WorldWideScience

Sample records for wastes current practice

  1. Current practices of construction waste reduction through 3R practice among contractors in malaysia: Case study in penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L. S.; Tan, L. W.; Seow, T. W.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of the implementation of construction waste reduction through 3R reflects the sustainability in construction waste management. Weak implementation of construction waste reduction through 3R among contractors will lead to unsustainable construction waste management. Increase in construction waste on landfills is critical especially on islands where land is very limited for solid waste disposal. This aim of this paper is to investigate current practice of construction waste reduction through 3R practice among contractors in Penang, Malaysia. The findings reported herein is based on feedbacks from 143 construction contractors of grade CIDB G7, G6 and G5 in Penang and experts from Penang Local Authority, CIDB in Penang and its Headquarters, National Solid Waste Management Department, and Headquarters of Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation. Interviews and questionnaire surveys have been found that 3R practice is not mandatory in construction waste management in Penang. Only 39.8% construction contractors practiced 3R in managing their waste. Therefore, 3R practices should be emphasized in construction industry. Reducing wastes through 3R practices in construction industry is a way forward towards sustainable construction waste management especially in expanding the lifetime of landfill.

  2. Solid waste conversion to energy: Current European and U.S. practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H.; Dunn, J. J., Jr.

    The book provides an introduction to the background and technology of resource recovery from municipal solid wastes, as practiced in the United States and Europe. Quantity and composition of wastes in the United States and Europe are analyzed, and recovery of materials from waste in Europe is studied. Examples of waste-to-energy conversion and use technologies are discussed. Decision making for waste-to-energy system planning and implementation is considered, and marketing recovered products are outlined.

  3. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...

  4. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE...... for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland’s waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration......The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous...

  5. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE) for a system serving 56 000 inhabitants), but significant environmental loads are caused by air emissions from the incinerators and leachate from the landfills. Several alternative management scenarios were modelled and results show that increased use of incineration, full utilization of the heat production for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland's waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration and the long transport of the recyclables to markets. Export of waste to Denmark for incineration at modern waste incinerators with advanced flue gas cleaning could also be considered as a means to achieve better environmental performance of the waste management system.

  6. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  7. Rural domestic waste management in Zhejiang Province, China: Characteristics, current practices, and an improved strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yidong; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Dongye; Huang, Xiaofeng; Li, Haini

    2015-06-01

    Lack of access to adequate sanitation facilities has serious health implications for rural dwellers and can degrade the ecosystems. This study offers a systemantic and quantitative overview of historical data on rural domestic waste (RDW) production and past and current management practices in a prototype region in China, where rural areas are undergoing rapid urbanization and are confronted with great environmental challenges associated with poor RDW management practices. The results indicate that RDW is characterized with a large fraction of kitchen waste (42.9%) and high water content (53.4%). The RDW generation (RDWG) per capita between 2012 and 2020 is estimated to increase from 0.68 to 1.01 kg/d-cap. The Hill 1 model is able to adequately simulate/project the population growth in a rural area from 1993 to 2020. The annual RDWG in the region is estimated to double from 6,033,000 tons/year in 2008 to 12,030,000 tons/year by 2020. By comparing three RDW management scenarios based on the life-cycle inventory approach and cost-benefit analysis, it is strongly recommended that the present Scenario 2 (sanitary landfill treatment) be upgraded to Scenario 3 (source separation followed by composting and landfill of RDW) to significantly reduce the ecological footprint and to improve the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability. Rural domestic waste (RDW) is affecting 720 million people in China and more than 3221 million people worldwide. Consequently, handling and disposal of RDW have serious health implications to rural dwellers and the ecosystems. This study offers a systemantic and quantitative overview and analysis of historical data on RDW production and management practices in a prototype region in China, which is confronted with great environmental challenges associated with RDW. Then we predict future production of RDW and propose a sustainable RDW management strategy, which holds the promise of greatly mitigating the mounting environmental pressure

  8. Municipal solid waste generation in growing urban areas in Africa: current practices and relation to socioeconomic factors in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, T; Mengistie, E; Haddis, A; Wasie, F; Alemayehu, E; Dadi, D; Van Gerven, T; Van der Bruggen, B

    2012-10-01

    As one of cities in the developing countries, a rapid population growth and industrial activities pose many environmental challenges for Jimma city, Ethiopia. One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management, which results in environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, their current disposal practices, and to recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city was ca. 88,000 kg, and the average per capita generation rate was 0.55 ± 0.17 kg/capita/day. Eighty-seven percent of the waste was produced by households and 13% by institutions, and a negligible fraction (0.1%) was generated by street sweepings. During the rainy season, 40% more waste was generated than in the dry season because of the increased availability of agricultural food product. Further analysis showed that biodegradable organic waste constitutes 54% by weight with an average moisture content of 60% that falls within the required limits for composting. The nonbiodegradable components constitute 46% of which 30% of it was nonrecyclable material. Only 25% of the community uses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. Fifty-one percent of the households disposed their waste in individually chosen spots, whereas 22% burned their waste. Finally 2% of households use private waste collectors. The socioeconomic analysis showed that higher family income and educational status is associated more with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of backyard or open dumping. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling. As such an economic benefit can be obtained from

  9. Multi-criteria decision making to support waste management: A critical review of current practices and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart Coelho, Lineker M; Lange, Liséte C; Coelho, Hosmanny Mg

    2017-01-01

    Solid waste management is a complex domain involving the interaction of several dimensions; thus, its analysis and control impose continuous challenges for decision makers. In this context, multi-criteria decision-making models have become important and convenient supporting tools for solid waste management because they can handle problems involving multiple dimensions and conflicting criteria. However, the selection of the multi-criteria decision-making method is a hard task since there are several multi-criteria decision-making approaches, each one with a large number of variants whose applicability depends on information availability and the aim of the study. Therefore, to support researchers and decision makers, the objectives of this article are to present a literature review of multi-criteria decision-making applications used in solid waste management, offer a critical assessment of the current practices, and provide suggestions for future works. A brief review of fundamental concepts on this topic is first provided, followed by the analysis of 260 articles related to the application of multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management. These studies were investigated in terms of the methodology, including specific steps such as normalisation, weighting, and sensitivity analysis. In addition, information related to waste type, the study objective, and aspects considered was recorded. From the articles analysed it is noted that studies using multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management are predominantly addressed to problems related to municipal solid waste involving facility location or management strategy.

  10. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infectious Waste Disposal: An Examination of Current Practices and Risks Posed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnberg, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    To determine how infectious waste is being defined, treated, and disposed, the Seattle/King County Department of Public Health conducted a waste survey and facility inspection at 26 hospitals and 22 medical offices. The results and conclusions are discussed in connection with a contemporary literature review. (65 references) (Author/JJK)

  12. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Saba; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Ali, Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Saba [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Adeel [Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad PO: 45550 (Pakistan); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ali, Usman [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill. - Highlights: • The pioneer study provides the baseline data from waste dumping site from Lahore. • Dump site of Lahore is the potential source of PCBs, PBDEs and DPs in nearby environment. • Fugacity fractions indicated air to soil deposition of PCBs and PBDEs.

  14. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  15. Current Psychosomatic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  17. Current practice in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Dagres, Nikolaos; Marinskis, Germanas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the EP wire is to examine the clinical practice in the management of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), with special focus on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Forty-five European centres, all members of the EHRA-EP Research network completed the questions of the survey...

  18. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  19. Best Practices for Management of Biocontaminated Waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The purpose of these best practices is to provide federal, state, territorial, and local waste management entities information on techniques and methodologies that have the potential to improve the handling and management of biocontaminated waste streams after a biological agent incident. These best practices are intended to be general in nature serving as a resource to a variety of biological agents in a variety of situations; however, these best practices also present a specific homeland security scenario – a biological attack with Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) – to help illustrate specific waste management considerations.

  20. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  1. Genetic methods in current practice

    OpenAIRE

    Laštůvková, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    The submited work is concentrated on the topic of genetic methods in current practice. An important factor is the development of literacy training and reading. The work highlights the various stages of reading, ie, preparation for reading, hearing and vision development and reading comprehension. The objective of the methodological procedures applied in the genetic method of reading training. Key words: Literacy Reading with comprehension Genetic Metod Block letter Analysis Synthesis

  2. Electronics waste management: Indian practices and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C.Road. Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a popular, informal name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) with all of their peripherals at their end-of-life. WEEE constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste streams. The fraction of precious and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise a meager 2.70%. Given the volume of WEEE generated containing toxic materials, it emerges as a risk to the society. Considering the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. In contrast, WEEE can offer a tremendous business opportunity if it would treat in proper manner. The management of the WEEE has thus become a global challenge in today's world. Several nations across the globe have implemented or are about to implement WEEE regulations based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Both existing and proposed solutions are implemented with various degrees of centralization. Practical implementations however, can give rise to absurd organizational outcomes. In the light of these findings, the present paper deals with the Indian initiatives on the WEEE management keeping pace with the international scenario. Initially, this paper aims to draw an overview on the basics of WEEE. Next, the international legislative practices followed by Indian initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of this waste stream are discussed.

  3. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-01

    A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  5. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  6. Assessment of sharps waste management practices in a referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharps waste is part of infectious waste generated in health facilities, management of which is critical. This study aimed at assessing the sharps waste management practices in a referral hospital. The study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data on sharps waste containers ...

  7. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recommended that there should be source segregation of waste within each hospital as all wastes are often mixed in the same waste basket. It further recommended that government and the relevant agents should be at alert to their responsibilities of regulating the waste management practices among the hospitals in the ...

  8. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition...... is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators...... are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management....

  9. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56,000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50,000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management.

  10. EVALUATION OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MULTI-SPECIALITY TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Srivastav

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical Waste (BMW, collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community The scientific “Hospital waste Management “is of vital importance as its improper management poses risks to the health care workers ,waste handlers patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i To assess current practices of Bio-medical Waste management including generation, collection, transportation storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii To assess health andsafetypracticesfor the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in tertiary care-centre was studied during May 2010 June 2010. The information/data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi structured interview, proforma being the one used for WASTE AUDITING QUESTIONNAIRE. The information collected was verified by personal observations of waste management practices in each ward of hospital. Results : SRMS-IMS generates 1. 25Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in each ward for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory it was not due to unavailability of Personal protective measures but because of un-awareness of health hazards which may occur due to improper waste management practices. Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute, training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standard of bio-medical waste management.

  11. The temporality of wastewaste practices in school and family in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Læssøe, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...... interest from environment and sustainability education researchers (Jørgensen et al., forthcoming). In this paper, we explore how the temporality of waste links to various waste (related) practices in homes and schools. How do different practices negotiate and change the present and future status of waste...... materials? Which kind of imaginings of the future are at play in different waste practices? How is the temporality of waste discussed and narrated (or not) in different settings? How do children in different families understand waste and time? What is the potential of waste for providing educators...

  12. Current practices in economic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    By means of economic appraisal, the costs and the benefits of health, environment and safety management can be made clear, both at the national level and at the company level. As such it is a tool in advocating good practices. This paper explores the possibilities of economic appraisal for policy

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION PRACTICES AT TWO CCA WOOD TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treatment plants were assessed for their waste minimization practices. These practices have been reflected in several areas, including facility designs, process controls, and management practices. he objectives were to estimate the amount...

  14. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W.M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  15. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  16. Urban strategies for Waste Management in Tourist Cities. D2.7 : Compendium of waste management practices in pilot cities and best practices in touristic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Iris; Mayerhofer, Johannes; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Ramusch, Roland; Romein, A.; Eriksson, Mattias; Grosse, Juliane; MC. Nascimento, Gisela; Bjorn Olsen, Trine; de Luca, Claudia; Zapata Aranda, Pilar; Kazeroni, Marie; Kovacs, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This report (Deliverable D2.7) refers to URBANWASTE Work Package 2, Task 2.8. Under this Task the current waste prevention and management practices in the URBANWASTE pilot cases are investigated and best practices coming from the EU context (focussing on touristic processes) are identified. This

  17. Overview of current chelation practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aydinok

    2011-12-01

    , should provide long-term survival and quality of life for patients with iron loading anemias. The goal of this review is to summarize current concepts in iron chelation therapies based on the considerable amount of prospective data obtained by clinical studies. 去铁胺 (DFO)是自20世纪80年以来输血引起铁过载的参考标准疗法。 虽然它是一种高效的铁螯合剂,但是去铁胺皮下给药的遵从性问题依旧是主要问题。 口服螯合剂去铁酮(DFP)在北美没有销售许可证,但是,它在1994年获得印度许可,1999年欧洲联盟(EU)批准授予去铁酮销售许可证,特别是当去铁胺不足、无法忍受或无法接受时,去铁酮可用于重型地中海贫血患者。 还可获得关于在6岁至10岁之间的儿童身上使用去铁酮的有限数据,但是没有关于在6岁以下儿童身上使用去铁酮的数据。 随后美国食品和药品管理局(FDA)和欧洲药品管理局(EMA)分别在2005年和2006年批准口服螯合剂去铁酮作为第一疗法来治疗2岁以上输血引起铁过载的患者。 铁螯合的主要目的是将身体铁维持在安全水平,但一旦铁累积起来,铁螯合的目标是把组织铁降低到安全级别,这是一个缓慢的过程。 确定螯合剂的螯合方案、剂量和频率管理的主要依据是身体铁负担、心肌铁的状态和输血铁负载速率。 适当监控螯合对测量特殊方案的反应速率和提供计量调整来加强螯合效果和避免毒效尤其重要。 由于一些因素,诸如:螯合剂的吸收和代谢,螯合方案的效果可能呈现个别变化。 耐受性和遵从性也是影响螯合反应的个别变量。 了解螯合剂的优点和局限性,准确确定铁过载患者的螯合需求以及设计毒效更小但效果更优的个性化螯合方案,可以向铁过载贫血患者提供长期的生存和生活质量。 此次调研的目的是在临床研究获得的相当数

  18. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  19. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  20. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  1. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  2. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand. Copyright © 2013

  4. Current and future practices in hospital foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M R; Gregoire, M B; Lafferty, L J; Dowling, R A

    2000-01-01

    To identify current operational practices and expectations for future practices in hospital foodservice; establish the probability that current practices will change; and determine whether differences in practices exist on the basis of profit status and hospital size. A questionnaire, to determine current practices, probability of change, and expectations for future practices, was mailed to foodservice directors. A random sample of 500 foodservice directors in US hospitals with 200 or more beds. A total of 214 questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 43%. Descriptive statistics were used to report current practices, probability of change, and expectations for future practices. The Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to examine whether the probability of change ratings differed on the basis of hospital profit status and size. chi 2 Analysis was used to examine whether expectations for future practices differed based on hospital profit status and size. Currently 81% of hospital foodservice departments have fewer than 100 employees; 73% have revenue budgets of less than $2 million; 49% have expense budgets greater than $2 million; 55% use a selective menu, often (43%) 1-week in length; 74% use conventional food production technology; 81% have a centralized, hot tray line; 91% operate a cafeteria; 96% do on-site catering; 69% have differential pricing for employee meals; 58% have subsidized employee meals; and 19% have coffee kiosks. Changes in current practices are expected in several areas. Foodservice directors expect to serve meals to fewer inpatients (71%), employ less staff (73%), have smaller expense budgets (70%), and generate more revenue (61%). Kruskal-Wallis and chi 2 analyses indicated few differences on the basis of hospital profit status and size. There was little consensus among directors on how to best respond to these environmental changes. Hospital foodservice practices will change in the future. Foodservice directors are using a variety of

  5. The Construction Solid Waste Minimization Practices among Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ahmad A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of minimization of construction solid waste is to reduce or eliminates the adverse impacts on the environment and to human health. Due to the increase of population that leads to rapid development, there are possibilities of construction solid waste to be increased shortly from the construction works, demolition or renovation works. Materials such as wood, concrete, paint, brick, roofing, tiles, plastic and any other materials would contribute problem involving construction solid waste. Therefore, the proper waste minimization is needed to control the quantity of construction solid waste produced. This paper identifies the type of construction solid waste produced and discusses the waste minimization practice by the contractors at construction sites in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

  6. Solid Waste Management Practices in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the debate on the role of the informal sector in solid waste management by examining the effectiveness of informal sector solid waste management practices in transforming waste into nonwaste in the city of Gweru in Zimbabwe. The study focused on 589 informal enterprises that were surveys using questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions with key informants. Analysis of solid waste management in the informal sector of Gweru has revealed that large amounts of waste are generated indicating poor material efficiency in the enterprises, especially in food market areas where huge amounts of biodegradable material and vegetable wastes are generated and disposed of haphazardly. Analysis of the key factors that include solid waste generation rates, collection frequencies and transportation, waste minimisation, and reduction practices showed that the current waste management system is unsustainable in the long run. The municipality of Gweru needs to provide more resources for financing, training, and manpower to enable effective provision of an environmentally friendly solid waste management system in the city, including the informal sector.

  7. Health care waste management practice in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, R; Pradhan, B

    2010-10-01

    Health-care waste is a by-product of health care. Its poor management exposes health-care workers, waste handlers and the community to infections, toxic effects and injuries including damage of the environment. It also creates opportunities for the collection of disposable medical equipment, its re-sale and potential re-use without sterilization, which causes an important burden of disease worldwide. The purpose of this study was to find out health care waste management practice in hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Narayani Sub-Regional Hospital, Birgunj from May to October 2006 using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study population was four different departments of the hospital (Medical/Paediatric, Surgical/Ortho, Gynae/Obstetric and Emergency), Medical Superintendent, In-charges of four different departments and all sweepers. Data was collected using interview, group discussion, observation and measurement by weight and volume. Total health-care waste generated was 128.4 kg per day while 0.8 kg per patient per day. The composition of health care waste was found to be 96.8 kg (75.4%) general waste, 24.1 kg (8.8%) hazardous waste and 7.5 kg (5.8%) sharps per day by weight. Health staffs and sweepers were not practicing the waste segregation. Occupational health and safety was not given due attention. Majority of the sweepers were unaware of waste management and need of safety measures to protect their own health. Health care waste management practice in the hospital was unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan and carelessness of patients, visitors and staffs. Therefore the hospital should develop the waste management plan and strictly follow the National Health Care Waste Management Guideline.

  8. Determinants of Solid Waste Disposal Practices in Urban Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste management is a growing public concern in Ethiopia. This study examined the patterns and determinants of solid waste disposal practices adopted by families using a random sample of 200 households from Jimma town. The descriptive results revealed that open-dumping, burying, burning and composting are the ...

  9. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    vitrification, electric arc and melting in a secondary combustion chamber by adding coke as a heating source (coke bed melting furnaces) or residual carbon in the fly ash (Rotary surface melting furnace) are the most common methods. In general, vitrification processes require a high-energy input and are therefore relatively cost intensive. Locking the hazardous components into the matrix by a stabilization/solidification with cement is a common alternative to decontamination. Mixing the fly ash with cement or asphalt is widely used for the reuse of fly ash from coal incineration, but it requires careful attention to any leaching of heavy metals if applied to fly ash from waste incineration. Studies by mixing fly ash with cement at concentrations from 5 to 70 % showed, that in most cases an additional pretreatment step, e.g. washing in HNO{sub 3} solution, is necessary to receive acceptable leaching behaviour and required properties as building material. Related European regulations are currently pending. On the other hand, the use of fly ash as filler for asphalt does not require any pretreatment and is already commonly applied in some countries such as the Netherlands as a well-established method. Solvent extraction methods such as acidic extraction (3R-process) or combined basic and acidic extraction (MR-process) are also designed to remove the contaminants. The effectiveness of these methods is only moderate and a further thermal treatment is required to destroy the dioxins. These methods require relatively high amounts of chemicals and wastewater management. However, they are supposed to be relatively cost effective. Other treatment options that are being tested at laboratory scale such as microbiological treatment and supercritical extraction are optimistic but have no realistic practical relevance at this state.

  10. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU.

  11. Teaching Math Online: Current Practices in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Omur

    2011-01-01

    Changing nature of student population, developments in technology, and insufficient number of traditional universities have made online courses popular around the globe. This study was designed to investigate the current practices of teaching mathematics online in Turkish Universities through a qualitative inquiry. The snowball sampling method was…

  12. Best practice measurement of household level food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der I.A.; Nijenhuis, M.A.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Kremer, S.

    2016-01-01

    This report is part of the EU research project REFRESH, which aims to contribute to the goal of reducing food waste across Europe. The current report is output of the work package that focuses on consumer behaviours related to food waste. It aims to consolidate existing and new consumer

  13. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoada, Ramatta Massa; Chirawurah, Dennis; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2014-07-08

    Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases.

  14. [Wastes in nursing practice: findings from a phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Mecugni, Daniela; Moga, Maria Mirela; Graceffa, Giuseppina; Palese, Alvisa

    2015-01-01

    the International economic crisis has challenged the sustainability of health care systems imposing reforms aimed to reduce costs and increase production efficiency. At the international level, waste reduction is considered to be the basis to ensure the heath care systems sustainability. To reduce waste and increase production efficiency is required to document the types, the extent and the level were they occur. The purpose of this paper is to document the experience of waste in nurses clinical practice. a descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. Clinical nursing operating in different care settings of the National Heath Care Service were recruited adopting a maximum variation purposeful sampling. Data saturation was considered as the finish line for the participants recruitment. thirty nurses participated in the study. They were mainly female (n = 28, 93.3%) and with an average age of 41.4 ± 7.3 years. For nurses waste means inadequate allocation of resources. Wastes are caused by individual and organizational choices determining improper, inefficient or ineffective use of material, human or virtual heath care resources and time as well as the incorrect application of clinical pathways, the inadequate use of electricity, food, and the improper disposal of the hospital waste. Wastes generates negative emotional impact on nurses such as frustration, anger and sense of impotence. Avoidable wastes were identified. They were mainly related to the expiration date, the use and the type of drugs and materials. Also unavoidable wastes were identified and they were related to established practices to ensure patients safety and changes in treatment choices due to the clinical instability of the patients. within the limits of the qualitative approach, in this study have been identified different types of waste present in clinical practice as perceived by nurses. National Health Service policies could focus on this evidences to improve production efficiency. To

  15. Professional courtesy--current practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M A; Arnold, R M; Fine, M J; Kapoor, W N

    1993-11-25

    Physicians have long provided care free of charge or at a reduced rate as a professional courtesy to other physicians and their families. We conducted a stratified national mail survey to assess the extent to which this practice has changed in recent years. Using the American Medical Association's 1991 master list of physicians, we selected a random sample of 4800 practicing physicians from 12 direct-care specialties. These physicians were asked about their current policy and opinions regarding professional courtesy. Of the 2224 respondents, 2127 (96 percent) offered professional courtesy, defined as providing free or discounted health care to physicians and their families. Psychiatrists were less likely to offer professional courtesy than physicians in any of the other specialties (80 percent vs. 91 to 99 percent, P courtesy included billing only the insurance company (75 percent), providing care at no charge (49 percent), and giving a partial discount (23 percent). Twenty-three percent of the respondents reported that they had changed their policy regarding professional courtesy since starting to practice. Among those who had changed their policy, the most common changes were to increase the practice of billing only the insurance company (67 percent) and to provide care at no charge less often (58 percent). The majority of physicians responding to the survey thought that professional courtesy solidified bonds between physicians (79 percent) and was sound business practice (62 percent); 12 percent believed that it was too expensive to offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy, and 14 percent thought that the practice had negative effects on the physician-patient interaction. Our survey of physicians involved in direct patient care indicates that, with the exception of psychiatrists, almost all American physicians offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy and support the practice.

  16. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  17. Current perspectives on biomedical waste management: Rules, conventions and treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini R Capoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated biomedical waste management (BMWM is a public health problem. This has posed a grave threat to not only human health and safety but also to the environment for the current and future generations. Safe and reliable methods for handling of biomedical waste (BMW are of paramount importance. Effective BMWM is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. This article reviews the current perspectives on BMWM and rules, conventions and the treatment technologies used worldwide. BMWM should ideally be the subject of a national strategy with dedicated infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority and trained personnel. Improving the management of biomedical waste begins with waste minimisation. These standards, norms and rules on BMWM in a country regulate the disposal of various categories of BMW to ensure the safety of the health-care workers, patients, public and environment. Furthermore, developing models for the monitoring of hospital health-care waste practices and research into non-burn eco-friendly sustainable technologies, recycling and polyvinyl chloride-free devices will go in long way for safe carbon environment. Globally, greater research in BMWM is warranted to understand its growing field of public health importance.

  18. Generation of electronic waste in India: Current scenario, dilemmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to quantify the amount of E-waste generated in India with the related stakeholder involvement. Electronic waste (E-waste) or waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE), which is relatively a recent addition to the hazardous waste stream, is drawing rapid attention across the globe as the quantity ...

  19. Music Therapy in School Settings: Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Hairston

    1999-01-01

    The practice of music therapy in school settings was the focus of this study. Survey forms were mailed to 244 NAMT members who indicated school setting as their place of employment. A total of 190 forms were received, 138 of which fit the qualifications for inclusion and were included in the data summaries. Greater numbers of respondents lived in Texas (21), New York (17), and Michigan (11), and were employed full-time (60&percent;). Employers were more typically school systems (53&percent;) for the highest percentage of full-time respondents (80&percent;), and self-employers (25&percent;) for the highest percentage of part-time respondents (80&percent;). A considerably higher percentage of time was spent each week in direct service delivery (62&percent;) than in consultation (13&percent;), travel (18&percent;), documentation (11&percent;), or preparation (14&percent;). Over 40&percent; of the respondents had been music therapists for more than 8 years, but not necessarily in their current positions. Almost 40&percent; needed a valid teaching certificate for employment, while over 50&percent; currently held one. Respondents most frequently worked with persons who were developmentally disabled (80&percent;). The impact of employer and the inclusion movement on professional practice issues was discussed, as were possible trends in the practice of music therapy in school settings.

  20. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  1. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  2. Status of waste tyres and management practice in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Machola, Bontle; Mokokwe, Kentlafetse

    2017-02-22

    Waste tyres (WTs) are becoming a significant environmental, economical and technological challenge due to their high contents of combustible composition and potential for valuable materials and energy resources. Fewer studies in developing and even developed countries have been carried out to assess the challenges regarding waste tyres management, and suggested the best alternative solutions for managing this waste stream. While developed countries made progress in waste tyres management needs by implementing more efficient innovative recovery and recycling methods, and restrictive regulations regarding the management of used tyres, in many developing countries the management of waste tyres has not received adequate interest, and the processing, treatment and disposal of waste tyre is still nascent. In recent years, worldwide, several methods for managing used tyres, including other principal alternatives for managing end-of-life tyres defined in the 4Rs, reduction, re-use, recovery and recycling have been adopted and applied to minimize serious threats to both the natural environment environment and human. The paper attempted to establish stakeholders' action that has the responsibility in waste tyre management in Botswana. This study also analyzed important aspects on waste tyres management in Botswana. A synthesis of approaches was employed in the present investigation to determine the factors influencing effective performance of waste tyres management practice in Botswana. Data for the present study was obtained using relevant published literature, scientific journals, other third sector sources, academic sources, and research derived from governments and other agencies and field observations. Group discussions with the participants and semi-structured interviews with professionals were carried out. The outcomes of this investigation are a wide-range outline concerning the participants that are important in waste tyres management, and a set of aspects affecting

  3. Best Practice of Construction Waste Management and Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Jie Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Material management is an important issue as seen in construction waste management. Best practice of material management is accompanied by various benefits which are acknowledged by several studies. The site layout has particular effects on both materials and their waste through effective waste management practice. Ignoring the benefits of material management could result in a daily reduction in productivity of up to 40% by material wastage. Thus, the benefits of effective material management must be well comprehended for the sake of waste minimization. Another convincing fact about waste is that poor site management accounts for the largest factor of waste generation. Hence the site condition is very crucial in developing effective material management. Factors contributing to the efficiency of material management process are effective logistical management and supply chain management. The logistics system must be performing as schedule so that materials are wisely managed on-site without encountering presence of excessive materials. As materials management is closely related to logistics in construction projects, there will be delay in construction projects when materials are not delivered to site as scheduled. The management must be effective in terms of delivery, off-loading, storage, handling, on-site transportation and on-site utilization of materials.

  4. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: `uniform solidified waste` in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and `solid waste` in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Investigation of Barriers and Factors Affecting the Reverse Logistics of Waste Management Practice: A Case Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalee Pumpinyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries accelerated waste generation, and Thailand also is experiencing issues related to increased waste generation and improper waste management. The country’s domestic waste utilization is only 20%–26%. Efficient waste management and increased quantity of waste utilization is possible only by overcoming problems and constraints in reverse logistics (RL systems in Thailand. To address these issues and constraints, this study aims to focus the investigation on the current practices in the RL systems. The study was conducted in Bangkok and its vicinity. An integrated approach of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to investigate the systems’ and stakeholders’ characteristics and to explore the factors influencing and constraining RL practices. Data were gathered through: (1 existing literature and in-depth interviews of key stakeholders involved in RL; and (2 a questionnaire survey of 98 managers of separation centers (SCs probing their practices and studying the factors influencing those practices. The findings showed that RL systems can be separated into three levels, i.e., downstream, middle stream and upstream. SCs are key stakeholders in RL of waste management, and they collect waste from downstream, manage waste in a systematic way and send it upstream. The factors influencing and the barriers in the flow of recyclable waste are related to environmental, economic and social aspects. The analysis shows that waste managed by a cooperative-like franchise of SCs perceived that their practices were more efficient than those of a non-franchise practices. Additionally, these SCs have more bargaining power with waste buyers and sellers to set prices in the RL system. The constraints in RL practice are related to finance, market, labor, management/technology and legal issues.

  6. Current practice in transvenous lead extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Kennergren, Charles

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Current practice with regard to transvenous lead extraction among European implanting centres was analysed by this survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among all contacted centres, 164, from 30 countries, declared that they perform transvenous lead extraction and answered 58 questions...... with a compliance rate of 99.9%. Data from the survey show that there seems to be an overall increasing experience of managing various techniques of lead extraction and a widespread involvement of cardiac centres in this treatment. Results and complication rates seem comparable with those of main international...... registries. CONCLUSION: This survey gives an interesting snapshot of lead extraction in Europe today and gives some clues for future research and prospective European registries....

  7. Massive transfusion protocols: current best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Michael S Hsu,1 Thorsten Haas,2 Melissa M Cushing1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs are established to provide rapid blood replacement in a setting of severe hemorrhage. Early optimal blood transfusion is essential to sustain organ perfusion and oxygenation. There are many variables to consider when establishing an MTP, and studies have prospectively evaluated different scenarios and patient populations to establish the best practices to attain improved patient outcomes. The establishment and utilization of an optimal MTP is challenging given the ever-changing patient status during resuscitation efforts. Much of the MTP literature comes from the trauma population, due to the fact that massive hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable trauma-related death. As we come to further understand the positive and negative clinical impacts of transfusion-related factors, massive transfusion practice can be further refined. This article will first discuss specific MTPs targeting different patient populations and current relevant international guidelines. Then, we will examine a wide selection of therapeutic products to support MTPs, including newly available products and the most suitable of the traditional products. Lastly, we will discuss the best design for an MTP, including ratio-based MTPs and MTPs based on the use of point-of-care coagulation diagnostic tools. Keywords: hemorrhage, MTP, antifibrinolytics, coagulopathy, trauma, ratio, logistics, guidelines, hemostatic

  8. Rotator cuff rehabilitation: current theories and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jeffrey D; Gowda, Ashok L; Wiater, Brett; Wiater, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    A fully functioning, painless shoulder joint is essential to maintain a healthy, normal quality of life. Disease of the rotator cuff tendons (RCTs) is a common issue that affects the population, increasing with age, and can lead to significant disability and social and health costs. RCT injuries can affect younger, healthy patients and the elderly alike, and may be the result of trauma or occur as a result of chronic degeneration. They can be acutely painful, limited to certain activities or completely asymptomatic and incidental findings. A wide variety of treatment options exists ranging from conservative local and systemic pain modalities, to surgical fixation. Regardless of management ultimately chosen, physiotherapy of the RCT, rotator cuff muscles and surrounding shoulder girdle plays an essential role in proper treatment. Length of treatment, types of therapy and timing may vary if therapy is definitive care or part of a postoperative protocol. Allowing time for adequate RCT healing must always be considered when implementing ROM and strengthening after surgery. With current rehabilitation methods, patients with all spectrums of RCT pathology can improve their function, pain and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current theories and practice involving rehabilitation for RCT injuries.

