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  1. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Creating Lessons for Adult ESOL Learners: Getting Started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This paper offers a series of practical, useful tips for creating lessons for adult English language learners (ELLs). It begins by offering seven questions to help the teacher think through the lesson ahead of time. It also provides tips for creating a general lesson plan, and tips for tapping the four language modes: speaking, listening, reading,…

  4. Start-up performances of dry anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of organic solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shu-guang; IMAI Tsuyoshi; UKITA Masao; SEKINE Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    Two dry anaerobic digestions of organic solid wastes were conducted for 6 weeks in a lab-scale batch experiment for investigating the start-up performances under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The enzymatic activities,i.e., β-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-α -benzoyl-L-argininamide (BAA)-hydrolysing protease, urease and phosphatase activities were analysed. The lower BAA-hydrolysing protease activity during the first 2-3 weeks was due to the inhibition of the low pH, but was enhanced simultaneously later with the pH increase. β-glucosidase activity showed the lowest values in weeks 1-2, and recovered simultaneously with the increase of BAA-hydrolysing protease activity. Acetic acid dominated most of the total VFAs in thermophilic digestion, while propionate and butyrate dominated in mesophilic digestion. Thermophilic digestion is confirmed more feasible for achieving better performance against misbalance, especially during the start-up period in a dry anaerobic digestion process.

  5. KINEMATICS OF THE TYPICAL BEACH FLAGS START FOR YOUNG ADULT SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled beach flags start kinematics for experienced young adult sprinters. Five males and three females (age = 20.8 ± 2.1 years; height = 1.70 ± 0.06 meters [m]; mass = 63.9 ± 6.0 kilograms completed four sprints using their competition start technique. A high-speed camera, positioned laterally, filmed the start. Data included: start time; hand clearance time; posterior movement from the start line; feet spacing during the start; elbow, hip, knee, trunk lean, and trajectory angles at take-off; and first step length. Timing gates recorded 0-2, 0-5, and 0-20 m time. Spearman's correlations identified variables relating (p < 0.05 to faster start and sprint times. The beach flags start involved sprinters moving 0.18 ± 0.05 m posterior to the start line by flexing both legs underneath the body before turning. Following the turn, the feet were positioned 0.47 ± 0.07 apart. This distance negatively correlated with start (ρ = -0.647, 0-2 (ρ = -0.683, and 0-5 m (ρ = -0.766 time. Beach flags start kinematics at take-off resembled research analyzing track starts and acceleration. The elbow extension angle (137.62 ± 13.45° of the opposite arm to the drive leg correlated with 0-2 (ρ = -0.762, 0-5 (ρ = -0.810, and 0-20 m (ρ = -0.810 time. Greater arm extension likely assisted with stability during the start, leading to enhanced sprint performance. The drive leg knee extension angle (146.36 ± 2.26° correlated with start time (ρ = -0.677, indicating a contribution to a faster start completion. A longer first step following the start related to faster 0-5 m time (ρ = -0.690. Sprinters quicker over 0-2 and 0-5 m were also quicker over 20 m (ρ = 0.881-0.952. Beach flags sprinters must ensure their start is completed quickly, such that they can attain a high speed throughout the race

  6. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  7. European consensus for starting and stopping enzyme replacement therapy in adult patients with Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Toscano, A.

    2017-01-01

    synthesis is presented. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on how the diagnosis of Pompe disease should be confirmed, when treatment should be started, reasons for stopping treatment and the use of ERT during pregnancy. This was based on expert opinion and supported by the literature. One clinical trial and 43......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pompe disease is a rare inheritable muscle disorder for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. Uniform criteria for starting and stopping ERT in adult patients were developed and reported here. METHODS: Three consensus meetings were organized...... through the European Pompe Consortium, a network of experts from 11 European countries in the field of Pompe disease. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of ERT in adult patients on a range of clinical outcome measures and quality of life. A narrative...

  8. New Frontiers in the Catalytic Synthesis of Levulinic Acid: From Sugars to Raw and Waste Biomass as Starting Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Levulinic acid (LA is one of the top bio-based platform molecules that can be converted into many valuable chemicals. It can be produced by acid catalysis from renewable resources, such as sugars, lignocellulosic biomass and waste materials, attractive candidates due to their abundance and environmentally benign nature. The LA transition from niche product to mass-produced chemical, however, requires its production from sustainable biomass feedstocks at low costs, adopting environment-friendly techniques. This review is an up-to-date discussion of the literature on the several catalytic systems that have been developed to produce LA from the different substrates. Special attention has been paid to the recent advancements on starting materials, moving from simple sugars to raw and waste biomasses. This aspect is of paramount importance from a sustainability point of view, transforming wastes needing to be disposed into starting materials for value-added products. This review also discusses the strategies to exploit the solid residues always obtained in the LA production processes, in order to attain a circular economy approach.

  9. Starting-up an anaerobic hybrid filter for the fermentation of waste water from food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Berardino, S. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisboa (Portugal); Bersi, R. [Istituto di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Univ. di Genova (Italy); Converti, A. [Istituto di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Univ. di Genova (Italy); Rovatti, M. [Istituto di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Univ. di Genova (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    The wastewater from a food processing factory, characterised by fluctuations of flow rate, organic strength, and pH, were originally treated by a traditional suspended-biomass digester working at about 25 C. In order to improve the digester efficiency, either in terms of degradation ability or biogas production yield, a set of tests has been carried out on laboratory scale, whose results indicated the way to correctly transform it into an anaerobic hybrid filter. The unacceptable conversion yield of organic substances into biogas observed in the original system has been improved by the presence of the filling medium, due to a marked increase in biomass retention time. The start-up of anaerobic digestion has been studied in this reactor at two different temperatures (25 and 30 C), in order to evaluate the possible advantage of heating the system, simulating continuous variations in feed strength, pH, and composition. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Lipases Immobilization for Effective Synthesis of Biodiesel Starting from Coffee Waste Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gardossi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  11. Lipases immobilization for effective synthesis of biodiesel starting from coffee waste oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Valerio; Veny, Harumi; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Navarini, Luciano; Ebert, Cynthia; Gardossi, Lucia

    2013-08-13

    Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein) in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol) and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  12. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed.

  13. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  14. Stopping and Starting: Experiences of Adults Returning to Formal Literacy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Vivienne; Cates, Julie; Hellyer, Jan; Leverton, Marianne; Robinson, Helen; Tobias, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of six adult literacy students revealed factors that had influenced them to stop and restart formal education: family conditions, traumatic events, initial schooling experiences, social networks, personal motivations, and informal learning experiences. The influence of contextual factors on literacy learning and characteristics of…

  15. Starting Young? Links between Childhood and Adult Participation in Culture and Science: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Elsley, Susan; McMellon, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This literature review considers the links between childhood and adult participation in cultural activities, including participation in science events. This includes attendance as members of an audience and participation in arts and cultural activities and as visitors at science attractions such as museums and science centres.

