved Mechanical Properties Using Taguchi Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Kamelaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were selected as reinforcing agent with the aim of improving antibacterial and mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC. PVC-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by dispersing ZnO nanoparticles into a PVC solution. Taguchi experimental design method was used to determine the optimal conditions for preparation of nanocomposite. The effects of five factors including ZnO weight percentage, kind of solvent, the addition method of ZnO, film drying temperature and stirring time were investigated on different levels. Optimal conditions were determined by using the signal/noise (S/N method. It was distinguished that, kind of solvent, the addition method of ZnO and ZnO weight percentage are three significant factors in the confidence level of 95%. Staphylo coccus aureus and Escherichi coli, two different types of bacteria (one gram-positive bacteria and one gram-negative bacteria were used in Mueller-Hinton broth for antimicrobial testing. This test confirmed the antibacterial property of the optimal nanocomposite in respect to pure polyvinyl chloride. A scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDX was used to characterize the composition and structure of the optimal nanocomposite film.

  17. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  18. Experimental investigation of laser peening on TiAl alloy microstructure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hongchao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of laser peening on microstructures and properties of TiAl alloy, TiAl alloy samples were treated by Nd:YAG laser system with the wavelength of 1064 nm, pulse-width of 18 ns, and pulse-energy of 0–10 J. Surface micro-hardness, roughness, and microstructural characteristics were tested with micro-hardness tester, roughness tester and scanning electron microscope. Residual stress and pole figures were tested with X-ray diffraction and its high-temperature stability was analyzed. The experimental results show that surface micro-hardness increases by up to 30%, roughness increases to 0.37 μm, compressive residual stress increases to 337 MPa, and local texture and typical lamellar microstructure are generated. Residual stress, micro-hardness, and (002 pole figures tests are conducted, compressive residual stress value drops from 337 MPa to 260 MPa, hardness value drops from 377 HV0.2 to 343 HV0.2, and the (002 poles shift back to the center slightly. Laser peening improves microstructure and properties of TiAl alloy significantly.

  19. Investigation of the existence of self compacting properties in high performance concrete through experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor H. Yoshida

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The self compacting concrete is characterized by its capacity to flow inside the formwork filling it exclusively by the force of the gravity with adequate cohesion and viscosity in such a way that segregation does not occur. One of its characteristic is the presence of fines which provide the necessary cohesion,and grains with maximum diameter of 20 mm. This work presents some procedures and experimental methods that make it possible to evaluate self compacting properties of high performance concrete. First, a bibliographical review on the subject was carried out, and later, the equipment used for the accomplishment of the assays were manufactured, in order to verify the properties related to the self compacting concrete: cohesion, viscosity and segregation. As for the work, two concretes were produced with Portland ARI Cement, thick sand, stone powder, sand 0, superplasticizer made of ether-carboxilate chains that differentiate from each other for the presence of active silica in one of them and fly ash in the other. Based on the results, it was verified whether the high performance concrete had self compacting characteristics. In this case, both were considered positive. It was also analyzed the behavior of these concretes in their hardened state by means of the compressive strength test. The Self Compacting Concrete has many advantages such as: reduction in the number of employees, shorter construction period, the non-use of the vibrator and the filling of formworks with high density of… or of complex geometry.

  20. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design.

  1. Experimental Study on the Properties of Concrete Mixed with Iron Ore Tailings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Zhong-xi; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Dai, Chun-quan; Liu, Shu-jie

    2016-01-01

      The objective of this study is to evaluate the modified performance of concrete with mixing of iron ore tailings in order to solve the shortage of natural sand and make full use of industrial waste...

  2. Assessment of dynamic material properties of intact rocks using seismic wave attenuation: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanniarachchi, W. A. M.; Ranjith, P. G.; Perera, M. S. A.; Rathnaweera, T. D.; Lyu, Q.; Mahanta, B.

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of any substance are essential facts to understand its behaviour and make the maximum use of the particular substance. Rocks are indeed an important substance, as they are of significant use in the energy industry, specifically for fossil fuels and geothermal energy. Attenuation of seismic waves is a non-destructive technique to investigate mechanical properties of reservoir rocks under different conditions. The attenuation characteristics of five different rock types, siltstone, shale, Australian sandstone, Indian sandstone and granite, were investigated in the laboratory using ultrasonic and acoustic emission instruments in a frequency range of 0.1-1 MHz. The pulse transmission technique and spectral ratios were used to calculate the attenuation coefficient (α) and quality factor (Q) values for the five selected rock types for both primary (P) and secondary (S) waves, relative to the reference steel sample. For all the rock types, the attenuation coefficient was linearly proportional to the frequency of both the P and S waves. Interestingly, the attenuation coefficient of granite is more than 22% higher than that of siltstone, sandstone and shale for both P and S waves. The P and S wave velocities were calculated based on their recorded travel time, and these velocities were then used to calculate the dynamic mechanical properties including elastic modulus (E), bulk modulus (K), shear modulus (µ) and Poisson's ratio (ν). The P and S wave velocities for the selected rock types varied in the ranges of 2.43-4.61 km s-1 and 1.43-2.41 km h-1, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the P wave velocity was always greater than the S wave velocity, and this confirmed the first arrival of P waves to the sensor. According to the experimental results, the dynamic E value is generally higher than the static E value obtained by unconfined compressive strength tests.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS tests together with an acoustic emission (AE system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  4. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories; Metodologia experimental para estudios de sorcion y migracion de radionucleidos en formaciones geologicas y barreras de almacenamientos de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-07-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  6. A validated numerical-experimental design methodology for a movable supersonic ejector compressor for waste-heat recovery

    OpenAIRE

    PERSOONS, TIM; MURRAY, DARINA

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED The aim of this paper is to develop the technical knowledge, especially the optimum geometries, for the design and manufacturing of a supersonic gas-gas ejecto r for a waste heat driven vehicle cooling system. Although several studies have been performed to inves tigate the effects of geometrical configurations of gas-gas ejectors, a progressive design methodology of an ejector compressor for application to a vehicle cooling system has not yet been descr ...

  7. Production of cellulose pulp from agribusiness waste: experimental analysis of factors affecting the characteristics of pulp for absorbent purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane da Luz Seben Scheffler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a recurrent theme in industrial engineering. Commercial production of canned palm hearts generates an amount of waste from the leaf sheaths that envelop the heart of palm, which can be used to produce cellulose pulp then reducing environmental impacts. This study aims to examine the feasibility of cellulose pulping from King Palm leaf sheaths to obtain a fiber with absorbent capacity and low residual lignin content, as well as demonstrate the influence of the controllable process factors on the response variables analyzed through the formulation of n-dimensional equations and surfaces which permitted the optimization of the variables of interest. The response variables were selected in order to characterize the fiber obtained according to degree of delignification, absorption capability and speed and apparent density. The results indicated that the pulps obtained from the processes proposed although didn’t meet the quality standards required for absorbent pulps, since values are lower than those established in the research hypotheses, is very promising. This attempt raises the discussion around the role that industrial engineering professionals and researchers may play in the agribusiness waste recovery and recycling. Moreover it provides useful information for re-planning of experiments in search for extraction optimization of this or similar agribusiness wastes.

  8. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  9. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N. D.; Rees-White, T. C.; Beaven, R. P.; Stringfellow, A. M.; Barker, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5 m and 20 m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as 0.02 ( 4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting.

  10. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N D; Rees-White, T C; Beaven, R P; Stringfellow, A M; Barker, J A

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5m and 20m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as ~0.02 (~4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-08

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3-21), GalOS (DP 5-12), and OGalA (DP 2-12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.

  12. Hydraulic properties of dune sand–bentonite mixtures of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Gueddouda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the valorization of local materials such as desert dune sand obtained from Laghouat region in the South Algeria and mine bentonite intended for the realization of liner base layers in the conception of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities. In practice, an economical mixture satisfying the hydraulic requirements is generally concerned. First, in order to get an adequate dune sand–bentonite mixture compacted to the optimum Proctor condition, an investigation on saturated hydraulic behavior is carried out in this study for different mixtures. Using oedometer test (indirect measurement, the adequate mixture of 85% dune sand and 15% bentonite satisfies the conditions of saturated hydraulic conductivity (k  3 MPa. This technique is conducted based on the exploitation of the water retention curve in order to establish the relationships between hydraulic conductivity, degree of saturation, and suction. It shows that the hydraulic conductivity increases with the degree of saturation and decreases with the suction. However, the hydraulic conductivity has a constant value for suctions larger than 20 MPa. The selected dune sand–bentonite mixture satisfies the regulation requirements and hence constitutes a good local and economical material for the conception of barrier base liners.

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of composites based on a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and natural fiber waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestore, O.; Kajaks, J.; Vancovicha, I.; Reihmane, S.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the content and fiber length of textile waste (cotton, flax, and hemp) on the deformation and strength properties (in tension and bending) of a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated. It was found that the tensile strength increased for all composites containing hemp fibers of up to 30 wt.%. The elongation at break rapidly decreased when the filler content was raised to 10 wt.%, but thereafter changed insignificantly. The flexural strength and modulus increased considerably with filler content in the composites. On the contrary, their deformability, as expected, decreased. The influence of hemp fibers on the physicalmechanical properties of the LLDPE was somewhat more pronounced. The optimum content of fibers in the composites (30 wt.%) was significantly smaller than that usually obtained (40-50 wt.% natural fibers) for other polyolefin composites, for example, with low-density polyethylene and polypropylene matrices. The highest values of strength parameters, both in tension and bending, were reached for systems with a fiber length of up to 1 mm. The melt flow index decreased considerably with increasing fiber content in the LLDPE matrix (from 4.4 dg/min for LLDPE to 0.05-0.14 dg/min for systems containing 30 wt.% fibers). Nevertheless, processing of the composites was possible by traditional methods, for example, extrusion.

  14. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C, time (min, and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL, and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity.

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of waste polyethylene/nitrile butadiene rubber blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf O. Aly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation radical–radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free, and simple. In this work a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma-rays, mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behavior to emphasize the blend formation. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of unirradiated ones. A relatively low-radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≈50 kGy.

  16. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-01-09

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of drying, composting and subsequent impurity removal by sieving on the properties of digestates from municipal organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Christine; Dornack, Christina; Raab, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The application of organic soil amendments is a common measure to prevent structural degradation of agricultural soils and to maintain and improve long-term soil fertility. Solid residues from anaerobic digestion of municipal organic waste (MOW) are rich in nutrients and organic matter and have a promising potential to be used as soil amendment. However, no study has related amendment properties of MOW digestate of one origin to different treatment procedures. We therefore investigated the impact of drying, composting and sieving on final digestate properties and specifically nutrient availability and heavy metal and carbon elution. Samples were provided by a semi-industrial two-stage biogas plant with dry fermentation of MOW. Results confirm that in comparison to drying, composting of MOW digestates leads to a significant increase of K, P, Mg, Ca, Cd and Cr in the digestates. Sieving of composted digestates showed that heavy metals are not evenly distributed and that heavy metal concentration in the digestate increases with decreasing mesh sizes (highest concentrations in the fractions organic carbon (DOC) release (R > 0.7, p<0.05). Results confirm that the extent of carbon elution depends on the degradation rate of digestates. DOC may therefore be a good measure to evaluate digestate stability and to decide on treatment measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The possibility of separation of electronic waste by means of their electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowron Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric field has a lot of applications in technology. One of them is electrodynamic separation: electric field influences selectively granular solids of different moments or charges. A mathematical model of the separation process in high voltage drum separator is presented in the paper. Particles are charged both by induction and corona phenomena: next, they are separated by effects of the field forces. Some computational and experimental results are given and analyses.