  9. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility Canister Closure Weld Current Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maxwell, D. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-29

    Two closure welds on filled Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters failed to be within the acceptance criteria in the DWPF operating procedure SW4-15.80-2.3 (1). In one case, the weld heat setting was inadvertently provided to the canister at the value used for test welds (i.e., 72%) and this oversight produced a weld at a current of nominally 210 kA compared to the operating procedure range (i.e., 82%) of 240 kA to 263 kA. The second weld appeared to experience an instrumentation and data acquisition upset. The current for this weld was reported as 191 kA. Review of the data from the Data Acquisition System (DAS) indicated that three of the four current legs were reading the expected values, approximately 62 kA each, and the fourth leg read zero current. Since there is no feasible way by further examination of the process data to ascertain if this weld was actually welded at either the target current or the lower current, a test plan was executed to provide assurance that these Nonconforming Welds (NCWs) meet the requirements for strength and leak tightness. Acceptance of the welds is based on evaluation of Test Nozzle Welds (TNW) made specifically for comparison. The TNW were nondestructively and destructively evaluated for plug height, heat tint, ultrasonic testing (UT) for bond length and ultrasonic volumetric examination for weld defects, burst pressure, fractography, and metallography. The testing was conducted in agreement with a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) (2) and applicable procedures.

  11. Domestic waste levels and an assessment of their current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major problems militating against the effective management of wastes were the lack of awareness on the part of the citizenry of the importance of proper waste disposal; the non-availability of collection points and the lack of political will of the relevant ity to meet the demands of proper waste management. Keywords: ...

  12. Impression Management: Current Practice and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify current trends in impression management on the basis of sociological research and develop recommendations to managers, employees of personnel management services, social workers on peculiarities of impression management. The relevance of the article is in studying the strengthening desire of people to influence each other. Among the objectives of the influence the most common one is the desire to create a good impression on others. This point was chosen by 91 % of the respondents. However, the use of various impression management techniques is ambiguous in its consequences, and, therefore, can constitute significant risks for effective management and interpersonal interaction. At the present stage the conducted studies are mainly related to considering peculiarities of application of impression management techniques in narrow scientific and applied fields. The article proves the wide prevalence of the use of impression management techniques in the business sphere and informal environment, their high effectiveness and negative consequences of their application. Prospect for further research in this direction are development and implementation of practical systematic measures to overcome the negative consequences of using the tactics of impression management as well as improving their effectiveness.

  13. A new model of repulsive force in eddy current separation for recovering waste toner cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-08-15

    Eddy current separation (ECS) is an efficient method for separating aluminum from plastic in crushed waste toner cartridge (TCs). However, in China, ECS quality of aluminum from plastic is rather low in production practice. Repeating separation even manual sorting is required in the production. Improving separation quality of aluminum has been the pressing problem in the recovery of waste TCs. Furthermore, improving ECS quality can reduce the secondary-pollution (furan and dioxin) brought by plastic in later smelting process for the purification of recovered aluminum. Thus, a new model of repulsive force containing impact factors (machine: B(r), k, R, S(m), B(m); material: S(p), V, γ; and operation: ω(m), v, δ) of the separation process was constructed for guiding the ECS process of waste TCs recovering in this paper. For testing whether the model of repulsive force was suitable to guide the ECS, calculation and experiment of detachment angle of aluminum flake were studied. The calculation results of the detachment angles were agreed with the testing experiment. It indicates that the model is suitable for guiding the ECS of waste TCs recovering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  15. Current practice in colonoscopy in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Fabrizio; Andreotti, Alessandra; Martella, Bruno; Terranova, Claudio; Militello, Carmelo

    2012-06-01

    Colonoscopy in the elderly is a reliable practice of great diagnostic and management value. However, patient's age has long been considered to affect the success of the procedure, achieved when the cecum is intubated, there is a good view of the colon if preparation has been properly carried out, and the examination does not cause excessive discomfort or complications. Substantial improvements have been made to the latter two aspects, due to more widespread use of deep sedation with propofol and cardiocirculatory monitoring during the procedure. The aim of our work was to assess whether, in the everyday practice of an open-access, digestive endoscopy teaching center, staffed by various providers delivering screening for polyposis, age is still a limitation to the success of the procedure and whether appropriate measures have been taken to improve colonoscopy in geriatric patients. We analysed 1480 consecutive colonoscopies, of which 319 were performed in patients aged over 73 years. The examination was significantly less successful in this group of patients (88.1 vs 94.4, p=0.0001), but there were no major technical or use-related complications connected with administration of propofol for sedation purposes, despite lower doses to the elderly (2.2 ± 1.1 mg/kg total dose, mean 151 ± 72.4 mg vs 2.9 ± 1.3 mg/kg total dose, mean 199 ± 77.9 mg in younger patients, ppreparation was the main factor affecting the success of the procedure in elderly patients (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.25-15.72; p=0.0003). Only body weight over 60 kg facilitated it (weight ≥ 60 kg, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.83). In colonoscopy in the elderly, safety appears to be the primary concern and, good outcomes can be achieved, but sometimes at the expense of diagnostic accuracy. This could probably be improved through better pre- and post-procedure care, not currently differentiated between young and elderly patients.

  16. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115, inclusive...

  17. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria and...

  18. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  19. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  20. Toolkit - South Africa's good waste management practices: lessons learned

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ’s Good Waste Management Practises – Lessons Learned ABSTRACT The current poor state of waste service delivery by South African municipalities is a concern due to the potential impacts on human health and the environment. All municipalities...:00 – 17:00; Night shift: from 17:00 – till all collections are done) has also maximised the collection process as well as contributed to huge financial savings. Working double shifts optimizes the use of the leased trucks (double usage for the rental...

  1. Inorganic and Hazardous Solid Waste Management: Current Status and Challenges for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprilia, A.; Tezuka, T.; Spaargaren, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on household waste management in Indonesia, with particular emphasis on inorganic and hazardous waste. It seeks to identify the current situation and also aims to provide a review of the existing policies that are particularly related to inorganic and hazardous waste management.

  2. The current waste generation and management trends in South Africa: A Review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, a continuation and expansion of the work of Muzenda et al, 2012 [1] looks at the current waste generation and management trends in South Africa. The waste tyre problem in South Africa is also briefly discussed. Solid waste management...

  3. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  4. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  5. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. Copyright (c

  6. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  7. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10, 113.40..., methods, practices, and controls used by the commercial processor in the manufacture, processing, or...

  8. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities, methods, practices, and controls used to process juice are safe, and whether the...

  9. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed, bottled...

  10. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  11. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The proper handling and disposal of bio-medical waste is very imperative. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste disposal leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management ...

  12. Assessing farmers' practices on disposal of pesticide waste after use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A; Telidis, Georgios K; Thanos, Stavros D

    2008-02-15

    Common practices of farmers on disposal of pesticide waste after use were surveyed in five regions of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews. Concerning leftover spray solutions, most farmers reported that they normally re-spray the treated field area until the spraying tank is empty (54.9%) or they apply the leftover spray solutions to another crop listed on the product label (30.2%). A minority of the farmers (4.3%) mentioned that they often release the leftover spray solutions near or into irrigation canals and streams. As regards rinsates generated from washing the application equipment, most farmers reported that they release the rinsates over a non-cropped area (45.7%) or they drop the rinsates near or into irrigation canals and streams (40.7%). Moreover, a great proportion of the farmers stated that they dump the empty containers by the field (30.2%) or they throw them near or into irrigation canals and streams (33.3%). Burning the empty containers in open fire (17.9%) or throwing the empty containers in common waste places (11.1%) was also reported. Several farmers stated that they continue to use old pesticides for spraying (35.8%). Training programs which raise awareness of farmers of the potential hazards of pesticide use and particularly of the proper management of waste products, recycling programs and collection systems for unwanted agricultural chemicals to prevent inappropriate waste disposal, as well as improving packaging of pesticides to minimize waste production are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling.

  13. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  15. Perioperative temperature control: Survey on current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogly, N; Alsina, E; de Celis, I; Huercio, I; Dominguez, A; Gilsanz, F

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of perioperative hypothermia decreases morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of implementation of protocols in 3 tertiary Spanish University Hospitals. A survey among anaesthesiologists assessed estimated importance and clinical practice in terms of prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Results were compared depending on their experience. Ptotal of 116 anaesthesiologists answered the survey, of whom 48 (41.3%) were residents, 32 (27.6%) were staff with less than 10 years of experience, and 36 (31.1%) staff with 10 years or more of experience, In a 0-10 importance scale, prevention of hypothermia was scored 7.49±1,79, with no difference between groups (P=.58). Younger staff were more concerned of the end surgery temperature than other colleagues (P=.02). The most usual practice was a combination warming the intravenous fluids and an electric blanket (55%). Only 20% of the anaesthesiologists monitored temperature intra-operatively, even though 75% considered it an important parameter. No unit had a written protocol for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Despite the absence of prevention protocols, the anaesthesiologists were aware of the importance maintaining a normal peri-operative temperature, but this awareness is still not enough to influence their perioperative management to diagnose and prevent hypothermia. A harmonisation of practice at local, regional and national level could improve this practice in the future. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastics processing: statistics, current practices, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, F

    1993-11-01

    The health care industry uses a huge quantity of plastic materials each year. Much of the machinery currently used, or supplied, for plastics processing is unsuitable for use in a clean environment. In this article, the author outlines the reasons for the current situation and urges companies to re-examine their plastic-processing methods, whether performed in-house or subcontracted out. Some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating plastics-processing equipment are outlined to assist companies in remaining competitive and complying with impending EC regulations on clean room standards for manufacturing areas.

  17. Steroid Therapy - Current Indications in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Grover

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are a widely used group of drugs in anaesthesia practice, sometimes with definite indication and sometimes without indication. When used judiciously they have proved to be of immense help. There has been a renewed interest in the use of steroids in modern day perioperative medicine. In the following article the recent trends, relevance and consensus issues on the use of steroids as adjunct pharmacological agents in relation to anaesthesia have been discussed, along with emphasis on important clinical aspects of their perioperative usefulness.

  18. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y; Wilson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The current status of solid waste management in Lahore, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, is reviewed in this article using an existing approach, the UN-Habitat city profile. This involves a systematic quantitative and qualitative assessment of physical components and governance features of the current waste management system. A material flow diagram (MFD) is developed, which allows visualisation of the current waste management system with all related inputs and outputs. This study shows that in the current system, waste collection and transportation is the main focus, however the collection coverage is only about 68%. There is no controlled or even semi-controlled waste disposal facility in Lahore. There is no official recycling system in the city. It is estimated that currently ~27% of waste by weight is being recycled through the informal sector. Making use of the organic content of the waste, a composting facility is operative in the city, producing 47,230 tonnes year(-1) of organic compost. Lahore does not perform very well in governance features. Inclusivity of users and providers of the waste management system is low in the city, as not all stakeholders are consulted in the decision making processes. Waste management costs US$20 per tonne of waste, where the main focus is only on waste collection, and the current user fees are much lower than the actual costs. This study recommends that recycling should be promoted by increasing public awareness and integrating the informal sector to make the current system sustainable and financially viable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  20. Current strategies for dairy waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Giakoundis, Antonios

    2006-01-01

    Industrial waste management is nowadays one of the main issues for ensuring a sustainable environment. Dairy waste management in particular, is very crucial in view of the high organic matter and high nutrient levels contained in dairy effluents. Dairy waste can be effectively treated either with aerobic or anaerobic processes. The main advantages of the former consist of low yield, high kinetics, pathogen free product, and high temperature operation whereas the latter is a simple, low budget and conservative technology. Occasionally, pre-treatment strategies (i.e. wetlands) are required in order to improve the efficiency of treatment methodology. Wetlands are a promising technology applied in order to remove the greater part of nutrients and minerals contained in milk based products.

  1. Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiarta, Iwan; Siwar, Chamhuri; Basri, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people (JPM, 2009). With the population growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipal solid waste generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solid waste generation average for any person is 1.2 kilograms a da...

  2. Medical Waste Management Practices in a Southern African Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the ...

  3. Current pharmacotherapies for obesity: A practical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Angela

    2017-10-01

    To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity). Currently approved options in the United States include phentermine for short-term use and five obesity pharmacotherapies that can be used long-term (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg). If the use of an obesity pharmacotherapy is indicated, treatment should be selected to provide the most appropriate option for each individual and their circumstances. Variables such as contraindications, individual comorbidities, patient choice, patient readiness to incorporate additional behavioral changes (e.g., alcohol prohibition), and cost should guide choices. Each of the obesity pharmacotherapies has advantages and disadvantages that can help guide treatment choice. Those receiving treatment may also have individual preferences based on factors such as administration route, frequency of dosing, and/or safety profile. In addition, some options may be particularly appropriate for patients with common obesity-related complications such as depression or diabetes. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Footwear in rock climbing: Current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, R D; Arnold, G P; Wang, W; Abboud, R J

    2015-09-01

    Many rock climbers wear ill-fitting and excessively tight footwear during activity. However, there is insufficient evidence of the extent or harms of this practice. To investigate footwear use in rock climbers with a focus on issues surrounding fit. A cross-sectional study with active rock climbers of over one year of experience completing a survey on their activity and footwear. Additionally, the authors quantified foot and shoe lengths and sizes alongside demographic data. Ill-fitting and excessively tight footwear was found in 55 out of 56 rock climbers. Foot pain during activity was also commonplace in 91% of the climbers. A mean size reduction of almost 4 UK shoe sizes was found between the climbers' street shoe size and that of their climbing footwear using a calibrated foot/shoe ruler. There is an unfortunate association of climbers of higher abilities seeking a tighter shoe fit (prock climbers, further investigation may aim to quantify its impact and seek a solution balancing climbing performance while mitigating foot injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities, methods...

  6. Stem cells in current paediatric dentistry practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Sánchez-Borrego, Elena; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción

    2013-03-01

    New protocols for regenerative endodontic treatment along with the parallel development of tissue engineering technologies are changing traditional knowledge and treatment possibilities for young patients with pulp-affected permanent immature teeth. The regeneration and completion of apical root development in pathological situations such as these is a clinical challenge that traditional treatments have not so far been able to resolve with complete success. In clinical terms, the decision of whether to perform apexogenesis or apexification on an immature tooth is determined by whether the pulp tissue is vital or non-vital. Recent evidence and reports in the literature have questioned the old dogmas. In this respect, the ever growing scientific literature in this field makes it essential to compile a critical reflection and summary of everything that has been written to date, in order to understand the biological basis of current clinical advances and ensuing lines of future therapy. In this paper, we wish to give scientific coverage and background to more recent clinical and molecular advances described in the field of apical regeneration using stem cell therapy and their potentially key role in the future clinical success of new pulp regenerative protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perinatal death investigations: What is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijkamp, J W; Sebire, N J; Bouman, K; Korteweg, F J; Erwich, J J H M; Gordijn, S J

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal death (PD) is a devastating obstetric complication. Determination of cause of death helps in understanding why and how it occurs, and it is an indispensable aid to parents wanting to understand why their baby died and to determine the recurrence risk and management in subsequent pregnancy. Consequently, a perinatal death requires adequate diagnostic investigation. An important first step in the analysis of PD is to identify the case circumstances, including relevant details regarding maternal history, obstetric history and current pregnancy (complications are evaluated and recorded). In the next step, placental examination is suggested in all cases, together with molecular cytogenetic evaluation and fetal autopsy. Investigation for fetal-maternal hemorrhage by Kleihauer is also recommended as standard. In cases where parents do not consent to autopsy, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive postmortem examination, postmortem magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal photographs are good alternatives. After all investigations have been performed it is important to combine findings from the clinical review and investigations together, to identify the most probable cause of death and counsel the parents regarding their loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current practice in paediatric basic life support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heczková Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of cardiac arrest in children is much lower than in adults, the condition is still considered a major health problem with a very low chance for survival. As in adults, the timely provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in children is crucial. Current guidelines for CPR in children were published along with the guidelines for CPR in adults in 2015. As in previous years, they are based on consensus provided by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR. Guidelines of particular ILCOR member councils may vary and reflect regional characteristic such as different access to health care, education methods or willingness of population to provide emergency assistance. Moreover, the conditions requiring CPR in children are characterized not only by different incidence, but also by aetiology or techniques used for different age groups. Therefore, emphasis is put on simplicity and feasibility as well as on consistency with adult guidelines to improve retention of the paediatric sequences. Nurses may be first rescuers not only in health care facilities. Better understanding of CPR guidelines might help them to improve their ability to detect conditions requiring CRP and also initiate and provide effective emergency care.

  9. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  10. Proposed Model For Industrial Waste Management Practices and Its Impact on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Noviyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to environment protection issue, waste management becomes one of important factors in maintaining organization sustainability. In developed country, a growing number of companies began to integrate the pro environment practices, such as waste management practices, into their business strategy. In contrast, the implementation of waste management practices by business organizations in developing country, like Indonesia, is still rare. Waste generated by industries is greater than the capacity to manage this volume of waste. This poses a problem that leads to improper disposal of waste and pollution. This study aims to design a research model which investigates the relation of institutional environment including cognitive, regulatory, and normative element; manager environmental attitudes, worker environmental attitudes, environmental policy, strategic waste management practices, and financial performance.

  11. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  12. Overview of current and alternative slaughter practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troeger K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional cattle slaughtering process includes some critical stages where a dissemination of Specified Risk Material (SRM: brain, spinal cord within or onto the carcass and within the slaughterhouse environment can occur. These processes are captive bolt stunning, removal of the head and first of all carcass splitting (sawing the spine lengthways. Captive bolt (CB stunning results in massive brain tissue damage with bleeding, and in some cases brain tissue also emerges from the CB hole. As the heart is still functioning, there is a risk of brain tissue particles being transferred v i a the blood flow to heart and lungs or even in the whole carcass. This contamination risk is actually assessed to be low, but a continuing leakage of Central Nervous System (CNS material from the captive bolt aperture in the further slaughter process may lead to direct and indirect contamination of carcass, meat and equipment. Therefore alternative stunning methods like electrical stunning or concussion stunning are discussed. A further critical point is the treatment of the head. When the head is removed, the spinal cord is cut with a knife. There is a danger of cross contamination due to spinal protein that may adhere to the knife and because of liquid cerebralis, which leaks from the foramen occipitale magnum. Further head cleaning with hand-held hoses following skinning also includes the danger of cross contamination from cleaning water or aerosol. Therefore measures regarding the safe handling of head and harvesting of head meat are proposed. The most critical point in terms of contamination of the meat surface with SRM is the currently common practise of sawing the spine vertically in the middle with hand-guided belt-type saws. A m i x t u r e of sawing residues and rinsing water (“sawing sludge” collects in the housing of the saw, and if it contains infectious material this leads to contamination of the subsequent carcasses. The most promising

  13. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (pstrengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries. The results contribute to the knowledge and the findings of this study provide a useful baseline information and data on industrial solid waste generation and waste minimization practice.

  14. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  15. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  16. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings......Informed decisions regarding new recycling schemes require waste characterisation studies which provide in addition to data on waste amounts and the share of recyclable fractions, accurate data on physico-chemical characteristics of the waste materials considering the material specific input...... were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...

  17. Solid and hazardous waste management practices onboard ocean going vessels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Yeddanapudi V R P P

    2012-01-01

    Shipping or carriage of goods play an important role in the development of human societies and international shipping industry, which carries 90% of the world trade, is the life blood of global economy. During ships operational activity a number of solid and hazardous wastes, also referred as garbage are produced from galleys, crew cabins and engine/deck departments stores. This review provides an overview of the current practices onboard and examines the evidence that links waste management plan regulations to shipping trade. With strict compliance to International Maritime Organization's MARPOL regulations, which prevents the pollution of sea from ships various discharges, well documented solid and hazardous waste management practices are being followed onboard ships. All ship board wastes are collected, segregated, stored and disposed of in appropriate locations, in accordance with shipping company's environmental protection policy and solid and hazardous waste management plan. For example, food residues are ground onboard and dropped into the sea as fish food. Cardboard and the like are burned onboard in incinerators. Glass is sorted into dark/light and deposited ashore, as are plastics, metal, tins, batteries, fluorescent tubes, etc. The residue from plastic incineration which is still considered as plastic is brought back to shore for disposal. New targets are being set up to reduce the volume of garbage generated and disposed of to shore facilities, and newer ships are using baling machines which compress cardboard etc into bales to be taken ashore. The garbage management and its control system work as a 'continual improvement' process to achieve new targets.

  18. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Joseph R; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H

    2014-07-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.

  19. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 114.10, 114.80, 114.83, 114.89, and 114.100, as well as the criteria in part...

  1. Current practice of adolescent preventive services among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association to elicit information on residents' current practice regarding screening adolescents for specific morbidities. Results. A total ... practice and training to emphasise preventive paediatrics and other issues pertinent to adolescent care. S Afr J Child .... in Nigeria. The strength of this study includes its high response rate.

  2. Current Practices in the Delivery of Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices for the delivery of exercise physiology content at the undergraduate level. An anonymous 22-item survey was sent to instructors of exercise physiology to collect information concerning the structure of course offerings and instructional practices. One hundred ten instructors responded to…

  3. A summarized discussion of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    In light of recent events and discussions of compounding pharmacy, it is important to discuss and understand the purpose of good manufacturing practices. This article provides a summary of the current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations which were established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Waste Management as a Practical Approach to Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg/week i.e. (26%, 4% and 3%) of the total waste matrix respectively. Correlation at P < 0.5 two tailed shows a ... process enhance sustainable development. Keywords: Waste, Generation, Recycle, Management and sustainable development ...

  5. [Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Koizumi, Mitsue; Kimura, Yumi; Horitsugi, Genki

    2013-03-01

    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan. Therefore, all medical radioactive waste is collected and stored at the Japan Radioisotope Association Takizawa laboratory, even if the radioactivity has already decayed out. To clarify the current situation between Takizawa village and Takizawa laboratory, we investigated the radiation management status and risk communication activities at the laboratory via a questionnaire and site visiting survey in June 2010. Takizawa laboratory continues to maintain an interactive relationship with local residents. As a result, Takizawa village permitted the acceptance of new medical radioactive waste containing Sr-89 and Y-90. However, the village did not accept any non-medical radioactive waste such as waste from research laboratories. To implement decay-in-storage in Japan, it is important to obtain agreement with all stakeholders. We must continue to exert sincere efforts to acquire the trust of all stakeholders.

  6. awareness and practice on biomedical waste management among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-02

    Feb 2, 2013 ... When asked how they would describe the control of waste management in the institution 59% said good and 40% said fair ... Control Committee to supervise all the aspects of biomedical waste management. Periodical training ..... Waste Management Project at Command Hospital, Air Force, Bangalore.

  7. Nairobi solid waste management practices: Need for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues for the need to have strong publicprivate partnership, community participation and capacity building to enhance effective awareness building, waste source separation and recycling as strategies for an improved waste management system. Keywords: Waste generation, public-private partnership, ...

  8. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Christen, J. (1996). Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries. Sweden: Icon Publishers. Cointreau, S.J (1997). Waste Issues: Urban Problems. England: Lowden. Publications. Coker, A.O, Ogunlowo, O.O. and Sangodoyin, A.Y. (1998). Managing. Hospital Waste in Nigeria. 24th WEDC Conference: Sanitation and.

  9. Residents' perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proper waste disposal is a key to protecting public health. Thus poorly managed and disposed waste encourages breeding of insect vectors and exposed public to increase risk of infection. This study aimed at determining the residents' perception about waste disposal in Sokoto metropolis. This was a descriptive ...

  10. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-09-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solid waste management practices under public and private sector in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ashraf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management (SWM practices in Lahore, provincial capital of Punjab, were privatised in 2012. This study draws a comparison of solid waste management practices by public and private sector in Lahore. The comparison is done by taking following factors in consideration; administrative structure, waste collection, street sweeping, waste storage capacity and logistics, disposal, mechanical sweeping and washing, monitoring system. Privatisation of solid waste management in Lahore is celebrated as complete success story. In contrast to this, we found the results of privatisation are mixed. Privatisation has improved some components of the system. Monitoring system has been the key innovation under private sector. It has enabled better allocation, management and channelization of available resources. Yet little to no improvement has been done in street sweeping, disposal of waste and administrative structure of waste management in the city.

  12. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. Methods The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression were used to analyze the data. Results The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070 and Kebbi state (0.2172, while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868 and Osun state (0.2652. The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in

  13. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi

    2017-09-25

    Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW) is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI) data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070) and Kebbi state (0.2172), while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868) and Osun state (0.2652). The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in rural areas significantly influenced indices of

  14. Study of problem of waste chemical current sources in Russia and in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Dornack, C.

    2017-10-01

    This article gives a comparative analysis of handling waste chemical current sources in Russia and in the European countries, presents the effective international documents (Directives, acts) and national legislative acts (state standards, building codes, governmental decrees, etc.), demonstrates the mechanisms for disposal and recycling of waste in the European Union countries. Along with the data of the research works, conducted in other countries during many yearsб it presents the experimental data on leaching out heavy metals from chemical current sources by municipal solid waste landfill filtrate, depending on the morphological composition of domestic waste in the city of Irkutsk. An important point described in the article, is assessment and prediction of negative impact produced on the environment.

  15. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  16. Enforcement Alert: Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesh Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100 of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75, nurses (60, laboratory technicians (78, and sanitary staff (70. Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.

  18. Key factors of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from crushed e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Dong, Lipeng; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Mingzhi; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of e-waste in China had caused serious pollutions. Eddy current separation is an environment-friendly technology of separating nonferrous metallic particles from crushed e-waste. However, due to complex particle characters, separation efficiency of traditional eddy current separator was low. In production, controllable operation factors of eddy current separation are feeding speed, (ωR-v), and S p . There is little special information about influencing mechanism and critical parameters of these factors in eddy current separation. This paper provided the special information of these key factors in eddy current separation of recovering aluminum particles from crushed waste refrigerator cabinets. Detachment angles increased as the increase of (ωR-v). Separation efficiency increased with the growing of detachment angles. Aluminum particles were completely separated from plastic particles in critical parameters of feeding speed 0.5m/s and detachment angles greater than 6.61deg. S p /S m of aluminum particles in crushed waste refrigerators ranged from 0.08 to 0.51. Separation efficiency increased as the increase of S p /S m . This enlightened us to develop new separator to separate smaller nonferrous metallic particles in e-waste recovery. High feeding speed destroyed separation efficiency. However, greater S p of aluminum particles brought positive impact on separation efficiency. Greater S p could increase critical feeding speed to offer greater throughput of eddy current separation. This paper will guide eddy current separation in production of recovering nonferrous metals from crushed e-waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bhagawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.

  20. Current Status of Home Medical Care Waste Collection by Nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the current status of home medical care (HMC) waste collection by nurses for individual items and whether the collection rate differs with city size. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,022 nursing offices, of which 645 offices provided valid responses. Offices were classified into three groups according to the local population size. Responses indicated that used syringes and needles, except for pen-type self-injection needles, were collected by >50% of HMC nurses. On the other hand, enteral nutrients, nutritional adjustment diet vessels, feeding tubes, portable injectors, ventilator masks, endotracheal suction catheters, tracheal cannulas, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) bags, and urinary catheters and bags had a low collection rate in comparison with syringes or needles. The collection percentage of used syringes, needles, and infusion needles (p nurses. On the contrary, nonhazardous HMC waste should be collected by municipalities. This paper illustrates the status of waste collection of individual home medical care (HMC) items by HMC nurses. Infectious waste, such as needles and syringes, is collected by nurses. The collection rate of infectious waste by nurses in large cities was low compared with that in small cities. Although municipalities are responsible for collecting all HMC waste, sharp or infectious items should be collected by HMC doctors or nurses, whereas nonhazardous HMC waste should be collected by the municipalities.

  1. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  2. Practical Application of Eddy Currents Generated by Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirba, I; Kleperis, J, E-mail: imants.dirba@gmail.com [Institute of Solid State Physics of University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga, LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    When a conductive material is subjected to time-varying magnetic fluxes, eddy (Foucault) currents are generated in it and magnetic field of opposite polarity as the applied one arises. Due to the internal resistance of the conductive material, the eddy currents will be dissipated into heat (Joule heating). Conventional domestic water heaters utilize gas burners or electric resistance heating elements to heat the water in the tank and substantial part of the energy to use for it is wasted. In this paper the origin of electromagnetic induction heat generated by wind turbine in special heat exchange camera connected to water boiler is discussed and material evaluation performed using mathematical modelling (comparing the 2D finite element model with analytical and numerical calculation results).

  3. Healthcare waste generation and management practice in government health centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Menelik Legesse; Kumie, Abera

    2014-11-25

    Healthcare wastes are hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The waste disposal management in Addis Ababa city is seen unscientific manner. The waste management practice in the health facilities are poor and need improvement. This study will help different organizations, stakeholders and policy makers to correct and improve the existing situation of healthcare waste legislation and enforcement and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa. The study aimed to assess the existing generation and management practice of healthcare waste in selected government health centers of Addis Ababa. The cross-sectional study was conducted to quantify waste generation rate and evaluate its management system. The study area was Addis Ababa. The sample size was determined by simple random sampling technique, the sampling procedure involved 10 sub-cities of Addis Ababa. Data were collected using both waste collecting and measuring equipment and check list. The Data was entered by EPI INFO version 6.04d and analyzed by and SPSS for WINDOW version15. The mean (±SD) healthcare waste generation rate was 9.61 ± 3.28 kg/day of which (38%) 3.64 ± 1.45 kg/day was general or non-hazardous waste and (62%) 5.97 ± 2.31 kg/day was hazardous. The mean healthcare waste generation rate between health centers was a significant different with Kurskal-Wallis test (χ2 = 21.83, p-value = 0.009). All health centers used safety boxes for collection of sharp wastes and all health centers used plastic buckets without lid for collection and transportation of healthcare waste. Pre treatment of infectious wastes was not practiced by any of the health centers. All health centers used incinerators and had placenta pit for disposal of pathological waste however only seven out of ten pits had proper covering material. Segregation of wastes at point of generation with appropriate collection materials and pre- treatment of infectious waste before disposal should be practiced

  4. Practices Regarding Biomedical Waste Management among Health Functionaries: A Rural Haryana Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Chawla; Ramesh Verma; Pardeep Khanna

    2016-01-01

    "Introduction: Waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. Biomedical Waste (BMW) management is a legal necessity as well as social responsibility. Aims and Objectives: To assess practices regarding biomedical waste management among healthcare functionaries. Material and Methods: A list of all health care centres was obtained from CHC Dubaldhan and CHC, Dighal of block Beri. After obtainin...