  16. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  17. Adaption of microbial community during the start-up stage of a thermophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xing; Deng, Ya-Yue; He, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zheng-Wei; Li, Qiang; Qin, Han; Chen, Jing-Tao; He, Ming-Xiong; Zhang, Min; Hu, Guo-Quan; Yin, Xiao-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A successful start-up enables acceleration of anaerobic digestion (AD) into steady state. The microbial community influences the AD performance during the start-up. To investigate how microbial communities changed during the start-up, microbial dynamics was analyzed via high-throughput sequencing in this study. The results confirmed that the AD was started up within 25 d. Thermophilic methanogens and bacterial members functioning in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and syntrophic oxidation became predominant during the start-up stage, reflecting a quick adaption of microorganisms to operating conditions. Such predominance also indicated the great contribution of these members to the fast start-up of AD. Redundancy analysis confirmed that the bacterial abundance significantly correlated with AD conditions. The stable ratio of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to aceticlastic methanogens is also important to maintain the stability of the AD process. This work will be helpful to understand the contribution of microbial community to the start-up of AD.

  18. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-01-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546

  19. A longitudinal study of systemic inflammation and recovery of lean body mass among malnourished HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Blevins, M; Woodd, Susannah;

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (NUSTART) trial in Tanzania and Zambia from 2011 to 2013. SUBJECTS/METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults with body mass index (BMI) of ...BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effects of inflammation on nutritional rehabilitation after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well understood. We assessed the relationship between inflammation and body composition among patients enrolled in the Nutritional Support for African Adults Starting...

  20. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  1. Start-up of a multi-stage system for biogas production and solid waste treatment in low-tech countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biey, E.M.; Musibono, E.D. [University of Kinshasa (Congo). Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Science and Technology, VLICO Project; Verstraete, W. [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Gent (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Vegetable fruit garden wastes were treated anaerobically using a multistage Dranco system. The digesters were composed of three 50 L vessels kept in mesophilic conditions. They were operating at 14.5-17% TS. By controlling the pH in the system, the start-up for biogas production was shortened to 60 days. The pH correction was a buffering which enhanced methanogenic activity in the digesters. With a loading rate of 4.1 kg VS/m{sup 3}reactor.day, the production of biogas was 5 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}reactor.day, and 60-70% methane content. This allowed making a multisystem by starting every 3 weeks with new vessels in order to maintain biogas production, to be used in industries or in local communities in low-tech countries. The designed model was started in Kinshasa (Congo) where a project is expected to treat one ton of solid waste on a daily basis, for a production of 100 m{sup 3} biogas. This cost effectiveness of the system is demonstrated and presents the opportunity for biowaste treatment coupled with environmental protection and substantial energy recovery. (author)

  2. Serum phosphate predicts early mortality in adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C Heimburger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa have high rates of mortality in the initial weeks of treatment. We assessed the association of serum phosphate with early mortality among HIV-infected adults with severe malnutrition and/or advanced immunosuppression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia with body mass index (BMI <16 kg/m(2 or CD4(+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/microL, or both, was followed prospectively during the first 12 weeks of ART. Detailed health and dietary intake history, review of systems, physical examination, serum metabolic panel including phosphate, and serum ferritin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were monitored. The primary outcome was mortality. Baseline serum phosphate was a significant predictor of mortality; participants alive at 12 weeks had a median value of 1.30 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.04, 1.43, compared to 1.06 mmol/L (IQR: 0.89, 1.27 among those who died (p<0.01. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in baseline phosphate was associated with an incremental decrease in mortality (AHR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.95. The association was independent of other metabolic parameters and known risk factors for early ART-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. While participant attrition represented a limitation, it was consistent with local program experience. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low serum phosphate at ART initiation was an independent predictor of early mortality among HIV patients starting ART with severe malnutrition or advanced immunosuppression. This may represent a physiologic phenomenon similar to refeeding syndrome, and may lead to therapeutic interventions that could reduce mortality.

  3. Clinical Differences between Younger and Older Adults with HIV/AIDS Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe: A Secondary Analysis of the DART Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sujal M.; Obuku, Ekwaro A.; Walker, Sarah A.; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Auerbach, Brandon J.; Hakim, James G.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Mugyenyi, Peter N.; Salata, Robert A.; Kityo, Cissy M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Clinical and immunological data about HIV in older adults from low and middle income countries is scarce. We aimed to describe differences between younger and older adults with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy in two low–income African countries. Methods Setting: HIV clinics in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Design: Secondary exploratory cross-sectional analysis of the DART randomized controlled trial. Outcome Measures: Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between adults aged 18-49 years (younger) and ≥ 50 years (older), using two exploratory multivariable logistic regression models, one with HIV viral load (measured in a subset pre-ART) and one without. Results A total of 3316 eligible participants enrolled in DART were available for analysis; 219 (7%) were ≥ 50 years and 1160 (35%) were male. Across the two adjusted regression models, older adults had significantly higher systolic blood pressure, lower creatinine clearance and were consistently less likely to be females compared to younger adults with HIV. Paradoxically, the models separately suggested that older adults had statistically significant (but not clinically important) higher CD4+ cell counts and higher plasma HIV–1 viral copies at initiation. Crude associations between older age and higher baseline hemoglobin, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and lower WHO clinical stage were not sustained in the adjusted analysis. Conclusions Our study found clinical and immunological differences between younger and older adults, in a cohort of Africans starting antiretroviral therapy. Further investigations should explore how these differences could be used to ensure equity in service delivery and affect outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24098434

  4. Clinical differences between younger and older adults with HIV/AIDS starting antiretroviral therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe: a secondary analysis of the DART trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal M Parikh

    Full Text Available Clinical and immunological data about HIV in older adults from low and middle income countries is scarce. We aimed to describe differences between younger and older adults with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy in two low-income African countries.HIV clinics in Uganda and Zimbabwe.Secondary exploratory cross-sectional analysis of the DART randomized controlled trial.Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between adults aged 18-49 years (younger and ≥ 50 years (older, using two exploratory multivariable logistic regression models, one with HIV viral load (measured in a subset pre-ART and one without.A total of 3316 eligible participants enrolled in DART were available for analysis; 219 (7% were ≥ 50 years and 1160 (35% were male. Across the two adjusted regression models, older adults had significantly higher systolic blood pressure, lower creatinine clearance and were consistently less likely to be females compared to younger adults with HIV. Paradoxically, the models separately suggested that older adults had statistically significant (but not clinically important higher CD4+ cell counts and higher plasma HIV-1 viral copies at initiation. Crude associations between older age and higher baseline hemoglobin, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and lower WHO clinical stage were not sustained in the adjusted analysis.Our study found clinical and immunological differences between younger and older adults, in a cohort of Africans starting antiretroviral therapy. Further investigations should explore how these differences could be used to ensure equity in service delivery and affect outcomes of antiretroviral therapy.