  19. Impact of cementitious materials decalcification on transfer properties: application to radioactive waste deep repository; Influence de la decalcification de materiaux cimentaires sur les proprietes de transfert: application au stockage profond de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlot, C

    2005-09-15

    Cementitious materials have been selected to compose the engineering barrier system (EBS) of the French radioactive waste deep repository, because of concrete physico-chemical properties: the hydrates of the cementitious matrix and the pH of the pore solution contribute to radionuclides retention; furthermore the compactness of these materials limits elements transport. The confinement capacity of the system has to be assessed while a period at least equivalent to waste activity (up to 100.000 years). His durability was sustained by the evolution of transfer properties in accordance with cementitious materials decalcification, alteration that expresses structure long-term behavior. Then, two degradation modes were carried out, taking into account the different physical and chemical solicitations imposed by the host formation. The first mode, a static one, was an accelerated decalcification test using nitrate ammonium solution. It replicates the EBS alteration dues to underground water. Degradation kinetic was estimated by the amount of calcium leached and the measurement of the calcium hydroxide dissolution front. To evaluate the decalcification impact, samples were characterized before and after degradation in term of microstructure (porosity, pores size distribution) and of transfer properties (diffusivity, gas and water permeability). The influence of cement nature (ordinary Portland cement, blended cement) and aggregates type (lime or siliceous) was observed: experiments were repeated on different mortars mixes. On this occasion, an essential reflection on this test metrology was led. The second mode, a dynamical degradation, was performed with an environmental permeameter. It recreates the EBS solicitations ensured during the re-saturation period, distinguished by the hydraulic pressure imposed by the geologic layer and the waste exothermicity. This apparatus, based on triaxial cell functioning, allows applying on samples pressure drop between 2 and 10 MPa and

  20. Sinter recrystalization and properties evaluation of glass-ceramic from waste glass bottle and magnesite for extended application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As'mau Ibrahim Gebi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study set out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste coca cola glass bottles and magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state. A reagent grade chrome (coloring agent were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle;  X-ray fluorescence(XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were used to characterize raw materials, four batches GC-1= Coca cola glass frit +1%Cr2O3, GC-2=97% Coca cola glass frit+ 2% magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-3=95% Coca cola glass frit+ 4%magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-4=93%Coca cola glass frit+ 6%magnesite+ 1%Cr2O3 were formulated and prepared. Thermal Gradient Analysis (TGA results were used as a guide in selection of three temperatures (7000C, 7500C and 8000C used for the study, three particle sizes -106+75, -75+53, -53µm and 2 hr sintering time were also used, the sinter crystallization route of glass ceramic production was adopted. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the density, porosity, hardness and flexural strength of the resulting glass ceramics were also measured. The resulting glass ceramic materials composed mainly of wollastonite, diopside and anorthite phases depending on composition as indicated by XRD and SEM, the density of the samples increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The porosity is minimal and it decreases with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The obtained glass ceramic materials possess appreciable hardness and flexural strength with GC-3 and GC-4 having the best combination of both properties.

  1. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Study of Mechanical Properties of Waste Biomass Reinforced Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. SINGHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers play an important role in developing high performing fully biodegradable composites which will be a key material to solve the current ecological and environmental problems. Due to enormous advantages of composites reinforced with natural fibers, a study on pine needles reinforced urea-resorcinol-formaldehyde composites has been made. Present investigation has revealed that urea-formaldehyde resin in 1.0: 2.5 ratio exhibits optimum mechanical behavior whereas in case urea-resorcinol- formaldehyde resin, the best mechanical behavior was shown by 1.0: 1.0: 2.5 ratios. However, reinforcing of this resin with pine-needles of 1 cm size and evaluation of their mechanical properties showed that mechanical properties increase with reinforcement. These results were further supported by the SEM and thermal studies.

  3. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  4. Mechanical properties and microstructural analysis of Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk waste particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Oghenevweta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and morphological analysis of Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk particulate composites was investigated. The compositions of the composite include a matrix of Al–Si–Mg and the carbonized maize stalk particulates as reinforcement ranging from 2% to 10% at an interval of 2%. Properties such as mechanical behaviour of the composites were examined and these include tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness value, impact energy, percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. Besides, the microstructures of the developed Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk particulate composites were investigated. The results of the microstructures of the composite show a uniform dispersion of the reinforcement along the grain boundaries of the alloy. The tensile strength and hardness values increase to 85.60 N/mm2 and 24HRB at 8 and 10 wt% of carbonized maize stalk respectively, but there is a slight decrease in the impact energy values, values of percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area as the reinforcement increases. From these results of investigation, we concluded that the carbonized reinforcing maize particulates can be used to enhance the properties of Al–Si–Mg alloy for engineering applications.

  5. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  6. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  7. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and

  8. Effect of nanoclay addition on physical, chemical, optical and biological properties of experimental dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Tais; Fredholm, Yann; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniel; da Silva, Pedro; Chenal, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    To prepare organically modified montmorillonite (OM MMT) and assess mechanical, physical, chemical and biological effects of its introduction into resin-composites. Natural MMT clay was modified by a methacrylate functionalized quaternary ammonium intercalating agent. Interlayer distance was measured by X-ray diffraction. Dental composites were then prepared with x=0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 7.5wt.% of OM MMT, (75-x) wt.% of silanated barium glass and 25wt.% of methacrylate based matrix). Relative weight loss was measured and the effect of the substitution on mechanical properties was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis and hardness tests. Properties of resin composites were evaluated in terms of water sorption, light transmittance, biological tests and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Resin based composites with well-dispersed organically modified MMT were successfully prepared. There were no significant weight loss differences shown by TGA within all samples. The DMA analysis showed that the introduction of clays have a beneficial effect in increasing the storage and elastic modulus of composites. Clay presence was shown to interfere with the blue light transmittance, affecting Vickers hardness and water sorption levels. The amount of released monomers measured from extracts was below expected levels for this type of materials and biological tests show satisfactory cell compatibility. This paper reports the successful functionalization of MMT by a methacrylate group and further incorporation in experimental dental composites. Physical and biological results show a potential interest to the application of nanoclays into dental resin composites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. UV-Vis optoelectronic properties of α-SnWO4: A comparative experimental and density functional theory based study

    KAUST Repository

    Ziani, Ahmed

    2015-09-03

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the optoelectronic properties of α-SnWO4 for UV-Vis excitation. The experimentally measured values for thin films were systematically compared with high-accuracy density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory using the HSE06 functional. The α-SnWO4 material shows an indirect bandgap of 1.52 eV with high absorption coefficient in the visible-light range (>2 × 105 cm−1). The results show relatively high dielectric constant (>30) and weak diffusion properties (large effective masses) of excited carriers.

  10. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  11. Production of valuable pyrolytic oils from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in Indonesia using non-isothermal and isothermal experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mamad Gandidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW, disposed of at open dumping sites, poses health risks, contaminates surface water, and releases greenhouse gasses such as methane. However, pyrolysis offers the opportunity to convert MSW into Bio-Oil (BO for clean energy resource. In this paper, an MSW sample consisting of plastic, paper and cardboard, rubber and textiles, and vegetable waste is pyrolysed on a laboratory scale in a fixed-bed vacuum reactor. In the non-isothermal process, the sample was fed into the reactor and then heated. In the isothermal process, the reactor is first heated and then the sample is added. The non-isothermal process created greater BO in both quality and quantity. The BO had a larger amount of gasoline species than diesel-48 fuel, with at 33.44%the BO produced by isothermal pyrolysis and 36.42% in non-isothermal pyrolysis. However the product of isothermal pyrolysis had a higher acid content that reduced its heating value.

  12. The experimental mapping of the independent input variables into the output diamond thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, S.; Asmussen, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The many different experimental variables associated with a CVD diamond film reactor can be divided into three groups: (1) independently controllable input variables U(u{sub 1}, u{sub 2}, u{sub 3},{hor_ellipsis}u{sub p}), (2) dependent internal variables X(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3},{hor_ellipsis}x{sub n}), and (3) output film characteristics Y(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}, y{sub 3}{hor_ellipsis}y{sub k}), where in general X = f(U) and Y = g(U, X). For example, power, pressure, total flow rate, gas composition, deposition time, and reactor type and geometry could be considered as independently controllable input variables while substrate temperature, hydrogen translational temperature, discharge volume and area, species flux and concentrations, gas residence time, and discharge absorbed power densities may be considered as dependent internal variables. Finally, film morphology, growth rate, yield, carbon conversion efficiency uniformity, film quality, texture, and electrical properties could be considered as output characteristics associated with CVD diamond films for a reactor. This paper attempts to understand the relationship between various output characteristics and various input/internal variables of microwave plasma-assisted diamond deposition reactors.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Electron Beam Air Plasma Properties at Moderate Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Tan, Yonghua; Han, Xianwei

    2014-01-01

    Large size of air plasma at near atmospheric pressure has specific effects in aerospace applications. In this paper, a two dimensional multi-fluid model coupled with Monte Carlo (MC) model is established, and some experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics of electron beam air plasma at pressure of 100-170 Torr. Based on the model, the properties of electron beam air plasma are acquired. The electron density is of the order of 1016 m-3 and the longitudinal size can exceed 1.2 m. The profiles of charged particles demonstrate that the oxygen molecule is very important for air plasma and its elementary processes play a key role in plasma equilibrium processes. The potential is almost negative and a very low potential belt is observed at the edge of plasma acting as a protection shell. A series of experiments were carried out in a low pressure vacuum facility and the beam plasma densities were diagnosed. The experimental results demonstrate that electron density increased with the electron beam energy, and the relatively low pressure was favorable for gaining high density plasma. Hence in order to achieve high density and large size plasma, it requires the researchers to choose proper discharge parameters.

  14. Experimental Study on Tensile Properties of GFRP Bars Embedded in Concrete Beams with Working Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the test results of an experimental study carried out to investigate the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete beams with working cracks. The specimens were conditioned with sustained loading in 50°C alkaline solution and tap water for 6, 12, 18 months. The tensile test results show that the degradation rate of GFRP bars embedded in the concrete specimens with work cracks is larger than that of non-work cracks, while the effect of working cracks on the elastic modulus is not significant. The microstructure of GFRP bar surface before and after the test was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC, the degree of hydrolysis reaction and glass transition temperature is also analyzed. Compared with the hydrolysis of resin matrix, it can be found that the deterioration of glass fiber and the delamination at the interfacial is more pronounced for the GFRP bars embedded in concrete beams. As a result, the mainly reason that caused the degradation of GFRP bars embedded in concrete environments are the deterioration of glass fiber and the delamination at the interfacial.