  5. Impact of intervention on healthcare waste management practices in a tertiary care governmental hospital of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Binaya; Gupta, Gopal Kumar; Mainali, Dhiraj

    2014-09-26

    Healthcare waste is produced from various therapeutic procedures performed in hospitals, such as chemotherapy, dialysis, surgery, delivery, resection of gangrenous organs, autopsy, biopsy, injections, etc. These result in the production of non-hazardous waste (75-95%) and hazardous waste (10-25%), such as sharps, infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, and pressurized containers (e.g., inhaler cans). Improper healthcare waste management may lead to the transmission of hepatitis B, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This evaluation of waste management practices was carried out at gynaecology, obstetrics, paediatrics, medicine and orthopaedics wards at Government of Nepal Civil Service Hospital, Kathmandu from February 12 to October 15, 2013, with the permission from healthcare waste management committee at the hospital. The Individualized Rapid Assessment tool (IRAT), developed by the United Nations Development Program Global Environment Facility project, was used to collect pre-interventional and post-interventional performance scores concerning waste management. The healthcare waste management committee was formed of representing various departments. The study included responses from focal nurses and physicians from the gynaecology, obstetrics, paediatrics, medicine and orthopaedics wards, and waste handlers during the study period. Data included average scores from 40 responders. Scores were based on compliance with the IRAT. The waste management policy and standard operating procedure were developed after interventions, and they were consistent with the national and international laws and regulations. The committee developed a plan for recycling or waste minimization. Health professionals, such as doctors, nurses and waste handlers, were trained on waste management practices. The programs included segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste, as well as occupational health and safety issues

  6. An Investigation into Waste Management Practices in Nigeria (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developed countries like Europe, there are effective systems for the removal of waste from different settlements, although ultimate and final disposal usually pose problem in the environment due to lack Basic facilities:- This paper investigate the waste management problems and the various methods and technical ...

  7. Residents' perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veronica Umukoro

    Population growth, increasing urbanization, changes in consumption pattern, and rapid developments in ..... Philippines. J. Environ. Sci. Manage. 12 (2):27-37. Delgado OB, Ojeda-Bínitez S, Márquez-Benavides L (2007). Comparative analysis of hazardous household waste in two. Mexican regions. Int. J. Waste Manage.

  8. awareness and practice on biomedical waste management among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-02

    Feb 2, 2013 ... Technology Institute of Tropical Medicine and infectious diseases teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. P.O. Box 62000-00200 Nairobi ... (2) transportation to waste treatment and disposal sites, (3) treatment and (4) ... about the health hazards related to health-care waste, inadequate training.

  9. Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the respondents (87.9%) were not aware of the existence of legislation governing animal waste management. It can be concluded from the study that the limited knowledge on proper management of animal wastes in the study area as well as lack of enforcement of legislation predisposes the environment and ...

  10. CURRENT PRACTICES AND MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF PRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... CURRENT PRACTICES AND MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF PRE-OPERATIVE CONSENT. O. C. OSIME, O. OKOJIE, F. OSADOLOR and S. MOHAMMED. ABSTRACT. Background: Written informed consent is a pre requisite for surgical intervention as it provides the forum for the patient to appreciate ...

  11. An analysis of ESL teacher educators' current assessment practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for educational improvement, and should be a fundamental and integral part of any curriculum based on student learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and identify any shortcomings in the current assessment practices of English Second Language teacher ...

  12. Survey of Current Practice of Labour Analgesia Among Obstetricians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labour pain has been described as the worst possible pain known to mankind. It is more excruciating than cancer pain, phantom pain or toothache. Failure to relieve pain of any cause has been regarded as a violation of fundamental human rights. This study aimed to evaluate the current obstetrics analgesia practice ...

  13. Mobile Libraries, Design and Construction: A Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, C. R.; And Others

    Forty-one country libraries in Wales, Scotland and England were surveyed in 1970 in an attempt to establish current practice in the design and construction of mobile libraries. This report is the first step of the Branch and Mobile Libraries Group of the Library Association to establish standards for mobile library design and construction. The…

  14. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey® to determine current clinical and operative management of patients with HD by consultant paediatric surgeons practicing in the Nigeria. The paediatric surgeons were notified by E-mail, which included a link to the survey on survey ...

  15. Current practice of adolescent preventive services among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There has been a growing recognition of the challenge of Nigerian adolescents' health issues and the need to address it. Adolescent preventive services (APS) constitute an effective mechanism to reduce adolescent morbidities. Objective. To evaluate the current practice of APS among Nigerian paediatric ...

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  17. Narrative, Poststructuralism, and Social Justice: Current Practices in Narrative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…

  18. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  19. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  20. Approaches and practices related to hazardous waste management, processing and final disposal in germany and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, J.A.L.; Pereira, F.A.; Tomich, S. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A general overview of the existing management and processing of hazardous wastes technologies in Germany and Brazil is presented in this work. Emphasis has been given to the new technologies and practices adopted in both countries, including a comparison of the legislation, standards and natural trends. Two case studies of large industrial hazardous waste sites are described. 9 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and ... applied to examine the underlying correlates of choosing ways to dispose garbage. About 35% of the ...... household waste separation and disposal: Evidence from Mekelle,. Ethiopia. Resour. Conserv.

  2. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.ed [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu Yuanan [Education Program for Gifted Youth, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  3. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  4. Australian survey on current practices for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kylie L; Pogson, Elise M; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Boxer, Miriam M; Yap, Mei Ling; Delaney, Geoff P; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Detailed, published surveys specific to Australian breast radiotherapy practice were last conducted in 2002. More recent international surveys specific to breast radiotherapy practice include a European survey conducted in 2008/2009 and a Spanish survey conducted in 2009. Radiotherapy techniques continue to evolve, and the utilisation of new techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is increasing. This survey aimed to determine current breast radiotherapy practices across Australia. An online survey was completed by 50 of the 69 Australian radiation therapy treatment centres. Supine tangential beam whole breast irradiation remains the standard of care for breast radiotherapy in Australia. A growing number of institutions are exploring prone positioning and IMRT utilisation. This survey demonstrated a wide variation in the benchmarks used to limit and report organ at risk doses, prescribed dose regimen, and post-mastectomy bolus practices. This survey also indicated, when compared with international literature, that there may be less interest in or uptake of external beam partial breast irradiation, prone positioning, simultaneous integrated boost and breath hold techniques. These are areas where further review and research may be warranted to ensure Australian patients are receiving the best care possible based on the best evidence available. This survey provides insight into the current radiotherapy practice for breast cancer in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  6. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Diagnosis, Hospital, Infectious wastes, Generation,. Segregation, Management, Pathogenic organisms. ... personally controlled. Nevertheless, in the absence of appropriate intervention measures ..... Children ward/rooms, Emergency/Treatment rooms/Out. Patient Department, Operating rooms/Theatre, Delivery.

  7. Characterization of Navy Solid Waste and Collection and Disposal Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Virginia Region II, Boone, Clay, Kanawa, Putnam Counties, Solid Waste Management Planning Porject, Executive Summary. The Environmental Services... Putnam , Final Report, Regional Intergovernmental Council (1970). The Treatment of Industrial Wastes, E. B. Besselievre, McGraw-Hill Book Company (no...Engineering Principals and Management Issuies, George’ Tcho Banioglouis, Hilary Tlsen, and Rol f Fl lassen, Mc~rAw Hill1 Book C’o. (no dlate). Energy

  8. Specialization and the Current Practices of General Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marquita R; Dodgion, Christopher M; Kwok, Alvin C; Hu, Yue-Yung; Havlena, Jeff A; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kent, K Craig; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of specialization on the practice of general surgery has not been characterized. Our goal was to assess general surgeons’ operative practices to inform surgical education and workforce planning. Study Design We examined the practices of general surgeons identified in the 2008 State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) for three US states. Operations were identified using ICD-9 and CPT codes linked to encrypted physician identifiers. For each surgeon, total operative volume and the percentage of practice comprised of their most common operation were calculated. Correlation was measured between general surgeons’ case volume and the number of other specialists in a health service area. Results There were 1,075 general surgeons who performed 240,510 operations in 2008. The mean operative volume for each surgeon was 224 annual procedures. General surgeons performed an average of 23 different types of operations. For the majority of general surgeons, their most common procedure comprised no more than 30% of total practice. The most common operations, ranked by the frequency that they appeared as general surgeons’ top procedure, included: cholecystectomy, colonoscopy, endoscopy, and skin excision. The proportion of general surgery practice comprised of endoscopic procedures inversely correlated with the number of gastroenterologists in the health service area (Rho = - 0.50, p = 0.005). Conclusions Despite trends toward specialization, the current practices of general surgeons remain heterogeneous. This indicates a continued demand for broad-based surgical education to allow future surgeons to tailor their practices to their environment. PMID:24210145

  9. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.

  11. Critical management practices influencing on-site waste minimization in construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing recognition of effective site management as the strategic approach for achieving the required performance in construction projects, this study seeks to identify the key site management practices that are requisite for construction waste minimization. A mixed methods approach, involving field study and survey research were used as means of data collection. After confirmation of construct validity and reliability of scale, data analysis was carried out through a combination of Kruskal-Wallis test, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The study suggests that site management functions could significantly reduce waste generation through strict adherence to project drawings, and by ensuring fewer or no design changes during construction process. Provision of waste skips for specific materials and maximisation of on-site reuse of materials are also found to be among the key factors for engendering waste minimization. The result of factor analysis suggests four factors underlying on-site waste management practices with 96.093% of total variance. These measures include contractual provisions for waste minimization, waste segregation, maximisation of materials reuse and effective logistic management. Strategies through which each of the underlying measures could be achieved are further discussed in the paper. Findings of this study would assist construction site managers and other site operatives in reducing waste generated by construction activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. AWARENESS AND PRACTICE ON BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiru, M W; Mutai, C; Gikunju, J

    2013-02-01

    The proper handling and disposal of Bio-medical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There are well defined set rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. To assessthe awareness and practice regarding biomedical waste management among health care personnel in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) DESIGN: A cross sectional study design. Kenyatta National Hospital Doctors, Nurses and support staff who have worked in the institution for more than six months and consented were evaluated. The total level of awareness on biomedical waste management among health care personnel was found to be 60%. The doctors scored 51% which was the lowest score the nurses scored 65% which was the highest score while the support staff scored 55%. As for the practices, the results showed that most of the healthcare personnel were aware of the biomedical waste management practices in the hospital with the lowest scores emerging from doctors and this shows no association between knowledge on biomedical waste management and education. When asked how they would describe the control of waste management in the institution 59% said good and 40% said fair while 1% said poor. The present study therefore outlines the gap between biomedical waste management rules and inadequate state of execution and awareness in practice. It is recommended that enhancement be done to the already existing Hospital Infection Control Committee to supervise all the aspects of biomedical waste management. Periodical training programmes for biomedical waste handling and disposal to the staff with focus on doctors is highlighted.

  13. Current practices regarding codeine administration among pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabuke, Richard S; Tobias, Joseph D; Taghon, Thomas; Rice, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies have revealed a wide variation in the metabolism of codeine to its active metabolite, morphine. A particular subset of patients, known as ultrarapid metabolizers, possesses multiple copies of the CYP2D6 gene responsible for codeine metabolism. This has been linked to serious morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients leading to considerable debate regarding the use of codeine for analgesia in the pediatric population. The current study surveyed the current practice of codeine prescription in pediatric health care providers from a single tertiary care pediatric hospital. Of the 298 responders, 43.3% (129 of 298) continue to prescribe codeine for pain management in children. The vast majority of codeine prescribers were primary health care providers (89.1%). Most of the primary care practitioners were in office-based (42.6%) or hospital-based (45.7%) group practices. There was no significant difference in codeine use based on years of experience. Given the risks associated with this practice, increased education targeting this group appears warranted.

  14. Current professional practice in Brazilian mental healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Furegato, Antonia R; Frari-Galera, Sueli A; Pillon, Sandra C; Cardoso, Lucilene

    2012-10-01

    Mental health reform in Brazil presupposes mental health becoming integrated into the Brazilian health system, involving multidisciplinary teams whose professional practice has yet to be defined. The present study forms part of a project aimed at understanding human resources practices in Brazilian mental healthcare services. This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a sample of highly qualified practitioners involved in the Ribeirao Preto/SP public mental health network. The project was approved by the Ribeirao Preto College of Nursing/University of Sao Paulo's ethics committee. A semi-structured questionnaire was used and the data was statistically analyzed. One hundred and forty-four of the 193 practitioners from the 8 public mental and psychiatric health care services agreed to participate. It was observed that current practice was mainly based on individual care, emphasizing medical, psychological and nursing care. Group activities were more frequently provided by community services. Mental care was infrequently prescribed and a low value was placed on activities like observation, recording and therapeutic interaction. Mental care services were being structured; however, practitioners still had difficulties in implementing current policy.

  15. Contributions of solid wastes disposal practice to malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was recorded on the study profoma and entered into the computer using statistical software package. The results indicated that 29.9% were found to be positive with use of RDT, open drainage, stagnation of water in drain, solid waste in drain and presence of weed were found to be significant factors to malaria ...

  16. Awareness and Practice on Biomedical Waste Management among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The proper handling and disposal of Bio-medical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There are well defined set rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Objective: To ...

  17. An Investigation into Waste Management Practices in Nigeria (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Recycling. This is the process whereby refuse is converted for economical purpose. This method has become a profitable venture in developing countries. Things that can be recycling includes: waste papers, scraps, of. Iron, garbage, plastic Rubber, shoes e.t.c. Advantages. •. The method is very costly.

  18. Contributions of Solid Wastes Disposal Practice to Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Malaria, solid waste, open drainage, RDT, environment. [Received September 30 2015; Revised March 8 2016 & April 10 2016; Accepted April 16 2016]. I. INTRODUCTION. Malaria disease is transmitted to man by the bites from certain species of infected female anopheline mosquito (WHO,. 2006)).

  19. Awareness-Knowledge and Practices of Dental Waste Management among Private Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Varma Penumatsa, N; Sam, G; Khanapure, S C; Sivarajan, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental wastes are materials that have been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longer wanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harm to the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist. Objective The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding Dental waste management among private practitioners. Method The study population included 186 private practitioners in three districts of Karnataka (Coorg, Mysore, Hassan), south India. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding dental waste management. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the results. The data will be statistically analyzed using chi-square test, correlation. Result Out of 186 study subjects, 71(38%) were females and 115(62%) were males, Chisquare analysis showed highly significant association between qualification of the study participants and their knowledge, practice of dental waste management. A statistically significant (0.0001) correlation was found between the knowledge and practice scores. Conclusion There was a lacunae of knowledge regarding proper biomedical waste disposal among the participants. In order to fill this vacuum CDE (Continuing Dental Education) programs have to be conducted in pursuance to maintain health of the community.

  20. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  1. Are social theories still relevant in current psychiatric practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Avasthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychiatric practice is being influenced by advances in the field of molecular biology, genetic studies, neuroimaging, and psychopharmacology and the approach has become "biological." Social theories of mental illness had once revolutionized the field of psychiatry and are currently being somewhat ignored under the dazzle of biological sciences. Main social theories are functionalism, interpersonal theory, attachment theory, stress theory, and labeling theory. Each of these theories had tried to explain the genesis of psychiatric disorders in their own way. However, each theory has its own limitations and critique. Still, for a holistic approach to treat persons with mental illness, it is essential to take a biopsychosocial approach which can only be done if one understands the contribution and relevance of social theories. Nonpharmacological management has been the cornerstone of treatment of any psychiatric disorder and social theories also form the basis of various nonpharmacological modes of treatment. Overall, social theories are still very relevant in current psychiatric practice and should not be neglected. Efforts should be made to integrate social theories with other theories of mental illness for better understanding and treatment.

  2. Current clinical practices in Aphasia Therapy in Finland: challenges in moving towards national best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippi, A; Sellman, J; Heikkinen, P; Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discover and document the state of clinical practices for aphasia therapy in Finland and to gather information for developing national best practice. Two surveys were administered in Finland that explored current clinical practices in aphasia rehabilitation and the resources available to speech and language therapists (SLTs). We integrated and compared the results of these surveys. The results are based on the responses of the 88 (45 + 43) returned questionnaires from SLTs. Four principle themes were identified: planning the aphasia therapy, measures and assessment methods, current therapy service provision, and development suggestions and barriers to change. The results of this study showed considerable consistency in clinical practices among the respondents to the surveys. However, we noticed that there are some discrepancies between the recent research findings and present clinical practices. The findings from this study indicate that there are many challenges in clinical decision-making at the moment in Finland. The article helps clinicians to evaluate the practices they use and to execute justified modifications in order to implement more effective models of practice. It is evident that national best practice guidelines for aphasia therapy would support SLTs in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Solid waste digestors: process performance and practice for municipal solid waste digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G; Vandevivere, P; De Baere, L; Biey, E M; Verstrae, W

    2001-01-01

    The most common types of anaerobic digesters for solid wastes have been compared based on biological and technical performance and reliability. Batch systems have the most simple designs and are the least expensive solid waste digesters. They have high potential for application in developing countries. Two-stage systems are the most complex and most expensive systems. Their greatest advantage lies in the equalisation of the organic loading rate in the first stage, allowing a more constant feeding rate of the methanogenic second stage. Two-stage systems with biomass accumulation devices in the second stage display a larger resistance toward toxicants and inhibiting substances such as ammonia. However, the large majority of industrial applications use one-stage systems and these are evenly split between "dry" systems (wastes are digested as received) and "wet" systems (wastes are slurried to about 12% total solids). Regarding biological performance, this study compares the different digester systems in terms of organic loading rates and biogas yields considering differences in input waste composition. As a whole, "dry" designs have proven reliable due to their higher biomass concentration, controlled feeding and spatial niches. Moreover, from a technical viewpoint the "dry" systems are more robust and flexible than "wet' systems.

  4. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  7. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Individual Performance Management: A Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O’ Boyle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of current practice in relation to individual performance management systems and process within the traditional business environment. There is a consensus that the role of the individual is central to the overall performance of any organization and how individual performances are managed and evaluated can have significant impacts on overall organizational success. Many organizations employ the traditional performance appraisal in order to monitor and assess individual employee performances. However, new approaches, such as 360-degree feedback have also become commonplace within the business environment. An analysis of each approach including benefits and challenges associated with each process is presented within this paper.

  9. Robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion: practical review of current surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Haber, Georges P; Wiklund, Peter; Canda, Abdullah E; Balbay, Mevlana D; Stenzl, Arnulf; Zattoni, Filiberto; Palou, Joan; Gill, Inderbir; Catto, James W

    2017-02-01

    In this practical review, we discuss current surgical techniques reported in the literature to perform intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) after robotic radical cystectomy (RARC), emphasizing criticisms of single approaches and making comparisons with extracorporeal urinary diversion (ECUD). Although almost 97% of all RARCs use an ECUD, ICUD is gaining in popularity, in view of its potential benefits (i.e., decreased bowel exposure, etc.), although there are a few studies comparing ICUD and ECUD. Analyzing single experiences and the data from recent metanalyses, we emphasize the current critiques to ICUD, stressing particular technical details which could reduce operative time, lowering the postoperative complications rate, and improving functional outcomes. Only analysis of long-term follow-up data from large-scale homogeneous series can ascertain whether robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion is superior to other approaches.

  10. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  11. The strategy and practice of radioactive waste management in the Pacific Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, N. (Roy F. Weston Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Gray, B.R. (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an integral part of the planning process for the nuclear industry in Pacific Basin countries. This paper reviews areas of common interest and cooperation, sources of waste and current inventories, production rates, and future plans. Each level of radioactive waste requires different methods for handling, storage, and disposal. Definitions may vary In detail from country to country, but generally high level wastes are defined as those deriving from spent fuel and from reprocessing of fuel. These wastes contain transuranic elements and fission products that are highly radioactive, heat-generating and long-lived. Intermediate level and low level wastes may include, respectively, material from fuel fabrication and power generation other than spent fuel, and those wastes produced by research institutions, hospitals, and in other non-power producing Industrial uses of radioisotopes. The energy requirements of most countries are likely to continue to grow, and the use of radioactive isotopes in medicine and other non-energy industrial sectors is also expanding. The Pacific Nuclear Council member states participating in the Waste Management Working Group, are predicting, therefore, that the volume of radioactive waste for disposal will continue to grow.

  12. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  13. From gift to waste: changing policies in biobanking practices

    OpenAIRE

    Aaro Tupasela

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the analysis of biomedical discourses surrounding biobanking has focused on the role of donation and gift giving as central aspects related to the procurement and use of tissue samples. More recently, studies have looked at the political underpinnings of building national collections of tissue samples. These national projects draw increasingly on a discourse of waste and efficiency as a way of legitimising activities. This paper draws attention to the way new arguments draw from...

  14. 1989 Report to Congress: Management of Hazardous Wastes from Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report identifying the statutory and regulatory requirements, examining current hazardous waste management practices, and identifying possible ways for educational institutions to improve hazardous waste management.

  15. Thyroid nodules: a review of current guidelines, practices, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R

    2008-11-01

    In 2006, two major society-sponsored guidelines and one major consensus statement for thyroid diagnosis and management were published by: the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AACE/AME); the American Thyroid Association (ATA); and the European Thyroid Association (ETA). A careful review of these guidelines reveals that despite many similarities, significant differences are also present, likely reflecting differences in practice patterns, interpretation of existing data, and availability of resources in different regions. The methodology of the guidelines is similar, but a few differences in the rating scale make a rapid comparison of the strength of both evidence and recommendations difficult for the use in current clinical practice. Some recommendations are based mostly on experts' opinion. Thus, a same recommendation may be based on a different evidence; on the other hand, sometimes the same evidence may induce a different recommendation. Therefore, efforts are needed to produce a few high-quality clinical studies to close the evidence gaps in the still controversial fields of thyroid disease and to create a joint task force of the most authoritative societies in the field of thyroid disease in order to reach a common document for clinical practice recommendations.

  16. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  17. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  18. How to become a Food Waste-Fighter?: An exploratory study into food waste-reducing business practices in the food service industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Kristine Amundsen; Eikaas, Julie Normann

    2016-01-01

    By the end of this century, global food production must increase by 70 per cent to feed the world’s growing population. Currently, we waste one-third of all food produced for human consumption. This is major problem, affecting not only the environment, but also labour in the food value chain, waste management services, commodity prices, and global food security. If no action is taken, the current problem of food waste can soon develop into a global tragedy. High income level...

  19. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  20. Current Development in Treatment and Hydrogen Energy Conversion of Organic Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-02-01

    This manuscript summarized current developments on continuous hydrogen production technologies researched in Korea advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST). Long-term continuous pilot-scale operation of hydrogen producing processes fed with non-sterile food waste exhibited successful results. Experimental findings obtained by the optimization processes of growth environments for hydrogen producing bacteria, the development of high-rate hydrogen producing strategies, and the feasibility tests for real field application could contribute to the progress of fermentative hydrogen production technologies. Three major technologies such as controlling dilution rate depending on the progress of acidogenesis, maintaining solid retention time independently from hydraulic retention time, and decreasing hydrogen partial pressure by carbon dioxide sparging could enhance hydrogen production using anaerobic leaching beds reactors and anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. These findings could contribute to stable, reliable and effective performances of pilot-scale reactors treating organic wastes.

  1. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  2. The emergence of thanatology and current practice in death education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; Testoni, Ines

    Thanatology is a recent field that contemplates death studies and employs an interdisciplinary approach to practice. This science emerged in a historical context marked by intense social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the concept of death being excluded from social life. This literature review aims to outline the history and evolution ofthanatology in Western society, delineating the contextual circumstances that led to its origin and drawing special attention to current works on death education. In our post-modern society, the call for studies in the field of thanatology appears to be increasing. However, although there have been significant contributions and promising research is underway, there are still many questions to be answered.

  3. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  4. Current practice for diagnosis and management of silent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobreanu, Dan; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lewalter, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that silent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of symptomatic AF, no specific strategy for screening and management of this form of AF has been advocated. The purpose of this survey was to identify current practices...... for the diagnosis and management of silent AF. This survey is based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network partners. Responses were received from 33 centres in 16 countries. The preferred screening methods for silent AF in patients with rhythm control...... by pharmacological therapy was 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at outpatient visits (31.3%) and periodical 24 h Holter ECG recordings (34.4%), while after pulmonary vein isolation the corresponding figures were 6.3 and 65.6%, respectively. No consensus has been reached concerning the therapeutic approach...

  5. Short-wave diathermy: current clinical and safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Gormley, John; O'Hare, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is widely available, yet a comprehensive examination of current clinical practice remains absent from the literature. The present paper aims to assess clinical and safety issues in continuous (CSWD) and pulsed (PSWD) short-wave diathermy application and subsequently indicate areas for future research. A postal survey was carried out among 116 senior physiotherapists in 41 Irish hospital-based physiotherapy departments. The response rate to the study was 75%. Analysis found that PSWD was the preferred mode of treatment with 27% of respondents using it more than once daily. Respondents considered both modes of treatment indicated for a variety of conditions. CSWD was rated as an effective treatment for chronic osteoarthritis, polyarthritis, non-specific arthrosis and haematomas. PSWD was reported an effective modality for acute soft tissue injury, haematomas, acute osteoarthritis, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose selection varied greatly but tended to be based on the type, nature and duration of the condition. Analysis of safety practices uncovered concerning findings. Although a high level of agreement was found on measures for patient safety, 30% of respondents reported that no measures for operator safety were taken and only five respondents stated they remained a specified distance from SWD equipment. Measures to ensure the safety of other personnel in the physiotherapy department were also lacking. Given the availability of SWD equipment and its apparent efficacy in certain conditions, future research should aim to establish this by means of controlled clinical trials. The findings on safety practices underline the urgent need for comprehensive guidelines to ensure the safety of operators, patients and the general public during SWD application.

  6. Complementary feeding practices: Current global and regional estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jessica M; Bégin, France; Kumapley, Richard; Murray, Colleen; Krasevec, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Insufficient quantities and inadequate quality of complementary foods, together with poor feeding practices, pose a threat to children's health and nutrition. Interventions to improve complementary feeding are critical to reduce all forms of malnutrition, and access to data to ascertain the status of complementary feeding practices is essential for efforts to improve feeding behaviours. However, sufficient data to generate estimates for the core indicators covering the complementary feeding period only became available recently. The current situation of complementary feeding at the global and regional level is reported here using data contained within the UNICEF global database. Global rates of continued breastfeeding drop from 74.0% at 1 year of age to 46.3% at 2 years of age. Nearly a third of infants 4-5 months old are already fed solid foods, whereas nearly 20% of 10-11 months old had not consumed solid foods during the day prior to their survey. Of particular concern is the low rate (28.2%) of children 6-23 months receiving at least a minimally diverse diet. Although rates for all indicators vary by background characteristics, feeding behaviours are suboptimal even in richest households, suggesting that cultural factors and poor knowledge regarding an adequate diet for young children are important to address. In summary, far too few children are benefitting from minimum complementary feeding practices. Efforts are needed not only to improve children's diets for their survival, growth, and development but also for governments to report on progress against global infant and young child feeding indicators on a regular basis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Current nursing practice by hospital-based stoma specialist nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Jennie

    Nurses frequently care for patients who have stomas. A common complication is sore peristomal skin (skin around the stoma). The study aim was to answer the research question: what is the current nursing practice for peristomal skin problems among UK stoma specialist nurses? The question was explored through investigation of descriptions, treatments and opinions of peristomal skin problems. Results were examined to ascertain if practice reflects the literature and if care was evidence-based. A questionnaire was posted in September 2009 to the stoma care nurses in all UK NHS hospitals (n=596). The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires was 15% (89 of 596). Most of the responding nurses held a stoma-related qualification (86%), a degree (55%) and had specialised in stoma care for over 5 years (67%). Respondents used erythema to describe sore skin (80%). Stoma powder (98%) and convex appliances (98%) were the most commonly used treatments. The most common cause of sore skin was appliance leakage (61%). The study population was deemed suitably qualified and experienced to answer the research question. Many responses were reflected in the literature (predominantly opinion articles), reflecting a degree of reliability and validity. It could be concluded that stoma specialist nurses can accurately assess and use stoma accessories to treat sore skin, but due to the paucity of research, the care cannot be defined as evidence-based. More research is needed to determine universally accepted definitions and treatments for sore peristomal skin.

  8. Religious slaughter: evaluation of current practices in selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T

    2014-01-01

    As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. © 2013.

  9. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Hanumantha

    2008-06-01

    The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities.

  10. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  11. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghipour, Hassan, E-mail: hteir@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amjad, Zahra [Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari [Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholampour, Akbar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouz, Prviz [Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  12. Current status in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a practical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Francisco Javier; Julián-Jiménez, Agustin; González-Del Castillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a current and widely spread trend in clinical practice because of it's a cost-effective option, it's associated with a greater comfort for the patient, a lower risk of nosocomial complications and an important cost saving for the health care system. OPAT is used for treating a wide range of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, osteoarticular infections, bacteraemia, endocarditis and complex intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, even in presence of multiresistant microorganisms. Correct choice of antimicrobial agent and adequate patient selection are crucial for reaching therapeutic success and avoiding readmissions, treatment prolongation or treatment-related toxicity. The optimal antimicrobial for OPAT must be highly effective, have a long half-life and an adequate spectrum of action. Ceftriaxone and teicoplanin are currently the most prescribed antibiotics for OPAT, though daptomycin and ertapenem are also on the rise, due to their high efficiency, safety and wide spectrum of action. Antibiotics that are stable at room temperature can be administered through a continuous perfusion, though self-administration is preferable although it requires training of the patient or the caregiver. Factors that are most frequently associated with OPAT failure include advanced age, recent hospitalization and isolation of multiresistant microorganisms.

  13. SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Read

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys some current developments in second language vocabulary assessment, with particular attention to the ways in which computer corpora can provide better quality information about the frequency of words and how they are used in specific contexts. The relative merits of different word lists are discussed, including the Academic Word List and frequency lists derived from the British National Corpus. Word frequency data is needed for measures of vocabulary size, such as the Yes/No format, which is being developed and used for a variety of purposes. The paper also reviews work on testing depth of knowledge of vocabulary, where rather less progress has been made, both in defining depth as a construct and in developing tests for practical use. Another important perspective is the use of vocabulary within particular contexts of use or registers, and recent corpus research is extending our understanding of the lexical features of academic registers. This provides a basis for assessing learners’ ability to deploy their vocabulary knowledge effectively for functional communication in specific academic contexts. It is concluded that, while current tests of vocabulary knowledge are valuable for certain purposes, they need to be complemented by more contextualised measures of vocabulary use.

  14. Colostomy irrigation: current knowledge and practice of WOC nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Tallman, Nancy J; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; McCorkle, Ruth; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on the authors' previous studies that demonstrate that persons living with a colostomy who practice colostomy irrigation (CI) experience quality-of-life benefits. Studies also reveal that patients may not be taught about CI. The purpose of this study was to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WOC nurses on CI. The target population was ostomy nurses who were members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse's Society. Nine hundred eighty-five nurses out of a possible pool of 4191 members responded, providing a response rate of 24%. Their average age was 53 years (range, 25-79 years). Respondents averaged 12 years' experience as a WOC nurse (range, 1-40 years) and 90% (n = 875) were certified. Participants practiced in a variety of settings, including acute and long-term care facilities, home health, and ambulatory clinics. They saw an average of 37 ± 60.5 (mean ± SD) ostomy patients per year (range, 0-1100). A 1-time online survey (SurveyMonkey) of members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society was conducted. In addition to demographic and educational information, questions also included (1) CI advantages and disadvantages; (2) CI content routinely taught; (3) challenges in assisting patients to learn CI; and (4) where preparation was received for teaching this procedure. Nurses were asked whether they believe CI is evidence-based. More than half identified irrigation as an evidence-based practice (59%), but half indicated they do not routinely teach CI. Multiple factors correlated with nurses' decisions to teach CI, including years of experience (P = .03), specific CI education (P < .001), and considering the intervention evidence-based (P < .001). Factors influencing CI instruction are multifactorial; they include nurses' attitudes, experience base, education, medical indications, setting characteristics, and patient interest and physical abilities. Education on this procedure is urgently needed for

  15. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO2eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO2eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the excess

  16. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density energy for factories, markets, and related use, was noted in cities with a population density of 2000 to 4000 persons (km(2))(-1). Several incineration plants have poor performance for heat production because there are few facilities near them to provide demand for the energy. This is the result of redundant capacity, and is reflected in the heat production performance. Given these results, we discussed future challenges to creating energy demand around incineration plants where there is presently none. We also examined the challenges involved in increasing heat supply beyond the present situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  18. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...