  5. The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Wresta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  7. Getting a head start: diet, sub-adult growth, and associative learning in a seed-eating passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Bonaparte

    Full Text Available Developmental stress, and individual variation in response to it, can have important fitness consequences. Here we investigated the consequences of variable dietary protein on the duration of growth and associative learning abilities of zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, which are obligate graminivores. The high-protein conditions that zebra finches would experience in nature when half-ripe seed is available were mimicked by the use of egg protein to supplement mature seed, which is low in protein content. Growth rates and relative body proportions of males reared either on a low-protein diet (mature seed only or a high-protein diet (seed plus egg were determined from body size traits (mass, head width, and tarsus measured at three developmental stages. Birds reared on the high-protein diet were larger in all size traits at all ages, but growth rates of size traits showed no treatment effects. Relative head size of birds reared on the two diets differed from age day 95 onward, with high-diet birds having larger heads in proportion to both tarsus length and body mass. High-diet birds mastered an associative learning task in fewer bouts than those reared on the low-protein diet. In both diet treatments, amount of sub-adult head growth varied directly, and sub-adult mass change varied inversely, with performance on the learning task. Results indicate that small differences in head growth during the sub-adult period can be associated with substantial differences in adult cognitive performance. Contrary to a previous report, we found no evidence for growth compensation among birds on the low-protein diet. These results have implications for the study of vertebrate cognition, developmental stress, and growth compensation.

  8. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Torrijos, Michel, E-mail: michel.torrijos@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Sousbie, Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lugardon, Aurelien [Naskeo Environnment, 52 rue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-92240 Malakoff (France); Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of

  9. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kgVS/m3 d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m3 CH4/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kgVS/m3 d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kgVS/m3 d and pH 5.5-6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m3 CH4/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  10. Application of the STOPP/START criteria: a systematic review of the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults, and evidence of clinical, humanistic and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Taylor, B; Sketris, I; Hayden, J; Byrne, S; O'Sullivan, D; Christie, R

    2013-10-01

    Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) has significant clinical, humanistic and economic impacts. Identifying PIP in older adults may reduce their burden of adverse drug events. Tools with explicit criteria are being developed to screen for PIP in this population. These tools vary in their ability to identify PIP in specific care settings and jurisdictions due to such factors as local prescribing practices and formularies. One promising set of screening tools are the STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool of Alert doctors to the Right Treatment) criteria. We conducted a systematic review of research studies that describe the application of the STOPP/START criteria and examined the evidence of the impact of STOPP/START on clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes in older adults. We performed a systematic review of studies from relevant biomedical databases and grey literature sources published from January 2007 to January 2012. We searched citation and reference lists and contacted content experts to identify additional studies. Two authors independently selected studies using a predefined protocol. We did not restrict selection to particular study designs; however, non-English studies were excluded during the selection process. Independent extraction of articles by two authors used predefined data fields. For randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing STOPP/START to other explicit criteria, we assessed risk of bias using an adapted tool. We included 13 studies: a single randomized controlled trial and 12 observational studies. We performed a descriptive analysis as heterogeneity of study populations, interventions and study design precluded meta-analysis. All observational studies reported the prevalence of PIP; however, the application of the criteria was not consistent across all studies. Seven of the observational studies compared STOPP/START with other explicit

  11. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Chiasera, Janelle M; Shepherd, Bryan E; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.

  12. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Chiasera, Janelle M.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed. PMID:23691292

  13. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Koethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low body mass index (BMI at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L. Among the 145 participants with BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 28 (19% died within 12 weeks. Lower pretreatment serum phosphate was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio (OR 1.24 per 0.1 mmol/L decrement, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.47; P=0.01 after adjusting for sex, age, and CD4+ lymphocyte count. A similar relationship was not observed among participants with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.21; P=0.74. Conclusions. The association of low pretreatment serum phosphate level and early ART mortality among undernourished individuals may represent a variant of the refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.

  14. "If you want me to treat you like an adult, start acting like one!" Comparing the criteria that emerging adults and their parents have for adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carroll, Jason S; Madsen, Stephanie D; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Badger, Sarah

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to identify the criteria parents of emerging adults consider necessary and important for their children to achieve adulthood, (b) to compare parents' criteria for adulthood with the criteria espoused by emerging adults, and (c) to examine how these criteria might differ on the basis of gender of the parent and gender of the child. Participants included 392 unmarried college students, ages 18-25, and at least 1 of their parents (271 fathers, 319 mothers). Results revealed that (a) as did their children, most parents did not yet view their children as adults, (b) there was disagreement between children and their parents in the emphasis they placed on various criteria for adulthood, (c) mothers and fathers did not always agree on the importance of various criteria, and (d) the gender of both the parent and the child played a role in the criteria parents deemed important for adulthood. Taken together, the findings suggest that parents and children view the transition to adulthood differently, which might have implications for the parent-child relationship during this period of development.

  15. Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Tamara D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wasting and micronutrient malnutrition have not been well characterized in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. We hypothesized that micronutrient malnutrition is associated with wasting and higher plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV load in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study involving 579 HIV-positive and 222 HIV-negative adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi, anthropometry, plasma HIV load and plasma micronutrient concentrations (retinol, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, zinc, and selenium were measured. The risk of micronutrient deficiencies was examined at different severity levels of wasting. Results Body mass index (BMI, plasma retinol, carotenoid and selenium concentrations significantly decreased by increasing tertile of plasma HIV load. There were no significant differences in plasma micronutrient concentrations between HIV-negative individuals and HIV-positive individuals who were in the lowest tertile of plasma HIV load. Plasma vitamin A concentrations Conclusions These data demonstrate that wasting and higher HIV load in pulmonary tuberculosis are associated with micronutrient malnutrition.

  16. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  17. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  18. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: Rapid start-up with high-solid inoculums%餐厨垃圾中温干法厌氧消化快速启动实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董滨; 王凯丽; 段妮娜; 戴翎翎; 戴晓虎

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the feasibility of rapid start-up of dry anaerobic digestion of food waste with high-solid digestate as inoculums,two parallel reactors containing high-solid and traditionally low-solid digestate were used.Start-up performance of the two digestates in dry anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in the completely stirred tank reactors(CSTR) at(35 ± 1) ℃.It was shown that during the same 43-day start-up period,the organic loading rate(OLR) was successfully increased to 10.0 kg · m-3 · d-1(calculated based on VS) in the case of using high-solid sludge digestate as inoculums,while only 3.5 kg · m-3 · d-1 in that with traditionally low-solid sludge digestate.Compared with the traditional start-up,the rapid start-up with high-solid digestate showed no lag time and shorter recovery time.The rapid start was 2.5 times faster than the traditional start.After the recovery period,the rapid-start system showed better performance on biogas and methane production rate,methane yield and VS degradation rate than those of traditional-start system at the same OLR.%为研究餐厨垃圾在进行干法厌氧消化时,利用高含固率消化液作为接种物进行快速启动的可行性,采用两组分别含有低含固率消化液和高含固率消化液的平行反应器,研究了在(35±1)℃完全混合反应器(CSTR)中进行的餐厨垃圾干法厌氧消化的启动性能.结果表明,在同样43d的启动过程中,使用高含固率消化液作为接种物的反应器的有机负荷可成功地增加到10.0kg·m-3·d-1(以VS计),而使用低含固率消化液作为接种物的反应器的有机负荷只能达到3.5kg·m-3·d-1(以VS计).与传统启动相比,快速启动没有停滞期,且拥有较短的恢复期;快速启动的启动速度是传统启动的2.5倍.恢复期之后,在相同的有机负荷下,快速启动的沼气和甲烷产率、甲烷产量及VS降解率都较传统启动呈现出较好的性能.