  15. Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of Methane Hydrate-Ice Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of methane hydrate are important to the stability of borehole and methane extraction from a methane hydrate reservoir. In this study, a series of triaxial compression tests were carried out on laboratory-formed methane hydrate-ice mixtures with various methane hydrate contents. Axial loading was conducted at an axial strain rate of 1.33%/min and a constant temperature of −10 °C. The results indicate that: (1 the deformation behavior is strongly affected by confining pressure and methane hydrate content; (2 the failure strength significantly increases with confining pressure when confining pressure is less than 10 MPa, and decreases with methane hydrate content; (3 the cohesion decreases with methane hydrate content, while the internal friction angle increases with methane hydrate content; (4 the strength of ice specimens are higher than that of methane hydrate-ice mixture specimens; Based on the experimental data, the relationship among failure strength, confining pressure and methane hydrate content was obtained, and a modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion considering the influence of methane hydrate content on shear strength was proposed.

  16. Experimental high temperature coefficients of compressibility and expansivity of liquid sodium and other related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das Gupta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The subcooled compressibility of liquid sodium was directly measured up to 200 atm between 900 K and 1867 K, utilizing a new multi-property apparatus which was previously tested with water. The experimental data were correlated by a 6-term equation with a standard deviation of 9.2 percent. The equation can be used to estimate the subcooled compressibilities and densities of liquid sodium up to 2300 K and 500 ata. The thermal expansion of liquid sodium was also measured along the isobars 1 ata, 28.9 ata and 69 ata. Densities within 1 percent of those obtained from the compressibilities were obtained. The above compressibility data were used to calculate the thermal pressure coefficient of saturated liquid sodium. Also, Bhise and Bonilla's correlations for the vapor pressure and the saturated liquid density of sodium were improved by including more data in the analysis. The critical temperature and density were thus reestimated as 2508.7 K and 0.2141 g/cc. Furthermore, a new correlation was developed to determine the heat of vaporization of sodium up to the critical point, which was then used to estimate the internal energy and the entropy of vaporization and the saturated vapor density of sodium up to the critical point.

  17. Experimental illustrations of seismic-wave properties of interest for hydrogeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodet, L.; Pasquet, S.; Bergamo, P.; Martin, R.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.

    2015-12-01

    The joint study of pressure (P-) and shear (S-) wave velocities (VP and VS, respectively), as well as their ratio (VP/VS), has been used for many years at large scales (compared to near-surface applications) to study fluids in earth materials. Theoretical and experimental developments have been aimed at understanding the effect of saturation and pore fluids on body wave velocities, more particularly in consolidated media. In the field of hydrocarbon exploration for instance, the measurement of VP/VS ratio helps discriminating different pore fluids in reservoirs. But it is only until recently that this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of hydrosystems. We showed, thanks to controlled field experiments, the ability of VP/VS ratio in imaging spatial and/or temporal variations of water content at the critical zone scale. These promising results still lack quantitative links between water saturation and seismic properties in such materials and context. We consequently developed laboratory experiments to simulate seismic acquisitions on small-scale controlled granular media with varying water levels. The first results clearly showed the influence of the water level on first arrival times, dispersion and amplitude of the recorded wavefields, and how these measurements could be used as monitoring tools.

  18. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of transport and separation properties of carbon nanotube electrospun membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-12-27

    Developing a high flux and selective membrane is required to make membrane distillation (MD) a more attractive desalination process. Amongst other characteristics membrane hydrophobicity is significantly important to get high vapor transport and low wettability. In this study, a laboratory fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite electrospun (E-CNT) membrane was tested and has showed a higher permeate flux compared to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) electrospun membrane (E-PH membrane) in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Only 1% and 2% of CNTs incorporation resulted in an enhanced permeate flux with lower sensitivity to feed salinity while treating a 35 and 70 g/L NaCl solutions. Experimental results and the mechanisms of E-CNT membrane were validated by a proposed new step-modeling approach. The increased vapor transport in E-CNT membranes could not be elucidated by an enhancement of mass transfer only at a given physico-chemical properties. However, the theoretical modeling approach considering the heat and mass transfers simultaneously enabled to explain successfully the enhanced flux in the DCMD process using E-CNT membranes. This indicates that both mass and heat transfers improved by CNTs are attributed to the enhanced vapor transport in the E-CNT membrane.

  19. Experimental investigations of thermophysical properties of some paraffin waxes industrially manufactured in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbińkowski, Piotr; Zmywaczyk, Janusz; Koniorczyk, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Phase-change materials (PCM) can be applied as a heat absorbing/releasing medium in passive cooling systems. Such systems can be used in cooling and temperature stabilization of electronic components, i.e., Li-ion batteries, photovoltaic modules or light emitting diodes (LED). In order to optimize heat transfer in passive cooling systems experimental studies of PCM thermophysical properties are necessary. A good PCM candidate for passive cooling systems may be paraffin waxes due to their relatively high latent heat of fusion (L 200 J.g-1), suitable for working of electronic devices range of melting temperatures (22 °C - 68 °C) and a reasonable price. However, their main drawback is a relatively low thermal conductivity k ranging from 0.148 W.m-1.K-1 to 0.358 W.m-1.K-1. In this paper were presented results of experimentally determined temperature characteristics of thermophysical parameters of four paraffin waxes industrially manufactured in Jasło/Poland by POLWAX. The density ρ of the test paraffin waxes determined at room temperature (20 °C) using a laboratory balance RADWAG X/60/220 comprised from 0.82 g.cm-3 to 0.94 g.cm-3. The thermal diffusivity κ of paraffin waxes was tested within temperature range from -50 °C to 30 °C every 20 °C interval using the NETZSCH LFA 467 HyperFlash. The test specimens having form of cylinder were 12.7 mm in diameter and 2.15 - 2.20 mm in height. Prior to the experiment the face and the back surface of each specimen were coated with a thin layer of graphite 33 having a thickness of several micrometers in accordance with the recommendation given by NETZSCH. The thermal diffusivity of the test paraffin waxes within temperature interval -40 °C - 20 °C was determined to be 0.083 mm2.s-1 to 0.216 mm2.s-1. Thermal effects and the apparent heat capacity cp of the tested materials were measured in the temperature range from -10 °C to 100 °C using the NETZSCH DSC 404 F1 Pegasus at 10 K.min-1 heating/cooling rates in an

  20. Polyphenols: Physicochemical and Biological Properties and Perspectives of Their Use in a Zero-Waste Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynier, Véronique; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2017-08-09

    The 28th International Conference on Polyphenols, held in Vienna (Austria) in July 2016, offered a venue for global exchanges on the active research on polyphenols and for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances. The multidisciplinary event attracted 280 scientists from four continents working in different fields, from analytical and biosynthetic chemistry through genetic and metabolic engineering, plant physiology, and ecology to food nutrition and health sciences as well as industrial applications. This special issue presents a selection of papers from oral presentations and poster contributions shown within the framework of sessions focusing on research in the fields of (1) chemistry and physicochemistry, (2) food, nutrition, and health, and (3) applied polyphenolics. This introductory paper also briefly summarizes general properties of this versatile and largest group of secondary metabolites and their use in bioeconomical approaches.

  1. Stability properties of PrPSc from cattle with experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal diseases of the nervous system associated with accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Different strains of BSE exist...

  2. Analytical and experimental evaluations of the effect of broad property fuels on combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were conducted in three contract activities funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, to assess the impacts of broad property fuels on the design, performance, durability, emissions and operational characteristics of current and advanced combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines. The effect of fuel thermal stability on engine and airframe fuel system was evaluated. Trade-offs between fuel properties, exhaust emissions and combustor life were also investigated. Results indicate major impacts of broad property fuels on allowable metal temperatures in fuel manifolds and injector support, combustor cyclic durability and somewhat lesser impacts on starting characteristics, lightoff, emissions and smoke.

  3. The analysis of composite properties reinforced with particles from palm oil industry waste produced by casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugiman; Ariani, F.; Taher, F.; Hasibuan, M. S.; Suprianto

    2017-12-01

    Palm oil processing industries are very attractive because they offer plenty products with high economic value. The CPO factory processes not only produces crude palm oil but also generates fly ash (FA) particles waste in its final process. The purpose of this investigation to analyze and increase the benefits of particles as reinforcement materials for fabricating aluminum matrix composites (AMC’s) by different casting route. Stirring, centrifugal and squeeze casting method was conducted in this study. Further, the chemical composition of FA particles, densities and mechanical properties have been analyzed. The characteristics of composite material were investigated using an Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), hardness (Brinell), impact strength (Charpy). The pin on disc method was used to measure the wear rate. The results show that SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3 are the main compounds of fly ash particles. These particles enhanced the hardness and reduce wear resistance of aluminum matrix composites. The squeeze method gives better results than stir and centrifugal casting.

  4. The Effects of Cocos Nucifera (Coconut Shell on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Recycled Waste Aluminium Can Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behaviour and mechanical properties of recycled aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 and 10 % coconut shell particles (CSp has been investigated. The particle size of Cocosnucifera (coconut shell that were used ranges from 50-300µm. The wear behaviors of developed samples were investigated under varied loads and speed using pin on disc equipment. The samples were also subjected to tensile, impact and hardness test. The result shows that the additions of coconut shell particles improved the wear resistance of the recycled aluminium can/CSp composites at low Speed (2.36 m/s. However, with increase in Speed (4.72 m/s, an increase in the specific wear rates were observed. Increasing the coconut shell particles additions to the recycled waste aluminium cans (RWAlC reduced the impact resistance, hence the toughness of the RWAlC/CSp composite samples. However, the impact resistance of the composites increased as the Cocosnucifera particle size increased. The result of the filler size variation shows that decrease in filler particles size improved the tensile strength and yield strength of the developed aluminium metal matrix /CSp composite. The hardness of the composite increased with increased additions of the filler within the matrix.

  5. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  6. Experimental and numerical analyses on a plate heat exchanger with phase change for waste heat recovery at off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Di Battista, Davide; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyzes the performances of an evaporator for small scale waste heat recovery applications based on bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles with net output power in the range 2-5 kW. The heat recovery steam generator is a plate heat exchanger with oil as hot stream and an organic fluid on the cold side. An experimental characterization of the heat exchanger was carried out at different operating points measuring temperatures, pressures and flow rates on both sides. The measurement data further allowed to validate a numerical model of the evaporator whereas heat transfer coefficients were evaluated comparing several literature correlations, especially for the phase-change of the organic fluid. With reference to a waste heat recovery application in industrial compressed air systems, multiple off-design conditions were simulated considering the effects of oil mass flow rate and temperature on the superheating of the organic fluid, a key parameter to ensure a proper operation of the expansion machine, thus of the energy recovery process.