  19. Semi-selective demolition: current demolition practices in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmans, Jef; Dierckx, Philippe; De Regel, Sofie; Vanden Eynde, Annelies; Van de Velde, Philippe; Broos, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) represents one of the EU's largest waste streams. Eurostat (2010) estimates a C&DW generation of 970 Mton/year in the EU-27 (±2 ton/inhabitant), with an average recovery rate of 47% [1]. To reach a higher recycling rate, higher-purity material streams from C&D works are required. These can be obtained by a better sorting at the source, i.e. selective demolition.   We performed 5 demolition case studies in Flanders to assess the oppo...

  20. Semi-selective demolition: current demolition practices in Flanders (presentation)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmans, Jef; Dierckx, Philippe; De Regel, Sofie; Vanden Eynde, Annelies; Van de Velde, Philippe; Broos, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) represents one of the EU's largest waste streams. Eurostat (2010) estimates a C&DW generation of 970 Mton/year in the EU-27 (±2 ton/inhabitant), with an average recovery rate of 47% [1]. To reach a higher recycling rate, higher-purity material streams from C&D works are required. These can be obtained by a better sorting at the source, i.e. selective demolition.   We performed 5 demolition case studies in Flanders to assess the oppo...

  1. Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  3. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Household Budget Survey (HBS) data covering many households' characteristics was used. Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was applied to ...

  4. Fish quarantine: current practices in public zoos and aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Clayton, Leigh A

    2011-12-01

    The primary goal of quarantine is to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases into established collections. Fish quarantine is inherently complex because of the variety of species, environmental requirements, and facilities. To examine current practices, questionnaires were submitted to 60 public zoos and aquaria, predominantly in North America. Questions reviewed system type (closed, flow-through), quarantine length, diagnostics, treatments, and cleaning and disinfection. Forty-two of the 60 institutions responded. Most institutions had separate quarantine protocols for freshwater teleosts, marine teleosts, and elasmobranchs. Ninety-five percent of institutions had a minimum quarantine period of 30 days or more. Sixty-four percent of institutions used isolated areas for some or all of their fish quarantine. Twenty-five percent had designated fish quarantine staff. All institutions used regular visual examinations to assess animal health. Fifty-four percent of the institutions carried out routine hands-on diagnostics on some fish; this was more common for elasmobranchs than teleosts. All institutions carried out necropsies on mortalities. Fifteen percent of institutions performed histopathology on almost all fresh mortalities; 54% percent performed histopathology on less than 10% of mortalities. Prophylactic treatments were common in closed systems, in particular, formalin immersion for teleosts, freshwater dips and copper sulfate immersion for marine teleosts, and praziquantel immersion for marine teleosts and elasmobranchs. Institutions using dips generally did so at the start or end of quarantine. Fenbendazole- and praziquantel-medicated foods were used commonly in teleosts, but dosages varied greatly. Cleaning and disinfection of systems and equipment increased in response to known pathogens. These results can be used to compare and discuss fish quarantine practices at display facilities in order to improve quarantine success.

  5. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is dosimetry still a necessity in current dental practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Clint, Joseph Ben; Sharma, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Today, dentists have a wide range of imaging modalities to choose from, the film based techniques, digital techniques, and the recent introduction of 3D volumetric or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The inherent design features of the new generation dental x-ray equipment has significantly improved over the years with no evidence of substandard x-ray units in operation. In dental facilities radiological workload is comparatively low, newer radiation equipments and accessories follow safety guidelines and employ better radiation protection measures for the patient and the operator. Dentists' knowledge and expertise in radiation protection measures is good, enabling them to carry out riskfree radiation procedures in their practice. Therefore, the present study is aimed at assessing the need for dosimeters in current dental scenario. 'Is there currently a significant risk from dental radiography to merit the use of personal dosimetery in dental practice. 'Dental health professionals (Oral radiologists) and radiographic assistants of fourteen dental colleges in Karnataka state participated in this questionnaire study. The questionnaire consisted of the following questions--the make, type, year of manufacture of radiographic machines used in their setup, number of radiographs made per day in the institution, type of receptors used, number of personnel at risk for radiation exposure, radiation protection measures used, regular monitoring by personal dosimeters, equivalent dosage readings for the past 12 months and whether the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for any personnel had exceeded the recommended exposure value in the last 3 years. Dosimetry records of the radiology staff in the last three years shows doses no more than 1.50 mSv per year. The various institutions' dose (person mSv) was in the range of 3.70 mSv-3.90 mSv. Personal monitoring for Dentists can be omitted in the dental colleges since the estimated dose of oral radiologists

  7. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, D.W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T.; Rebitzer, G.

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  8. Evaluating current knowledge of legislation and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viable products of conception (miscarriages/TOP), and therefore a legal burial cannot follow. These fetuses are usually disposed of as medical waste.[6] This indicates that a stillborn fetus at 26 weeks' gestational age can, in terms of the Births and Deaths Registration. Act,[2] be buried, yet if the same fetus was 'born' as a ...

  9. Internet use by orthopaedic outpatients – current trends and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fraval

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe e-patient revolution increasingly enables patients to self diagnose and self educate, influencing decisions affecting their health. This poses a challenge for both patients and health care professionals due to the highly variable and often poor quality information available on the internet.AimsThis study aims to measure the current internet usage in patients attending outpatient clinics, in both a public and private setting. All patients were recruited whilst consulting orthopaedic surgeons.MethodWe developed a 29 question survey which asked questions related to patient demographics, general internet usage and internet usage related to the patient’s orthopaedic condition. Patients were recruited for the public cohort during Western Health outpatient clinics and for the private cohort during private surgical consults in the waiting rooms of eight surgeons’ clinics.ResultsA total of 400 surveys were completed; 200 in both the private and public cohorts of the study. Of all surveyed participants, 79% (n = 316 had access to the internet. Of people who had access to the internet 65.2% (n = 206 used the internet to investigate their orthopaedic condition. 29.6% (n = 61 of participants asked their surgeon questions related to information they had read on the internet. Of patients that had access to the internet 36.1% (n = 114 used the internet to research their surgeon.ConclusionPatients are commonly using the internet as an information resource, in spite of the highly variable quality of this information. This highlights the need for patient information websites which reflect the current standards of clinical practice.

  10. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  11. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options.

  12. Postoperative delirium in elderly citizens and current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddareddygari Velayudha Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative delirium (POD represents an acute brain dysfunction in the postsurgical period. Perioperative physicians caring for the older adults are familiar with the care of dysfunction of organs such as lungs, heart, liver, or kidney in the perioperative setting, but they are less familiar with management of brain dysfunction. As early detection and prompt treatment of inciting factors are utmost important to prevent or minimize the deleterious outcomes of delirium. The purpose of this review is to prepare perioperative physicians with a set of current clinical practice recommendations to provide optimal perioperative care of older adults, with a special focus on specific perioperative interventions that have been shown to prevent POD. On literature search in EMBASE, CINAHL, and PUBMED between January 2000 and September 2015 using search words delirium, POD, acute postoperative confusion, and brain dysfunction resulted in 9710 articles. Among them, 73 articles were chosen for review, in addition, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, American Geriatric Society guidelines, hospital elderly life program-confusion assessment method training manual, New York geriatric nursing protocols, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision classification of mental disorders, Food and Drug Administration requests boxed warnings on older class of antipsychotic drugs 2008 and delirium in Miller's text book of anesthesia were reviewed and relevant information presented in this article.

  13. Current practice of chronic hepatitis B treatment in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroffolini, T; Spadaro, A; Di Marco, V; Scifo, G; Russello, M; Montalto, G; Bertino, G; Surace, L; Caroleo, B; Foti, G; Portelli, V; Madonia, S; Sapienza, M; Cosco, L; Frugiuele, P; Galdieri, A; Brandolino, N; Siciliano, R; Bruno, S; Almasio, P L

    2012-07-01

    Treatment choice for chronic HBV infection is a continuously evolving issue, with a wide range of options. We aimed to evaluate the current practice of HBV therapies in the real world in Southern Italy. A prospective study enrolling over a six month period (February-July 2010) all consecutive HBsAg positive subjects, never previously treated, referred to 16 liver units in two Southern Italy regions (Calabria and Sicily). Out of 247 subjects evaluated, 116 (46.9%) had HBV-DNA undetectable or lower than 2000 UI/ml. There were 108 (43.7%) inactive carriers, 103 (41.7%) chronic hepatitis, and 36 (14.6%) liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment was planned in 94 (38.0%) patients (26 cases with Interferon or Pegylated Interferon and 68 with nucleos(t)ides analogues). As many as 49.5% of subjects with chronic hepatitis did not receive antiviral treatment. The majority of chronic HBsAg carrier referring centres for evaluation were not considered suitable for antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ides analogues are the preferred first choice for therapy. A long-lasting period of observation may be needed to make appropriate therapeutic decisions in several cases. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current UK practices in the management of subacromial impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin; Tait, Gavin R

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy presently exists surrounding the management of patients with subacromial impingement. This study aims to highlight current UK practices in the management of these patients. Methods BESS members were invited to complete a questionnaire and responses were received from 157 consultant shoulder surgeons. Results Physiotherapy is an integral part of management for 93% of surgeons with a minimum period of 12 weeks being most popular prior to consideration of arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Subacromial steroid injection is used by 95% and 86% repeat this if the patient has failed to respond to a previous injection by the general practioner. From initial presentation, 77% felt there should be at least 3 months of conservative management before proceeding to surgery. Good but transient response to subacromial injection was considered the best predictor of good surgical outcome by 77%. The coracoacromial ligament is fully released by 78%, although there was greater variation in how aggressive surgeons were with acromioplasty. Most (59%) do not include the nontender acromioclavicular joint to any extent in routine acromioplasty. Hospital physiotherapy protocols are used by 63% for postoperative rehabilitation. Conclusions Variation exists in the management regimes offered to patients with subacromial impingement, but most employ a minimum period of 12 weeks of conservative management incorporating physiotherapy and at least 2 subacromial steriod injections. PMID:27582972

  15. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Ming-shiang; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kim, Jae J; Yeoh, Khay-guan; Goh, Khean Lee; Wu, Kai-chun; Wu, Deng-chyang; Sollano, Jose; Kachintorn, Udom; Gotoda, Takuji; Lin, Jaw-town; You, Wei-cheng; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Asia. Although surgery is the standard treatment for this disease, early detection and treatment is the only way to reduce mortality. This Review summarises the epidemiology of gastric cancer, and the evidence for, and current practices of, screening in Asia. Few Asian countries have implemented a national screening programme for gastric cancer; most have adopted opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Although screening by endoscopy seems to be the most accurate method for detection of gastric cancer, the availability of endoscopic instruments and expertise for mass screening remains questionable--even in developed countries such as Japan. Therefore, barium studies or serum-pepsinogen testing are sometimes used as the initial screening tool in some countries, and patients with abnormal results are screened by endoscopy. Despite the strong link between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, more data are needed to define the role of its eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer in Asia. At present, there is a paucity of quality data from Asia to lend support for screening for gastric cancer.

  17. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  18. Acute calculous cholecystitis: Review of current best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Junior, Cleber Soares; Di Saveiro, Salomone; Sartelli, Massimo; Kelly, Michael Denis; Gomes, Camila Couto; Gomes, Felipe Couto; Corrêa, Lívia Dornellas; Alves, Camila Brandão; Guimarães, Samuel de Fádel

    2017-01-01

    Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most frequent complication of cholelithiasis and represents one-third of all surgical emergency hospital admissions, many aspects of the disease are still a matter of debate. Knowledge of the current evidence may allow the surgical team to develop practical bedside decision-making strategies, aiming at a less demanding procedure and lower frequency of complications. In this regard, recommendations on the diagnosis supported by specific criteria and severity scores are being implemented, to prioritize patients eligible for urgency surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment for ACC and the procedure should ideally be performed within 72 h. Early surgery is associated with better results in comparison to delayed surgery. In addition, when to suspect associated common bile duct stones and how to treat them when found are still debated. The antimicrobial agents are indicated for high-risk patients and especially in the presence of gallbladder necrosis. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and in some cases with antifungal agents is related to better prognosis. Moreover, an emerging strategy of not converting to open, a difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and performing a subtotal cholecystectomy is recommended by adept surgical teams. Some authors support the use of percutaneous cholecystostomy as an alternative emergency treatment for acute Cholecystitis for patients with severe comorbidities. PMID:28603584

  19. Challenges in robotic distal pancreatectomy: systematic review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F; Pesi, B; Amore Bonapasta, S; Di Marino, M; Perna, F; Annecchiarico, M; Coratti, A

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, robotics has gained popularity and is increasingly employed to accomplish several abdominal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, pancreatectomies are regarded as demanding procedures for which the application of minimally-invasive surgery is still limited and its effectiveness has not been conclusively established. We aimed to investigate the current role of robot-assisted surgery to perform distal pancreatectomy. A systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted for articles dealing with robotic-assisted distal pancreatectomies. All relevant papers were evaluated on surgical and oncological outcomes. A total of 10 articles reporting on robotic distal pancreatectomies were finally considered in the analysis, including 259 patients. Mean operative time was 271 minutes (range 181-398); mean blood loss was 210 mL (range 104-361), in 11.6% of cases conversion to laparotomy occurred, spleen preservation was accomplished in 51.4% of procedures, mean time of postoperative hospital stay was 7 days. Overall, postoperative mortality and morbidity were 0% and 23.4% respectively, the mean number of lymph nodes harvested was 12.7. In all included series, no case of R1 resection was reported. Despite its relatively recent introduction in clinical practice, robotic-assisted surgery has been widely employed to perform distal pancreatectomy worldwide and it should be considered a safe and effective procedure. Both surgical and pathologic data support its application in the management of pancreatic lesions of the body and tail.

  20. Cytokine release assays: current practices and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, D; Grimaldi, C; Fort, M; Walker, M; Kiessling, A; Wolf, B; Salcedo, T; Faggioni, R; Schneider, A; Ibraghimov, A; Scesney, S; Serna, D; Prell, R; Stebbings, R; Narayanan, P K

    2014-04-01

    As a result of the CD28 superagonist biotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (TGN 1412) "cytokine storm" incident, cytokine release assays (CRA) have become hazard identification and prospective risk assessment tools for screening novel biotherapeutics directed against targets having a potential risk for eliciting adverse pro-inflammatory clinical infusion reactions. Different laboratories may have different strategies, assay formats, and approaches to the reporting, interpretation, and use of data for either decision making or risk assessment. Additionally, many independent contract research organizations (CROs), academic and government laboratories are involved in some aspect of CRA work. As a result, while some pharmaceutical companies are providing CRA data as part of the regulatory submissions when necessary, technical and regulatory practices are still evolving to provide data predictive of cytokine release in humans and that are relevant to safety. This manuscript provides an overview of different approaches employed by the pharmaceutical industry and CROs, for the use and application of CRA based upon a survey and post survey follow up conducted by ILSI-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Immunotoxicology Committee CRA Working Group. Also discussed is ongoing research in the academic sector, the regulatory environment, current limitations of the assays, and future directions and recommendations for cytokine release assays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R E; Holland, G N; Nussenblatt, R B; Jabs, D A

    1991-05-15

    To determine current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis, 72 of 85 uveitis specialists (85%) in the American Uveitis Society completed a detailed questionnaire. Questions involved the indications for beginning treatment, choice of antiparasitic/antimicrobial agents, and experience with treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in special situations including pregnancy, neonatal infections, and immunocompromised patients. Most of the respondents treat patients whose visual acuity had decreased to worse than 20/200, lesions located in the peripapillary, perifoveal, or maculopapillary bundle regions, and lesions associated with severe vitreous inflammation. Most would not treat patients who retained visual acuity of 20/20, lesions located in the far peripheral retina, or lesions associated with only trace to mild vitreous inflammation. Treatment of other combinations of factors remains controversial. Eight different antimicrobial drugs are used in various combinations for lesions threatening the macula or optic nerve head. Systemic corticosteroids are used by 59 of 62 respondents (95%) as part of their initial treatment regimen. The most commonly used regimens are pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/corticosteroids (20 of 62 [32%]) and pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/clindamycin/corticosteroids (17 of 62 [27%]). Adjunctive therapies (photocoagulation, cryotherapy, or vitrectomy) have been used by 20 of 60 respondents (33%). Most alter treatment during pregnancy, in newborn patients, and in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  2. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  3. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  4. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasias Mukama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38% and plastics (37% formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9% disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6% and compost (54.9% solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  5. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Practices and challenges of infectious waste management: A qualitative descriptive study from tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Somrongthong, Ratana; Chapman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Infectious waste management practices among health care workers in the tertiary care hospitals have been questionable. The study intended to identify issues that impede a proper infectious waste management. Besides direct observation, in-depths interviews were conducted with the hospital administrators and senior management involved in healthcare waste management during March 2014. We looked at the processes related to segregation, collection, storage and disposal of hospital waste, and identified variety of issues in all the steps. Serious gaps and deficiencies were observed related to segregation, collection, storage and disposal of the hospital wastes, hence proving to be hazardous to the patients as well as the visitors. Poor safety, insufficient budget, lack of trainings, weak monitoring and supervision, and poor coordination has eventually resulted in improper waste management in the tertiary hospitals of Rawalpindi. Study has concluded that the poor resources and lack of healthcare worker's training in infectious waste results in poor waste management at hospitals.

  7. Mercury and other biomedical waste management practices among dental practitioners in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghuwar D; Jurel, Sunit K; Tripathi, Shuchi; Agrawal, Kaushal K; Kumari, Reema

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and performance towards dental waste including mercury management policy and practices among the dental practitioners in North India. An epidemiologic survey was conducted among 200 private dental practitioners. The survey form was composed of 29 self-administered questions frame based on knowledge, attitude, and those regarding the practices of dentists in relation to dental health-care waste management. The resulting data were coded and a statistical analysis was done. About 63.7% of the dentists were not aware of the different categories of biomedical waste generated in their clinics. Only 31.9% of the dentists correctly said that outdated and contaminated drugs come under cytotoxic waste. 46.2% said they break the needle and dispose of it and only 21.9% use needle burner to destroy it. 45.0% of the dentists dispose of the developer and fixer solutions by letting them into the sewer, 49.4% of them dilute the solutions and let them into sewer and only 5.6% return them to the supplier. About 40.6% of the dentists dispose of excess silver amalgam by throwing it into common bin. It was concluded that not all dentists were aware of the risks they were exposed to and only half of them observe infection control practices.

  8. Mercury and Other Biomedical Waste Management Practices among Dental Practitioners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuwar D. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and performance towards dental waste including mercury management policy and practices among the dental practitioners in North India. Materials and Methods. An epidemiologic survey was conducted among 200 private dental practitioners. The survey form was composed of 29 self-administered questions frame based on knowledge, attitude, and those regarding the practices of dentists in relation to dental health-care waste management. The resulting data were coded and a statistical analysis was done. Results and Discussion. About 63.7% of the dentists were not aware of the different categories of biomedical waste generated in their clinics. Only 31.9% of the dentists correctly said that outdated and contaminated drugs come under cytotoxic waste. 46.2% said they break the needle and dispose of it and only 21.9% use needle burner to destroy it. 45.0% of the dentists dispose of the developer and fixer solutions by letting them into the sewer, 49.4% of them dilute the solutions and let them into sewer and only 5.6% return them to the supplier. About 40.6% of the dentists dispose of excess silver amalgam by throwing it into common bin. Conclusion. It was concluded that not all dentists were aware of the risks they were exposed to and only half of them observe infection control practices.

  9. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations...

  10. 21 CFR 212.2 - What is current good manufacturing practice for PET drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is current good manufacturing practice for... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS (Eff. 12-12-2011) General Provisions § 212.2 What is current good manufacturing practice for...

  11. Role of Niacin in Current Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Aakash; Sharma, Abhishek; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Garg, Jalaj; Virmani, Deepti; Sharma, Toishi; Stefanini, Giulio; Kostis, John B; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Sikorskaya, Ekaterina

    2017-02-01

    Niacin, a potent high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising drug, seems an attractive approach to reduce cardiac events in patients with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, previous evidence for niacin has been challenged recently by negative outcomes in 2 large, randomized, controlled trials comparing niacin to placebo with background statin therapy. We studied the currently available evidence for the role of niacin treatment for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in current practice. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases comparing niacin alone or combined with statin therapy was performed. We extracted trial level data, including basic characteristics and number of patients enrolled, duration of follow up, occurrence of adverse events, and cardiovascular-related outcomes. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the risk ratio (RR) for individual trial endpoints. Thirteen trials (N = 35,206) were selected for final analysis. The mean follow-up duration was 32.8 months. Overall, niacin led to significant increases in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from baseline trial enrolment by 21.4%, 9.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.11-13.51) mg/dL. However, we did not observe any differences in all-cause mortality rates (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.88-1.12) between niacin and control arms. Further, niacin treatment was associated with a trend toward lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-1.02), coronary death (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.78-1.10), nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73-1.0), revascularization (coronary and noncoronary) (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.06), and stroke (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.72-1.10), compared with control. Niacin therapy does not lead to significant reductions in total or cause-specific mortality or recurrent cardiovascular events among persons with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular

  12. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  13. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  14. Practices of pharmaceutical waste generation and discarding in households across Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Valente, Susana; Vaz, João

    2016-10-01

    This work is the first nationwide study in Portugal on pharmaceutical waste generated at households, exploring people's attitudes and risk perception. The waste audit was carried out from September to November 2014, targeting pharmaceutical products kept by a sample of families (n = 244). This campaign was an assignment of VALORMED, the non-profit association that manages waste and packaging from expired and unused pharmaceutical products collected by the pharmacies. On average, each household kept at home 1097 g of pharmaceutical products, of which 20% were in use, 72% were not in use, and 8% were mostly expired products ready to discard. Face-to-face interviews with householders showed that 69% of the respondents claimed returning pharmaceutical waste to the local pharmacy. However, this figure is overrated, probably owing to a possible 'good answer' effect. The barriers identified to proper disposal were mainly established routines and lack of close disposal points. This study also provides an insight into the Portuguese awareness and daily practices concerning pharmaceutical waste, which is the cornerstone of any future strategy to reduce the release of active pharmaceutical ingredients into ecosystems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Examining the relationship between socio-economic status, WASH practices and wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Haque, Md Ahshanul; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; McCormick, Ben; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-01-01

    Childhood wasting is a global problem and is significantly more pronounced in low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. Socio Economic Status (SES) and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices may be significantly associated with wasting. Most previous research is consistent about the role of SES, but the significance of WASH in the context of wasting remains ambiguous. The effect of SES and WASH on weight for length (WHZ) is examined using a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to explicitly describe the direct and indirect role of WASH in the context of SES.A nationally representative survey of 10,478 Bangladeshi children under 5 were examined. An expert defined SEM was used to construct latent variables for SES and WASH. The SEM included a direct pathway from SES to WHZ and an indirect pathway from SES to WHZ via WASH along with regression of relevant covariates on the outcome WHZ and the latent variables. Both SES (p<0.01) and WASH (p<0.05) significantly affect WHZ. SES (p<0.01) also significantly affects WASH. Other structural components showed that child's age (p<0.01) affects WHZ and types of residence (p<0.01) affects SES. WASH practices at least partially mediate the association between SES and wasting status. WASH and SES are both significantly associated with WHZ.

  16. Nanotechnology risk assessment from a waste management perspective: Are the current tools adequate?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning nanotechnology industry is rapidly generating new forms of waste streams generically referred herein as nanowastes. However, little is known about the fate and behavior of these waste streams and their impacts thereof in different...

  17. Valorisation of food waste to biofuel: current trends and technological challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, there are needs to synthesize biofuels from nonedible waste materials. Food wastes can be utilized as resources for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol since they contain significant amount of lipids and carbohydrates...

  18. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  19. Current Perspectives on Pronunciation. Practices Anchored in Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Joan, Ed.

    A collection of essays on pronunciation instruction theory and practice includes: "Teaching Pronunciation as Communication" (Marianne Celce-Murcia); "Learner Variables and Prepronunciation Considerations in Teaching Pronunciation" (Rita Wong); "Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension" (Judy B. Gilbert); "Pronunciation Tutorials for Nonnative…

  20. Female genital cutting: current practices and beliefs in western Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sipsma, Heather L; Chen, Peggy G; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O; Karfo, Kapouné; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-01-01

    ...) practices and beliefs in western Africa. Data from women who responded to the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2005 and 2007 were used to estimate the frequencies of ever having been circumcised, having had a daughter circumcised...

  1. Results of a survey on current surgical smoke control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben E; Reiman, Robert E

    2008-04-01

    Researchers at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, conducted a simple, web-based survey of AORN members to evaluate surgical smoke control practices. Survey respondents from various medical specialties and facilities throughout North America indicated their facilities' level of compliance with established surgical smoke control measures. Survey results indicate that many facilities have not implemented best practices for protecting patients and health care workers from surgical smoke hazards, especially smoke created during electrosurgical, electrocautery, and diathermy procedures. (c) AORN, Inc, 2008.

  2. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny

    2016-09-01

    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Current state of professional Neuropsychological practice in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Fonseca-Aguilar; Laiene Olabarrieta Landa; Diego Rivera; Adriana Aguayo Arelis; Xóchitl Angélica Ortiz Jiménez; Brenda Viridiana Rabago Barajas; Yaneth Rodriguez Agudelo; Enrique Álvarez; Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the profession of neuropsychology in Mexico, including the background, professional training, current work situation, evaluation...

  4. Waste reuse and disposal practices in milk production in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Istvan Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six largest producers of milk cow in the world. In 2010, Brazilian milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data from IBGE. As stated by an IPARDES report in 2010, Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for an increased production of 71% between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to verify waste reuse and disposal in dairy cattle farming in Paraná. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, 79.4% of milk producers informed they have day-to-day practices to reuse wastes internally produced in farming. Main practice highlighted was the use of manure waste in agriculture. Only one producer in the sample adopted the use of poultry manure. Considering correct disposal of pesticide packaging, 84.4% of producers are in accordance to legal requirements; 10.1% of total interviewed producers do not follow legal requirement for packaging disposal, and 5% do not use pesticides at all, so not being concerned to that practice. Concerning appropriate disposal of medical

  5. [Description of current hypnosis practice in French university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabridon, G; Nekrouf, N; Bioy, A

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis is very fashionable as an entertainment through TV shows searching for new sensational experiences. What about its practice in the medical world? The aim of this article is to answer to this question. Therefore, we contacted every French University Hospital of each region to find out if hypnosis was practiced for the care of pain (hypnoanalgesia), for chirurgical procedures (hypnosedation) and in adult psychiatry care units (hypnotherapy). For this last practice, we also questioned the type of indications. All 30 of the French University Hospitals had replied by November 2015. Hypnoanalgesia is practiced by all and two-thirds offer hypnosedation. Hypnotherapy is practiced by 40 % of the University Hospitals, 91,7 % for anxiety disorders, 66,7 % for psychotraumatic care and 25 % for mood disorders. Therefore, hypnosis seems to have found its place in the care of pain and as an anesthetic to replace standard procedures. However, the use of hypnotherapy in psychiatry is less frequent, indications for its use being variable and not very consensual. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 4307 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 4 Current Good Manufacturing Practice... good manufacturing practice requirements apply to my combination product? (Sec. 4.3) E. How can I comply with these current good manufacturing practice requirements for a co-packaged or single-entity...

  7. 76 FR 47593 - Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... a guidance for small business entities entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice... entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP); Small Entity Compliance Guide.'' This... Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  8. 76 FR 82308 - Guidance for Industry: Current Good Tissue Practice and Additional Requirements for Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Current Good Tissue Practice and... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Current Good Tissue Practice (CGTP) and Additional Requirements... consistent with FDA's good guidance practices regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The guidance represents FDA's...

  9. The Current Practices and Problems of School Based Supervision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All teacher respondents were used in the analysis. On the other hand 65 school based supervisors, 13 principals and 10 cluster supervisors were selected using comprehensive sampling techniques as they are highly responsible for supervisory practices and their number was also manageable. The main instruments used ...

  10. Family Counseling in Malaysia: Current Issues and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    The study is carried out to explore the issues and practices in family counselling among the family counsellors at few counseling centres in Malaysia. Qualitative approach of single case embedded units was used for the study. Data collection was done using in-depth interview, observation and document analysis with 12 family counsellors. The data…

  11. The Role of Current Emergency Radiology Practice: A prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of radiogy in the management of emergency patients is tremendous. Which imaging modality best evaluates specific clinical emergencies has evolved and continues to advance with clinical practice trends. The purpose of this study was to show the role of radiology in emergency patient handeling and ...

  12. Update on the use of misoprostol in current obstetric practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misoprostol is one of the most important drugs in obstetric practice today. However, because of its uterotonic effects and consequent adverse effects on the pregnant uterus and foetus, the use of this drug requires extreme caution and very close monitoring particularly in developing countries. The aim of this update is to ...

  13. Equity crowdfunding in China : Current practice and important legal issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    By studying two leading Chinese equity crowdfunding portals, namely, Renrentou and Zhongou8, this paper provides the very first empirical evidence on the practice and regulation of equity crowdfunding in China. In the case of Renrentou, I examine a hand-collected sample consisting of the investment

  14. Feedback matters current feedback practices in the EFL classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reitbauer, Margit; Mercer, Sarah; Schumm-Fauster, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This varied collection of papers is concerned with feedback in the language learning context. With its blend of theoretical overviews, action research-based empirical studies and practical implications, this will be a valuable resource for all academics and practitioners concerned with generating feedback that matters.

  15. Current Practice of Extensive Reading in Asia: Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C.-S.; Renandya, Willy A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' perceptions of the practice of extensive reading (ER) in the Asian context. One hundred and nineteen L2 teachers in Asia responded to an online questionnaire that probed into their reasons for implementing ER, the difficulties they encountered, and their perception about the effectiveness of different ways of…

  16. Current referral practices and adolescent transition to Adult clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-02

    Feb 2, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: The goal of adolescent transition from child to adult care services is to provide uninterrupted, coordinated and developmentally appropriate health care as transfers are made from paediatric to adult clinics. Adolescent transition practices are available but not in Nigeria. This study was ...

  17. Teacher's current practices of teaching reading and grade four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the practices and challenges of teaching reading strategies and assessment in Dona Berber Primary School. Twelve grade 4 students were selected using simple random sampling technique and an English teacher and a school supervisor were selected by available sampling. Structured Classroom ...

  18. NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY, CURRENT APPLICATIONS IN CLINICAL-PRACTICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEYER, MG; VANDERWALL, EE; KUIJPER, AFM; CLEOPHAS, AT; PAUWELS, EKJ

    The clinical applications of nuclear cardiology have rapidly expanded since the introduction of suitable imaging cameras and readily applicable isotopes. The currently available methods can provide useful data on estimates of ventricular function and detection of myocardial ischemia for adequate

  19. Construction Waste Management Profiles, Practices, and Performance: A Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis in Four Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wing-Yan Tam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste management (CWM has received worldwide attention for some time. As a result, a plethora of research, investigating a wide array of CWM issues such as their profiles, practices, and performance, has been reported in individual economies around the globe. However, a cross-jurisdictional comparison of these issues is limitedly presented in the literature despite its importance to benchmarking performance and identifying best CWM practices in the context of globalization whereby knowledge sharing has already transcended traditional country boundaries. The aim of this ex post facto research is to compare CWM profiles, practices, and performance in Australia, Europe (Europe refers to EU-27 member countries in the European Union, including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania., Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom at a national-level, with a view to facilitating CWM knowledge sharing internationally. It does so by triangulating empirical data collected from various national statistical yearbooks with research papers and professional reports on CWM in these economies. It is found that in producing one million (US dollars’ work, construction contributes a volume of solid waste ranging from 28 to 121 tons among countries. Conscientious CWM practices can make a significant difference in reducing, reusing, or recycling construction waste, as evident in the large variation in the CWM performance. While it might be oversimplified to conclude that the best practices in one country can be applied in another, the research provides insightful references into sharing CWM knowledge across boundaries.