  19. A lot of mental illness starts in adolescence. Therefore should we shift some of the spending from adult to adolescent mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, David

    2015-09-01

    In May 2015 the UK elected a new government. In election campaigns, health is one of the most important areas of debate and over the preceding 12 months, the state of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) had held a particularly high profile in the media and in political debate. Many had suggested that the rate of mental illness starting in adolescence is increasing and that service provision is not of sufficient quality or scale to meet this need. A brief review of the sources for these statistics reveals that whilst this may be true, there is a dearth of accurate and up to date data on the scale of the need for CAMHS or the extent to which it is being met. Nonetheless, members of all parties claimed to support improvements in mental health service provision for children and adolescents through increases in funding. A key question for policy makers has therefore become, from where any additional funding might be derived. One suggestion has been that funding be transferred from spending on adult mental health services. The exact practical nature of such a policy is yet to be explored in detail by government or stakeholders. The primary purpose of the present discussion is therefore to consider the possible ethical implications of such a policy in principle. The discussion forms part of a wider and evolving political and professional discourse on society's and government's attitude towards mental illness, towards the balance of individual and societal needs and towards the balance between preventative and supportive interventions to improve health.

  20. Longitudinal changes in emerging adults' attachment preferences for their mother, father, friends, and romantic partner : Focusing on the start and end of romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called attachment preferences), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Emerging Adults' Attachment Preferences for Their Mother, Father, Friends, and Romantic Partner: Focusing on the Start and End of Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…

  2. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  3. [Shaping the future of vocational rehabilitation of adults: eight fields of action as starting points for a cross-actor innovation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, H-P; Ellger-Rüttgardt, S; Karbe, H; Niehaus, M; Rauch, A; Schian, H-M; Schmidt, C; Schott, T; Schröder, H; Spijkers, W; Wittwer, U

    2009-12-01

    Established by the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) in October 2007, the Scientific Expert Group RehaFutur had been commissioned to elaborate cornerstones for the medium- and long-term development of vocational rehabilitation of adults with disabilities (re-integration). Initial questions inter alia were as follows: Which function should vocational rehabilitation have in a service- and knowledge-oriented working world that will increasingly be affected by demographic change? How can disabled persons' right to occupational participation by way of vocational rehabilitation, a right stipulated both under the German constitution and in German law, be realized as needed also in the future? Various fields of action have been derived on the basis, for one, of an investigation of the factors, social law, social and education policy as well as European, influencing vocational rehabilitation and, for the other, of an evaluation of current labour market and demographic developments. Dealt with in the fields of action outlined are the aspects: equitable opportunities of access, developmental and needs orientation, closeness to the real occupational and working world, as well as the role of self-determination and self-responsibility. The fields of action are to be understood as framework concept for shaping a cross-actor innovation process. Sustainable vocational rehabilitation is characterized in particular by the fact that it is specifically targeted at promoting disabled persons' self-determination and self-responsibility actively using these in the process and that it strengthens an independent lifestyle, ensures social participation by inclusive structures; also, it facilitates continued participation in working life by ongoing education involving holistic development of professional and personal competencies oriented towards the individual's resources and potentials, safeguarding it by systematic networking with companies. The concept presented for

  4. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  5. Comparison of Start-up and restart processes of thermophilic anaerobic filters in waste water treatment plants; Comparacion de los procesos de arranque y rearranque de filtros anerobios termofilicos en las EDARs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Garcia, M.; Romero Garcia, L.I.; Sales Marquez, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Tecnologia de Alimentos y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    An important number of agro-industries introduces the problem of the seasonal wastewaters. This causes interruptions and a necessary re-start-up of the purification plants. The present work compares and contrasts the start-up and the re-start-up of upflow stationary fixed film reactor (USFF) for the treatment of distillery wastewater based upon laboratory research, under three strategies of different operation: both re-start-up after two years and one month of inactivity and start-up the process. The outputs of the re-start-up studies indicates that the reactors with a mature bio film of high biomass immobilized concentration introduce an evolution of setting in progress very similar to the of reactors start-up with low densities of microorganisms immobilized. In consequence, the support highly colonized should contain elevated quantities of inactive biomass due problems of substrate diffusion in the interior of the bio film. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  7. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  8. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  9. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    The protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW) is a condition of malnutrition, inflammation, anorexia and wasting of body reserves resulting from inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).One way of assessing PEW, extensively described in the literature, is using the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS). To assess the reliability and consistency of MIS for diagnosis of PEW in Mexican adults with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Study of diagnostic tests. A sample of 45 adults with CKD on HD were analyzed during the period June-July 2014.The instrument was applied on 2 occasions; the test-retest reliability was calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC); the internal consistency of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's αcoefficient. A weighted Kappa test was used to estimate the validity of the instrument; the result was subsequently compared with the Bilbrey nutritional index (BNI). The reliability of the questionnaires, evaluated in the patient sample, was ICC=0.829.The agreement between MIS observations was considered adequate, k= 0.585 (p MIS has adequate reliability and validity for diagnosing PEW in the population with chronic kidney disease on HD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  11. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  12. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  13. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  14. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  15. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (phair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  16. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  17. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  18. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  19. A New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Goodwill to the Islamic world and willingness to mend ties highlight Barack Obama’s new Middle East policy u.S. President Barack Obama started to implement his new Middle East policy soon after he assumed office. He paid a

  20. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  1. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  2. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Arenaza, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r=0.63 (p0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  4. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  5. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  6. [Adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  7. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubero, Miren Begona, E-mail: txitea@gmail.com [Research Unit, Cruces Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia (Spain); Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Aurrekoetxea, Juan Jose, E-mail: jaurrekoetxea@ej-gv.es [Public Health Department, Dept. of Health, Basque Government, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Epidemiolgy and Public Health CIBER (CIBERESP) (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus Maria, E-mail: mambien3-san@ej-gv.es [Public Health Department, Dept. of Health, Basque Government, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Epidemiolgy and Public Health CIBER (CIBERESP) (Spain); Arenaza, Maria Jesus, E-mail: osalanrlhba@ej-gv.es [Basque Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Barakaldo, Bizkaia (Spain); Rodriguez, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rodriguez-andres@ehu.es [Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Saenz, Jose Ramon, E-mail: jrsaenz@chdo.osakidetza.net [Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r = 0.63 (p < 0.001), between the two surveys. However, there was no linear correlation for the other three metals (UCd, UCr and UHg), between the two sampling periods (p > 0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals.