  7. Latex protein extracts from Calotropis procera with immunomodulatory properties protect against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Diogo Manoel Farias; Gomes-Filho, Manoel Adrião; Alencar, Nylane Maria; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lima-Filho, Jose Vitor

    2016-06-15

    The latex from the medicinal plant Calotropis procera is often used in folk medicine against infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate a protein fraction with immunomodulatory properties, named LPPI, against experimental infections, in vitro and in vivo, with a virulent strain of Listeria monocytogenes. LPPI was exposed to cultured macrophages or Swiss mice and then challenged with L. monocytogenes. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from Swiss mice, and cultured in 96-well microplates. Soluble latex proteins (LP) were subjected to fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography. The major peak (LPPI) was added into wells at 10 or 100µg/ml. Albumin (100µg/ml) was used for comparison between protein treatments. After incubation for 1h at 5% CO2/ 37°C, the supernatant was discarded and 0.2ml of L. monocytogenes overnight culture was added in the wells. Following 4h and 24h infection, the cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated as well as the number of intracellular colony forming units. Swiss mice (n=16) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPPI (5 and 10mg/kg) while the control mice received albumin (10mg/kg) or LP (10mg/kg). After 24h, all animal groups were challenged with L. monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/ ml), also by i.p. route. LPPI was not toxic to uninfected macrophages (pMØ) and significantly increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS. Following infection, cell viability was reduced by 50% in albumin-treated pMØ (control); but only 17% in pMØ treated with LPPI at 100µg/ml. In this case, LPPI increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6 whereas the number of bacterial colony-forming units was reduced 100-fold in comparison to control groups. Swiss mice pretreated with LPPI showed dose-dependent survival rates that reached 80%, while mice that received albumin died 1-3 days after infection. After 24h infection, leukocyte migration to the infectious foci was high in LPPI-treated mice whereas the number of viable

  8. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [CHANGES IN COLON MICROBIOCENOSIS COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF COLONOCYTES UNDER THE CONDITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DYSBIOSIS AND EMOXIPIN PROPHYLAXIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageichenko, A V; Kalutsky, P V; Medvedeva, O A; Korolev, V A

    2015-01-01

    Study the composition of colon microbiocenosis and antioxidant properties of colonocytes under the conditions of experimental dysbiosis and prophylaxis application of emoxipin. With the aim of prophylaxis, antioxidant emoxipin was administered to mice, in which medicinal dysbiosis was formed by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin. Quantitative and qualitative study of mucous microflora of the mice colon was carried out by a bacteriological method. The state of lipid peroxidation system was judged by the content of acylhydroperoxides and malonic dialdehyde, system of antioxidant protection--by enzyme activity (catalase and superoxide dismutase). Experimental dysbiosis of the colon manifested by changes in the composition of mucous microflora of the animals and antioxidant properties of colonocytes. Dysbiosis prophylaxis by emoxipin resulted in normalization of the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes and products of lipid peroxidation in intestine tissue. The study results allow to consider, that use of emoxipin results in an increase of adaptive-compensatory capabilities of the macroorganism during experimental dysbiosis.

  10. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  11. Utilization of composted sugar industry waste (pressmud) to improve properties of sodic soil for rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rashi; Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2005-07-01

    Sulphitation pressmud (SPM) and its composts were prepared by heap, pit, NADEP and vermicomposting methods and their effects were compared with soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient uptake by rice in a sodic soil under pot conditions. Application of 15 t ha(-1) SPM and its different composts significantly increased the plant height and dry matter accumulation at different intervals, grain and straw yields and N, P and K uptake by the crop over the control. NADEP compost of SPM alone recorded the maximum and significant plant height by 8.5 to 19.3% and plant dry matter by 14.6 to 32.8% over the raw SPM at different intervals. NADEP composts of SPM alone and SPM + rice straw were also found to be superior than raw SPM by recording 34.8 and 27.8% more grain yield respectively. The SPM composts prepared by NADEP and SPM by vermicomposting methods significantly accumulated higher N and K in rice grains and straw, while NADEP compost of SPM and SPM + rice straw recorded more P in grains and straw than raw SPM. Application of SPM and its composts reduced the pH, EC and bulk density of the soil after rice harvesting, though the reductions were not significant in comparison to the control. However, these treatments increased the soil organic C by 33.33 to 69.0%, available N by 41.4 to 74.8%, available P by 47.1 to 97.8%, available K by 11.8 to 59.2% and available S by 10.3 to 90.7% over the control. NADEP composts, in general, were found to be superior than the raw SPM and other composts in residual soil nutrient content after rice crop.

  12. An experimental study on mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete of energy piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songying Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology of energy piles for heat storage involves turning the concrete piles buried beneath the ground into a part of the ground-source heat pump system and burying the heat-transfer tubes in the foundation piles, which are regarded as heat transfer wells. The heat transfer tubes are embedded in the concrete foundation piles, destroying the mechanical bearing capacity of the piles and damaging the safety of the buildings. Thus, considering the structural stability and the degree of heat transfer of concrete piles, as well as the selection of material for the foundation piles, the mixing ratio of the material of the energy piles is experimentally studied by the orthogonal method. The optimum mixing ratio of the energy pile is thus obtained. A concrete test block is used to conduct a static load test and splitting test to verify the mixing ratio of the concrete of the energy pile. The results show that steel fiber can be used to enhance the bearing capacity of the storage pile as a reinforcement material. Under a reasonable ratio, the reinforced pile can absolutely meet the original design requirements. Ordinary Portland cement or composite Portland cement can be used as cementitious materials for energy piles. Through an experiment, it is proved that the composite Portland cement can better meet the requirements of the concrete foundation piles than the cementitious material. As thermal conductivity materials, the addition of industrial graphite and scrap copper slag can improve the thermal conductivity of the pile, but it can also reduce the mechanical properties of the pile. It is necessary to control it in a certain range and not to add a large amount of graphite just to improve the thermal conductivity.

  13. Experimental study on the thermostable property of aramid fiber reinforced PE-RT pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Qi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible composite pipes are advantageous in ultra high strength, high modulus, pH and corrosion resistance and light weight, but there are still some hidden safety troubles because they are poorer in thermostable capacity. Therefore, test samples of flexible composite pipes were prepared with high-temperature polythene (PE-RT as the neck bush and aramid fiber as the reinforcement layer. Experimental study was conducted by using HPHT vessel and differential thermal scanner for different working conditions, different temperatures, whole-pipe pressure-bearing capacity and 1000 h viability. It is shown by the environmental compatibility test that high temperature has little effect on the weight, Vicat softening temperature, mechanical properties and structures of neck bush PE-RT, but exerts an obvious effect on the tensility and whole-pipe water pressure blasting of the reinforcement aramid fiber. Besides, the drop of whole-pipe pressure-bearing capacity is caused by deformation and breaking of aramid fibers when the reinforcement layer is under the force of internal pressure. Finally, disorientation and crystallization of molecular thermal motion occur with the rise of temperature, so amorphous orientation reduces, crystallinity factor and crystalline orientation factor increase gradually, thus, disorientation of macromolecular chains increases and tensile strength decreases. It is concluded that this type of flexible composite pipe can smoothly pass 1000 h viability test. And it is recommended that it be used in the situations with temperature not higher than 95 °C and internal pressure not higher than 4 MPa.

  14. Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of brain simulants used for cranial gunshot simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Geoghegan, Patrick Henry; Jermy, Mark Christopher; Taylor, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical properties of the human brain at high strain rate were investigated to analyse the mechanisms that cause backspatter when a cranial gunshot wound occurs. Different concentrations of gelatine and a new material (M1) developed in this work were tested and compared to bovine brain samples. Kinetic energy absorption and expansion rate of the samples caused by the impact of a bullet from .22 air rifle (AR) (average velocity (uav) of 290m/s) and .22 long rifle (LR) (average velocity (uav) of 330m/s) were analysed using a high speed camera (24,000fps). The AR projectile had, in the region of interest, an average kinetic energy (Ek) of 42±1.3J. On average, the bovine brain absorbed 50±5% of Ek, and the simulants 46-58±5%. The Ek of the .22 LR was 141±3.7J. The bovine brain absorbed 27% of the .22LR Ek and the simulants 15-29%. The expansion of the sample, after penetration, was measured. The bovine brain experienced significant plastic deformation whereas the gelatine solution exhibited a principally elastic response. The permanent damage patterns in the M1 material were much closer to those in brain tissue, than were the damage patterns in the gelatine. The results provide a first step to developing a realistic experimental simulant for the human brain which can produce the same blood backspatter patterns as a human brain during a cranial gunshot. These results can also be used to improve the 3D models of human heads used in car crash and blast trauma injury research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup −1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup −1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation

  16. Statistical Analysis of 3-Point Bending Properties of Polymer Concretes Made From Marble Powder Waste, Sand Grains, and Polyester Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzannache, N.; Bezazi, A.; Bouchelaghem, H.; Boumaaza, M.; Amziane, S.; Scarpa, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical performance of concrete polymer beams subjected to 3-point bending was investigated. The polymer concrete incorporates marble powder waste and quarry sand. The results obtained showed that the type of sand, and amount of marble powder and sand aggregate affected the resistance of the polymer concrete beams significantly. The marble waste increased their bending strength by reducing the porosity of polymer concrete.

  17. Characterization of Alkaline Treatment and Fiber Content on the Physical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Ground Coffee Waste/Oxobiodegradable HDPE Biocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Yee Tan; Hoo Tien Nicholas Kuan; Meng Chuen Lee

    2017-01-01

    Effect of alkali treatment on ground coffee waste/oxobiodegradable HDPE (GCW/oxo-HDPE) composites was evaluated using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% volume fraction of GCW. The composites were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), mechanical (tensile and impact test) properties, and water absorption. FTIR spectrum indicated the eradic...