  20. Current marketing practices in the nursing home sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Judith G; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Hearld, Larry R

    2006-01-01

    Marketing is widely recognized as an essential business function across all industries, including healthcare. While many long-term care facilities adopted basic healthcare marketing practices and hired marketing staff by the early 1990s, a paucity of research on nursing home marketing exists in the literature. This study examines the extent to which nursing homes have developed more formulated marketing and related communication and promotional strategies as market competition has increased in this sector during the past two decades. In addition, we explored managers' perceptions of their control over marketing decision making, the impact of competition on the use of marketing practices, and areas for enhanced competitive positioning. Administrators from 230 nursing homes in 18 Southeastern Michigan counties were surveyed regarding (1) the adoption level of approximately 40 literature-based, best-practice marketing strategies; (2) the types of staff involved with the marketing function; and (3) their perception of their level of control over marketing functions and of local competition. Results from 101 (44 percent) survey participants revealed that although respondents viewed their markets as highly competitive, their marketing practices remained focused on traditional and relatively constrained practices. In relation to the importance of customer relationship management, the majority of the administrators reported intensive efforts being focused on residents and their families, referrers, and staff, with minimal efforts being extended to insurers and other types of payers. A significant positive relation was found between the intensity of marketing initiatives and the size of the facility (number of beds), whereas significant negative correlations were revealed in relation to occupancy and the perceived level of control over the function.

  1. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Andreeva; E.E. Danilova; A.M. Prihozhan

    2012-01-01

    The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM) and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying). The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families ...

  2. An Australian survey of current practice regarding radiation treatment records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manderson, C.; Berry, M.; Gebski, V [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Dept of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-01

    Thirty one Radiation Oncology Departments were surveyed to assess the structure and content of their external photon beam treatment sheets. A master index of standard data items was compiled from previously published recommendations and the frequency of recording these items was tabulated. A wide variation in practice was observed. The data highlights the need for agreed common data recording for quality assurance, outcome analysis and participation in clinical trials. 4 tabs.

  3. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  4. Personal trainer demographics, current practice trends and common trainee injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Waryasz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.

  5. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  6. 17. Dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    This proceedings of 17th DIALOG Waste Management Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania contains 13 lectures. The topics were: Phosphorus recycling of wastewater and sewage sludge (Robert Ristow); Current waste legislation developments (Wolfgang Siederer); Further development of the recycling industry (Andreas Bruckschen); Resource-efficient recycling business - a challenge for municipalities (Holger Thaerichen); Brick Recycling (Anette Mueller); Who has the buck? competence and responsibility in collection, transportation and recycling of waste electrical equipment (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Recovery of biogenic waste - Development, status and prospects (Martin Kranert); Experience in the bio-waste collection in the district of Western Pomerania-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Biowaste concept of OVVD GmbH (Stephan Schuett); Quo vadis BAWA Schwerinum? Biowaste treatment facility Schwerin - first operation experience (Andreas Lange); Future marketing opportunities for compost (Anke Boisch); Status and prospects of waste and substance flow management (Michael Nelles); Development of separate collection of biowaste quantities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. [German] Dieser Tagungsband von der 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Rostock enthaelt 13 Vortraege. Die Themen waren: Phosphor-Recycling aus Abwasser und Klaerschlamm (Robert Ristow); Aktuelle abfallrechtliche Entwicklungen (Wolfgang Siederer); Weiterentwicklung der Recyclingwirtschaft (Andreas Bruckschen); Ressourceneffiziente Wertstoffwirtschaft ? eine Herausforderung fuer die Kommunen (Holger Thaerichen); Ziegelrecycling (Anette Mueller et. al.); Wer hat den schwarzen Peter? Zustaendigkeiten und Verantwortlichkeiten bei Sammlung, Transport und Verwertung von Elektroaltgeraeten (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Verwertung biogener Abfaelle - Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven (Martin Kranert); Erfahrungen bei der Bioabfallerfassung im Landkreis Vorpommern-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Bioabfallkonzept der OVVD GmbH (Stephan

  7. Solid Waste Management Practices in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasin U.; Husain, Tahir; Khan, Suhail M.

    1987-11-01

    Solid waste management practices in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are reviewed. The officials of various municipalities and agencies responsible for collecting and disposing of municipal waste were interviewed. The refuse generation rate found is in the range of 1.61 2.72 kg per capita per day. The refuse composition data indicate a high percentage of glass, metals, and wood. For storage purposes, 0.2-m3 barrels are used in residential areas and 0.75 to 1.50 m3-capacity containers are used in commerical areas. The present solid-waste collection system is labor-intensive, and a significant part of the budget is spent on collection and haul operations. The unit collection and haul cost is much higher than the unit disposal cost of refuse. The direct haul of refuse is the common practice, and the use of transfer stations has not yet been considered. It is also observed that the disposal methods used at these sites are not in line with modern techniques for refuse disposal. Landfilling and combined burning and landfilling are the common disposal methods at all the sites.

  8. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  9. Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Hamad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW׳s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  10. [Waste management in hospitals. Current situation in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, W; Hansen, D; Hilgenhöner, M; Grandek, M; Heinemann, A; Blättler, T

    2009-07-01

    In 20 hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia in-plant handling wastes and the delivery of the waste to the disposer were examined. Deficits were seen regarding risk assessment and operating instructions, support by company doctors, personal protection equipment, and break areas for the waste collecting personnel. Also the qualification of the waste management officer and his/her time contingent, correct declaration of the wastes, the training of the waste collecting personnel, the cleaning of multi-use containers and transportation vehicles, storage of the wastes at the collecting points, and the use of sharp collecting boxes were to be partly criticized. Consequences and recommendations are given, concerning the company's obligations (e.g., provide risk assessment, operating instructions), waste management officer (e.g., qualification, enough time contingent, regular inspections), waste collecting personnel (e.g., training courses), industrial safety (e.g., protection equipment, break area wash places), company doctors, transportation vehicles in the house (e.g., regular cleaning), one-way collectors (e.g., labelling at the site of the collection), multi-use collectors (e.g., cleaning), and compressing containers (e.g., larger maintenance openings).

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of Current Practices in American Youth Theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F. Scott

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes results of a survey of youth theatres on (1) theatre goals; (2) staff training and courses offered; (3) organization and funds; and (4) teachers' knowledge of actor training, child and adolescent psychology, playwriting trends in children's theatre, and current theoretical writings. (PD)

  12. Reflection of Constructivist Theories in Current Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvova, Alena; Chudy, Stefan; Neumeister, Pavel; Plischke, Jitka; Kvintova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    In this overview study, we would like to present the basic constructivist approaches that have affected or influenced the current concept of education. The teacher-student interaction is reflected by personality, psychological traits, attitudes and cultural capital of the participants of the educational process as well as the teacher's effort to…

  13. Online Learning Integrity Approaches: Current Practices and Future Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Post, Anita; Hapke, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to help institutions respond to the stipulation of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 by adopting cost-effective academic integrity solutions without compromising the convenience and flexibility of online learning. Current user authentication solutions such as user ID and password, security…

  14. Solid Urban Domestic Waste Management: Analysis of Current Situation in the City of Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Campos Domingos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the number of innovations and the fast technological development, most products have been having their life cycle reduced, thereby increasing the amount of consumer goods waste to be absorbed by nature. The National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW of Brazil aims to accomplish integrated management and the management of solid waste so as to assign environmentally correct destinations to consumer waste of goods. In this context, this research aims to analyze the current situation of the management of household solid waste in the city of Florianópolis. The study was conducted at the company's Companhia Melhoramentos da Capital (COMCAP, and it is characterized as being a descriptive and case study. Primary data were collected through interviews. Interviews were conducted with four representatives of the company and a representative of civil society. Based on the data obtained, it was found that, despite serving over 90% of the population, it is not very efficient, since the recycling rate is low. In addition, there are few options for treatment and disposal of waste and the operational structure, according to the theoretical framework adopted, is flawed.

  15. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  16. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  17. A critique of current practice: ten foundational guidelines for autoethnographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolich, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Any research is potentially compromised when researchers address ethical issues retrospectively rather than by anticipating these issues. In this regard, creative analytical practices (CAP) autoethnography has endemic problems. In Part 1 of this article, I detail a case study of an autoethnography in which journal reviewers insisted that an author gain retrospective informed consent from the 23 persons documented in an autoethnography. Yet the journal reviewers' insistence failed to go one step further-acknowledging that a conflict of interest develops when gaining consent retrospectively. In Part 2, I contrast three leading autoethnographers' justifications for not gaining informed consent with the Position Statement on Qualitative Research developed by successive Congresses of Qualitative Inquiry. In Part 3, I identify resources available for autoethnographers, including ethical issues present when researchers use autoethnography to heal themselves, violating the internal confidentiality of relational others. In Part 4, I question if autoethnography is research and, like journalism, exempt from formal ethics review. Throughout the article, 10 foundational ethical considerations for autoethnographers are developed, taking autoethnographers beyond procedural ethics and providing tools for their ethics in practice.

  18. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  19. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  20. Approaches to improve separation efficiency of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from waste toner cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-06-05

    Separation efficiency of eddy current separation (ECS) is low (about 85%) in industrial application for recovering aluminum from crushed waste toner cartridges. Influencing factors of ECS were studied to improve the separation efficiency. Operation factors were researched by orthogonal experiment of ECS on investigating the separation distance between aluminum and plastic flakes. The results indicated the difference (ωR-v) between feeding speed (v) and rotation speed (ω) of magnetic drum (radius: R) was critical factor of influencing the separation efficiency, feeding speed (v) was general factor, and collecting position (H) was subordinate factor. Separation efficiency decreased as the increasing of v, and increased as the increasing of (ωR-v). 0.9 m was the optimal value of H in the orthogonal experiment. Influencing factors of particle characteristics and machine structure were studied by newly established models for computing the separation distance between aluminum and plastic flake in ECS. The results indicated changing of particle size would influence the separation efficiency greater than ω and particle shape. Separation efficiency will increase as the increasing of particle size and ω. Shape of circle is beneficial to improve separation efficiency. Finally, approaches to improve separation efficiency of ECS were presented.

  1. Current status of sharps waste management in the lower-level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workers in support services linked to low level health facilities (LLHFs) such as laundries, waste handling and transportation service are often at risk (Jagger et al., .... The standard filling capacity of the sharps containers, that is, ¾-full, was not followed, such that SWCs were overfilled leading to spreading of sharps waste on ...

  2. Comparison of current and past surgical smoke control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben E; Reiman, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, we teamed with AORN to repeat a simple web-based survey on surgical smoke control practices first conducted in 2007. This survey of AORN members assessed the level of compliance with established surgical smoke control measures (ie, use of wall suction with an in-line particulate filter, use of a smoke evacuator, use of an N95 or other National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved respirator) in various medical specialties and facilities throughout North America, as well as the extent to which compliance rates may have changed since 2007. Survey responses indicate that while the use of wall suction as a control measure has increased for nearly all procedures, progress in the adoption of other control measures has been mixed, with improvement for some procedures, no change for most procedures, and a decrease in compliance for a few procedures. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacovigilance in Clinical Trials: Current Practice and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaib, N

    2016-01-01

    In view of the MENA increasing participation in multinational trials and the increasing number of national/regional trials, this article explores potential areas of pharmacovigilance, requiring reform and provides recommendations for building a robust safety reporting system. Regulatory silence on expedited reporting requirements creates confusion for local sites that are part of multinational trials. Not allowing waiver for serious adverse events that are protocol specified or are study endpoints, along with lack of emphasis on causality as reporting criteria, adds substantial burden of uninformative cases for regulatory review. Despite global focus on Development Safety Update Report, local regulators are not yet insistent on real-time update of a drug's cumulative safety profile. Issues like reporting requirements for generic trials, pregnancy reporting and lenient timeline for death/life-threatening events need attention. Finally, the need to formulate an all-encompassing local pharmacovigilance guideline, in sync with global practice cannot be overemphasized.

  4. An Investigation of Current Endodontic Practice in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, R. F.; Haznedaroglu, F.; Kayahan, M. B.; Basturk, F. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to gather information about the quality and quantity of root canal treatments carried out by general dental practitioners in Turkey. Methods. Questionnaires were given to 1400 dentists who attended the 16th National Congress organized by the Turkish Dental Association. The participants were asked to answer 34 multiple-choice questions. The questions were subdivided into 3 main topics; general information; general approach to endodontic treatment; and cleaning, shaping, and obturation of root canals. The statistical analysis was carried out by an χ 2-test to compare the means at a significance level of P Endodontic procedures in general practice in Turkey have differences from widely acknowledged quality guidelines. Despite the introduction of new instruments and techniques, most of the general practitioners chose conventional methods. PMID:23251103

  5. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Genetic testing in ALS: A survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alice; McLaughlin, Russell L; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-03-07

    To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  7. The current state of rural neurosurgical practice: An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan S Upadhyayula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017. Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and

  8. Current practices in fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charles Osterberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of a cancer diagnosis in children and young adolescents is increasing. With better treatments, the number of young cancer survivors living through reproductive age is increasing. Fertility preservation of these men and women has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. Here we review the current guidelines for male oncofertility patients and highlight some of the important gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Options for fertility preservation are also discussed along with resources that should be made available to all patients.

  9. Robotic general surgery: current practice, evidence, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M; Morel, P; Buehler, L; Buchs, N C; Hagen, M E

    2015-04-01

    Robotic technology commenced to be adopted for the field of general surgery in the 1990s. Since then, the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has remained by far the most commonly used system in this domain. The da Vinci surgical system is a master-slave machine that offers three-dimensional vision, articulated instruments with seven degrees of freedom, and additional software features such as motion scaling and tremor filtration. The specific design allows hand-eye alignment with intuitive control of the minimally invasive instruments. As such, robotic surgery appears technologically superior when compared with laparoscopy by overcoming some of the technical limitations that are imposed on the surgeon by the conventional approach. This article reviews the current literature and the perspective of robotic general surgery. While robotics has been applied to a wide range of general surgery procedures, its precise role in this field remains a subject of further research. Until now, only limited clinical evidence that could establish the use of robotics as the gold standard for procedures of general surgery has been created. While surgical robotics is still in its infancy with multiple novel systems currently under development and clinical trials in progress, the opportunities for this technology appear endless, and robotics should have a lasting impact to the field of general surgery.

  10. Childhood obesity: current literature, policy and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sefer, E; Ben-Natan, M; Ehrenfeld, M

    2009-06-01

    In most of the industrialized world, a childhood obesity epidemic is evident, with the numbers rising each year. To discuss the current literature in relation to childhood obesity and to provide health practitioners, especially nurses, with the fundamental knowledge that is imperative in the recognition of children who are at risk and thereby tailor appropriate interventions. Databases that were accessed for current literature included CINAHL, Science Direct and ProQuest. Keywords used in the search included obesity, childhood, health, relevant national statistics, policy and health risks. The literature was confined to the past 10 years with emphasis on the past 5 years. The 50 most pertinent papers from a variety of countries were chosen, and 35 papers that represented key areas of relevance were selected as the basis of this article. This selection of papers dictated the key areas of discussion such as the acknowledged factors in childhood obesity. Although childhood obesity may be related to specific cultural and national circumstances, universal themes emerged from the literature review. These include social factors, exercise, advertising, public policy and the importance of partnerships in policy. Any country that has a high rate or increasing rate of childhood obesity must acknowledge core factors that contribute to this serious health problem. Furthermore, public policy and community partnerships that include all health professionals have a responsibility in the prevention of childhood obesity. This can be implemented through education, research and advocacy of all nurses involved with children and families.

  11. Revisiting reflexology: Concept, evidence, current practice, and practitioner training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Haswani Embong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Corrective shoes for children: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staheli, L T; Giffin, L

    1980-01-01

    A survey of shoe-prescribing practices for children was taken among pediatricians, orthopaedists, pediatric orthopaedists, and podiatrists. Opinions differed significantly regarding the usefulness of shoe modifications for common pediatric lower limb and foot problems. Parents' attitudes toward children's shoes were also surveyed. Pediatricians and pediatric orthopaedists tended to prescribe corrective shoes less often than did orthopaedists and podiatrists. High topped shoes are not necessary to promote normal foot development, in the opinion of 85% of those surveyed; however, high topped shoes were often recommended for infants because they slip off less easily. Preferences for Thomas heels, scaphoid pads, reverse lasts, straight lasts, wedges, torque heels, and shoe lifts for problems including flexible flat feet, metatarsus adductus, intoeing, bow legs, knock knees, and leg length inequalities were delineated among the four groups treating children's feet. The authors conclude that whereas studies show that shoe modifications are of questionable value in the problems discussed, corrective shoes are often prescribed when regular shoes would be more appropriate and economical.

  14. Overview of robotic colorectal surgery: Current and future practical developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Evans, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionised colorectal surgery by offering reduced morbidity and mortality over open surgery, while maintaining oncological and functional outcomes with the disadvantage of additional practical challenges. Robotic surgery aids the surgeon in overcoming these challenges. Uptake of robotic assistance has been relatively slow, mainly because of the high initial and ongoing costs of equipment but also because of limited evidence of improved patient outcomes. Advances in robotic colorectal surgery will aim to widen the scope of minimal access surgery to allow larger and more complex surgery through smaller access and natural orifices and also to make the technology more economical, allowing wider dispersal and uptake of robotic technology. Advances in robotic endoscopy will yield self-advancing endoscopes and a widening role for capsule endoscopy including the development of motile and steerable capsules able to deliver localised drug therapy and insufflation as well as being recharged from an extracorporeal power source to allow great longevity. Ultimately robotic technology may advance to the point where many conventional surgical interventions are no longer required. With respect to nanotechnology, surgery may eventually become obsolete. PMID:26981188

  15. Revisiting reflexology: Concept, evidence, current practice, and practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, Nurul Haswani; Soh, Yee Chang; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui

    2015-10-01

    Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.

  16. Current Developments and Best Practice in Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rocha Trinidade

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the many documents regularly emitted by those dedicated to this activity, it is comparatively easy to describe factual developments in the field of open and distance education in different places in the world. However, it is much more difficult to produce judgements of value about their quality. Quality is a subjective rather than an absolute concept and may be examined from different analytical perspectives: consumers' satisfaction level, intrinsic value of scientific and technical content of learning materials, soundness of learning strategies, efficiency of organisation and procedures, adequate use of advanced technologies, reliability of student support mechanisms, etc.These parameters should be put into the context of specific objectives, nature of target populations and availability of different kinds of resources. In a specific geographic, social, economic and cultural situation a given set of solutions might be judged as adequate and deserving the qualification of "good practice," while in a different context it could be considered of rather poor quality.The selection of examples in this article is the sole responsibility of the authors: neither should the chosen cases be considered as clearly better than any other one, nor missing cases be interpreted as lack of appreciation or a negative judgement.Finally, the authors are aware of the risks of interpreting trends and trying to extrapolate them into the near future: readers should use their own judgement in accepting (or forcefully rejecting these projections.

  17. Current practice of conventional intermittent hemodialysis for acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Schiffl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional intermittent hemodialysis (IHD represents a mainstay of supportive care of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. However, a number of fundamental questions regarding the optimal management of IHD remain unanswered after more than six decades of renal replacement therapy (RRT. This review summarizes current evidence regarding the timing of initiation of intermittent hemodialysis, the comparative outcomes (mortality and recovery of renal function, the prescription of the intensity of this therapy and discontinuation of dialysis. The way conventional IHD is performed has an impact on the outcome of sick patients with AKI. The value of regular education and training of those who provide IHD cannot be emphasized enough. However, we must be realistic in our expectations that no mode of RRT per se will substantially alter the excessive mortality of critically ill-patients with AKI.

  18. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  19. 77 FR 16158 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs; Revision of Certain Labeling... Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing..., 21 CFR part 211 is amended as follows: PART 211--CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED...

  20. Breastfeeding in Japan: historical perspectives and current attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M

    1992-07-01

    1. We took an extensive overview of the history of breastfeeding in Japan. Japanese people, especially farming villagers have lived with a mixed religious atmosphere including primitive religion, Shintoism and Buddhism during more than 1,000 years. In such circumstances, they had three kinds of traditional practices for inadequate breast milk production, that is, praying to God or Buddha, foods or medicines based on their experiences and wet nursing. 2. Farm villagers used to primarily feed their babies by their own breasts and some who couldn't supply adequate milk, compensated with their neighbor's milk until a century ago, because most villagers' wives had plenty of milk at that time. 3. The characteristics of farm villagers' customs were: A. irregular breastfeeding. B. a mother's keeping skinship with her baby all day. C. sleeping in the posture of KAWA's character. D. late weaning. E. EJIKO was popular nursing tool. 4. Instead of wet nursing, bottle feeding was initiated in Japan after 1867. As a result, many infants suffered from malnutrition. On the other hand, some breast-fed infants suffered from beriberi and lead encephalopathy. 5. Until 1974-75, when the recommendations of WHO and Japanese Government were announced, there had been a steady decline in breastfeeding throughout Japan. Thereafter, physicians supported breastfeeding and made efforts to diminish the disadvantages of breastfeeding in the medical field. 6. According to the report of the Japanese Government, difficulty to supply sufficient milk and obstacles against working were the most important complaints of breastfeeding mothers. I suggested strategies for solution of these complaints: A principles at puerperium in our maternity ward include effect of my low-calorie diet, and Japanese methods of massage for the breasts. B my proposals for working mothers who want to breastfeed. &. I have discussed some results of Japanese breastfeeding research. 8. Some results of our Breastfeeding Promotion

  1. Current practice of hepatitis C treatment in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Spadaro, Aldo; Guadagnino, Vincenzo; Cosentino, Stefano; Fatuzzo, Filippo; Galdieri, Antonio; Cacopardo, Bruno; Scalisi, Ignazio; Sapienza, Mauro; Russello, Maurizio; Scifo, Gaetano; Frugiuele, Pierluigi; Foti, Giuseppe; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Only a small proportion of subjects referring to hospitals for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positivity receives antiviral therapy. To evaluate the rate of antiviral treatment and the causes for no treatment in HCV-RNA positive subjects seen in hospital settings. A prospective study enrolling over a 6-month period (February-July 2009) all consecutive anti-HCV positive subjects initially referred (naïve patients) to 12 liver units in Southern Italy for HCV treatment. Out of 608 subjects evaluated, 74 (12.2%) had no detectable HCV-RNA in the serum and thus were excluded. Of the remaining 534 HCV-RNA positive subjects, 357 (66.9%) were not treated for the following reasons: 49.9% were older than 65 years of age (75% of them >70 years), 14.3% had normal liver enzymes, 13.2% had compensated/decompensated cirrhosis, 10.4% refused treatment, 9.8% had ongoing substance or alcohol abuse. Multivariate analysis showed that females (O.R. 2.27; C.I. 95% 1.05-4.90) and subjects with low educational level (O.R. 4.38; C.I. 95% 1.27-15.11) were more likely to decline therapy. The majority of patients with HCV infection does not receive antiviral treatment. The effectiveness of the current standard therapy for HCV infection is low despite its good efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral Antiplatelet Treatment in STEMI: Current Practice and Future Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction represent a high-risk population and an effective antiplatelet treatment adjunctive to primary percutaneous coronary intervention is of paramount importance. This topic will review the current evidence on clinical efficacy and safety of oral antiplatelet therapy in patients with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Unsettled issues and future perspectives for their use in these patients are also discussed. Added to aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor represent viable options regarding oral P2Y12 inhibition, with prasugrel and ticagrelor being preferred over clopidogrel, according to results of large randomized clinical trials. Early clinical efficacy of oral antiplatelet agents in STEMI patients has been questioned, mainly because of their delayed onset of action in the clinical setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and the recently described adverse effect of morphine on their pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile. Whether these agents should be administered beyond 1 year after the index event is also under discussion, as there is clinical evidence that prolonged administration may be associated with clinical benefit. Use of oral P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction still faces questions and future research is needed to establish which, when and how should be administered in this clinical setting.

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease imaging: Current practice and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Kaplan, Jess L; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including detection of extraluminal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, assessment of disease activity and treatment response, and discrimination of inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. IBD is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is comprised of two separate, but related intestinal disorders; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper discusses, in detail the pros and cons of the different IBD imaging modalities that need to be considered in order to optimize the imaging and clinical evaluation of patients with IBD. Historically, IBD evaluation of the bowel has included imaging to assess the portions of the small bowel that are inaccessible to optical endoscopic visualization. This traditionally was performed using barium fluoroscopic techniques; however, cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are being increasingly utilized for IBD evaluation because they can simultaneously assess mural and extramural IBD manifestations. Recent advances in imaging technology, that continue to improve the ability of imaging to noninvasively follow disease activity and treatment response, are also discussed. This review article summarizes the current imaging approach in inflammatory bowel disease as well as the role of emerging imaging modalities.

  4. Jejunostomy after oesophagectomy: a review of evidence and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Graeme

    2011-08-01

    Patients undergoing oesophagectomy often have nutritional needs at the time of diagnosis and in the post-operative period. The aim of this article is to review the current literature and report on the author's experience of routine feeding jejunostomy insertion following oesophagectomy. The records of forty-eight consecutive patients undergoing oesphagectomy under the author's care were reviewed. Although the evidence of benefit of peri-operative feeding in patients undergoing oesophagectomy is limited, there is a clear need to establish a feeding route at the time of surgery. Oesophagectomy is associated with a mortality rate of 5-10% and a morbidity rate of 30-40% even in high-volume specialist centres. Over 50% of patients developing complications will require an alternative to oral feeding beyond 30 d. The enteral route is preferred in terms of safety and cost. A surgical feeding jejunostomy is associated with a low complication rate and a mortality rate of less than 1%. In forty-eight patients undergoing oesophagectomy the average weight loss at 6 months was 8·4 kg with only 8% regaining their pre-operative weight. Large reductions in weight at 6 months post-operatively were recorded irrespective of the development of post-operative complications or early recurrent disease. Routine jejunostomy insertion is recommended to ensure adequate nutrition in patients who develop post-operative complications and for those patients with long-term reduced appetite and poor oral intake.

  5. The mining sector of Liberia: current practices and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samuel T K; Wang, Hongtao; Kabenge, Martin; Qi, Xuejiao

    2017-08-01

    Liberia is endowed with an impressive stock of mineral reserves and has traditionally relied on mining, namely iron ore, gold, and diamonds, as a major source of income. The recent growth in the mining sector has the potential to contribute significantly to employment, income generation, and infrastructure development. However, the development of these mineral resources has significant environmental impacts that often go unnoticed. This paper presents an overview of the Liberian mining sector from historical, current development, and economic perspectives. The efforts made by government to address issues of environmental management and sustainable development expressed in national and international frameworks, as well as some of the environmental challenges in the mining sector are analyzed. A case study was conducted on one of the iron ore mines (China Union Bong Mines Investment) to analyze the effects of the water quality on the local water environment. The results show that the analyzed water sample concentrations were all above the WHO and Liberia water standard Class I guidelines for drinking water. Finally the paper examines the application of water footprint from a life cycle perspective in the Liberian mining sector and suggests some policy options for water resources management.

  6. Non-State Preschool Education: Current Practices of Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the problem of preschool education in Russia and the Vologda region. It shows that in the current context of shortage of places in state nurseries it is necessary to develop private care service providers. Day-care is in great demand among parents having children at the ages from 1 to 3. The paper analyses the main characteristics of preschool educational organi-zations. It shows that in the Vologda region, particularly in Vologda, private demand for preschool education service is to a wide extent unsatisfied. In Vologda more than ten thousand children are on waiting lists for preschool educational organizations. In total, in the Vologda region the list numbers about 28.9 thousand children, 34% of them are registered in Vologda. The paper provides the results of the study into Vologda private nurseries and day-care carried out in May-June 2015 by using the method of involved observation. It reveals key factors hampering growth of private nurseries.It is noted that one of the factors is the lack of license for educational activities and motivation for most entrepreneurs to obtain it. The results show that unlicensed gardens are not controlled by the authorities and public organizations. Interaction between the private institutions of pre-school education is not provided as well. We can observe that some private sector organizations do not meet the requirement of health and safety standards and impose limiting measures for the sake of children health such as organization of walks due to the absence of a secure walking site. High amount of parental fee is also found out.It offers directions for the development of private preschool education service

  7. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were...

  8. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John

    2014-01-01

    Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service developm...

  9. Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

    2010-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

  10. Impact of Capital and Current Costs Changes of the Incineration Process of the Medical Waste on System Management Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The article describes optimization studies aimed at analysing the impact of capital and current costs changes of medical waste incineration on the cost of the system management and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of an analysis of the system of medical waste management in the Podlaskie Province, in north-eastern Poland. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. capital and current costs of medical waste incineration on economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. Optimization studies were conducted for the following cases: with a 25% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process, followed by 50%, 75% and 100% increase. As a result of the calculations, the highest cost of system operation was achieved at the level of 3143.70 PLN/t with the assumption of 100% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process. There was an increase in the economic efficiency index (E) by about 97% in relation to run 1.

  11. Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Upendra B. Bom; Shashidhar Belbase; Reni Bibriven Lila

    2017-01-01

    Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the City of Laramie, Wyoming. Recycling in Laramie began in 1983 with the establishment of the Ark Recycling Center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011, and in April 2012 the city decla...

  12. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  13. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisha, Nikolay; Gogina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  14. Biomedical waste management: Study on the awareness and practice among healthcare workers in a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient and the surrounding community. Awareness programmes on their proper handling and management to healthcare workers can prevent the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to assess the impact of training, audits and education/implementations from 2009 to 2012 on awareness and practice of biomedical waste segregation. Our study reveals focused training, strict supervision, daily surveillance, audits inspections, involvement of hospital administrators and regular appraisals are essential to optimise the segregation of biomedical waste.

  15. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni'meh; Al-Sari', Majed I

    2015-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens' collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent's educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the results will indicate the measure taking required to avoid accidents occurred in those regions (burns from toxics, cuts from sharps, etc). National policy and legislation development based on the research outcomes will ensure equitable and accessible services are in place in order to move towards a healthier environment. Specialized health education and training programs on national scale are also needed to enhance awareness on hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 210.2 - Applicability of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.2 Applicability of current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of current good manufacturing...

  17. Impact of an educational program on knowledge and practice of health care staff toward pharmaceutical waste management in Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash, Mohammed I; Hussein, Rim A; Mahmoud, Aleya H; El-Borgy, Mohamed D; Abu-Hamad, Bassam A

    2016-04-01

    In health care facilities, pharmaceutical waste is generally discharged down the drain or sent to landfill. Poor knowledge about their potential downstream impacts may be a primary factor for improper disposal behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an intervention program on knowledge and practice of health care staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management. The study was designed as a pre/posttest intervention study. Total sample size was 530 in the pre-intervention phase, and then a subsample of 69 individuals was selected for the intervention and the post-intervention phases. Paired-sample t test was used to assess the difference between pretest and follow-up test results. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and practice was achieved (Ppharmaceutical waste management. In health care facilities, pharmaceutical waste is generally discharged down the drain or sent to landfill. A lack of knowledge about the potential impacts of this type of waste may be a leading factor in improper disposal behavior. Following an educational program, statistically significant improvement in knowledge and practice of health care staff as regards to pharmaceutical waste management (PWM) was achieved. It is thus recommended that authorities implement training-of-trainers (TOT) programs to educate health care staff on PWM and organize refreshment workshops regularly.

  18. Assessment of Infectious Waste Management Practices at Hospital with Excellent Accreditation Level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Novi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the procedures available and methods of handling and disposing of infectious waste at Military hospital with Excellent Accreditation level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia. A total three (3 military hospitals with equal type of hospital and level accreditation were surveyed during the course of this research. The methods consisted of survey and interview with the authorities of the hospital and the personal involved in the management of the generated waste. The information was collected using forms specially developed for this purpose. Site visits were conducted to support and supplement information gathered in the survey. Assessment of infectious waste handling divided into six parameters: Hospital policy at organizational structure, status of cleaning services worker, classification/segregation process, collect and transport the infectious waste, condition of temporary storage of infectious waste and disposal phase of infectious waste. The result showed that the hospital with highest level of accreditation have less appropriate practices when it comes to segregation, collecting, storage and disposal of waste generated in comparison to developed country. It appears that hospital authorities should pay better attention to educational planning, organizational resources and supervision at infectious waste management.