  8. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  9. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  10. Getting Started with Roo

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Spring Roo goes a step beyond the Spring Framework by bringing true Rapid Application Development to Java-just as Grails has done with Groovy. This concise introduction shows you how to build applications with Roo, using the framework's shell as an intelligent and timesaving code-completion tool. It's an ideal RAD tool because Roo does much of the tedious code maintenance. You'll get started by building a simple customer relationship management application, complete with step-by-step instructions and code examples. Learn how to control any part of the application with Roo's opt-in feature, w

  11. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  12. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  13. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  14. The rapid start-up technology for oily waste water biochemical treatment system in oilfield%油田含油污水生化处理系统快速启动技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄建全; 罗江涛; 吴波; 林刚; 纪艳娟; 郭鹏

    2013-01-01

    Due to the effect of high salinity of oily wastewater and other biological inhibitors,it is difficult to improve the microbial enzyme activity and the microbial enzyme growth was inhibited.As a result,the startup time of biochemical system is long or even failure.For improving the toleration of microorganism to oilfield wastewater,the microbial enhancer in bilolgical contact oxidation was analyzed and screened.Meanwhile,the biofilm formation technology was studied in order to determinate the reasonable salinity increase speed,shorten the startup time of biochemical systems,and provide basic de-sign parameters for the field system start-up.%受油田含油污水高矿化度及其他生物抑制剂等条件的影响,微生物酶活性难以提高,抑制其生长,导致生化系统启动时间长甚至失败。因此对生物接触氧化法中微生物强化剂配方分析筛选,提高微生物对油田污水的耐受度,同时对挂膜工艺研究,确定合理的盐度增加速度,从而缩短生化系统启动时间,为现场系统启动提供基础设计参数。

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  16. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  17. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, de Ilona; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss

  18. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, de Ilona; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss

  19. Role of assessment components and recent adverse outcomes in risk estimation and prediction: Use of the Short Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) in an adult secure inpatient mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-30

    The Short Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability is a structured judgement tool used to inform risk estimation for multiple adverse outcomes. In research, risk estimates outperform the tool's strength and vulnerability scales for violence prediction. Little is known about what its'component parts contribute to the assignment of risk estimates and how those estimates fare in prediction of non-violent adverse outcomes compared with the structured components. START assessment and outcomes data from a secure mental health service (N=84) was collected. Binomial and multinomial regression analyses determined the contribution of selected elements of the START structured domain and recent adverse risk events to risk estimates and outcomes prediction for violence, self-harm/suicidality, victimisation, and self-neglect. START vulnerabilities and lifetime history of violence, predicted the violence risk estimate; self-harm and victimisation estimates were predicted only by corresponding recent adverse events. Recent adverse events uniquely predicted all corresponding outcomes, with the exception of self-neglect which was predicted by the strength scale. Only for victimisation did the risk estimate outperform prediction based on the START components and recent adverse events. In the absence of recent corresponding risk behaviour, restrictions imposed on the basis of START-informed risk estimates could be unwarranted and may be unethical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  1. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  2. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  3. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  6. Changes in serum phosphate and potassium and their effects on mortality in malnourished African HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy and given vitamins and minerals in lipid-based nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea Mary; Woodd, Susannah Louise; Heimburger, Douglas Corbett

    2017-01-01

    Malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of early mortality, some of which may be attributed to altered electrolyte metabolism. We used data from a randomised controlled trial of electrolyte-enriched lipid-based nutritional supplements to assess th...

  7. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  8. E-waste bans and U.S. households' preferences for disposing of their e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-07-30

    To deal with the inadequate disposal of e-waste, many states have instituted bans on its disposal in municipal landfills. However, the effectiveness of e-waste bans does not seem to have been analyzed yet. This paper starts addressing this gap. Using data from a survey of U.S. households, we estimate multivariate logit models to explain past disposal behavior by households of broken/obsolete ("junk") cell phones and disposal intentions for "junk" TVs. Our explanatory variables include factors summarizing general awareness of environmental issues, pro-environmental behavior in the past year, attitudes toward recycling small electronics (for the cell phones model only), socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the presence of state e-waste bans. We find that California's Cell Phone Recycling Act had a significant and positive impact on the recycling of junk cell phones; however, state disposal bans for junk TVs seem to have been mostly ineffective, probably because they were poorly publicized and enforced. Their effectiveness could be enhanced by providing more information about e-waste recycling to women, and more generally to adults under 60. Given the disappointing performance of policies implemented to-date to enhance the collection of e-waste, it may be time to explore economic instruments such as deposit-refund systems.

  9. Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, M.H.E. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; West, C.E.; Crevel, R. van; Semba, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wasting is a prominent feature of tuberculosis and may be more severe among individuals with HIV coinfection. It is likely that several biological mechanisms, including the anorexia of infection, are contributing to wasting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether l

  10. Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, van M.; Meer, van der J.W.M.; West, C.E.; Crevel, R.; Semba, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Wasting is a prominent feature of tuberculosis and may be more severe among individuals with HIV coinfection. It is likely that several biological mechanisms, including the anorexia of infection, are contributing to wasting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether l

  11. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  12. Marketing start- upů

    OpenAIRE

    Vatulya, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is dedicated to marketing of start-ups and the most frequent mistakes they make in this field. The goal of this thesis is to propose recommendations for start-up founders which could help them avoid mistakes while building their business. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part defines the concept of start-ups, explores their history and introduces the main issues start-ups have to deal with in the field of marketing. The second part contains interviews with...

  13. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  14. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  15. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  16. The START III bargaining space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  17. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  18. GABA transporter 1 transcriptional starting site exhibiting tissue specific difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    GABA transporter 1(GAT1)takes important roles in multiple physiological processes through the uptake and release of GABA,but the regulation of GAT1 gene expression in different tissues is rarely known.To address the question,first,5' Rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)was used to determine GAT1 transcriptional starting sites in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and intestine,adult mouse brain and adult rat testis.The products of 5'RACE were confirmed by DNA sequencing.We found that the transcript of GAT1 in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and adult mouse brain starts at the same site(inside of exon 1),while in mouse intestine,GAT1 starts transcription in intron 1,and in rat testis,the transcript of GAT1 has an additional untranslation exon to the 5' direction.