  18. Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application of Biochar and Compost of Plant Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita Barus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance to return organic matter to the soil has been widely recognized, especially to agricultural lands that are low in organic matter and nutrients contents that will decrease the productivity of food crops. This study aimed to study the effect of biochar (rice husk and corn cob biochar and straw compost on soil chemical properties and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. The experiments were done in the laboratory and the field experiment at February–July 2015. The first study was laboratory test using a randomized block designwith three replicates. Soil samples were ground and sieved to obtain the less than 4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. A five kg soil was mixtured with amandement treatments (A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; and E. Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 were filled into plastic pots. The treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months. Soil samples measured were pH, Organic-C, Total-N, P2O5 (Bray-1, K2O (Morgan, Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC. The field experiment was conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency. The treatments (similar too laboratory experiment were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plot size was 10 m× 20 m, and soybean as crop indicators. The parameters observed were plant heigh, number of branches , number of pods per plant , number of seeds per plant, grain weight, and stover. The results of laboratory experiment showed that application of biochar and compost improve soil fertility due to the increase in soil pH and nutrient availability for plant especially P2O5 and K2O available. The treatment of a rice husk biochar and compost mixture was better than single application to improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication mixture husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1and straw compost 10

  19. Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application Biochar and Compost of Plant Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita Barus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available he importance to return organic matter to the soil has been widely recognized, especially to agricultural lands that are low in organic matter and nutrients contents that will decrease the productivity of food crops. This study aimed to study the effect of biochar (rice husk and corn cob biochar and straw compost on soil chemical properties and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. The experiments were done in the laboratory and the field experiment at February–July 2015. The first study was laboratory test using a randomized block design with three replicates. Soil samples were ground and sieved to obtain the less than 4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. A five kg soil was mixtured with amandement treatments (A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; and E. Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 were filled into plastic pots. The treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months. Soil samples measured were pH, Organic-C, Total-N, P2O5 (Bray-1, K2O (Morgan, Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC. The field experiment was conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency. The treatments (similar too laboratory experiment were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plot size was 10 m × 20 m, and soybean as crop indicators. The parameters observed were plant heigh, number of branches , number of pods per plant , number of seeds per plant, grain weight, and stover. The results of laboratory experiment showed that application of biochar and compost improve soil fertility due to the increase in soil pH and nutrient availability for plant especially P2O5 and K2O available. The treatment of a rice husk biochar and compost mixture was better than single application to improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication mixture husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1and straw compost

  20. Plant species diversity affects infiltration capacity in an experimental grassland through changes in soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Tischer, J.; Roscher, C.; Eisenhauer, N.; Ravenek, J.; Gleixner, G.; Attinger, S.; Jensen, B.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.; Scheu, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soil hydraulic properties drive water distribution and availability in soil. There exists limited knowledge of how plant species diversity might influence soil hydraulic properties. Methods We quantified the change in infiltration capacity affected by soil structural variables

  1. Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically-biologically treated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einola, J-K M; Sormunen, K M; Rintala, J A

    2008-12-15

    The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically-biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (> 96%) of the methane produced (Methane was oxidized mainly at the depths of 35-75 cm, as indicated by the upward decrease both in the methane concentration and in the methane-to-carbon dioxide ratio in the pore gas. Lower methane oxidation (methane produced) was observed only during the coldest time of the year (January 2006), apparently due to the fall in temperature at the depths of 25-70 cm (from 9-25 degrees C during April to October to 2-9 degrees C in January). Unexpectedly, the highest methane oxidation potential (MOP) was observed in samples from the top layer where exposure to methane was low. Overall, the results show that MBT residual is a suitable support medium for methane oxidation in landfill covers in field conditions in a boreal climate.

  2. Mechanical Property of Plastic Lumber Produced from Recycled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling is a strategy to combat environmental pollution due to plastic wastes. Of the many plastic wastes, researchers confirmed the possibility to produce plastic lumber from used HDPE plastics. The aim of this study is to experimentally determine the mechanical property of the plastic lumber produced from pure HDPE ...

  3. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  4. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  5. An experimental investigation of the thermal/fluid properties of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) product slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguercia, I.; Lagos, L.; Yang, G.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.W.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, a new immobilization technique for LLW, the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, has been developed. Instead of mixing the liquid waste form directly with the cement to make concrete blocks, the NAC process eliminates the nitrate from the LLW by converting it to ammonia gas. Aluminum particles are used as a reductant to complete this conversion. The final product of the NAC process is gibbsite, which can be further sintered to a ceramic waste form. Experimental tests are conducted to measure the apparent viscosity, the pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient of the pipe flow of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process product slurry. The tests indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The pressure drop in the pipe flow is a function of the Reynolds number and the slurry temperature. The results also indicate that at a low slurry temperature, the slurry is uniformly heated peripherally. At a high slurry temperature, however, the slurry may be thermally stratified. In a straight pipe, the Nusselt number is reduced as the slurry temperature increases.

  6. Mechanical properties of mortar specimens prepared from experimentally burnt impure limestones: effect of raw material characteristics and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Triantafyllou, George; Prikryl, Richard; Soultana, Anthansia; Prikrylova, Jirina

    2017-04-01

    Recent study focused on the effect of raw material characteristics of impure carbonate rocks and of their burning conditions on physical / mechanical properties of experimentally burnt natural hydraulic lime / natural cement. Four types of limestone that were historically employed for production of inorganic binders were burnt at 1000, 1100, and/or 1200°C, keeping the peak temperature for 6 hours. Mortar specimens prepared from the experimentally prepared binders were cured in a climatic chamber for 7, 28, 90, and/or 180 days. Then, their mechanical properties (flexural and compressive strengths) were determined. In contrast to our expectations, no direct relationship between increasing content of non-carbonate fraction and burning conditions on improvement of mechanical properties was observed. This fact might be explained by additional effects such as differing microfabrics of the raw material, specifically of spatial distribution of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral phases, which controls formation of new phases during burning below sintering point and therefore influences overall hydraulic character of prepared binders. The study thus shows importance of detailed knowledge not only of chemistry, but also of mineralogy / rock microfabric of raw materials used for burning of inorganic binders below sintering point, and of physical / mechanical properties of experimental mortars for the final evaluation of specific types of limestones suitable for natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi: correlation of muscle lesions with contractile properties in the acute phase of experimental infection in mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Archila, Mario V; Muñiz, Jesús; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar; Melnikov, Valery G; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana R

    2011-08-01

    Parasitism in skeletal muscles and myositis are commonly observed during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The effect of T. cruzi infection on contractile properties of skeletal muscles in consecutive periods of the acute infection in BALB/c mice was studied. Albarrada strain (clone 4) which was isolated in Mexico and has demonstrated a high level of blood parasitemia and parasitism in skeletal muscles was used. Isolated strips of rectus abdominis muscle were subjected to direct electrical field in vitro. Alternatively, plantaris muscles were stimulated in situ through the sciatic nerve. The peak amplitudes of a single twitch and tetanus contractions were considered to estimate the mechanical properties of muscles. Histopathological analysis was performed to correlate functional changes with the evolution of tissue parasitism and tissue injury. Contractile properties of muscles were significantly attenuated during acute T. cruzi infection. The percentage of damaged muscles rather than the character of tissue pathology affected their contractile properties significantly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical and experimental influence of aerosol assisted CVD parameters on the microstructural properties of magnetite nanoparticles and their response on the removal efficiency of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Salcedo, P.G.; Amézaga-Madrid, P., E-mail: patricia.amezaga@cimav.edu.mx; Monárrez-Cordero, B.E.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-09-15

    The development and optimization of methodologies to generate magnetite nanoparticles is currently an innovation topic. For a desired application such as arsenic removal from waste water, the generation of these nanostructures with specific microstructural properties is determinant. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon during the nanoparticles formation process. Thus, in this work it is reported the influence of synthesis parameters of AACVD technique on the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. Parameters were according to: (1) synthesis temperature, (2) tubular reactor diameter, (3) concentration of the precursor solution and type of solvent, (4) carrier gas flow and (5) solvent type in the collection process. The effect of these synthesis parameters on the morphology, size and microstructure are discussed in detail and related with the mechanism of formation of the particles. Theoretical simulations were performed on two of these parameters (1 and 4). The microstructure and surface morphology of the different nanostructures obtained were characterized by field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently two materials, were selected for further microstructural analysis. Finally, to determine the removal efficiency in the two materials the arsenic adsorption was evaluated. A major contribution of this work was the calculation of the number of spherical particles formed from a single drop of precursor solution. This calculation matched with the value found experimentally.

  9. The Effect of Nanocopper Additions in a Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesive on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particleboard Manufactured from Date Palm Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangavar, H.; Hoseiny fard, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of addition of copper nanoparticles to a urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured from date palm waste (DPW) was investigated. The variable factors in the study included copper nanoparticles in amounts of 6 and 8 wt.% of the dry mass of wood, pressing durations of 5 and 6 min, and pressing temperatures of 150 and 160°C. The physical and mechanical properties of manufactured boards were measured according to EN standards. The results showed that the addition of copper nanoparticles to the UF adhesive considerably improved the physical and mechanical properties of the boards and shortened the pressing duration. The boards manufactured with 6 wt.% copper nanoparticles in a dry mass of wood mixed with the adhesive and pressed at a temperature of 160°C for 5 min had mechanical properties exceeding the EN312-2 standard levels.

  10. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  11. Effects of body formulation and firing temperature to properties of ceramic tile incorporated with electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurulakmal Mohd; Lim, Chi Yang; Teo, Pao Ter; Seman, Anasyida Abu

    2017-07-01

    Significant quantities of sludge and slag are generated as waste materials or by-products from steel industries. One of the by-products is Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag which consists of oxides such as CaO, Al2O3 and FeO. This makes it possible for slag to partially replace the raw materials in ceramic tile production. In our preliminary assessment of incorporating the EAF slag into ceramic tile, it was revealed that at fixed firing temperature of 1150°C, the tile of composition 40 wt.% EAF slag - 60 wt.% ball clay has comparable properties with commercial ceramic tile. Thus, this current study would focus on effects of body formulation (different weight percentages of K-feldspar and silica) and different firing temperatures to properties of EAF slag added ceramic tile. EAF slag from Southern Steel Berhad (SSB) was crushed into micron size (EAF slag content was 40 wt.%) and milled with ball clay, K-feldspar and silica before compacted and fired at 1125°C and 1150°C. The EAF slag added tile was characterized in terms of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, modulus of rupture (MOR) and phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag - 30 wt.% ball clay - 10 wt.% K-feldspar - 20 wt.% silica (10F_20S), fired at 1150°C showed the lowest water absorption, apparent porosity and highest bulk density due to enhancement of densification process during firing. However, the same composition of ceramic tile (10F_20S) had the highest MOR at lower firing temperature of 1125°C, contributed by presence of the highest total amount of anorthite and wollastonite reinforcement crystalline phases (78.40 wt.%) in the tile. Overall, both the water absorption and MOR of all ceramic tiles surpassed the requirement regulated by MS ISO 13006:2014 Standard (Annex G: Dry-pressed ceramic tile with low water absorption, Eb ≤ 0.50 % and minimum MOR of 35 MPa).