  19. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A., E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kontogianni, Stamatia [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dpt. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Al-Sari’, Majed I. [The Joint Services Council for Solid Waste Management for Hebron and Bethlehem Governorates JSC-H& B, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  20. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  1. Current evidence on the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease prions to humans-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L; Greig, J; Mascarenhas, M; Otten, A; Corrin, T; Hierlihy, K

    2018-02-01

    A number of prion diseases affect humans, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; most of these are due to genetic mutations in the affected individual and occur sporadically, but some result from transmission of prion proteins from external sources. Of the known animal prion diseases, only bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions have been shown to be transmissible from animals to humans under non-experimental conditions. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects cervids (e.g., deer and elk) in North America and isolated populations in Korea and Europe. Systematic review methodology was used to identify, select, critically appraise and analyse data from relevant research. Studies were evaluated for adherence to good conduct based on their study design following the Cochrane collaboration's approach to grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations (GRADE). Twenty-three studies were included after screening 800 citations from the literature search and evaluating 78 full papers. Studies examined the transmissibility of CWD prions to humans using epidemiological study design, in vitro and in vivo experiments. Five epidemiological studies, two studies on macaques and seven studies on humanized transgenic mice provided no evidence to support the possibility of transmission of CWD prions to humans. Ongoing surveillance in the United States and Canada has not documented CWD transmission to humans. However, two studies on squirrel monkeys provided evidence that transmission of CWD prions resulting in prion disease is possible in these monkeys under experimental conditions and seven in vitro experiments provided evidence that CWD prions can convert human prion protein to a misfolded state. Therefore, future discovery of CWD transmission to humans cannot be entirely ruled out on the basis of current studies, particularly in the light of possible decades-long incubation periods for CWD prions in humans. It would be prudent to continue

  2. Authorship and publication practices in the social sciences: historical reflections on current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeau, Muriel J; Monson, Verna

    2011-06-01

    An historical review of authorship definitions and publication practices that are embedded in directions to authors and in the codes of ethics in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education illuminates reasonable agreement and consistency across the fields with regard to (a) originality of the work submitted, (b) data sharing, (c) human participants' protection, and (d) conflict of interest disclosure. However, the role of the professional association in addressing violations of research or publication practices varies among these fields. Psychology and sociology provide active oversight with sanction authority. In education, the association assumes a more limited role: to develop and communicate standards to evoke voluntary compliance. With respect to authorship credit, each association's standards focus on criteria for inclusion as an author, other than on the author's ability to defend and willingness to take responsibility for the entire work. Discussions across a broad range of research disciplines beyond the social sciences would likely be beneficial. Whether improved standards will reduce either misattribution or perceptions of inappropriate attribution of credit within social science disciplines will likely depend on how well authorship issues are addressed in responsible conduct of research education (RCR), in research practice, and in each association's ongoing efforts to influence normative practice by specifying and clarifying best practices.

  3. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  4. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  5. Translation and validation of the questionnaire on current status of physiotherapy practice in the cancer rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The translated and adapted versions are comparable with the original English instrument in terms of content and accuracy and it is suitable to assess the current physiotherapy practice pattern in cancer rehabilitation settings.

  6. Global medication waste management practices: challenges and opportunities in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vipula R. Bataduwaarachchi; Chamari L. Weeraratne

    2016-01-01

    Medication waste is synonymous with pharmaceutical waste, unused or expired medicines. Improper disposal of medication waste leads to serious personal and environmental health hazards. There were no established medication waste management programmes in most of the developing countries including Asia. Presence of unique socioeconomic problems in these counties makes the establishment of successful medication waste management programme a challenge. We reviewed the literature pertaining to the d...

  7. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  8. Current Web Application Development and Measurement Practices for Small Software Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Faudziah; Baharom, Fauziah; Husni, Moath

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues on current development and measurement practices that were identified from a pilot study conducted on Jordanian small software firms. The study was to investigate whether developers follow development and measurement best practices in web applications development. The analysis was conducted in two stages: first, grouping the development and measurement practices using variable clustering, and second, identifying the acceptance degree. Mean interval was used to dete...

  9. Delivering Communication Strategy Training for People with Aphasia: What Is Current Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Communication strategy training (CST) is a recognized part of UK speech and language therapists' (SLTs) role when working with a person with aphasia. Multiple CST interventions have been published but, to date, there are no published studies exploring clinical practice in this area. Aims: To investigate UK SLTs' current CST practices.…

  10. The Practice of School Psychology in Quebec English Schools: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…

  11. Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Md. Zulfeqar; Akhter, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners' reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in…

  12. Analyzing Matrices of Meta-Analytic Correlations: Current Practices and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zitong; Kong, Wenmo; Cortina, Jose M.; Hou, Shuofei

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in conducting analyses on meta-analytic correlation matrices. Methodologists have provided guidance and recommended practices for the application of this technique. The purpose of this article is to review current practices regarding analyzing meta-analytic correlation matrices, to identify the gaps…

  13. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  14. Technology-neutral green procurement in practice - an example from Swedish waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Anders; Stage, Jesper

    2012-05-01

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  15. Circular economy of plastic packaging: Current practice and perspectives in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eygen, Emile; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2018-02-01

    Plastics, especially from packaging, have gained increasing attention in waste management, driving many policy initiatives to improve the circularity of these materials in the economy to increase resource efficiency. In this context, the EU has proposed increasing targets to encourage the recycling of (plastic) packaging. To accurately calculate the recycling rates, detailed information on the flows of plastic packaging is needed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the waste management system for plastic packaging in Austria in 2013 using material flow analysis, taking into account the used product types and the polymer composition. The results show that 300,000 ± 3% t/a (35 kg/cap·a) of waste plastic packaging were produced, mainly composed of large and small films and small hollow bodies, including PET bottles. Correspondingly, the polymer composition of the waste stream was dominated by LDPE (46% ± 6%), PET (19% ± 4%) and PP (14% ± 6%). 58% ± 3% was collected separately, and regarding the final treatment, 26% ± 7% of the total waste stream was recovered as re-granulates, whereas the rest was thermally recovered in waste-to-energy plants (40% ± 3%) and the cement industry (33% ± 6%). The targets set by the EU and Austria were reached comfortably, although to reach the proposed future target major technological steps regarding collection and sorting will be needed. However, the current calculation point of the targets, i.e. on the input side of the recycling plant, is not deemed to be fully in line with the overall objective of the circular economy, namely to keep materials in the economy and prevent losses. It is therefore recommended that the targets be calculated with respect to the actual output of the recycling process, provided that the quality of the output products is maintained, to accurately assess the performance of the waste management system. Copyright © 2017

  16. A practical method to calculate the R1 index of waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Federico

    2018-03-01

    According to Directive 98/2008/EC, the operation carried out by an incinerator of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is classified either as energy recovery (R1) or as disposal (D10) depending on the result achieved by the application of the R1 formula. In 2011 the DG Environment of the European Commission (EC) issued some non-binding guidelines on the interpretation of such a formula that clarified many aspects related to its application. A point not fully clarified by the EC guidelines is the determination of the energy contained in the treated waste (E W ). For this term of the formula, reference is made to the indirect method for the calculation of boiler thermal efficiency, as defined by the norm EN 12952-15. However, the application of such a norm to an entire year of operation of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boiler is not immediate. Therefore, a practical method for the calculation of the E W term has been developed in the framework of a collaboration between the MatER Study Centre and the Lombardy Region (Italy). The method is based on: (i) the identification of the most reliable data available from the Distributed Control System (DCS) of the plant; (ii) the definition of a control volume around the boiler(s) also based on the availability of data; (iii) the closure of the mass balance for such a control volume; (iv) the energy balance of the same control volume that gives, thus, the E W term of the R1 formula. The method has been applied in 2015-2016 to nine plants, generating a number of interesting data reported and discussed in this work, such as R1 index values, Lower Heating Values (LHV) of the treated wastes, main sources of energy losses in WtE boilers, etc. For one case study, discussed in detail in this work, the law of propagation of uncertainties has been applied according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, leading to the assessment of the accuracy of the method, which resulted in ±2.4% with a confidence level of circa 95%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Current trends in the practice of endoscopy among surgeons in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Joshua; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Holzman, Michael D; Poulose, Benjamin K; Pierce, Richard A

    2017-04-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic roles for endoscopic intervention are expanding. To continue emphasis on endoscopy in surgical training, The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons has developed the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) course to standardize and assess endoscopy training. However, little demographic information exists about the current practice of endoscopy by general surgeons and how to best integrate endoscopic skills into surgical training. A survey to collect data regarding the current practice patterns of endoscopy was sent to surgeons with a valid email address in the American Medical Association masterfile. Information regarding the type of training (academic vs. community general surgery residency) and current practice environment (academic medical center vs. community hospital) was collected. The respondents' current practice volume of upper endoscopy and colonoscopy over the prior year was stratified into three groups: rare (10 per month). Pearson's Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. The survey was sent to 9902 general surgeons. There were 767 who provided answers regarding their current practice of endoscopy. Mean time in practice was 18 ± 10 years, 87 % were male, and 83 % practiced in a metropolitan area. Respondents who trained at academic general surgery programs were less likely than those at community programs to frequently perform colonoscopy (17.3 vs. 27.9 %, p endoscopy (11.8 vs. 17.1 %, p endoscopy (9.8 vs. 14.8 %, p < 0.05) than those who practice at community hospitals. The type of residency training and current practice setting of general surgeons has a significant influence on the volume of endoscopic procedures performed. This study identifies areas where more emphasis on endoscopic skills training is needed, such as FES.

  18. Feline transfusion practice in South Africa : current status and practical solutions : continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dippenaar

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion therapy is often under-utilised in feline practice in South Africa. However, it is a technique that can be safely and effectively introduced in practice. Cats have naturally occurring allo-antibodies against the blood type that they lack, which makes blood typing, or alternatively cross-matching, essential before transfusions. Feline blood donors must be carefully selected, be disease free and should be sedated before blood collection. The preferred anticoagulant for feline blood collection is citrate-phosphatedextrose-adenine. Blood can either be administered intravenously or into the medullary cavity, with the transfusion rate depending on the cat's hydration status and cardiac function. Transfusion reactions can be immediate or delayed and they are classified as immunological or non-immunological. Indications, methods and techniques to do feline blood transfusions in a safe and economical way are highlighted.

  19. Transforming nursing education: a review of current curricular practices in relation to Benner's latest work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, Sarah M

    2012-09-12

    Current societal and healthcare system trends highlight the need to transform nursing education to prepare nurses capable of outstanding practice in the 21st century. Patricia Benner and colleagues urged nurse educators to transform their practice in the 2010 publication Educating Nurses, A Call to Radical Transformation. Frequently utilized pedagogical frameworks in nursing education include behaviorism and constructivism. Much of the structure and basis for instruction and evaluation can be found rooted in these philosophies. By first exploring both behaviorism and constructivism and then relating their use in nursing education to the call to transform, educators can be encourage to examine current practice and possibly modify aspects to include more rich experiential learning.

  20. Application of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in current clinical practice guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Seong, Jin Sil [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality. In this review, we will investigate the clinical practice guidelines currently used, and discuss the application of radiotherapy.

  1. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems--current status and potential improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; la Cour Jansen, J

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to increase both the general quality in assessments as well as the potentials for cross-study comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A case study: biomedical waste management practices at city hospital in Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Akansha; Pathak, Aishwarya; Bajaj, Prasad; Singh, Harvinder; Kumar, Sudhir

    2011-06-01

    Proper management of biomedical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study was conducted by visiting a near by hospital in order to get acquainted with the generation of the biomedical waste and their disposal strategies. The study includes an assortment of details about the quantity of different types of waste generated, their handling, treatment, final disposal and various management strategies adopted by the hospital. The survey was conducted by asking various questions regarding the issue by the waste management team and the workers involved in managing the waste.

  3. Cooperative urban mining in Brazil: Collective practices in selective household waste collection and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, J

    2015-11-01

    Solid waste is a major urban challenge worldwide and reclaiming the resources embedded in waste streams, involving organized recyclers, is a smart response to it. Informal and organized recyclers, mostly in the global south, already act as important urban miners in resource recovery. The paper describes the complex operations of recycling cooperatives and draws attention to their economic, environmental, and social contributions. A detailed discussion based on empirical data from the recycling network COOPCENT-ABC in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, contextualizes this form of urban mining. The analysis is situated within Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) and Ecological Economy (EE) theory. Current challenges related to planning, public policy, and the implementation of cooperative recycling are analysed on the level of individual recyclers, cooperatives, municipalities and internationally. There are still many hurdles for the informal, organized recycling sector to become recognized as a key player in efficient material separation and to up-scale these activities for an effective contribution to the SSE and EE. Policies need to be in place to guarantee fair and safe work relations. There is a win-win situation where communities and the environment will benefit from organized urban mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste Reduction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  5. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Impact of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: New Kd values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0

  6. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  7. Current-use and organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and anaerobic digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Anna; Nilsson, Marie-Louise; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.

  8. Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for sustainable concrete practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiqul Islam, G.M.; M.H. Rahman; Nayem Kazi

    2017-01-01

    Million tons of waste glass is being generated annually all over the world. Once the glass becomes a waste it is disposed as landfills, which is unsustainable as this does not decompose in the environment. Glass is principally composed of silica. Use of milled (ground) waste glass in concrete as partial replacement of cement could be an important step toward development of sustainable (environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and economical) infrastructure systems. When waste glass is mille...

  9. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections in general practice: Current practice and drivers for change in a French study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gignon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The fight against Healthcare-associated infections is a public health priority and a major challenge for the safety and quality of care. The objective was to assess hygiene in general practitioners′ (GPs′ office and identify barriers to and drivers for better practice. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected, representative sample of 800 GPs. We used a self-administered questionnaire. The first part assessed current practice and the second part focused on barriers and motivating factors for better practice. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis of the responses to closed questions and a qualitative analysis of the responses to open-ended questions. Results: Only a third of the GPs were aware of the current guidelines. Disposable equipment was used by 31% of the GPs. For the remainder, only 38% complied with the recommended procedures for sterilisation or disinfection. Seventy-two percent of the GPs washed their hands between consultations in the office. A significant minority of physicians disregarded the guidelines by never wearing gloves to perform sutures (11%, treat wounds (10%, fit intrauterine devices (18% or perform injections (18%. The main barriers to good practice were the high cost of modifications and lack of time/space. Two third of the GPs did not intend to change their practices. The drivers for change were pressure from patients (4.8 on a scale of 1 to 7, inspection by the health authorities (4.8 and the fear of legal action (4.4. Conclusions: Our results show that there are significant differences between current practice and laid-down professional guidelines. Policies for improvement of hygiene must take into account barriers and motivating factors.

  10. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although constituting a relatively small proportion of waste matter, the waste produced during medical treatment and routine dispensing of medical care is potentially the most infectious and environmentally hazardous. Health-Care Facilities (HCF) are, therefore, duty-bound to effectively manage the waste that they produce ...

  11. 78 FR 22887 - Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Drugs: A Current Good Manufacturing Practices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Current Good Manufacturing Practices Framework for Preventing Cross- Contamination; Availability AGENCY... health risks associated with cross-reactivity. Although the existing current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) regulations require separation of manufacturing facilities to avoid cross-contamination, the only...

  12. Wood waste decomposition in landfills: An assessment of current knowledge and implications for emissions reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Jean; Walshe, Dylan; Byrne, Kenneth A

    2017-12-11

    Large quantities of wood products have historically been disposed of in landfills. The fate of this vast pool of carbon plays an important role in national carbon balances and accurate emission reporting. The Republic of Ireland, like many EU countries, utilises the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for greenhouse gas reporting in the waste sector, which provides default factors for emissions estimation. For wood products, the release of carbon is directly proportional to the decomposition of the degradable organic carbon fraction of the product, for which the IPCC provides a value of 0.5 (50%). However, in situ analytic results of the decomposition rates of carbon in landfilled wood do not corroborate this figure; suggesting that carbon emissions are likely overestimated. To assess the impact of this overestimation on emission reporting, carbon decomposition values obtained from literature and the IPCC default factor were applied to the Irish wood fraction of landfilled waste for the years 1957-2016 and compared. Univariate analysis found a statistically significant difference between carbon (methane) emissions calculated using the IPCC default factor and decomposition factors from direct measurements for softwoods (F = 45.362, p = <.001), hardwoods (F = 20.691, p = <.001) and engineered wood products (U = 4.726, p = <.001). However, there was no significant difference between emissions calculated using only the in situ analytic decomposition factors, regardless of time in landfill, location or subsequently, climate. This suggests that methane emissions from the wood fraction of landfilled waste in Ireland could be drastically overestimated; potentially by a factor of 56. The results of this study highlight the implications of emission reporting at a lower tierand prompts further research into the decomposition of wood products in landfills at a national level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Current status of the multi-isotopic transuranic-waste-assay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, W. E.; Caldwell, J. T.

    A 208-1 barrel sized working version of a multiisotopic transuranic assay system using both passive neutron multiplicity and pulsed active measurements to identify and quantify spontaneous neutron emitters and fissile TRU isotopes was designed and constructed. The system can separately quantify up to seven individual transuranic isotopes under favorable conditions with the intrinsic sensitivity to screen or assay barrels at or below the 10 nCi/g transuranic level. Three sigma sensitivity for Pu-239 is measured at about 0.5 mg. A large range of waste matrix materials was accommodated by the system, as well as extremes in both gamma ray and neutron backgrounds.

  14. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  15. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • We analyse the past LCA practice against the ISO standard and ILCD Handbook guidance. • Malpractices exist in many methodological aspects with large variations among studies. • Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. • We provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs.

  16. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R.; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes. PMID:23435587

  17. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  18. Meaningful Peer Review in Radiology: A Review of Current Practices and Potential Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Andrew K; Hawkins, C Matthew; Geis, J Raymond; Dreyer, Keith J; Kamer, Aaron P; Khandheria, Paras; Morey, Jose; Whitfill, James; Wiggins, Richard H; Itri, Jason N

    2016-12-01

    The current practice of peer review within radiology is well developed and widely implemented compared with other medical specialties. However, there are many factors that limit current peer review practices from reducing diagnostic errors and improving patient care. The development of "meaningful peer review" requires a transition away from compliance toward quality improvement, whereby the information and insights gained facilitate education and drive systematic improvements that reduce the frequency and impact of diagnostic error. The next generation of peer review requires significant improvements in IT functionality and integration, enabling features such as anonymization, adjudication by multiple specialists, categorization and analysis of errors, tracking, feedback, and easy export into teaching files and other media that require strong partnerships with vendors. In this article, the authors assess various peer review practices, with focused discussion on current limitations and future needs for meaningful peer review in radiology. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast.

  20. Pediatric perioperative education current practices: a national survey of children's hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Maura; Beauchesne, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Identifying existing practices is a first step in the creation of developmentally and culturally effective teaching materials for children and families. This national survey queried two groups to explore current pediatric perioperative education practices: 81 nurses from a perioperative pediatric specialty association and 30 administrators representing leading children's hospitals within the United States. The aim was to improve perioperative care through the design of educational materials from the child's perspective.

  1. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Corwin D; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Powell, Jessi L; Drewnoski, Mary E; O'Neil, Matthew; Beitz, Donald C; Weiss, William P

    2016-12-01

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the typical serum 25(OH)D concentrations of dairy cattle across various dairy operations. The serum 25(OH)D concentration of 702 samples collected from cows across various stages of lactation, housing systems, and locations in the United States was 68±22ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation), with the majority of samples between 40 and 100ng/mL. Most of the 12 herds surveyed supplemented cows with 30,000 to 50,000 IU of vitamin D3/d, and average serum 25(OH)D of cows at 100 to 300 DIM in each of those herds was near or above 70ng/mL regardless of season or housing. In contrast, average serum 25(OH)D of a herd supplementing with 20,000 IU/d was 42±15ng/mL, with 22% below 30ng/mL. Cows in early lactation (0 to 30d in milk) also had lower serum 25(OH)D than did mid- to late-lactation cows (57±17 vs. 71±20ng/mL, respectively). Serum 25(OH)D of yearling heifers receiving 11,000 to 12,000 IU of vitamin D3/d was near that of cows at 76±15ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of calves, on the other hand, was 15±11ng/mL at birth and remained near or below 15ng/mL through 1mo of age if they were fed pasteurized waste milk with little to no summer sun exposure. In contrast, serum 25(OH)D of calves fed milk replacer containing 6,600 and 11,000 IU of vitamin D2/kg of dry matter were 59±8 and 98±33ng/mL, respectively, at 1mo of age. Experimental data from calves similarly indicated that serum 25(OH

  2. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  3. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MWANGI, SAMUEL M.; YAMASHITA, TAKASHI; EWEN, HEIDI H.; MANNING, LYDIA K.; KUNKEL, SUZANNE R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education. PMID:22490075

  4. Globalization of gerontology education: current practices and perceptions for graduate gerontology education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H; Manning, Lydia K; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education.

  5. Theory and Methodology of Best Practice Research: A Critical Review of the Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Veselý

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of best practice research (BPR. First, the basic components of BPR are formulated and analyzed. Then two different approaches to BPR are reviewed and their pros and cons discussed. Then the general problems of BPR are considered along with the possible ways of getting over them. The article shows that currently there is nothing like a “best practice of best practice research” and argues that much has to be done in the development of BPR theory and methodology. It concludes with several recommendations for improvement (mixed research design, clear definition of purpose, focus upon mechanisms etc.

  6. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  7. Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)

  8. A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, L A; Duncan, D; Coldham, N G; Snow, L C; Jones, J R

    2012-09-22

    The cause for the high prevalence of cefotaximase-producing Escherichia coli reported in dairy calves is unknown but may be partly due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial residues in waste milk (milk unfit for human consumption) fed to the calves. Antimicrobial use and waste milk feeding practices were investigated in 557 dairy farms in 2010/2011 that responded to a randomised stratified postal survey. The mean number of cases of mastitis per herd in the previous year was 47, and 93 per cent of respondents used antibiotic intra-mammary tubes to treat mastitis. The most frequently used lactating cow antibiotic tubes contained dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, novobiocin, and procaine penicillin (37 per cent), and cefquinome (29 per cent). Ninety-six per cent of respondents used antibiotic tubes at the cessation of lactation ('drying off'). The most frequently used dry cow antibiotic tube (43 per cent) contained cefalonium. Frequently used injectable antibiotics included tylosin (27 per cent), dihydrostreptomycin and procaine penicillin (20 per cent) and ceftiofur (13 per cent). Eighty-three per cent of respondents (413) fed waste milk to calves. Of these 413, 87 per cent fed waste milk from cows with mastitis, and only one-third discarded the first milk after antibiotic treatment. This survey has shown that on more than 90 per cent of the farms that feed waste milk to calves, waste milk can contain milk from cows undergoing antibiotic treatment. On some farms, this includes treatment with third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Further work is underway to investigate the presence of these antimicrobials in waste milk.

  9. Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

  10. A study on knowledge and practice regarding biomedical waste management among staff nurses and nursing students of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are the centre of cure and also the important centres of infectious waste generation. Effective management of Biomedical Waste (BMW is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice in managing the biomedical wastes among nursing staff and student nurses in RIMS, Ranchi. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at RIMS, Ranchi from Oct 2013 to March 2014 (6 months. It was a descriptive, hospital based, cross-sectional study. A total of 240 nurses participated in the present study, randomly chosen from various departments A pre-designed, pre-tested, structured proforma was used for data collection after getting their informed consent. Self-made scoring system was used to categorize the participants as having good, average and poor scores. Data was tabulated and analyzed using percentages and chi-square test. Results: The knowledge regarding general information about BMW management was assessed(with scores 0-8,it was found  that level of knowledge was better in student nurses than staff nurses as student nurses scored good(6-8correct answers in more than half of the questions (65%.Whereas staff nurses scored good in only 33.33% questions. When the practical information regarding the BMW management is assessed (with scores 0-8, it was found that staff nurses had relatively better practice regarding BMW management than students as they scored good(6-8correct answers in 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusion: Though overall knowledge of study participants was good but still they need good quality training to improve their current knowledge about BMW. 

  11. Cultural landscapes as heritage in Malaysia: Potentials, threats, and current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, R.

    2013-01-01

    The rural cultural landscape in Malaysia is relatively under-researched. The current heritage practices focus on built heritage as national heritage, which implies the everyday landscapes of the rural areas have been neglected as potential heritage and have received little attention from politicians

  12. Current Status of Hemostatic Agents and Sealants in Urologic Surgical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommu, Sashi S; McArthur, Robert; Emara, Amr M; Reddy, Utsav D; Anderson, Christopher J; Barber, Neil J; Persad, Raj A; Eden, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent and near exponential increase in the use of hemostatic agents and sealants to supplement the rapidly evolving methods in the surgical management of urologic patients. This article reviews the use of hemostatic agents and sealants in current urologic practice. PMID:26543429

  13. Educating physicians in evidence based medicine: current practices and curricular strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggio, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” The practice of EBM is an expectation of professional healthcare and requisite component in many medical school curricula. Yet, despite

  14. Clinical skills training in obstetrics - a descriptive survey of current practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathilde Maagaard; Johansen, Marianne; Lottrup, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recommended that labor wards establish regular obstetric emergency skills training programs. The aim of this study was to describe current practice in Denmark. A questionnaire was sent to all obstetric departments in Denmark in 2008. All responded. Simulation...

  15. ⁹⁰Y Hepatic Radioembolization : An Update on Current Practice and Recent Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, Arthur J A T; Smits, Maarten L J; Braat, Manon N G J A; van den Hoven, Andor; Prince, Jip F; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    Radioembolization is an established treatment modality that has been subjected to many improvements over the last decade. Developments are occurring at a high pace, affecting patient selection and treatment. The aim of this review is therefore to provide an overview of current practice, with a focus

  16. A Closer Look at Extensive Reading in Omani Public Schools: Current Practices and Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzia, Al Seyabi; Salwa, Al Rashdi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying the current practices regarding the implementation of extensive reading in Omani public schools. The study employed a content analysis sheet to analyze the extensive reading work of 300 students. Semi-structured interviews were also held with 15 teachers and 5 regional supervisors from Al-Dakhilyia…

  17. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  18. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  19. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  20. College Cheerleading: A National Survey of Current Safety Standards and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed chief student affairs officers (N=564) to determine effects of current safety standards and practices in college cheerleading. Found injury rate lower than six major team sports; no correlation between injuries and coach training; greater number of injuries when under supervision; and institutions with no cheerleading guidelines tended to…

  1. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently leading a process to assess the most important steps for public health genomics in the next five years. DATES: Electronic or written comments must be received on...

  2. The right place. Solid waste management in the Republic of Maldives: between infrastructural measures and local practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malatesta Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 UNPD’s Assessment of Development Results defined the Maldives “a vulnerable Small Island Developing State” by pointing out the influence of both external and local human factors on their fragile ecosystems. This impact is deeply related to a main geographical feature: the high dispersion of land mass and population, both of them spread over a distance of 860 km. Above all, this dispersion has an effect on two environmental issues: energy distribution and solid waste management. The latter is particularly interesting for the geographical analysis of Small Island Countries. Due to centre-periphery distance and cost benefits analysis, in the Maldives public and private actors have developed different solid waste management models: central and regional waste management dumpsites, hybrid systems implemented by resorts and “informal” practices still followed by local communities. In this paper, we discuss these systems stressing on the relevance of combining infrastructural measures with “informal” practices at local level. Furthermore, we report the outcomes of The Right Place, a participatory waste management action carried out by MaRHE Center (a Milano- Bicocca Research Center in Faafu Magoodhoo Island.

  3. Standard practice for analysis of aqueous leachates from nuclear waste materials using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice is applicable to the determination of low concentration and trace elements in aqueous leachate solutions produced by the leaching of nuclear waste materials, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). 1.2 The nuclear waste material may be a simulated (non-radioactive) solid waste form or an actual solid radioactive waste material. 1.3 The leachate may be deionized water or any natural or simulated leachate solution containing less than 1 % total dissolved solids. 1.4 This practice should be used by analysts experienced in the use of ICP-AES, the interpretation of spectral and non-spectral interferences, and procedures for their correction. 1.5 No detailed operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of suitable ICP-AES instruments. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument. This test method does not address comparative accuracy of different devices...

  4. Waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor: a case study in Kuala lumpur city, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Md Wahid; Siwar, Chamhuri

    2007-02-01

    This study assesses waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor households residing as squatters and in low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To attain the objective, the study employed some statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared 'likelihood ratio' tests, and simple descriptive statistics. The statistical techniques were used to determine and analyse the factors that significantly influence the environmental behaviour of the urban poor concerning solid waste management, particularly their recycling practices. The findings of the study show that the urban poor and low-income communities have been proved to behave in ways that are consistent with and conducive to environmentally friendly solid waste management. This study provides evidence that the urban poor and low-income communities are the main recyclers, re-users, and source-reducers of their household solid waste. The study, however, suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, and the skills of the urban poor and, in addition, to empower them as a means of improving their quality of life.

  5. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part II: methodological guidance for a better practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Bakas, Ioannis; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Reported Current Practices in Child Forensic Interviewing: Training, Tools, and Pre-Interview Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Jillian Rowback; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2017-05-01

    In child sexual abuse investigations, forensic interviewers within the Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model serve as neutral fact-finders for a team of professionals tasked with investigating and intervening in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Although empirical evidence has led to the development of best-practice techniques and protocols, there is currently no universally adopted protocol in the field. The present research gathered detailed information from a national sample of real-world child forensic interviewers about their training and current practices, with a specific focus on assessing the information interviewers typically review prior to conducting child forensic interviews. Most notably, the survey revealed a lack of uniformity in interviewing protocols adopted and pre-interview preparation practices. Although rare, some interviewers reported using an allegation-blind interviewing approach, highlighting the need for future research on this and other under-studied techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Feed-Thickening Practices in NICUs in the Current Era: Variability in Prescription and Implementation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhoun, Lauren L.; Siler-Wurst, Kimberly K.; Sitaram, Swetha; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feed-thickening for infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is performed due to concerns of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). No standards currently exist regarding feed-thickening prescriptions and practices and this results in variable and potentially unsafe feeding approaches. Methods Electronic surveys were sent to neonatal feeding therapists and providers in order to determine the prescriptions and practices currently being used for feed-thickening in the NICU. Results A total of 313 responses were collected. Results revealed the majority of providers use thickened feeds for concerns of dysphagia or GERD with some reporting they thicken expressed breast milk. Variability of thickening prescriptions was noted regarding consistencies, thickening agents, and recipes used. Reported approaches for measuring, mixing, and warming thickened feeds varied. Conclusion Variability was noted in the feed-thickening prescriptions and practices performed in the NICU. Further research and standardization are required to develop thickening guidelines. PMID:26664251

  8. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  9. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise in Daily Practice: Current Practices, Barriers, and Training Needs of Physiotherapists in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Edeonuh, Juliet Chinonso; Frantz, Jose

    2016-01-01

    To investigate current practices, barriers, and training needs for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in physiotherapy practices in eastern Nigeria. A total of 141 fully licensed physiotherapists in southeast Nigeria were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey consisting of 23 questions in five key sections, focusing mainly on risk-factor management practices of physiotherapists. A total of 103 questionnaires were returned. Respondents ranged in age from 25 to 54 years and reported a mean of 11 (SD 10) years of clinical experience. Respondents reported that they regularly assess and advise their clients on PA but rarely give written prescriptions. Although they are confident in assessing and advising their clients on PA and consider including PA intervention as a priority in daily practice, lack of time and lack of access to materials were reported as barriers to effective PA intervention. Findings showed the potential for physiotherapists to address physical inactivity and highlighted several barriers. Strategies are needed to improve contact time with clients and make material promoting PA available to practising physiotherapists.