  19. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  20. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  1. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  2. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  3. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  4. AIDS and Non-AIDS Morbidity and Mortality Across the Spectrum of CD4 Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Adults Before Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Ouassa, Timothée; Messou, Eugene; Morris, Brandon; Traore, Moussa; Coulibaly, Ali; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Lewden, Charlotte; Ménan, Hervé; Abo, Yao; Dakoury-Dogbo, Nicole; Toure, Siaka; Seyler, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Western Europe, North America, and Australia, large cohort collaborations have been able to estimate the short-term CD4 cell count–specific risk of AIDS or death in untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults with high CD4 cell counts. In sub–Saharan Africa, these CD4 cell count–specific estimates are scarce. Methods. From 1996 through 2006, we followed up 2 research cohorts of HIV-infected adults in Côte d’Ivoire. This included follow-up off antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the entire spectrum of CD4 cell counts before the ART era, and only in patients with CD4 cell counts >200 cells/μL once ART became available. Data were censored at ART initiation. We modeled the CD4 cell count decrease using an adjusted linear mixed model. CD4 cell count–specific rates of events were obtained by dividing the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 cell count stratum by the time spent in that stratum. Results. Eight hundred sixty patients were followed off ART over 2789 person-years (PY). In the ≥650, 500–649, 350–499, 200–349, 100–199, 50–99, and 0–49 cells/μL CD4 cell count strata, the rates of AIDS or death were 0.9, 1.7, 3.7, 10.4, 30.9, 60.8, and 99.9 events per 100 PY, respectively. In patients with CD4 cell counts ≥200 CD4 cells/μL, the most frequent AIDS-defining disease was tuberculosis (decreasing from 4.0 to 0.6 events per 100 PY for 200–349 and ≥650 cells/μL, respectively), and the most frequent HIV non-AIDS severe diseases were visceral bacterial diseases (decreasing from 9.1 to 3.6 events per 100 PY). Conclusions. Rates of AIDS or death, tuberculosis, and invasive bacterial diseases are substantial in patients with CD4 cell counts ≥200 cells/μL. Tuberculosis and bacterial diseases should be the most important outcomes in future trials of early ART in sub–Saharan Africa. PMID:22173233

  5. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities......Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  7. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  8. Adults' Decision-Making about the Electronic Waste Issue: The Role of the Nature of Science Conceptualizations and Moral Concerns in Socio-Scientific Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuqing

    2010-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues have become increasingly important in Science-Technology-Society (STS) education as a means to make science learning more relevant to students' lives. This study used the e-waste issue as a context to investigate two aspects of socio-scientific decision-making: (1) the relationship between the nature of science (NOS)…

  9. Double Star Mission Starts Countdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As of July, scientists at the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) have been busy modulating and testing the payloads that will be onboard a space exploration satellite, marking the start of the countdown for China's Double Star Project.

  10. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  11. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  12. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  13. Biomechanics of the sprint start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, M J; Steele, J R

    1997-01-01

    Many variables have been studied pertaining to the block sprint start. Research suggests that the adoption of a medium block spacing is preferred, with front and rear knee angles in the set position approximating 90 and 130 degrees, respectively, with the hips held moderately high. The sprinter must be capable of developing a high force rate combined with a high maximum force, especially in the horizontal direction. This ability to create high force underlies other important indicators of starting performance such as minimum block clearance time, maximum block leaving velocity and maximum block leaving acceleration. Once the sprinter has projected him/herself from the blocks at a low angle (40 to 45 degrees) relative to the ground, the following 2 post-block steps should occur with the total body centre of gravity ahead of the contacting foot at foot strike to minimise potential horizontal braking forces.

  14. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  15. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  16. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  17. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  18. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  19. The Waste Management in Romania. A Case Study: WMS Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss issues related to the degree of implementation of national waste managementstrategy by emphasizing progress in waste management at national level in three years after its development. In 2004,Romania has developed national policy documents as Waste Management Strategy and National Waste ManagementPlan (WMS, WMSP based on the ”waste hierarchy”. In the four years after the initiation of this process resultsdemonstrate the advantages of using this system in ensuring a sustainable solution to eliminate pollution from waste.Also, the amount of waste recovered at the start of the period - 2004, occupies a proportion of 5.08% of total while inthe end of 2007, the degree of recovery reached 7%. Concerning waste disposal, this was achieved by storage. Thereason is the lack of incinerators for thermal treatment of waste. Traditional collection of household and similar waste inthe mixture, is the most common, accounting for a share of about 97%.

  20. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  1. New Start,New Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Daniel Arbenz was bom and educated in Switzerland. In 1978, he entered the hotel indastry as a chef and worked his way up through all segments of the business. After graduating from the famous Swiss Hotel Management School in Luceme and obtaining management exposure in the finest hotels in Switzerland, he moved to Hong Kong in 1989, starting his career in Asia. Arbenz moved to Singapore, then to Bali, for Resort Hotels and has been with the Intercontinental Hotels Group for almost 10 years in general man...

  2. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  3. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  4. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  5. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  7. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  8. When things start to think

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenfeld, Neil

    1999-01-01

    This is a book for people who want to know what the future is going to look like and for people who want to know how to create the future. Gershenfeld offers a glimpse at the brave new post-computerized world, where microchips work for us instead of against us. He argues that we waste the potential of the microchip when we confine it to a box on our desk: the real electronic revolution will come when computers have all but disappeared into the walls around us. Imagine a digital book that looks like a traditional book printed on paper and is pleasant to read in bed but has all the mutability of a screen display. How about a personal fabricator that can organize digitized atoms into anything you want, or a musical keyboard that can be woven into a denim jacket? Gershenfeld tells the story of his Things that Think group at MIT's Media Lab, the group of innovative scientists and researchers dedicated to integrating digital technology into the fabric of our lives.

  9. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  10. Adults' decision-making about the electronic waste issue: The role of the nature of science conceptualizations and moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuqing

    Socio-scientific issues have become increasingly important in Science-Technology-Society (STS) education as a means to make science learning more relevant to students' lives. This study used the e-waste issue as a context to investigate two aspects of socio-scientific decision-making: (1) the relationship between the nature of science (NOS) conceptualizations and decision-making; and (2) moral concerns involved in the process of decision-making. This study contributes to the field of socio-scientific issue research and STS education in the following ways. First, it is the first study that performed meta-analysis to seek the relationship between the NOS understanding and decision-making. This study concludes that valuable NOS conceptualizations that are highly related to the socio-scientific issue under investigation, rather than general NOS understanding, exert statistically significant influences on decision-making. Second, this study empirically examined the Multiple Responses Model (MRM), which enables the transfer of qualitative NOS responses into quantitative data, and hence, inferential statistics. The current study justifies the significance of unidimensionality to the application of the MRM. It addresses the limitations associated with the MRM and provides implications for future use of the MRM in other contexts. Finally, the study explores the role of moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making. Eight participants engaged in interviews that were designed to elicit their reactions and feelings regarding the issue of exporting e-waste to poor countries. Qualitative analyses demonstrated that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making. In addition, participants' action responses revealed that they were motivated to take action to help the environment. The study has implications for socio-scientific issue studies in other contexts and for teacher education programs that use socio-scientific issues to advance teachers' reasoning

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  12. Evaluation of the Monongalia County Schools Even Start Program Child Vocabulary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    The Monongalia County (West Virginia) Even Start Program is a comprehensive, rural, home-based family literacy program that provides families with adult literacy education, parenting education, and early childhood education. Although all Even Start programs conduct some home visits, the Monongalia County program is unique in that home visits are…

  13. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  14. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  15. Tingzikou key water control project started construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tingzikou key water control project on Jialing River, one of 18 newly started key projects in 2009 for China's western part development program, formally started construction at the end of November last year.