  12. Modification of chemical properties, Cu fractionation and enzymatic activities in an acid vineyard soil amended with winery wastes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2017-11-01

    The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha-1) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application. In contrast, soil that was amended with up to 71 Mg BW ha-1 showed increases in its soil pH values, exchangeable potassium and water soluble potassium and phosphorus contents. In addition, it caused significant increases in the electrical conductivity and water-soluble Cu. In addition, the phosphomonoesterase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (up to 28%) in response to the amendment with 71 Mg BW ha-1. These results showed that adding BW and PW to the soil may be a good agronomic practice for recycling these types of wastes. However, in the case of PW, its use as a soil amendment must be performed with caution to control its possible harmful effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental investigation of the effect of latex solid/water ratio on latex modified co-matrix mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches were performed on latex modified concretes and associated properties, however; some vital factors were not given attention in previous works. This study focus on new factor which significantly affects the properties of latex modified cement paste, mortar or concrete. This factor is termed as ‘latex solid/water ratio’ which is defined herein as the ratio of weight of solid latex to weight of total water content of cement composite including the water in latex itself. The effect of this factor on some properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete were experimentally evaluated. Properties of cement paste include the produced calcium hydroxide and ettringite content during hydration process, while those of cement mortar take account of absorption and effect of temperature on compressive strength. Furthermore, the effect of this factor on the compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, water penetration depth and drying shrinkage of concrete were explored. Based on experimental evidences, and spite of using different cement contents, sources of latex, water–cement ratios and slump values, it can be generally concluded that the latex solid/water ratio is a dominant factor affecting different properties of latex modified mortars and concrete.

  15. An experimental and theoretical study to relate uncommon rock/fluid properties to oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.

    1995-07-01

    Waterflooding is the most commonly used secondary oil recovery technique. One of the requirements for understanding waterflood performance is a good knowledge of the basic properties of the reservoir rocks. This study is aimed at correlating rock-pore characteristics to oil recovery from various reservoir rock types and incorporating these properties into empirical models for Predicting oil recovery. For that reason, this report deals with the analyses and interpretation of experimental data collected from core floods and correlated against measurements of absolute permeability, porosity. wettability index, mercury porosimetry properties and irreducible water saturation. The results of the radial-core the radial-core and linear-core flow investigations and the other associated experimental analyses are presented and incorporated into empirical models to improve the predictions of oil recovery resulting from waterflooding, for sandstone and limestone reservoirs. For the radial-core case, the standardized regression model selected, based on a subset of the variables, predicted oil recovery by waterflooding with a standard deviation of 7%. For the linear-core case, separate models are developed using common, uncommon and combination of both types of rock properties. It was observed that residual oil saturation and oil recovery are better predicted with the inclusion of both common and uncommon rock/fluid properties into the predictive models.

  16. Experimental investigation of rockwool insulation hygrothermal properties related to material structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Đurović-Petrović Maja D

    2015-01-01

    The hygrothermal properties related to rockwool insulation material structure with different additives are presented using rockwool insulation products obtained from row material of southern Serbia (Vranje region...

  17. Experimental study on the effect of volcanic residue on the performance of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Li, Ji-heng; Liu, Qing-shun

    2017-08-01

    Recycled lightweight aggregate concrete prepared with waste brick recycled light aggregate has high water absorption, large apparent density and poor frost resistance. The technical measures of regen-erating lightweight aggregate concrete with modified waste bricks from volcanic slag are put forward. The effects of volcanic slag on the properties of waste lightweight aggregate concrete were studied. The experi-mental results show that volcanic slag can significantly reduce the apparent density of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete and improve its frost resistance.

  18. Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications.

  19. An experimental study of computer-based negotiation in property development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsura, D.A.A.; Deemen, A.M.A. van; Krabben, E. van der; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment based on the model of bilateral sequential bargaining over the distribution of a certain value in a laboratory setting within a real specific context of property development in the Netherlands. We have involved only property development professionals as participants

  20. Evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of rubber tire waste particles on the properties of PP, HIPS and PP/HIPS matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Stieven Montagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of plastics has been increasing and as consequence, the waste generated has also increased. Rubber tire (RT waste is another residue which causes significant problems to society. In view of the considerable amounts of RT waste generated, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of RT particles into post-consumer thermoplastic matrices such as polypropylene (PP, high impact polystyrene (HIPS and PP/HIPS blends and the modification of the physical, morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. The particle sizes of the RT used were <500 and 500-1000 μm. The RT content was 10% w/w and the weight ratio for the PP/HIPS blend was 4/1, with processing by injection molding. The results showed that the smaller (500 μm particle size led to a decrease in the melt flow rate (MFR of the PP/RT composites (increased viscosity and an increase for the HIPS/RT composites. On the other hand, the larger particles (1000 μm led to a decrease in the mechanical performance of the PP/RT and HIPS/RT blends when compared with the neat polymers (PP and HIPS post-consumer. The observed decrease in the mechanical properties of these composites was due to weak filler/matrix interactions, which can be visualized in images by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the fracture surface after tensile testing.

  1. Preliminary results of the experimental and simulated intrinsic properties of the Compteur A Trou (CAT) detector: behavior with synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplier, G; Bouillot, C; Lemonnier, M; Megtert, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless proportional gas detector using a new type of intrinsic electric field shape for electronic amplification cascade. Its properties are analyzed by means of numerical simulations compared with experimental measurements. Electronic gain, energy resolution and count rate are established for pure argon gas and a mixture of argon and CO sub 2. Measurements with a synchrotron light source show that CAT can achieve count rates as high as 10 sup 7 mm sup 2 S.

  2. Experimental study on quasi-static tensile mechanical properties of TC11 titanium alloy at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Qiulin NIU; Ming CHEN; Ming, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    According to the tensile properties of typical aerospace material TC11 titanium alloy, the stress-strain relationship is studied using the quasi-static tensile test at different strain rates, and the tensile fracture morphology is analyzed with SEM. The experimental results show that TC11 titanium alloy has certain strain rate sensitivity, and both tensile strength and yield strength are affected by strain rate. During quasi-static tension test, TC11 titanium alloy specimen has the phenomenon...

  3. A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO RS and COSMOTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A COMPARISON OF PREDICTIVE THERMO AND WATER SOLVATION PROPERTY PREDICTION TOOLS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA FOR...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected...ambient temperature. We then directed these descriptions of each molecule to COSMOTherm to calculate boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility

  4. Experimental and DFT studies of solvent effects on molecular structure and physical properties of Dipyridylamine pyridine based ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkan, Mustafa Tuğfan; Şahin, Onur; Yurdakul, Şenay

    2017-04-01

    The solvent effects on molecular structure, electronic, vibrational and thermochemical properties of 2,2‧-Dipyridylamine were investigated by using experimental and theoretical methods. 2,2‧-Dipyridylamine molecule was selected for this study intentionally because it has two pyridyl rings connected by amine bridge. This allows to change the stable equilibrium geometry, even the slightest effects. Dichloromethane was chosen as solvent. The reason for this selection is to examine whether the chlorine atoms make hydrogen bonds with the ligand atoms. For this purpose, firstly 2,2‧-Dipyridylamine solution was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Secondly, crystal structure of 2,2‧-Dipyridylamine was obtained to compare with the calculated geometric parameters. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single Crystal X-Ray diffraction methods. Density Functional Theory calculations were conducted with B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d) basis set. The theoretical vibrational properties of optimized geometric structure were computed in vapor and solvation phases. Two different theoretical approaches were discussed, based on the experimental results. It can be seen from the experimental and theoretical studies that the structural, vibrational, thermochemical and electronic properties are dependent on the solvent effects for selected structure. Furthermore, the chlorine atoms of Dichloromethane do not make hydrogen bonds with the ligand atoms.

  5. Pore Size Distribution Influence on Suction Properties of Calcareous Stones in Cultural Heritage: Experimental Data and Model Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water sorptivity symbolises an important property associated with the preservation of porous construction materials. The water movement into the microstructure is responsible for deterioration of different types of materials and consequently for the indoor comfort worsening. In this context, experimental sorptivity tests are incompatible, because they require large quantities of materials in order to statistically validate the results. Owing to these reasons, the development of analytical procedure for indirect sorptivity valuation from MIP data would be highly beneficial. In this work, an Intermingled Fractal Units’ model has been proposed to evaluate sorptivity coefficient of calcareous stones, mostly used in historical buildings of Cagliari, Sardinia. The results are compared with experimental data as well as with other two models found in the literature. IFU model better fits experimental data than the other two models, and it represents an important tool for estimating service life of porous building materials.

  6. The acid solvent experimental studies on gelatin producing by utilizing snapper fishes scales waste (Lutjanus camphecanus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faradiella, Hanandyta; Ningsih, Putri Dewi Fatwa; Triastuti, Warlinda Eka

    2017-03-01

    Had done research processing scales red snapper (Lutjanjus campechanus sp.) into gelatin by process of maseration a solution of citric acid, acetate acid, hydrochloric acid, and phosphoric acid an then continued with hydrolysis process. Concentration of solvent used 5% (% v/v) for 3 and 6 days. Gelatin produces then were analyzed fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proximate analysis include yield and the water content, analysis of physical-chemist properties include analysis viscosity and pH, organoleptic test (color, texture, odor). Analyst ftir results showed the presence of a cluster functions 0-H, C-H, C=0, N-H and C-C aromatis similar to those of spectra that are found on commercial gelatin. Gelatin best results obtained maseration on with phosphoricacid 5% viscosity of gelatin 3,91 cP, the water content 2,569%, pH 6,98 and yield 11,7448%.

  7. the effect of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate on strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the findings on an experimental investigation of the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate with ceramic waste on strength properties of concrete. Compressive strength tests were conducted using 150x150x150mm cube specimens, while tensile strength was investigated using 150x300mm ...

  8. Ecological aspects of recycling the polyethylene terephthalate waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Arlamova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The advantages and defects of modern technology treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PETF wastes, and amounts of the accumulation PETF-tares are analyses in article. Has been established that exploitative properties of experimental samples from secondary PETF, development by method compressed pressing, allowing their use in non-loading friction knots of the machines and mechanisms.

  9. Experimental Techniques for Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Impact and High Strain Rate Properties of Triaxial Braided Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Gilat, Amos; Matrka, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program is underway to measure the impact and high strain rate properties of triaxial braided composite materials and to quantify any degradation in properties as a result of thermal and hygroscopic aging typically encountered during service. Impact tests are being conducted on flat panels using a projectile designed to induce high rate deformation similar to that experienced in a jet engine fan case during a fan blade-out event. The tests are being conducted on as-fabricated panels and panels subjected to various numbers of aging cycles. High strain rate properties are being measured using a unique Hopkinson bar apparatus that has a larger diameter than conventional Hopkinson bars. This larger diameter is needed to measure representative material properties because of the large unit cell size of the materials examined in this work. In this paper the experimental techniques used for impact and high strain rate testing are described and some preliminary results are presented for both as-fabricated and aged composites.

  10. Experimental plant for the physical-chemical treatment of groundwater polluted by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW leachate, with ammonia recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents the results of the experimental treatment of groundwater (flow rate: 300 m3 h-1 polluted by the leachate of an old MSW landfill (7 million tonnes in northern Italy. The process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, and subsequent ammonia stripping, after heating the water to 35-38 °C by means of the biogas produced by the landfill. The stripped ammonia was recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate, which was reused as a base fertilizer. In addition, the paper reports important operational aspects related to the scaling of the stripping tower’s packing and its effect on pH and temperature profiles inside the towers caused by the closed loop, which recirculates the stripping air coming from the ammonia absorption towers with sulfuric acid. The average removal efficiency of ammonia reached 95.4% with an inlet mean concentration of 199.0 mg L-1.