  10. Standard practice for examination of welds using the alternating current field measurement technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during alternating current field measurement examination of welds for baseline and service-induced surface breaking discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on welds in any metallic material. 1.3 This practice does not establish weld acceptance criteria. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system might not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  12. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John

    2014-01-17

    The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial.

  14. Awareness and Practice of Biomedical Waste Management Among Different Health Care Personnel at Tertiary Care Centre, Rajkot, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bio medical waste collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and general community. Objective: To know the awareness and practice of biomedical waste management (BMW among health care personnel working at a tertiary care centre. Methods: The study was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013. It was a descriptive observational hospital based cross sectional study. Study participants included the resident and intern doctors, nursing staff, laboratory technicians, sanitary staff (ward boys, aaya and sweepers working in the P D U Government Medical College and Civil Hospital, Rajkot who are dealing with BMW. The study was conducted by using pretested, semi-structured pro forma. Results: Total 282 health care personnel participated, including 123 resident and intern doctors, 92 nursing personnel, 13 laboratory technicians and 54 sanitary staff. Only 44.3% study participants received training for bio medical waste management. Except for doctors (98.4%, awareness regarding identification and use of color coded bags as per BMW act, was very poor among health care personnel. Record keeping for injuries related to biomedical waste was very poor for all health care personnel. Significant number of paramedics maintained record of BMW at work place, practiced disinfection and segregation of BMW at work place, used personal protective measures while handling BMW. Significant number of resident and intern doctors practiced correct method for collecting sharps and needles than paramedical staff. Conclusion: Intensive training program at regular time interval and a system of monitoring and surveillance about practice of day to day BMW management should be evolved.

  15. 15. dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 15. Dialog Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 15th dialogue on waste management MV at the University of Rostock (Rostock, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th June, 2012, the following lectures were held: (1) 20 Years GAA - 20 years of successful work (Hartwig Roessler); (2) Acquisition and evaluation of waste management data in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania - A basis for planning for strategies according to Cycle and Waste Management Act KrWG (Helmut Kietzmann); (3) Demographic change in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania - Implications for the waste management (Matthias Leuchter); (4) The HPWM project (Jan Marquardt); (5) Consequences of the modified legal and regulatory situation for the operation of refuse-fuelled power stations (Kurt Wengenroth); (6) Foodstuffs in the waste - Analysis and mitigation proposals (Jakob Barabosz); (7) Disposal of electric and electronic equipment as well as manufacturer responsibility (Vera Susanne Rotter); (8) Advanced waste management concepts in developing countries - foundable? Realizable? Sustainable? (Wolfgang Pfaff-Simoneit); (9) Further development of the mechanical-biological waste treatment (Stephan Schuett); (10) Airjet-pipecleaner - the automatic cleaning facility for ventilation nozzles (Armin Seidel); (11) Exploitation of reusable materials from bottom ash (Dirk Bludau); (12) Is the thermal treatment suitable for the utilization of glass-fibre reinforced plastics wastes? (Karl-Heinz Plepla); (13) Recyclability of bioplastics(An-Sophie Kitzler); (14) Development of process-oriented quality inspections for the near private collection of refuse and recyclable material (Nico Schulte).

  16. The constraints of good governance practice in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, international donors have emphasised on the adoption of good governance practices in solid waste management which include policy implementation. In Malaysia, the National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced as the main guideline for its solid waste management and the Malaysian government has adopted good governance practice in the NSMWP implementation. However, the good governance practices implemented by the Malaysian government encountered several challenges. This study was conducted to explore the good governance constraints experienced by stakeholders in the NSWMP implementation. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires that involved in the NSWMP implementation in Malaysia. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings revealed three main good governance constraints in the NSWMP implementation, namely inadequate fund, poor staff's competency, and ambiguity of policy implementation system. Moreover, this study also disclosed that the main constraint influenced the other constraints. Hence, it is crucial to identify the main constraint in order to minimise its impact on the other constraints.

  17. Quantity & quality analysis and associated management practices of solid waste generated in the general dentistry offices in the city of Arak, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: As dental solid waste are among the most important environmental pollutants due to its high contents of toxic and hazardous agents, suitable treatment and management of it are of great importance. The objective of this study was to quantity & quality analyses of dental solid waste and associated management practices in the general dentistry offices in the city of Arak. Materials and Methods: 15 samples of solid waste were taken from the 5 selected general dentistry offices, classified into 66 components and 4 fractions, and then the quantity & quality characteristics were evaluated. Management practices of the solid waste were also investigated by using a questionnaire. Results: According to the results, per capita and the average generation rate of each dentistry office were 66.71 g/day-patient and 1340.45 g/day, respectively. Potential infectious, domestic-type, chemical & pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes consisted of 54.25%, 35.14%, 8.19%, and 2.14% of the waste generated, respectively. 10 components including latex gloves, nylon & plastic, saliva & blood-contaminated kleenex, paper & cardboard, used ampoules, saliva ejector tubes, gypsum, food waste, saliva & blood-contaminated dental rolls, and nylon gloves were responsible for more than 80% of the total waste generated, respectively. Conclusion: Each fraction of dental solid waste (toxic, chemical & pharmaceutical, potential infectious and domestic-type wastes should be separately collected and disposed of according to the related criteria.

  18. Current situation regarding the co-combustion of waste materials in power plants; Aktuelle Situation der Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, U.; Krueger, H.; Puch, K.H. [VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In view of the wholly insufficient capacity, relative to current arisings, of waste incineration plants, residue processing plants and plants for the utilisation of other combustible materials we are inevitably faced with the question whether power plant furnaces might not be suited for the thermal treatment and utilisation of wastes and residues. This possibility has been studied by many VGB member companies and seriously investigated for its practicability in several cases. The investigations were premised on the following fundamental positions. The VGB members are prepared to contribute to the solution of the above problems as long as this is possible without detriment to their duties as energy suppliers. They can only assume this responsibility if the requirements of the licensing laws are observed. This concerns the quality and arising quantities of wastes to be taken in, emissions, and the disposal of combustion residues. Power plants typically make more or less complete use of their own process residues, a feature which as far as possible should not be impaired by the co-combustion process. The technical problems posed by the co-combustion of suitable residues and wastes are usually solvable. Co-combustion offers an alternative and a supplement to dedicated waste utilisation plants or plants for the utilisation of suitable residues. Beyond this some companies are interested in profiting from the fees that will be due to them for utilising wastes. From 1990 to 1992 a VGB working group studied the option of co-combustion on the basis of the above premises. The material elaborated by the group now in turn serves as a basis for the following deliberations. [Deutsch] Da die Kapazitaet der Abfallverbrennungsanlagen, der Anlagen zur Reststoffverwertung und der Anlagen zur Nutzung sonstiger brennbaren Stoffe fuer das vorhandene Angebot bei weitem nicht ausreicht, ergibt sich die Frage der Eignung von Kraftwerksfeuerungen zur thermischen Behandlung und Verwertung von

  19. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  20. Assessing and Treating Pain in Hospices: Current State of Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Keela; Titler, Marita; Fine, Perry; Sanders, Sara; Cavanaugh, Joe; Swegle, John; Forcucci, Chris; Tang, Xiongwen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report on current provider evidence-based assessment and treatment practices for older adults with cancer in community-based hospice settings. Using the Cancer Pain Practices Index (CPPI), a tool developed by the researchers to measure evidence-based pain management practices, patients received an average of 32% of the those key evidence-based practices (EBPs) that were applicable to their situation. When examining individual practices, the majority of patients had their pain assessed at admission using a valid pain scale (69.7%) and had primary components of a comprehensive assessment completed at admission (52.7%); most patients with admission reports of pain had an order for pain medication (83.5%). However, data revealed a number of practice gaps including: additional components of a comprehensive assessment completed within 48 hours of admission (0%); review of the Pain Treatment Plan at each reassessment (35.7%); reassessment of moderate or greater pain (5.3%); consecutive pain reports of 5 or greater followed by pain medication increases (15.8%); monitoring of analgesic- induced side effects (19.3%); initiation of a bowel regimen for patients with an opioid order (32.3%); and documentation of both non-pharmacological therapies (22.5%) and written pain management plans (0.6%). Findings highlight positive EBPs and areas for improving the translation of EBPs into practice. Data suggest that cancer pain is not being documented as consistently assessed, reassessed or treated in a manner consistent with current EBP recommendations for older adults with cancer in community-based hospices. PMID:20471542

  1. Assessment of current quality of biodegradable municipal waste separated by residents of Kroměříž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Stejskal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to meet the requirements for maximum material utilization, which is set forth in the Act No. 185/2001 Coll. on Waste and amendments to other Acts, and to achieve the objectives of the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic to reduce biodegradable waste going to landfill, a proposal for widespread deployment of separate collection and processing of biodegradable municipal waste in municipalities has become part of the amendment Act prepared by the ministry. In many places of the country pilot projects have been launched to test the technology and logistics of sorting, collecting, processing and utilizing biodegradable municipal waste separated by residents.Separate collection of biodegradable municipal waste in Kroměříž was launched as a pilot project in 1992. Despite all the residents’ education, the management of Biopas is not satisfied with the quality of biodegradable waste separation; problems occur especially in the residential area. Biodegradable waste separated by residents, due to its unacceptable amount of impurities, is transported to the landfill Kuchyňky near the village Zdounky 10 km distant but detailed data on the amount of impurities in separate biodegradable municipal waste were missing.Therefore an analysis of separate biodegradable municipal waste has been carried out. Individual samples were collected within two days of separate waste delivery, without any modifications (scattering, compaction. The sample size was at least 200 kg, the sample was manually sorted according to the Catalogue of Waste into biodegradable waste (200201, other non-biodegradable waste (200203 and biodegradable waste unsuitable for composting (e.g. animal by-products. It was found that the amount of unacceptable impurities in separate biodegradable waste considerably varies from 1 to 9 %wt.It can be concluded that the amount of unacceptable impurities in biowaste is too large to allow composting and compost production (in

  2. A Review of Effectiveness of Construction Waste Minimization Practices in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babangida Baba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the existing literature on effectiveness of construction waste minimization in Nigeria with particular interest in Bauchi State. The study highlighted the menace of construction waste to the environment. The Nigerian construction industry comprises foreign and indigenous firms which are classified into small, medium and large according to their level of capitalization and annual turnover. In the real industrialized countries, the construction industry can be responsible for up to 20 % of the GDP and employs up to 12 % of the total labour force. In Nigeria, the sector contributes 3.2 % of GDP. This is a clear indication that construction industry in Nigeria failed to meet expectations of governments, clients and society. The material and method of this research study utilized a secondary source of data. A critical review of this recent journal articles posited new findings of effectiveness of construction waste minimization. To ascertain the actual happenings in the construction industries within and beyond the study area. The findings of this research study indicated that environmental pollution is caused by construction waste in the study area. It is also revealed that indigenous firms generate large volume of construction waste. It was evident that construction waste is ineffective to the health condition of the environment. The conclusion is drawn from the study also revealed that different approach and method should be applied to curtail and minimize construction waste effectiveness in the study area.

  3. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CAXIAS DO SUL/BRAZIL: PRACTICES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Poletto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is becoming a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the rapid economic growth and population increasing. In cities of the developing world, the informal sector plays an important role in the management of urban solid waste. This work examines the participation of scavengers in an integrated municipal solid waste management system. The paper is based on direct field observations, interviews with scavengers and characterization of the urban solid waste generated in Caxias do Sul. The partnership between municipal government and local scavengers were also evaluated as well as the contribution of the scavengers in the urban solid waste management system. The study reveals that it is necessary to realize a campaign for improving the waste segregation at source. The infrastructure of the scavengers associations need to be improved and finally the scavengers need to be more deeply involved in the policies associated with the urban solid waste management system adopted in the city.

  4. Practice Patterns and Opinions on Current Clinical Practice Guidelines Regarding the Management of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yoonsun; Zimmermann, Anthony E; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine current delirium practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting and evaluate awareness and adoption of the 2013 Pain, Agitation, and Delirium (PAD) guidelines with emphasis on delirium management. A large-scale, multidisciplinary, online survey was administered to physician, pharmacist, nurse, and mid-level practitioner members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) between September 2014 and October 2014. A total of 635 respondents completed the survey. Nonpharmacologic interventions such as early mobilization were used in most ICUs (83%) for prevention of delirium. A majority of respondents (97%) reported using pharmacologic agents to treat hyperactive delirium. Ninety percent of the respondents answered that they were aware of the 2013 PAD guidelines, and 75% of respondents felt that their delirium practices have been changed as a result of the new guidelines. In addition, logistic regression analysis of this study showed that respondents who use delirium screening tools were twice more likely to be fully aware of key components of the updated guidelines (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-3.60). Most critical care practitioners are fully aware and knowledgeable of key recommendations in the new guidelines and have changed their delirium practices accordingly.

  5. Assess Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Solid Waste Management in Taghbostan Mountain Climbers from Kermanshah City in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Alireza Mosavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance of Cultural programs with environmental aims needs to check the status of knowledge, attitude and practice of community towards the subject as is desired, which one of those programs is solid waste management programs in the mountainous areas as a general duty. In the meantime, Mountaineers play role in the environmental cultural activities This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of people Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and behavior towards the management of solid waste in the mountain climbers of Kermanshah Taqbstan in 2014. Based on random sampling of 385 questionnaires were distributed among mountain climbers Taqbstan. The results of this study have been analyzed based on a statistical approach; ANOVA, by using SPPS version 16 Results: The results show an insignificant relationship between job and gender with awareness and performance. However, the age as a main variable has a significant relation with the knowledge but has an insignificant relation with attitude and performance. The results of correlation studies of education level with the knowledge and practice with p equal to 0.045 is statistically significant Conclusions: Solid Waste Management mountain climbers' education level is the most influential parameter. So that people with higher education have better performance. On the other hand, suffer climbers aged 20 to 40 and higher had better awareness about the Solid Waste Management. The results of this study should be noted that in any job can be diligent in protecting the mountain environment and includes a certain occupational group not be affected

  6. Physiotherapy management of low back pain: a survey of current practice in northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Jacqueline H; McDonough, Suzanne M; Baxter, G David

    2002-02-15

    A questionnaire survey of physiotherapists treating low back pain. To investigate current clinical practice in the physiotherapeutic management of low back pain in Northern Ireland. Physiotherapists play an important role in the management of low back pain. However, there is relatively limited evidence about physiotherapy or about current physiotherapeutic management of low back pain. This survey aimed to establish current practice in this area. Two sets of questionnaires were completed by physiotherapists during the period 1996-1997: one in relation to their professional profile, and subsequently a questionnaire for each patient referred by physicians to physiotherapy departments in the (government-funded) National Health Service in Northern Ireland. Physiotherapists (n = 157) recorded data for 1062 patients treated for low back pain in 35 outpatient centers across Northern Ireland. Of the patients treated, 70% had a duration of current episode more than 6 weeks; 26% of patients had previously received physiotherapy for low back pain. Physiotherapy treatment most commonly involved advice (89% of patients), McKenzie treatment (70%), Maitland mobilizations (42%), and interferential therapy (30.3%). Physiotherapists typically treated subacute and chronic patients, principally using some types of manual techniques and advice, in keeping with current guidelines. However, high levels of the use of electrotherapy, and only limited use of manipulation, indicates the importance of further research to establish optimum management for this group of patients.

  7. The Development of Perioperative Practices for Liver Transplantation: Advances and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceds Susan Mandell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation is a young medical specialty that has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Anesthesiologists, surgeons and hepatologists are all essential partners in the process of determining patient outcome. Each specialty has made landmark improvements in patient outcome. However, there is still variability in practice patterns in each of the 3 major specialties. This review will use a historic perspective to explore the unique forces that shaped specific transplant practices and those that gave rise to differences in perioperative practices. Anesthesiologists and surgeons have made significant improvements in the management of blood loss, and coagulation monitoring and intervention. This has improved operative survival and early patient outcome. Perioperative survival has improved despite a worldwide shortage of donor organs and a trend to transplant sicker patients. A smaller pool of donor organs is required to meet the needs of an expanding waiting list. The innovations to reduce deaths on the transplant wait list are reviewed along with their impact on overall patient outcome. The evolving organ shortage is the pinnacle point in shaping future transplant practices. Currently, institutional-specific practices may be reinforced by the informal “tutorship” that is used to train physicians and by the resources available at each site of practice. However, there is evidence that specific intraoperative practices such as the use of a low central venous pressure, selection of vasopressors and certain surgical techniques can modify patient outcome. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the good or the bad associated with each practice prevails and in what unique circumstance.

  8. Geriatric psychiatry in the psychiatry clerkship: a survey of current education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Susan W; Blazek, Mary C; Popeo, Dennis M

    2015-06-01

    The aging of the US population and shortage of geriatric psychiatrists mean that all medical students must be prepared to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in older patients. The authors sought to describe current geriatric psychiatry teaching practices during the psychiatry clerkship. Psychiatry clerkship directors at 110 American medical schools were surveyed about didactic and clinical experiences of geriatric psychiatry. Sixty-two (56 %) of programs responded. One fifth of programs lacked specific instruction in geriatric psychiatry. Programs were more likely to include instruction on dementia than late-life depression. Increased geriatric psychiatry educational offerings were associated with the following: number of geriatric psychiatrists on faculty, presence of a geriatric psychiatrist on the medical education committee, and inclusion of geriatric psychiatry specific items in clerkship learning objectives. Current practices in some clerkships are inadequate to prepare medical students to care for older patients with psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  10. Renal pharmacists' perceptions and current practices of assessing medication adherence in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Saurav; Banks, Colin; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R

    2017-12-06

    Background Medication nonadherence is a major problem in chronic kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis. Pharmacists play a vital role in improving medication-related patient outcomes, reducing drug-related problems, and improving medication adherence. However, little is known about how pharmacists assess medication adherence in dialysis patients. Objective To measure pharmacists' perceptions, current practices, and barriers to assessing adherence in dialysis patients. Setting Australian renal-specialised pharmacists. Method An online survey was conducted between March and May 2016. Survey included five psychometric scales measuring perceived prevalence, contributors, effective methods, barriers, and confidence to assess adherence on a 10-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 10 = strongly agree). Current practices were identified using a 4-point graded response (1 = do not practice; 4 = practice for all). Perception scores, scale reliability, and responses to current practices questionnaire. Results 41 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate, 91.1%). The majority (91.9%, n = 34; median = 8.0) agreed patients were nonadherent to medication. Time constraints (43.8%, n = 14) and hospital support (31.3%, n = 10) were perceived as barriers to assessment. Objective blood monitoring was frequently used to determine nonadherence (57.1%, n = 16), whereas subjective interviews were rarely conducted (27.6%, n = 8). Though all pharmacists support the presence of dedicated pharmacist for assessing adherence (100.0%, n = 33), only 24.2% were actually performing this function. Conclusion Pharmacists were rarely assigned for adherence assessment in dialysis settings. Established self-report methods were under-utilised compared to objective methods. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of pharmacists' involvement in facilitating adherence promotion and early identification of medication-related issues in dialysis patients.

  11. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  12. Current fossil fuel power plant performance monitoring. Volume 1. Practices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R.R.; Kraje, N.B.; Roberts, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A description of current fossil power industry performance monitoring and control practices is presented. Both standard ASME acceptance testing procedures and individualized plant performance testing procedures are reviewed. The instrumentation required for performance testing, along with its limitations, is cited. A review of digital computer uses is presented, including some examples of typical performance related logs used by a few utilities. Control functions that affect plant performance, such as steam temperature control, are discussed, and the potential impact of several of the above issues on economic dispatching is mentioned. It is concluded that there is no typical utility or common practice regarding performance improvement. Each utility has its own strategy, practice, and methods or lack thereof. Furthermore, knowledge of what other utilities are doing, successfully and unsuccessfully, is lacking. The recommendations stress better information dissemination, more quantitative evaluation of advanced concepts, and initiation of a few high priority research projects.

  13. Performance assessment in health care providers: a critical review of evidence and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karen E Stc; Coates, Vivien; Kelly, Billy; Boore, Jennifer R P; Cundell, Jill H; Gracey, Jacquie; McFetridge, Brian; McGonigle, Mary; Sinclair, Marlene

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate methods of performance assessment through an international literature review and a survey of current practice. Over the past two decades health care organizations have focussed on promoting high quality care in conjunction with retaining motivated staff. Cognisant of such initiatives, we sought to evaluate assessment methods for qualified staff according to their utility in the working environment. A systematic literature search was completed and each paper independently reviewed. All health care organizations in Northern Ireland submitted details of their performance assessments. Each was critically appraised using a utility index. Performance was not universally defined. A broad range of assessments were identified, each method had advantages and disadvantages. Although many lacked rigorous testing, areas of good practice were also noted. No single method is appropriate for assessing clinical performance. Rather, this study endorses proposals for a multi-method strategy to ensure that performance assessment demonstrates all attributes required for effective nursing and midwifery practice.

  14. A postmodern, sociological exploration of current dream-related discourses and practices / Hermann Werner Nell

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Hermann Werner

    2005-01-01

    The study was prompted by the lack of existing research with regard to what people locally think and believe about dreams. The study aimed to uncover, explore, and describe current, local dream related beliefs, discourses, and practices (in the Vaal-Triangle area of South-Africa), using a postmodern, social constructivist, as well as a generally sociological approach. In support of this aim, a literature review of various religious, cultural, and psychological dream related discourses was exe...

  15. Medical thoracoscopy: Survey of current practice-How successful are medical thoracoscopists at predicting malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallifax, Robert J; Corcoran, John P; Psallidas, Ioannis; Rahman, Najib M

    2016-07-01

    Use of medical thoracoscopy by respiratory physicians is increasing. This survey of experienced thoracoscopists was conducted to establish current practice of medical thoracoscopy and physicians' opinion of theoretical cases using 20 video clips. Results suggest an increasing trend towards day-case thoracoscopy but that caution is required when making diagnosis on macroscopic appearance: malignant and benign disease could only be differentiated in 59% of cases, and trapped lung is difficult to predict at thoracoscopy. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Current Practice in Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood: A Survey from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Poyrazo?lu, ??kran; Ak?ay, Teoman; Arslano?lu, ?lknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, ?ffet; B?ber, Ece; Can, ?ule; Cesur, Ya?ar; Darcan, ??kran; Demir, Korcan; D?ndar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment o...

  17. 3D Digital Graphics in Landscape Architecture Professional Practice: Current Conditions in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shujuan; Yang, Bo; Yan, Jie

    2014-01-01

    3D digital graphics and representation have been a critical part in landscape architecture professional practice. However, few studies have been conducted to document how 3D digital graphics are currently being used. Some important questions are largely unknown. For example, who are the primary users of 3D digital graphics programs, and what are the most popular 3D software packages, and why. A better understanding of these questions is not only important to practitioners, but also to educato...

  18. Toward a more materialistic medicine: the value of authentic materialism within current and future medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2011-09-01

    Modern medicine is often accused by diverse critics of being "too materialistic" and therefore insufficiently holistic and effective. Yet, this critique can be misleading, dependent upon the ambiguous meanings of "materialism." The term can refer to the prevalence of financial concerns in driving medical practice. Alternatively, it can refer to "mechanistic materialism," the patient viewed as a body-machine. In each case, this article shows that this represents not authentic "materialism" at play, but a focus upon high-level abstractions. "Bottom-line" financial or diagnostic numbers can distract practitioners from the embodied needs of sick patients. In this sense, medical practice is not materialist enough. Through a series of clinical examples, this article explores how an authentic materialism would look in current and future practice. The article examines the use of prayer/comfort shawls at the bedside; hospitals and nursing homes redesigned as enriched healing environments; and a paradigmatic medical device--the implantable cardioverter defibrillator--as it might be presented to patients, in contrast to current practice.

  19. Managing neonatal severe sepsis in Germany: a preliminary survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L; Bosk, A; Sasse, M; Ruef, P; Poeschl, J

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2007, the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) provided clinical guidelines for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock. In 2008 and 2013, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines Committee offered up-to-date clinical guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults and in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to assess the standard of care of neonates with severe sepsis and septic shock in German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with regard to variability in management and guideline conformity. 199 pediatric clinics in Germany were asked to describe their management of septic neonates in a telephone survey. The questionnaire that was used for the preliminary survey was designed based on the ACCCM and SSC clinical guidelines. A total of 90 (45%) surveys were completed and analyzed. Among all hospitals, the guidelines most commonly included in current practice patterns were obtaining cultures before administering antibiotics (100%), determining capillary refill time (99%), and using crystalloids for initial fluid therapy (97%). The guidelines least commonly included in current practice were determination of ammoniac to rule out inborn errors of metabolism (51%) and the use of dopamine as the first choice of hemodynamic support (48%). The management of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock in neonates is not always guideline consistent, but quite a number of ACCCM and SSC guidelines were included in the current practice pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Conservative management of mallet injuries: A national survey of current practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Z; Potter, S; Burr, N; Gardiner, M D; Blazeby, J M; Jain, A; Henderson, J

    2017-07-01

    Mallet injuries are common and usually treated conservatively. Various systematic reviews have found a lack of evidence regarding the best management, and it is unclear whether this uncertainty is reflected in current UK practice. An online survey was developed to determine the current practice for the conservative treatment of mallet injury among specialist hand clinicians in the UK, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists and surgeons. Clinician's views of study outcome selection were also explored to improve future trials. In total, 336 professionals completed the survey. Inconsistency in overall practice was observed in splint type choice, time to discharge to GP, and assessment of adherence. Greater consistency was observed for recommended duration of continuous immobilisation. Bony injuries were most commonly splinted for 6 weeks (n = 228, 78%) and soft tissue injuries for either 8 weeks (n = 172, 56%) or 6 weeks (n = 119, 39%). Post-immobilisation splinting was frequently recommended, but duration varied between 2 and 10 weeks. The outcome rated as most important by all clinicians was patient satisfaction. There is overall variation in the current UK conservative management of mallet injuries, and the development of a standardised, evidence-based protocol is required. Clinicians' opinions may be used to develop a core set of outcome measures, which will improve standardisation and comparability of future trials. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smartphone use in dermatology for clinical photography and consultation: Current practice and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lisa M; Magnusson, Roger S; Gibbs, Emma; Smith, Saxon D

    2017-02-28

    Smartphones are rapidly changing the way doctors capture and communicate clinical information, particularly in highly visual specialties such as dermatology. An understanding of how and why smartphones are currently used in clinical practice is critical in order to evaluate professional and legal risks, and to formulate policies that enable safe use of mobile technologies for the maximal benefit of practitioners and patients. Australian dermatologists and dermatology trainees were surveyed on their current practices relating to clinical smartphone use. Of the 105 respondents, 101 provided useable results. The data show clinical smartphone use is common and frequent, with more than 50% of respondents sending and receiving images on their smartphones at least weekly. Clinical photographs were usually sent via multimedia message or email and were commonly stored on smartphones (46%). Security measures adopted to protect data were limited. There was inadequate documentation of consent for transmission of photographs and advice provided. Only 22% of respondents were aware of clear policies in their workplace regarding smartphone use, and a majority desired further education on digital image management. Given the frequency of use and the degree of importance placed on the ability to send and receive clinical images, clinical smartphone use will persist and will likely increase over time. Current practices are insufficient to comply with professional and legal obligations, and increase practitioners' vulnerability to civil and disciplinary proceedings. Further education, realistic policies and adequate software resources are critical to ensure protection of patients, practitioners and the reputation of the dermatological profession. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Current practice in management of pelvic girdle pain amongst physiotherapists in Norway and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren; Hope, Jon Bjarne; Hoff, Torgeir Saeten; Sandvik, Haakon; Wergeland, Oystein; Fary, Robyn

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is frequently managed by physiotherapists. Little is known about current physiotherapy practice and beliefs in the management of PGP disorders. The primary aim of this study was to investigate current practice and beliefs in management of PGP among physiotherapists working in Norway and Australia. A secondary aim was to compare current practice with clinical guidelines. A questionnaire was developed and electronically distributed to physiotherapists in Norway (n = 65) and Australia (n = 77). Treatment and management were determined via responses to 2 case vignettes (during pregnancy, not related to pregnancy), with participants selecting their four primary preferences for treatment and management from a list of 33 possibilities. During pregnancy, 'education around instability' and 'soft tissue treatment' were selected amongst the most common interventions by physiotherapists in both countries. Norwegian physiotherapists selected 'pelvic floor exercises' more frequently, while Australian physiotherapists more commonly selected 'correcting functional impairments'. In the other case, common responses from both countries were 'hip strengthening in weight bearing' and 'correction of functional impairments'. Norwegian physiotherapists selected 'general physical exercise' and 'general education' more frequently, while Australian physiotherapists more commonly selected 'hip strengthening in non-weight bearing' and 'muscular relaxation of the abdominal wall/pelvic floor'. Beliefs about PGP were generally positive in both groups while knowledge of and adherence to clinical guidelines were limited. The findings provide direction for future research related to the management and treatment of PGP, and targets for education of physiotherapists working in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  4. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A SCHOOL RESTAURANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Peruchin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the amount of waste generated and its proper final destination is one of the greatest environmental issues. The higher education institutions are an important source of waste due to its diversity of teaching, researching and extension activities undertaken by academic world. The university restaurant supplies meals to the university community and ends up generating a kind of waste similar to the domestic waste, but in a bigger amount. The aim of this study was to investigate the gravimetric composition of the waste generated in the school restaurant of a higher-education institution in southern Brazil and provide a diagnostic of the current waste management. The data were obtained through a characterization process of the solid waste generated in one week; an interview with the responsible managers and direct observation of the local structure. It was found non-existence of a Management Plan for Solid Waste, as well as a lack of practices relative to its management. The waste segregation is impaired due the lack of specific and labeled bins, besides the overworked employees. Along the experimental period it were characterized 547,068 Kg of solid waste, in which more than 80% were organic waste. The paper concludes that the organic waste could be treated by composting. It is recommended the formulation and implementation of an integrated management plan for solid waste in order to provide adequate infrastructure for waste management in the school restaurant.

  5. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach AT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  6. Current practices in percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Mexico: results of a nation-wide electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christian I Villeda; Roca, Benjamin E Montaño; Molina, Ricardo A Castillejos; Mendez-Probst, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Practice patterns and choice of technological instruments in PCNL are not always standardized. There are no previous reports on the PCNL practice tendencies and patterns in Latin America. The aim of the study is to describe the current practice patterns of PCNL among the members of the Mexican Society of Urology ("Sociedad Mexicana de Urologia"). Observational and descriptive study. A 9-item closed questionnaire on PCNL practice patterns was answered by members of the Mexican Society of Urology in a secure website hosted survey after e-mail invitation. A descriptive numerical and graphical analysis was performed. A total of 90 contestants were registered out of 492 potential participants. PCNL is performed by 80% of the participants, with an average of 16 procedures per year. Percutaneous tracts are commonly obtained by urologists on the same day of the procedure. Sequential and telescopic dilators are equally preferred over balloons. The pneumatic litotriptor is the most common choice and CT scan and X-ray are equally used as follow-up. The practice patterns of PCNL from Mexican urologists are different from other international reports. Influence of socio-economic circumstances is inferred.

  7. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

    2008-12-15

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

  8. Rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair: a survey of current UK practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Bateman, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Rotator cuff disorders, including rotator cuff tears, are common and can be treated conservatively or surgically. Data suggest that the incidence of surgery to repair the rotator cuff is rising. Despite this rise, the most effective approach to postoperative rehabilitation, a critical component of the recovery process, is not well developed. The present study aimed to describe current practice in the UK in relation to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair. An electronic survey was developed and disseminated to UK based physiotherapists and surgeons involved with rotator cuff repair. One hundred valid responses were received. Although there is a degree of variation, current practice for the majority of respondents consists of sling immobilization for 4 weeks to 6 weeks. During this time, passive movement would be commenced before active movement is introduced towards the end of this phase. Resisted exercise begins 7 weeks to 12 weeks postoperatively, alongside return to light work. A progressive resumption of function, including manual work and sport, is advised from approximately 13 weeks. In the context of the current literature, it might be suggested that the current approach to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair for the majority of respondents is somewhat cautious and has not progressed for over a decade.