  16. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    'iWaste' is a project for developing and testing intelligent computational methods for more comprehensive waste management. Important issues are automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection, forecasting of waste formation, data handling of waste disposal sites and simulation and modelling of regional waste management. The main objective of the project is to identify and analyse known sources of information and to link them to the existing information processing systems in the field of waste management. Additionally, the goal is to identify and test functional elements that could be developed further to software products and services. The results of the project can be categorized into three sectors. Firstly, the guidelines for a comprehensive information system in waste management will be created. This includes the requirement specifications of different parties, definitions for the data exchange interfaces and an architectural plan for software products capable of co-operative processing. Secondly, the central parts of the intelligent information system will be piloted using the research database collected in the early stage of the project. The main topics investigated are data quality, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection and forecasting of waste formation. Additionally, the pilot information system can be utilized in derivative projects to speed up the starting phases of them. This makes it possible to create persistent development of waste management information systems both academically and commercially. (orig.)

  17. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  18. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  19. Analysis on 3RWB model (Reduce, reuse, recycle, and waste bank) in comprehensive waste management toward community-based zero waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandy, Nur Azizah; Isnaini, Enik; Laksono, Arif Budi

    2017-06-01

    Waste management becomes a serious issue in Indonesia. Significantly, waste production in Lamongan Regency is increasing in linear with the growth of population and current people activities, creating a gap between waste production and waste management. It is a critical problem that should be solved immediately. As a reaction to the issue, the Government of Lamongan Regency has enacted a new policy regarding waste management through a program named Lamongan Green and Clean (LGC). From the collected data, it showed that the "wet waste" or "organic waste" was approximately 63% of total domestic waste. With such condition, it can be predicted that the trashes will decompose quite quickly. From the observation, it was discovered that the generated waste was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day. Meanwhile, the number of population in Tumenggungan Village, Lamongan (data obtained from Monograph in Lamongan district, 2012) was 4651 people. Thus, it can be estimated the total waste in Lamongan was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day x 4651 characters = 930 kg/day. Within 3RWB Model, several stages have to be conducted. In the planning stage, the promotion of self-awareness among the communities in selecting and managing waste due to their interest in a potential benefit, is done. It indicated that community's awareness of waste management waste grew significantly. Meanwhile in socialization stage, each village staff, environmental expert, and policymaker should bear significant role in disseminating the awareness among the people. In the implementation phase, waste management with 3RWB model is promoted by applying it among of the community, starting from selection, waste management, until recycled products sale through the waste bank. In evaluation stage, the village managers, environmental expert, and waste managers are expected to regularly supervise and evaluate the whole activity of the waste management.

  20. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailer...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals....... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate....... All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting. This pilot study supports...

  1. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  2. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  3. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  4. STUDY ON STARTING VELOCITY OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  5. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  6. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-02-25

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M&O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success.

  7. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  8. Adult Literacy Programs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the broad array of adult literacy program alternatives currently available. These include government-funded adult education programs, such as Adult Basic Education and Even Start, volunteer programs such as Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, business and industry sponsored programs, community-based…

  9. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  10. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds... appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes the New Starts and Small Starts programs... Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the apportionment of the FY 2011...

  11. Starting Time Calculation for Induction Motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Garg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Paper Presents The Starting Time Calculation For A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. The Importance Of Starting Time Lies In Determining The Duration Of Large Current, Which Flows During The Starting Of An Induction Motor. Normally, The Starting Current Of An Induction Motor Is Six To Eight Time Of Full Load Current. Plenty Of Methods Have Been Discovered To Start Motor In A Quick Time, But Due To Un-Economic Nature, Use Are Limited. Hence, For Large Motors Direct Online Starting Is Most Popular Amongst All Due To Its Economic And Feasible Nature. But Large Current With Dol Starting Results In A Heavy Potential Drop In The Power System. Thus, Special Care And Attention Is Required In Order To Design A Healthy System. A Very Simple Method To Calculate The Starting Time Of Motor Is Proposed In This Paper. Respective Simulation Study Has Been Carried Out Using Matlab 7.8.0 Environment, Which Demonstrates The Effectiveness Of The Starting Time Calculation.

  12. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown.

  13. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  14. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  15. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  17. A plan to create a zero waste society: transforming waste into resources

    OpenAIRE

    Peljhan Korošec, Jožica

    2016-01-01

    It is only reasonable to become a zero waste society and for producers to immediately start redesigning products, and for us to make the transition in our mentality to stop buying products that we do not really need or products that we could, in fact, borrow. In the interim (transitional period), until all our products are sustainable ones, waste incinerators (thermal treatment that utilises energy recovery) will still be unavoidable. However, this does not mean that new ones will need to be ...

  18. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Africa

    1990-01-01

    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  19. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  20. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  1. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shiti

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  2. Assisted Workouts: Starting My Own Workout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousminer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    As an undergraduate student with cerebral palsy, I found it difficult to achieve my goal of starting a regular exercise program at my school, the University of Central Florida. However, when I started a program called Assisted Workouts in spring 2003. the struggle proved to be well worth it. The program is not only beneficial to me, but it has…

  3. Modeling Start Curves of Bainite Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that calculations with a physically based model give an accurate description of the start curve of bainite formation in a wide range of steels. The temperature dependence of the overall kinetics, which determines the characteristic C shape of the start curve, is controlled by both

  4. Working towards a zero waste environment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chea-Yuan; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh

    2010-03-01

    It is essential to the achievement of zero waste that emphasis is concentrated on front-end preventions rather than end-of-pipe (EOP) treatment. Zero waste is primarily based on cleaner production, waste management, the reduction of unnecessary consumption and the effective utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study was to briefly review the tasks undertaken and future plans for achieving zero waste in Taiwan. Waste prevention, source reduction, waste to product, waste to energy, EOP treatment, and adequate disposal are the sequential principal procedures to achieve the goal of zero waste. Six strategies have been adopted to implement the zero waste policy in Taiwan. These are regulatory amendments, consumption education, financial incentives, technical support, public awareness, and tracking and reporting. Stepwise targets have been set for 2005, 2007, 2011, and 2020 for both the municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial waste to reach the goal of zero waste. The eventual aim is to achieve 70% MSW minimization and 85% industrial waste minimization by 2020. Although tools and measures have been established, some key programmes have higher priority. These include the establishment of a waste recycling programme, promotion of cleaner production, a green procurement programme, and promotion of public awareness. Since the implementation of the zero waste policy started in 2003, the volume of MSW for landfill and incineration has declined dramatically. The recycling and/or minimization of MSW quantity in 2007 was 37%, which is much higher than the goal of 25%. Industrial waste reached almost 76% minimization by the end of 2006, which is 1 year before the target year.