  11. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Magnetization Properties and Basic Electromechanics of Ferrofluids,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the basic magnetization processes and properties of ferrofluids and to apply these findings to the...In basic ferrofluid properties studies, the authors have discovered a previously unreported agglomeration effect in commercially available 200 Gauss...water-base ferrofluid . Upon the application of a uniform or non-uniform magnetic field, A.C. (60 Hz) or D.C., and any strength from 5 Oe to 230 Oe

  12. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    epoxy based nanoclay reinforced specimens Finally, epoxy ( EPON 828 ) specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay reinforcement were subjected to...stress-strain curves of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with various nanoclay reinforcement percentages The average mechanical properties calculated from...the test results are also shown in Table 3. Table 3. Average material properties of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay

  13. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  14. Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

    2014-01-01

    The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended.

  15. Structural and spectroscopic properties of itraconazole and ketoconazole - Experimental and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Jacek; Czaja, Kornelia; Jodłowska-Siewert, Elżbieta; Dettlaff, Katarzyna; Żwawiak, Justyna; Kujawski, Radosław; Ratajczak, Tomasz; Bernard, Marek K.

    2017-10-01

    The paper compares the experimental FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of itraconazole and ketoconazole with the DFT calculations using four different functionals. The highest conformity of the geometry of the optimized rotamer of itraconazole with the experimental data was obtained by applying the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level of theory whereas the M06L/6-31G (d,p) method was the most suitable for ketoconazole. The best compatibility between the experimental and theoretical UV spectra was observed with the use of CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method for both conazoles. The reason for the difference in the UV-Vis spectra of itraconazole and ketoconazole was discussed on the basis of time-dependent DFT and natural bond orbital methods.

  16. Sinter recrystalization and properties evaluation of glass-ceramic from waste glass bottle and magnesite for extended application

    OpenAIRE

    As'mau Ibrahim Gebi; Shehu Aliyu Yaro; Malik Abdulwahab; mamuda rayyan dodo

    2016-01-01

    In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study set out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste coca cola glass bottles and magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state. A reagent grade chrome (coloring agent) were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle;  X-ray fluorescence(XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize raw materials, four batches G...

  17. Experimental investigation of rockwool insulation hygrothermal properties related to material structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović-Petrović Maja D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal properties related to rockwool insulation material structure with different additives are presented using rockwool insulation products obtained from row material of southern Serbia (Vranje region in the wide range of reference temperatures (10ºC to 70ºC. The hygrothermal properties of basic sample (without additives are compared to two samples with different additives for two sets of rockwool insulation samples namely: light-soft-panels (LSP with density of 50 kg/m3, and middle-weight-panels (MWP with density of 80 kg/m3. It is shown that there is significant (approximately 10% improvement of thermal conductivity for additives based on zeolite. Also, correlation of thermal conductivity and sorption properties of selected samples are presented.

  18. Structural, Vibrational, and Electronic Properties of the Glucoalkaloid Strictosidine: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyer Alves Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed structural analysis and spectral behavior of the glucoalkaloid strictosidine, a precursor of all monoterpene indole alkaloids, are discussed. The experimental NMR, FTIR, and UV results were compared to the theoretical DFT spectra calculated by Becke using the three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP function with 6-31G(d and 6-311++G(2d,p basis sets. The theoretical geometry optimization data were compared with the X-ray data for precursors and similar structures in the associated literature. The similarity between the theoretical and experimental coupling constants values made it possible to affirm the values of dihedral angles and their configuration, reinforcing findings from previous stereochemical studies. Theoretical UV analysis agreed well with the measured experimental data, with bands assigned. Calculated HOMO/LUMO gaps show low excitation energy for strictosidine, justifying its stability and reaction kinetics. The molecular electrostatic potential map shows opposite potentials regions that form hydrogen bonds that stabilize the dimeric form, which were confirmed by excellent agreement of the dimeric form theoretical wavenumbers with the experimental IR spectrum. ESI-MS/MS data revealed patterns for the fragmentation of the protonated strictosidine molecule outlined by an NBO study.

  19. In-medium properties of hadrons – Recent experimental results and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetry in a hadronic environment. In this lecture, an overview of the current status of this field is given. Specific the- oretical predictions, experimental approaches and first evidence for medium modi- fications of hadrons will be presented in the following sections. An outlook on the possible future development of this field ...

  20. Comparison of Surface and Structural Properties of Carbonaceous Materials Prepared by Chemical Activation of Tomato Paste Waste: The Effects of Activator Type and Impregnation Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Ozbay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared by carbonization of tomato paste processing industry waste at 500°C followed by chemical activation with KOH, K2CO3, and HCl in N2 atmosphere at low temperature (500°C. The effects of different activating agents and impregnation ratios (25, 50, and 100 wt.% on the materials’ characteristics were examined. Precursor, carbonized tomato waste (CTW, and activated carbons were characterized by using ultimate and proximate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectroscopy, point of zero charge measurements (pHPZC, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Activation process improved pore formation and changed activated carbons’ surface characteristics. Activated carbon with the highest surface area (283 m3/g was prepared by using 50 wt.% KOH as an activator. According to the experimental results, tomato paste waste could be used as an alternative precursor to produce low-cost activated carbon.

  1. Method for calculating thermal properties of lightweight floor heating panels based on an experimental setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Lightweight floor heating systems consist of a plastic tube connected to a heat distribution aluminium plate and are used in wooden floor constructions. The thermal properties of lightweight floor heating systems cannot be described accurately. The reason is a very complex interaction of convection......, radiation and conduction of the heat transfer between pipe and surrounding materials. The European Standard for floor heating, EN1264, does not cover lightweight systems, while the supplemental Nordtest Method VVS127 is aimed at lightweight systems. The thermal properties can be found using tabulated values...

  2. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  3. Influence of different fillers on the properties of an experimental vinyl polysiloxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Könzgen MEINCKE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of different fillers on an experimental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS at two different concentrations, 20% and 40%. Different fillers were added to an experimental VPS. The study was developed in two stages: (i incorporation of fillers in different concentrations: (a 20 wt% fillers, and (b 40 wt%. The fillers were added to experimental VPS and mixed with a speed mixer; (ii characterization of experimental VPS; after the base paste and catalyst paste were mixed, the experimental VPS was used to make specimens specifically for each test, which were stored at 23°C for 24 hours. The tests were designed according to the specific standardization for the analysis of tensile strength, detail reproduction, Shore A hardness, and elastic recovery. For analysis of filler size pattern, scanning electron microscopy at 1500× magnification was used. The aerosil OX-50 40% (AE, and pure aluminum hydroxide 40% (PAH groups presented the highest tensile strength and Shore A hardness values. However, those were the only groups that did not present continuous detail reproduction of an intersection of 20 μm line. The elastic recovery was not statistically significant. The undesirable characteristics of VPS (lowest Shore A hardness and tensile strength were observed when it was added to the composition of acrylic polymer (AP and fiberglass (FG in both concentrations, 20% and 40%. In groups AE and PAH, agglomerates of nanofillers were shown in SEM micrography, while the other groups presented different shapes and fillers sizes.

  4. Flexural properties of experimental nanofiber reinforced composite are affected by resin composition and nanofiber/resin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotti, Hugo A; Manso, Adriana P; Leung, Victor; do Valle, Accácio L; Ko, Frank; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of different resin blends concentrations and nanofibers mass ratio on flexural properties of experimental Poliacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers reinforced composites. Poliacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers mats were produced by electrospinning and characterized by tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental resin-fiber composite beams were manufactured by infiltrating PAN nanofiber mats with varied concentrations of BisGMA-TEGDMA resin blends (BisGMA/TEGDMA: 30/70, 50/50 and 70/30weight%). The mass ratio of fiber to resin varied from 0% to 8%. Beams were cured and stored in water at 37°C. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and work of fracture (WF) were evaluated by three-point bending test after 24h storage. The tensile properties of the PAN nanofibers indicated an anisotropic behavior being always higher when tested in a direction perpendicular to the rotation of the collector drum. Except for WF, the other flexural properties (FS and FM) were always higher as the ratio of BisGMA to TEGDMA increased in the neat resin beams. The addition of different ratios of PAN fibers did not affect FS and FM of the composite beams as compared to neat resin beams (p>0.05). However, the addition of fibers significantly increased the WF of the composite beams, and this was more evident for the blends with higher TEGDMA ratios (pnanofibers into resin blends did not negatively affect the properties of the composite and resulted in an increase in toughness that is a desirable property for a candidate material for prosthodontics application. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PNL vitrification technology development project high-waste loaded high-level waste glasses for high-temperature melter: Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-02-01

    For vitrification of high-level wastes (HLW) at the Hanford Site, a Joule-heated overflow type melter with bottom draining capability and capable of operating at temperatures up to 1500{degrees}C is being developed. The original proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter used a 1150{degrees}C processing temperature and was tested using glasses with up to 28 wt% waste oxide loading for NCAW (Neutralized Current Acid Waste). The goal of the high-temperature melter (HTM) is the volume reduction of the final product and increase of the waste processing rate by processing high-waste loaded glasses at higher temperatures. This would dramatically decrease waste disposal and processing costs. The aim of glass development for the HTM is to determine compositions and melting temperatures for processible and acceptable glasses with a high waste loading. Glass property/composition models for viscosity and liquidus temperature developed in the Glass Envelope Definition (GED) study were used. The results of glass formulation and experimental testing are presented for NCAW and DST/SST (Double-Shell Tank/Single-Shell Tank) Blend waste. Although the purpose of this report was to summarize the glass development study with Blend waste only, the results with NCAW were needed because glass development with Blend waste was based on the results from the glass development study with NCAW.

  6. Experimental and theoretical analysis of nanofluids based on high temperature-heat transfer fluid with enhanced thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Martín, Elisa I.; Gómez-Villarejo, Roberto; Teruel, Miriam; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Aguilar, Teresa; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    In this work, nanofluids were prepared using commercial Cu nanoparticles and a commercial high temperature-heat transfer Fluid (eutectic mixture of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl) as the base fluid, which is used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Different properties such as density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity were characterized. Nanofluids showed enhanced heat transfer efficiency. In detail, the incorporation of Cu nanoparticles led to an increase of the heat capacity up to 14%. Also, thermal conductivity was increased up to 13%. Finally, the performance of the nanofluids prepared increased up to 11% according to the Dittus-Boelter correlation. On the other hand, equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation was used to model the experimental nanofluid system studied. Thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity were calculated and the results were compared with experimental data. The analysis of the radial function distributions (RDFs) and the inspection of the spatial distribution functions (SDFs) indicate the important role that plays the metal-oxygen interaction in the system. Dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficients of base fluid and nanofluid were computed according to Einstein relation by computing the mean square displacement (MSD). Supplementary online material is available in electronic form at http://www.epjap.org

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Crystal Structure, Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of SmTaO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure, electronic structure and optical properties of SmTaO4 were identified through an experimental method and first principles calculation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and a spectrophotometer were used to characterize the crystal structure, reflectivity and band gap of this material; furthermore, the electronic structure and optical properties were investigated according to three exchange-correlation potentials, LDA, GGA and GGA + U. Results show that the SmTaO4 calcined at 1400 °C with the solid-state reaction method is in monoclinic phase in the space group I2/a. In addition, the calculated lattice parameters are consistent with the experimental values. The electron transitions among the O 2p states, Sm 4f states and Ta 5d states play a key role in the dielectric function, refractive index, absorption coefficient and reflectivity of SmTaO4. The calculation of first principles provides considerable insight into the relationship between the electronic structure and optical properties of this material.