  9. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Quartey, Ebo; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and...

  10. Waste biomass and energy transition. Proven practices, new developments and visions; Abfall-Biomasse und Energiewende. Bewaehrtes, Neues und Visionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Wallmann, Rainer (ed.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Werra-Meissner Kreis, Eschwege (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This book contains 17 papers that were presented at the 75th meeting of the ANS. The following main topics are covered: waste management in the context of climate protection and the energy turnaround; optimised materials management; carbon: climate killer or indispensable raw material?; climate protection in Germany - why and how?; treatment techniques for waste biomass; the amended Renewable Energy Law - sensible adaptation or impediment to the energy turnaround?; putting ideas into practice: examples and opportunities. Four of the contributions have been abstracted individually for this database. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt 17 Beitraege, die auf dem 75. Symposium des ANS vorgetragen wurden. Die Themenschwerpunkte waren: Abfallwirtschaft im Kontext des Klimaschutzes und der Energiewende; Optimiertes Stoffmanagement; Kohlenstoff: Klimakiller oder unverzichtbare Rohstoff?; Klimaschutz in Deutschland - Warum und wie?; Behandlungstechniken von Abfall-Biomasse; Novellierung des EEG - Sinnvolle Anpassung oder Breme der Energiewende; Der Weg in die Praxis: Beispiele und Chancen. Vier der Beitraege wurden separarat fuer diese Datenbank aufgenommen.

  11. Questioning current practice in brown bear, Ursus arctos, conservation in Europe that undervalues taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gippoliti, S.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper highlights problems associated with the currently–accepted taxonomy of brown bear, Ursus arctos, and their consequences for conservation at the European level. The enormous morphological variability within Ursus arctos is not acknowledged in current taxonomy and conservation practice. Seven major clades are recognized in Ursus arctos by molecular researchers, and although Western Europe maintains most of the populations belonging to the relict Clade 1 brown bear lineage, no reference to this is made in current conservation policy. Furthermore, the tiny population of Apennine brown bears, characterized by unique skull morphology, is not even recognized as a distinct ESU (evolutionari significant unit) by current European legislation, nor is it included in the IUCN Red List. This may have serious consequences as brown bear conservation in Western Europe has been mainly based on restocking and reintroduction programs. (Author)

  12. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  13. Investigating influences on current community pharmacy practice at micro, meso, and macro levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    The nature of Australian community pharmacy is continually evolving, raising the need to explore the current situation in order to understand the potential impact of any changes. Although community pharmacy has the potential to play a greater role in health care, it is currently not meeting this potential. To investigate the nature of the contemporary practice of community pharmacy in Australia and examine the potential missed opportunities for role expansion in health care. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a wide-range of key stakeholders within and beyond community pharmacy circles were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for emerging themes. Twenty-seven key informants across Eastern half of Australia were interviewed between December 2014 and August 2015. Several key elements of the current situation representing the social, economic and policy context of community pharmacy have been identified. These elements operate interdependently, influence micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation and are changing in the current climate. Community pharmacy has untapped potential in primary health care, but it has been slow to change to meet opportunities available in the current situation. As the current situation is complex, interrelated and dynamic with often unintended and unpredictable consequences, this paper suggests that policy makers to consider the micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation when making significant policy changes. The framework proposed in this study can be a helpful tool to analyze the processes operating at these three levels and their influences on practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  15. A revisit on the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR in the Malaysian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Suhaimi Mohd Danuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current dispute resolution procedures available in the Malaysian construction industry are mainly litigation and arbitration. In addition, the alternative dispute resolutions (ADR, namely mediation and adjudication, have also been introduced as the other methods for resolving disputes. The objective of this study is to examine the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR available in the Malaysian construction industry. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to report the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR, and identify the attributes of successful implementation of both mechanisms based on the perceptions of the Malaysian construction industry players. From the jurisprudence point of view, this study looks into the law as it is, in relation to the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR, by showing how those findings can be used to explain why improvement is needed to promote a successful and well received dispute resolution and ADR, and what lessons can be learnt, towards the formulation of a more viable methods for the Malaysian construction industry. NVivo software has been used to manage and organise the complete interview transcripts and facilitate the data analysis process for this study. Literature review reveals a continuous development of dispute resolution and ADR in the Malaysian construction industry, while, globally the industry has not only embraced ADR but also spearheaded the development of innovative forms of dispute avoidance mechanism. The findings of interviews show that locally, apart from litigation, the common types of ADR are arbitration, mediation and ad hoc mechanism. The findings also lead to the discovery of the following attributes: faster, less procedural, cost effective and enforceable; regulation and government's support; professionalism and ethic; training; and facility, that may promote a successful implementation of dispute resolution and ADR in Malaysia.

  16. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  17. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  18. Current pharmacotherapy for obesity: extrapolation of clinical trials data to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Kishore M

    2014-04-01

    When used prudently and in combination with lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy has an important role in the management of obesity. This review covers targets for antiobesity drugs, challenges and limitations, failed translation of basic science to clinical practice, methodological and regulatory issues in clinical trials of pharmacotherapy, efficacy and risks of drugs currently approved for obesity, and clinical practice issues when using antiobesity drugs with emphasis on recently approved drugs. Drugs currently approved for long-term therapy of obesity offer modest benefits for most patients, substantial benefits for some and no benefits for others. Numerous methodological problems including exclusion of the type of patients who are most often seen in clinical practices, inadequate enrollment of men and minorities, exclusion of patients taking antidepressants, high dropout rates, lack of follow-up after treatment discontinuation, and less than ideal imputation methods in data analysis limit the interpretation of clinical trials data and generalizability. Single-drug therapies offer small to moderate weight-loss benefits, but are generally better tolerated. Efficacy is enhanced with combination drug therapies, but so are the hazards. Clinicians should base their decisions on the expected and observed benefit-to-risk balance.

  19. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  20. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients: Review and Recommendations for Current Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bhargava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, frequently with contrast enhancement, is the preferred imaging modality for many indications in children. Practice varies widely between centers, reflecting the rapid pace of change and the need for further research. Guideline changes, for example on contrast-medium choice, require continued practice reappraisal. This article reviews recent developments in pediatric contrast-enhanced MRI and offers recommendations on current best practice. Nine leading pediatric radiologists from internationally recognized radiology centers convened at a consensus meeting in Bordeaux, France, to discuss applications of contrast-enhanced MRI across a range of indications in children. Review of the literature indicated that few published data provide guidance on best practice in pediatric MRI. Discussion among the experts concluded that MRI is preferred over ionizing-radiation modalities for many indications, with advantages in safety and efficacy. Awareness of age-specific adaptations in MRI technique can optimize image quality. Gadolinium-based contrast media are recommended for enhancing imaging quality. The choice of most appropriate contrast medium should be based on criteria of safety, tolerability, and efficacy, characterized in age-specific clinical trials and personal experience.

  1. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  2. Advanced MRI Techniques of the Shoulder Joint: Current Applications in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsegen, Christopher J; Merkle, Alexander N; Bencardino, Jenny T; Gyftopoulos, Soterios

    2017-09-01

    We are fortunate to live in a time when real advances in medicine are happening at an increasingly rapid pace. This is especially true in the field of radiology, and keeping abreast of these advances is one of the main challenges of clinical practice. Traditionally, cutting edge techniques in our field have been researched and validated at major academic medical centers before slowly making their way into the armamentarium of routine clinical practice. However, the improved ability to communicate and disseminate information in our modern age has facilitated more rapid implementation of new techniques to allow us to better serve our patients. As such, this article aims to review the current standards for MRI of the shoulder used in routine practice. Furthermore, we will discuss some of the most recent advances in shoulder MRI, with particular emphasis on the applicability of an additional axial 3D T1-weighted FLASH sequence with Dixon-based water-fat separation in routine clinical practice that can be useful in characterizing several commonly encountered pathologic processes of the shoulder joint.

  3. Current and previous eating practices among women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimitrov Ulian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how women, who have recovered from anorexia nervosa, perceive and describe their current eating practices, as well as the ones developed during the eating disorder period. METHODS: Seven women were interviewed individually with the objective of investigating their eating practices, transition phases and all relevant aspects that somewhat contributed to the habit-forming; experiences, feelings and perceptions related to mealtime and the influence that food has had over the present subjects' life. The interviews were analyzed by the discourse of the collective subject method. RESULTS: The results brought up the following topics: a control; b concerns and feelings; c deprivation d beauty dictatorship; e eating competence; f importance of food; g food cacophony. CONCLUSIONS: What stands out is a multiplicity of eating practices, which during the eating disorder were similar to and characterized by restriction; however, after recovery, part of the subjects seem to have developed a higher eating competence, whereas others show a practice similar to the one acquired during the anorexia nervosa, such as the difficulty in realizing when they are satisfied and a feeling of discomfort when facing social interactions.

  4. 78 FR 69604 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... 3646), entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive...

  5. 78 FR 24691 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... the proposed rule, ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive...

  6. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability...... Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities......The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted...

  7. Current thinking in qualitative research: evidence-based practice, moral philosophies, and political struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina; Magasi, Susan; Frank, Gelya

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue on current thinking in qualitative research and occupational therapy and science, the authors focus on the importance of rigorous qualitative research to inform occupational therapy practice. The authors chosen for this special issue reflect a "second generation of qualitative researchers" who are critical, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically productive, and politically relevant to show that working with disabled clients is political work. Three themes emerged across the articles included in this special issue: (1) recognizing and addressing social justice issues; (2) learning from clients' experiences; and (3) critically reframing occupational therapy's role. These themes can inform occupational therapy practice, research, and education to reflect a more client-centered and politically engaging approach. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Current best practice in the management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Rosemary; O’Brien, Patrick; Khalil, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a potentially serious complication of pregnancy with increasing significance worldwide. Preeclampsia is the cause of 9%–26% of global maternal mortality and a significant proportion of preterm delivery, and maternal and neonatal morbidity. Incidence is increasing in keeping with the increase in obesity, maternal age, and women with medical comorbidities entering pregnancy. Recent developments in the understanding of the pathophysiology of preeclampsia have opened new avenues for prevention, screening, and management of this condition. In addition it is known that preeclampsia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in both the mother and the child and presents an opportunity for early preventative measures. New tools for early detection, prevention, and management of preeclampsia have the potential to revolutionize practice in the coming years. This review presents the current best practice in diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:27555797

  9. Management of gout in the real world: current practice versus guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghramji, Paul P; Fermer, Steve; Wood, Robert; Morlock, Robert; Baumgartner, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a chronic, extremely painful disease that is potentially curable when treated effectively. Unfortunately approximately one-half of patients with gout are inadequately controlled. We surveyed 315 primary care physicians in the United States and Europe to investigate current practice in the real world, as distinct from recommendations in guidelines. Our survey on 1657 patients found that regular testing of serum uric acid, in conformity with the guidelines, was conducted by approximately 50% of physicians. Advice to patients on diet and lifestyle was less well implemented, and identification of overweight/obese patients was inconsistent. Improvements in practice by physicians would include comprehensive assessment of the patient, adoption of regular monitoring during treatment, and the provision of patient education on adherence and lifestyle.

  10. Trends in Dental Practice Sales and Associateships in the Current Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steven Wolff

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiences would suggest that there is a significant discrepancy in the number of doctors retiring and transitioning their practices and the number of younger practitioners wishing to assume ownership and build a career. Peaks and valleys in dental school enrollment over the last forty years should have produced an abundance of retirement aged doctors wishing to place their practices on the market to a smaller pool of buyers. Such is currently not the case. Doctors in their sixties have experienced recent stock market downturns in 2000 and 2008, the “9-11” tragedy and a drop in both the value and liquidity of the housing market. The ready access to refinance or second mortgage funds may even find some doctors upside down on personal, vacation and investment real estate. All of this combined has had considerable negative impact on their net worth. Health care costs continue to increase and most dentists are personally responsible for their premiums. Combine all of this with the current low level of secure returns on invested capital along with a significant increase in life expectancy over the last two generations and many decide they are simply unable to retire as planned. The fear of running out of money is stronger than their will to pursue retirement. This article examines in some detail the reasons for this imbalance and the effects they are having on practice transitions, practice values and the market for associate employment. We will also explore what the future may hold for both retiring and new career doctors.

  11. Architects' perspectives on construction waste reduction by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, M; Glass, J; Price, A D F

    2008-01-01

    The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.

  12. An overview of current non-nuclear radioactive waste management in the Nordic countries and considerations on possible needs for enhanced inter-Nordic cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brewitz, Erica; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    This report is the final deliverable of a project commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers for NKS to assess the current situation in the Nordic countries with respect to management of non-nuclear radioactive waste. The ultimate goal was to examine if any needs could be identified for en...

  13. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  14. An audit on the current practice of red blood cell transfusion following elective primary hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgönenel, Bülent; Kanhere, Rujuta; O'Malley, Barbara; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Eisenbrey, A Bradley

    2007-08-01

    This audit encompassing a six-month period on the current practice of red blood cell transfusion following elective primary total hip arthroplasty showed that the rate of allogeneic blood avoidance was 84.8% for preoperative autologous blood donors and 47.8% for non-donors (p<0.001). Lower preoperative hemoglobin level was associated with an increased allogeneic unit transfusion (p<0.001). The intraoperative use of autologous blood collection and transfusion systems did not reduce the transfusion risk, and the use of the colloid volume expander was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of transfusion (p=0.022).

  15. Design and operation of a current good manufacturing practices cell-engineering laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, S R

    2000-01-01

    Medical centers and biotechnology companies active in cellular and gene therapy increasingly are working to design and build clinical laboratories capable of performing cellular engineering and vector production using current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs). Because cell engineering is a rapidly changing field, and definitions for cell engineering cGMPs are still being established, a cGMP cell-engineering laboratory most often should be designed with a broad range of potential applications in mind. While the laboratory facility is the most tangible aspect of cGMP, it represents only part of a larger process, which it must be designed and built to support.

  16. Myocardial perfusion imaging in Denmark: activity from 1997 to 2001 and current practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to all departments of nuclear medicine in Denmark (n=20) asking for details of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), including the number of patients examined each year from 1997 to 2001 and the current clinical and technical practice. All (100%) departments replied...... studies was dipyridamole/adenosine in 76%, exercise in 18% and dobutamine in 6%. Despite these encouraging figures, MPI activity for 2001 remained well below what is recommended by other national and international societies. The anticipated further increase in nuclear cardiology is encouraging...

  17. Assessment of current practices in creating and using passwords as a control mechanism for information access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Wessels

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical issues in managing information within an organization is to ensure that proper controls exist and are applied in allowing people access to information. Passwords are used extensively as the main control mechanism to identify users wanting access to systems, applications, data files, network servers or personal information. In this article, the issues involved in selecting and using passwords are discussed and the current practices employed by users in creating and storing passwords to gain access to sensitive information are assessed. The results of this survey conclude that information managers cannot rely only on users to employ proper password control in order to protect sensitive information.

  18. Opinion and Special Articles: Loan forgiveness options for young neurologists: Current landscape and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Benjamin P; Dorsey, E Ray; Grischkan, Justin A

    2017-04-11

    Increasing education debt has led to the availability of a variety of loan forgiveness options including the Department of Education's Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program. This article discusses the current landscape of loan forgiveness options including trends in PSLF for rising neurology trainees, and implications for choices in specialization, employment, practice location, and the pursuit of an academic career. We further provide guidance on how to navigate the various loan forgiveness options that neurology residents and fellows may consider. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    bio-medical waste management among the health care providers working in primary health ... INTRODUCTION. Unwanted materials generated during diagnosis, treatment, operation, immunization or in research activities including production of biologicals is ..... Department of Geology: University of Lucknow, cited on. [3rd.

  20. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    cities in developing countries did not get proper SWM services and most ... knowledge on solid waste disposal in Dar es Salaam city. Specifically, the ...... Dubbeling M, Pasquini M (2010). The Growth of Cities in East-Africa: Consequences for Urban Food Supply (pp. 1–34). RUAF Foundation for the World Bank. Ezebilo EE ...

  1. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste : Review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of

  2. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Smartphone-Based Health Technologies for Dementia Care: Opportunities, Challenges, and Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellen Leslie; Ruggiano, Nicole; Li, Juanjuan; Clarke, Peter J; Kay, Emma S; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2017-08-01

    Most of the 5.4 million people affected by Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia (AD) are noninstitutionalized, receiving care by unpaid family caregivers and medically managed by a primary care provider (PCP). Health Information Technology has been recognized for its potential in improving efficiency and quality of AD care and support for AD caregivers. Simultaneously, smartphone technologies have become an increasingly common way to deliver physical and behavioral health care. However, little is known about how smartphone technologies have been used to support AD caregiving and care. This article highlights the current need for smartphone-based interventions for AD and systematically identified and appraised current smartphone apps targeting and available for AD caregivers. Findings indicate that individual available apps have limited functions (compared with the complex needs of caregivers) and little has been done to extend AD caregiving apps to Hispanic populations. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  4. Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Bom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the City of Laramie, Wyoming. Recycling in Laramie began in 1983 with the establishment of the Ark Recycling Center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011, and in April 2012 the city declared its long-term goal to achieve a 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand the public participation landscape and the factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. The quantitative results of the survey responses were used to create a civic engagement score, a recycling importance score, and recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores to measure residents’ perceptions of the recycling program. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore the efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming, and Ark Regional Services. The results show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated that environmental concern was the major motivation to recycle, which was related to a high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The study further indicated that Laramie should develop an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies, and a Master Plan to encourage stronger public participation to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 goal.

  5. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  6. A Method for Optimizing Waste Management and Disposal Practices Using a Group-Based Uncertainty Model for the Analysis of Characterization Data - 13191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, A.; Clapham, M.; Lucero, R.; West, J. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    It is a universal requirement for characterization of radioactive waste, that the consignor shall calculate and report a Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) value associated with each of the measured quantities such as nuclide activity. For Non-destructive Assay systems, the TMU analysis is typically performed on an individual container basis. However, in many cases, the waste consignor treats, transports, stores and disposes of containers in groups for example by over-packing smaller containers into a larger container or emplacing containers into groups for final disposal. The current standard practice for container-group data analysis is usually to treat each container as independent and uncorrelated and use a simple summation / averaging method (or in some cases summation of TMU in quadrature) to define the overall characteristics and associated uncertainty in the container group. In reality, many groups of containers are assayed on the same system, so there will be a large degree of co-dependence in the individual uncertainty elements. Many uncertainty terms may be significantly reduced when addressing issues such as the source position and variability in matrix contents over large populations. The systematic terms encompass both inherently 'two-directional' random effects (e.g. variation of source position) and other terms that are 'one-directional' i.e. designed to account for potential sources of bias. An analysis has been performed with population groups of a variety of non-destructive assay platforms in order to define a quantitative mechanism for waste consignors to determine overall TMU for batches of containers that have been assayed on the same system. (authors)

  7. Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for sustainable concrete practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Sadiqul Islam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Million tons of waste glass is being generated annually all over the world. Once the glass becomes a waste it is disposed as landfills, which is unsustainable as this does not decompose in the environment. Glass is principally composed of silica. Use of milled (ground waste glass in concrete as partial replacement of cement could be an important step toward development of sustainable (environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and economical infrastructure systems. When waste glass is milled down to micro size particles, it is expected to undergo pozzolanic reactions with cement hydrates, forming secondary Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C–S–H. In this research chemical properties of both clear and colored glass were evaluated. Chemical analysis of glass and cement samples was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF technique and found minor differences in composition between clear and colored glasses. Flow and compressive strength tests on mortar and concrete were carried out by adding 0–25% ground glass in which water to binder (cement + glass ratio is kept the same for all replacement levels. With increase in glass addition mortar flow was slightly increased while a minor effect on concrete workability was noted. To evaluate the packing and pozzolanic effects, further tests were also conducted with same mix details and 1% super plasticizing admixture dose (by weight of cement and generally found an increase in compressive strength of mortars with admixture. As with mortar, concrete cube samples were prepared and tested for strength (until 1 year curing. The compressive strength test results indicated that recycled glass mortar and concrete gave better strength compared to control samples. A 20% replacement of cement with waste glass was found convincing considering cost and the environment.

  8. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  9. Physicians' current practices and opportunities for DNA banking of dying patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, John M; Bodurtha, Joann N; Siminoff, Laura A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-05-01

    The availability of genetic tests for cancer susceptibility is increasing. Current tests, however, have limited clinical sensitivity. Even when clinically valid tests are available, the genetic counseling and informed consent process might not be feasible for dying patients with cancer. DNA banking preserves the opportunity for future research or clinical testing and may provide critical opportunities for surviving relatives. This study explored the current practices and potential for DNA banking for cancer susceptibility among oncologists specializing in palliative care. Palliative care oncologists actively providing clinical care for dying patients with cancer were recruited for an online survey. Descriptive statistics for DNA banking practices, perceived qualification to recommend banking, and potential predictors were assessed. Data were collected from 49 physicians (37% recruitment rate). Eighty percent reported assessing at least some patients for genetic cancer susceptibility in the past 12 months. No participants reported banking DNA for patients in the past 12 months. Only 5% reported feeling at least somewhat qualified to order DNA banking. A Web-based risk assessment tool and genetic counselor on staff were perceived as the most helpful potential resources. Despite its potential, DNA banking is not being used by palliative care oncologists.

  10. The management of cellulitis and erysipelas at an academic emergency department: current practice versus the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulitis and erysipelas are common presentations to emergency departments and family physicians. Evidence-based guidelines for appropriate management of these infections exist in Canada, but inconsistent practices persist. Our objective was to determine the level of adherence to current evidence and guidelines by emergency physicians at the two hospitals in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. We identified all of the electronic medical records of patients who were seen at Kingston General Hospital or Hotel Dieu Hospital between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015 and given a diagnosis of cellulitis or erysipelas. We randomly selected 182 charts and conducted a retrospective chart review, manually collecting data for patient demographics, medical history, and medical management. Oral cephalexin alone was given to 44% of our sample, and it was the most common form of therapy for uncomplicated cellulitis. 36% of patients given any antibiotics at all received at least one dose of parenteral antibiotics, despite only 6.7% of these patients showing systemic signs of illness. 88% of those receiving parenteral antibiotics received ceftriaxone, a broad-spectrum, third generation cephalosporin. We found wide variation in antibiotic selection and route of administration for patients presenting to the emergency department with cellulitis or erysipelas. Overuse of antibiotics is common, and we believe the use of parenteral antibiotics may have been unnecessary for some patients in our sample. Emergency physicians should align their management plans more closely with the current guidelines to improve practice and reduce unnecessary administration of broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics.

  11. A Survey on Current Practice of Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A C; Hossain, M I; Afroze, S; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-04-01

    It was a survey type of cross sectional study where the participants were from different teaching/referral hospital across the country and was done to gather information regarding current practice of management of neonatal sepsis among paediatricians and neonatologists and was conducted on the spot during a national conference of Bangladesh Perinatal Society in December 2013. Specialists in neonatology, paediatrics, and some other disciplines working in different institutes across the country were requested to respond. Out of 150 physicians, 92 (61.33%) were neonatologists. Physicians suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) when there is history suggestive of prolonged rupture of membrane (74.77%), prolonged labour (9.33%), chorioamnionitis (7.33%) and maternal fever (2%). Clinical sepsis is found commonly (53.33%) which is later proved by laboratory evidences such as Hb%, TC, DC PBF (peripheral blood film), C-reactive protein, chest X-ray etc. Injection Ampicillin and Gentamycin are still the first choice of antibiotics (61.3%). Preferred route was intravenous (95.3%). Antibiotics were given for 7-10 days by most of the physicians (48.77%). However there is lack of uniformity among the participants in regard to taking decision about antibiotics, the choice of first line and the subsequent options of antibiotics. So, neonatal sepsis is the most important cause of neonatal mortality in the community. Therefore a standard protocolized approach for diagnosis and management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis may prove critical which is currently not in practice uniformly.

  12. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics.

  13. Disclosure of Medical Errors in Oman: Public preferences and perceptions of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrish, Mark I K

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to provide insight into the preferences for and perceptions of medical error disclosure (MED) by members of the public in Oman. Between January and June 2012, an online survey was used to collect responses from 205 members of the public across five governorates of Oman. A disclosure gap was revealed between the respondents' preferences for MED and perceived current MED practices in Oman. This disclosure gap extended to both the type of error and the person most likely to disclose the error. Errors resulting in patient harm were found to have a strong influence on individuals' perceived quality of care. In addition, full disclosure was found to be highly valued by respondents and able to mitigate for a perceived lack of care in cases where medical errors led to damages. The perceived disclosure gap between respondents' MED preferences and perceptions of current MED practices in Oman needs to be addressed in order to increase public confidence in the national health care system.

  14. Physicians' Current Practices and Opportunities for DNA Banking of Dying Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, John M.; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The availability of genetic tests for cancer susceptibility is increasing. Current tests, however, have limited clinical sensitivity. Even when clinically valid tests are available, the genetic counseling and informed consent process might not be feasible for dying patients with cancer. DNA banking preserves the opportunity for future research or clinical testing and may provide critical opportunities for surviving relatives. This study explored the current practices and potential for DNA banking for cancer susceptibility among oncologists specializing in palliative care. Methods: Palliative care oncologists actively providing clinical care for dying patients with cancer were recruited for an online survey. Descriptive statistics for DNA banking practices, perceived qualification to recommend banking, and potential predictors were assessed. Results: Data were collected from 49 physicians (37% recruitment rate). Eighty percent reported assessing at least some patients for genetic cancer susceptibility in the past 12 months. No participants reported banking DNA for patients in the past 12 months. Only 5% reported feeling at least somewhat qualified to order DNA banking. A Web-based risk assessment tool and genetic counselor on staff were perceived as the most helpful potential resources. Conclusion: Despite its potential, DNA banking is not being used by palliative care oncologists. PMID:21886501

  15. Delivering communication strategy training for people with aphasia: what is current clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-03-01

    Communication strategy training (CST) is a recognized part of UK speech and language therapists' (SLTs) role when working with a person with aphasia. Multiple CST interventions have been published but, to date, there are no published studies exploring clinical practice in this area. To investigate UK SLTs' current CST practices. Thirty-seven UK SLTs completed an online questionnaire, eight of whom attended a follow-up focus group. A clinical consistency scale was applied to the questionnaire data and tasks that were most consistently used were explored in the focus group and analyzed using a primarily deductive thematic data analysis approach. Three key CST findings arose: (1) the rarity with which SLTs focus equally and explicitly on both communication partners' strategies; (2) SLTs' differing understandings of CST terminologies and concepts and underuse of formal assessment; and (3) the absence of video feedback. This study's survey findings suggest that conversation partners not only receive half the amount of CST given to people with aphasia but also play a more passive learning role when they are present. This is an interesting point to consider when the current evidence base contains stronger evidence for the effectiveness of conversation partner CST over other CST approaches, it being described as an effective method that may be maintained over time. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Current practices of Asia-Pacific cardiologists in the utilization of bioresorbable scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, B B; Chandra, Praveen; Cheng, Jack Jun; Dick, Ron; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Hiremath, M S; Huan, Do Quang; Jeamanukoolkit, Anuruck; Jiang, Tiemin; Kwok, On-Hing; Lim, Michael C L; Low, Adrian F; Mathew, Rony; Mathew, Samuel K; McClean, Dougal; Nakamura, Sunao; Nguyen, Michael; Qiao, Shubin; Santoso, Teguh; Saxena, Sudheer; Schultz, Carl; Sengottuvelu, G; Seth, Ashok; Simonton, Charles A; Soo, Chee Siong; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wasan, Udayachalerm; Whelan, Alan; Wong, Chris; Yap, Yee Guan

    2016-11-01

    Although Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds (A-BVS) are routinely used in the Asia-Pacific, there is little information on patient selection or deployment technique here. This document investigates the experiences of leading interventional cardiologists from the Asia-Pacific region with a focus on patient characteristics, deployment techniques and management. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to 28 highly-experienced interventional cardiologists ('Authors') from 13 Asia-Pacific countries. The results were discussed at a meeting on patient selection, technical consideration, deployment practices and patient management. Potential patient benefits of Absorb compared to metallic DES, the learning curve for patient selection and preparation, device deployment, and subsequent patient management approaches are presented. Current practices are derived from guidelines optimized for European patients. Differences in approach exist in the Asia-Pacific context, including limited access to imaging and frequency of occurrence of complex lesions. Nevertheless, the use of the Absorb BVS ('Absorb') in certain Asia-Pacific countries has flourished and practices here are continuing to mature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Family Physicians' Satisfaction with Current Practice: What Is the Role of Their Interactions with Specialists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Amardeep; Freeman, Tom; Thorpe, Cathy; Burt, Andrea; Stewart, Moira

    2009-01-01

    Provision of high-quality care sometimes necessitates a referral to, and receipt of timely feedback from, specialist physicians. Interaction with specialists is a key role of family physicians, but it has not received significant attention with respect to its impact on family physician satisfaction. The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from a decennial census of family physicians in southwestern Ontario. The conceptual framework was based on the model developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) Career Satisfaction Work Group. More than two-thirds of respondents were “very satisfied” with their current practice. Stepwise regression analysis based on a generalized linear model showed that greater difficulty in referring patients to specialists was associated with 23% lower odds of being “very satisfied”. Not receiving a timely response from specialists was associated with 26% higher odds of not being “very satisfied.” Marital status, teaching involvement and practice volume were also associated with satisfaction. The findings indicate that the practice of family medicine offers a fulfilling career in today's medical marketplace. However, linkages and feedback between family physicians and specialists need to be augmented. PMID:19377349

  18. Current practice in software development for computational neuroscience and how to improve it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Cannon, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research work in computational neuroscience involves software. As researchers try to understand ever more complex systems, there is a continual need for software with new capabilities. Because of the wide range of questions being investigated, new software is often developed rapidly by individuals or small groups. In these cases, it can be hard to demonstrate that the software gives the right results. Software developers are often open about the code they produce and willing to share it, but there is little appreciation among potential users of the great diversity of software development practices and end results, and how this affects the suitability of software tools for use in research projects. To help clarify these issues, we have reviewed a range of software tools and asked how the culture and practice of software development affects their validity and trustworthiness. We identified four key questions that can be used to categorize software projects and correlate them with the type of product that results. The first question addresses what is being produced. The other three concern why, how, and by whom the work is done. The answers to these questions show strong correlations with the nature of the software being produced, and its suitability for particular purposes. Based on our findings, we suggest ways in which current software development practice in computational neuroscience can be improved and propose checklists to help developers, reviewers, and scientists to assess the quality of software and whether particular pieces of software are ready for use in research.

  19. Current practice in software development for computational neuroscience and how to improve it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Oliver Gewaltig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all research work in computational neuroscience involves software. As researchers try to understand ever more complex systems, there is a continual need for software with new capabilities. Because of the wide range of questions being investigated, new software is often developed rapidly by individuals or small groups. In these cases, it can be hard to demonstrate that the software gives the right results. Software developers are often open about the code they produce and willing to share it, but there is little appreciation among potential users of the great diversity of software development practices and end results, and how this affects the suitability of software tools for use in research projects. To help clarify these issues, we have reviewed a range of software tools and asked how the culture and practice of software development affects their validity and trustworthiness. We identified four key questions that can be used to categorize software projects and correlate them with the type of product that results. The first question addresses what is being produced. The other three concern why, how, and by whom the work is done. The answers to these questions show strong correlations with the nature of the software being produced, and its suitability for particular purposes. Based on our findings, we suggest ways in which current software development practice in computational neuroscience can be improved and propose checklists to help developers, reviewers, and scientists to assess the quality of software and whether particular pieces of software are ready for use in research.

  20. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.