  8. Experimental Study and ANN Dual-Time Scale Perturbation Model of Electrokinetic Properties of Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Munteanu, Cristian R; Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Pazos, Alejandro; Ran, Tao; Tan, Zhiliang; Yu, Yizun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2017-01-01

    The electrokinetic properties of the rumen microbiota are involved in cell surface adhesion and microbial metabolism. An in vitro study was carried out in batch culture to determine the effects of three levels of special surface area (SSA) of biomaterials and four levels of surface tension (ST) of culture medium on electrokinetic properties (Zeta potential, ξ; electrokinetic mobility, μe), fermentation parameters (volatile fatty acids, VFAs), and ST over fermentation processes (ST-a, γ). The obtained results were combined with previously published data (digestibility, D; pH; concentration of ammonia nitrogen, c(NH3-N)) to establish a predictive artificial neural network (ANN) model. Concepts of dual-time series analysis, perturbation theory (PT), and Box-Jenkins Operators were applied for the first time to develop an ANN model to predict the variations of the electrokinetic properties of microbiota. The best dual-time series Radial Basis Functions (RBR) model for ξ of rumen microbiota predicted ξ for >30,000 cases with a correlation coefficient >0.8. This model provided insight into the correlations between electrokinetic property (zeta potential) of rumen microbiota and the perturbations of physical factors (specific surface area and surface tension) of media, digestibility of substrate, and their metabolites (NH3-N, VFAs) in relation to environmental factors.

  9. Properties of experimental titanium-silver-copper alloys for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Kuk; Moon, Seoung-Kyun; Oh, Keun-Taek; Choi, Good-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop Ti-Ag-Cu alloys with a higher corrosion resistance, better biocompatibility, and better mechanical properties than commercially pure titanium and its alloys. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, mechanical property and cytotoxicity of the Ti-Ag-Cu alloys were investigated. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by open circuit potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization tests in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. The mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile and microhardness tests. The biocompatibility was tested by evaluating the cytotoxicity of the alloys using an agar-overlay test and MTT assay. It was found that the open circuit potentials of the Ti-Ag-Cu alloys were higher than that of pure Ti. However, the passive current densities of the Ti-Ag-Cu alloys were similar to that of pure titanium. The mechanical properties improved with increasing Ag and Cu content. All the Ti-Ag-Cu alloys examined were found to be noncytotoxic similar to pure Ti. Therefore, Ti-Ag-Cu alloys can be used as biomaterials in the dental field. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experimental study on the physical and chemical properties of the deep hard brittle shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the hard brittle shale formation, rock composition, physical and chemical properties, mechanics property before and after interacting with fluid have direct relation with borehole problems, such as borehole wall collapse, mud loss, hole shrinkage. To achieve hard brittle shale micro-structure, physical–chemical properties and mechanics property, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD, cation exchange capacity experiment and hardness test are conducted. The result of laboratory experiments indicates that, clay mineral and quartz is dominated in mineral composition. In clay mineral, illite and illite/semectite mixed layers are abundant and there is no sign of montmorillonite. Value of cation exchange capacity (CEC ranges from 102.5–330 mmol/kg and average value is 199.56 mmol/kg. High value of CEC and content of clay mineral means hard brittle shale has strong ability of hydration. The image of XRD shows well developed micro-cracks and pores, which make rock failure easily, especially when fluid invades rock inside. Shale sample soaked with anti-high temperature KCL drilling fluid on shorter immersing time has stronger strength, whereas shale sample soaked with plugging and film forming KCL drilling fluid on longer immersing time has stronger strength.

  11. Experimental Study and ANN Dual-Time Scale Perturbation Model of Electrokinetic Properties of Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrokinetic properties of the rumen microbiota are involved in cell surface adhesion and microbial metabolism. An in vitro study was carried out in batch culture to determine the effects of three levels of special surface area (SSA of biomaterials and four levels of surface tension (ST of culture medium on electrokinetic properties (Zeta potential, ξ; electrokinetic mobility, μe, fermentation parameters (volatile fatty acids, VFAs, and ST over fermentation processes (ST-a, γ. The obtained results were combined with previously published data (digestibility, D; pH; concentration of ammonia nitrogen, c(NH3-N to establish a predictive artificial neural network (ANN model. Concepts of dual-time series analysis, perturbation theory (PT, and Box-Jenkins Operators were applied for the first time to develop an ANN model to predict the variations of the electrokinetic properties of microbiota. The best dual-time series Radial Basis Functions (RBR model for ξ of rumen microbiota predicted ξ for >30,000 cases with a correlation coefficient >0.8. This model provided insight into the correlations between electrokinetic property (zeta potential of rumen microbiota and the perturbations of physical factors (specific surface area and surface tension of media, digestibility of substrate, and their metabolites (NH3-N, VFAs in relation to environmental factors.

  12. Probing the properties of quantum matter; an experimental study in three parts using ultracold atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The three experiments described in this thesis investigate fundamental properties of ultracold atoms. Using laser cooling and evaporative cooling, a dilute gas of sodium atoms is cooled to ~100 nK. Under these circumstances a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) forms, where millions of atoms collapse

  13. Hot Stamping of Boron Steel Using Partition Heating for Tailored Properties: Experimental Trials and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yanhong; Wang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Xu; Li, Xuetao

    2017-11-01

    Hot-stamped components with tailored properties are becoming popular for their better performance in collision. In this article, an M-shaped part with varying properties was formed by hot stamping using partition heating. Different soaking temperatures induce different austenite fractions at the different regions of the blank, resulting in the partitioned microstructure and mechanical properties in a single part. In the high-temperature region, the average tensile strength and elongation are 1565 MPa and 8.65 pct, respectively, and the average tensile strength and elongation are 626 MPa and 24.37 pct, respectively, in the low-temperature region. A finite element model of hot stamping using partition heating was established based on the relationship of austenite fraction with heating temperature determined by the dilatometer test and the stress-strain curve of 22MnB5 with different austenite fractions acquired from the hot tensile test.The differences of temperature, thickness, and Vickers hardness in different zones of the M-shaped part during forming and quenching stages were analyzed. The effects of hot stamping parameters, such as stamping velocity and heating temperature, on the forming and mechanical properties of the tailored M-shaped part were investigated, providing theoretical guidance for the production of tailored hot-stamped components using partition heating.

  14. Experimental study of the combustion properties of methane/hydrogen mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the combustion properties of methane / hydrogen mixtures are investigated by measering autoignition delay times in methane/hydrogen mixtures under conditions relevant for gasengines. Moreover HCN and C2H2 measurements have been performed in fuel-rich one dimensional laminar CH4/H2/air

  15. TABLETING PROPERTIES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE LACTOSE GRANULATIONS FOR DIRECT COMPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K

    1995-01-01

    Lactose granulations (125-250 mu m) were prepared from two different alpha-lactose monohydrate powders and one roller dried beta-lactose powder respectively, by wet granulation with only water as a binder. As an effect of the granulation process, the flow properties improved, but the compactibility

  16. Seismic Risk Scenario in Grenoble (FRANCE) Using Experimental Dynamic Properties of Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Clotaire

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the vulnerability of a large set of buildings using sophisticated methods can be very time consuming and at a prohibitive cost, particularly for a moderate seismic hazard country like France. We propose here a low-cost analysis using an experimental approach to extract the elastic behaviour of existing buildings. An elastic modal model is proposed for the different types of building tested in Grenoble (France) thanks to their experimental modal parameters (resonance frequencies, modal shapes and damping), which are estimated using ambient vibrations surveys. Sixty buildings of various types were recorded. The building integrity is then calculated considering an accelerogram scenario provided by seismologists as input and considering an integrity threshold based on the FEMA inter-storey drift limits. Even if the level of damage remains unknown, we conclude that masonry buildings undergo more damage (70% of buildings damaged) than RC buildings. Finally, extracting modal parameters from ambient vibrati...

  17. Experimental study on the thermostable property of aramid fiber reinforced PE-RT pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Guoquan; Wu, Yin; Qi, Dongtao; Wei, Bin; Li, Houbu; Ding, Nan; Cai, Xuehua

    2015-01-01

    Flexible composite pipes are advantageous in ultra high strength, high modulus, pH and corrosion resistance and light weight, but there are still some hidden safety troubles because they are poorer in thermostable capacity. Therefore, test samples of flexible composite pipes were prepared with high-temperature polythene (PE-RT) as the neck bush and aramid fiber as the reinforcement layer. Experimental study was conducted by using HPHT vessel and differential thermal scanner for different work...

  18. Experimental and Computational Studies of Cortical Neural Network Properties Through Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Wesley Patrick

    Previous studies, both theoretical and experimental, of network level dynamics in the cerebral cortex show evidence for a statistical phenomenon called criticality; a phenomenon originally studied in the context of phase transitions in physical systems and that is associated with favorable information processing in the context of the brain. The focus of this thesis is to expand upon past results with new experimentation and modeling to show a relationship between criticality and the ability to detect and discriminate sensory input. A line of theoretical work predicts maximal sensory discrimination as a functional benefit of criticality, which can then be characterized using mutual information between sensory input, visual stimulus, and neural response,. The primary finding of our experiments in the visual cortex in turtles and neuronal network modeling confirms this theoretical prediction. We show that sensory discrimination is maximized when visual cortex operates near criticality. In addition to presenting this primary finding in detail, this thesis will also address our preliminary results on change-point-detection in experimentally measured cortical dynamics.

  19. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  20. Experimental Validation of Strategy for the Inverse Estimation of Mechanical Properties and Coefficient of Friction in Flat Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod; Singh, Arbind Kumar; Dixit, Uday Shanker

    2017-08-01

    Flat rolling is one of the most widely used metal forming processes. For proper control and optimization of the process, modelling of the process is essential. Modelling of the process requires input data about material properties and friction. In batch production mode of rolling with newer materials, it may be difficult to determine the input parameters offline. In view of it, in the present work, a methodology to determine these parameters online by the measurement of exit temperature and slip is verified experimentally. It is observed that the inverse prediction of input parameters could be done with a reasonable accuracy. It was also assessed experimentally that there is a correlation between micro-hardness and flow stress of the material; however the correlation between surface roughness and reduction is not that obvious.