  5. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  6. Start-up of thermophilic-dry anaerobic digestion of OFMSW using adapted modified SEBAC inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdéz-Güelfo, L A; Alvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2010-12-01

    The work presented here concerns the start-up and stabilization stages of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) semicontinuously fed for the treatment of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) through anaerobic digestion at thermophilic temperature range (55 degrees C) and dry conditions (30% Total Solids). The procedure reported involves two novel aspects with respect to other start-up and stabilization protocols reported in the literature. The novel aspects concern the adaptation of the inoculum to both the operating conditions (thermophilic and dry) and to the type of waste by employing a modified SEBAC (Sequential Batch Anaerobic Composting) system and, secondly, the direct start-up of the process in a thermophilic temperature regime and feeding of the system from the first day of operation. In this way a significant reduction in the start-up time and stabilization is achieved i.e. 110 days in comparison to 250 days for the processes reported by other authors for the same type of waste and digester. The system presents suitable operational conditions to stabilize the reactor at SRT of 35 days, with a maximum biogas production of 1.944 LR/L.d with a CH(4) and CO(2) percentage of 25.27% and 68.15%, respectively. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  8. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  9. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  10. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  11. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  12. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  13. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  14. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  15. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  16. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  17. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  18. Begin and start: aspect and complement choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Nagy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a semantic analysis of begin and start and their non-finite complementation: the to-infinitive and –ing constructions. The core idea of the paper is that the aspectual constructions ‘begin+ to infinitive’, ‘begin + ing’, ‘start+ to infinitive’, and ‘start+ ing’ have both a schematic and a prototypical meaning, and that the subtle differences between them are motivated by several factors, like viewing (perfectivity vs. imperfectivity, temporality (future orientation vs. ongoing reading dynamicity (graduality vs. abruptness, agentivity, etc.

  19. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  20. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  1. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL...... elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low......-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co...

  2. Considerations for Informed Pursuit of Zero Waste: Lessons from Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, Jennifer Anne

    2013-01-01

    Starting in the early 2000s, a number of U.S. communities have adopted "zero waste" commitments to reduce waste as much as possible through recycling, composting, and other means. Little in-depth information exists about the impetus for or efficacy of these efforts. The author sought to build knowledge on the topic by conducting case studies of two communities: the zero waste efforts of Boulder, Colorado, and the Zero Waste Zones established in Atlanta. The two cases presented an interesting ...

  3. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  4. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  5. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  6. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  7. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  8. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  9. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  10. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  11. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  12. starting infants on antiretroviral therapy clinical: paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN STARTING ART. A literature review of 30 ... Overall mortality during follow-up was mostly low, with a probability of ..... type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 1999 ...

  13. COLLEGE STUDENTS' STARTING THEIR OWN UNDERTAKINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays there are many college students who choose to start their own undertakings instead of finding a job after graduation.The government encourages this practice,and provides many preferential policies and facilitation measures for college students.This phenomenon has aroused great concern from the whole society. However,why do so many college students take the way of starting their own

  14. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  16. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-12-12

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  17. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  18. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  19. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  20. Pyrolysis Of Saudi Arabian Date Palm Waste: A Viable Option For Converting Waste Into Wealth

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Saudi Arabia has about 23 million palm trees and it is the second largest producer of dates. The biomass from the trimmed branches of palm trees amount to more than 200,000 tons/year. This biomass waste can be used to produce many commercial products. There are several relevant technologies for conversion of biomass and solid wastes into higher value products. The starting point of the project is the pretreatment of palm solid wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis has been done to understand the pyrolysis behavior of palm date wastes. A fluidized bed (FB) has been designed and to study hydrodynamics and develop optimum conditions for the pyrolysis of palm wastes. A novel fluidized bed test rig has been designed and fabricated to carry out the pyrolysis of palm wastes. The pyrolysis is used to produce activated carbon and the waste can also be readily converted to liquid phenolic products. Liquid products are particularly interesting because they have a higher energy density and can be used to produce adhesives as well as biofuels for use in power generation and transport sector. Experimental results have indicated potential opportunities of using the date biomass waste as a potential fuel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  1. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  2. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  3. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  5. Generation and management of waste electric vehicle batteries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ChengJian; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2017-08-12

    With the increasing adoption of EVs (electric vehicles), a large number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) were generated in China. Statistics showed generation of waste EV LIBs in 2016 reached approximately 10,000 tons, and the amount of them would be growing rapidly in the future. In view of the deleterious effects of waste EV LIBs on the environment and the valuable energy storage capacity or materials that can be reused in them, China has started emphasizing the management, reuse, and recycling of them. This paper presented the generation trend of waste EV LIBs and focused on interrelated management development and experience in China. Based on the situation of waste EV LIBs management in China, existing problems were analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations were made for decision-making organs to use as valuable references to improve the management of waste EV LIBs and promote the sustainable development of EVs.

  6. Investigation of Starting Romantic Intimacy in Emerging Adulthood in Terms of Self-Esteem, Gender and Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…

  7. Welfare-to-Work Single Mothers' Perspectives on Parent Involvement in Head Start: Implications for Parent-Teacher Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Marilyn; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2003-01-01

    This interview study assessed the perspectives of low-income single mothers on selecting child care and their parent involvement experiences in Head Start. Findings indicated that collaboration between mothers and Head Start teachers enhanced mothers' self-development and learning with resulting positive effects for children, adult development as…

  8. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  9. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  10. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  11. Ruderal succession starting at different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Bornkamm

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Succession experiments were carried out in 1 m2 sized plots on three different soils (S = sand. SCL = silty clayey loam, CL = clayey loam. Vegetation was allowed to grow for 9 years, starting at different dates between 18.06.1969 and 1.04.1971. The greatest part of the variation of floristic composition and cover was brought about by the different soils. Direct effects of the starting season were detected only in the first two years. On sand in the first year the winter annual Conyza canadensis was well developed on the plots that had started in spring, but was poorly developed on the summer and fall plots. In the second year it decreased in the spring plots but increased in the summer and fall plots. The same was true for the winter annual Sonchus asper on CL. On SCL, however., Senecio vulgaris, belonging to the therophyta epeteia (overwintering in summer habit, was well developed in both the spring and summer plots, and showed an increase towards the second year in the fall plots only. In the later years of the experiment plots that had been started early in the year mostly were dominated by Poa pratensis ssp. angustifolia (or Quercus rubra, whereas plots that had been started late in the year mostly were dominated by Solidagn canadensis together with Artemsia vulgaris. The analyses of the transition events between the (subdominant species showed a variety of replacement patterns, but no determinated series of species following each other. It remains, therefore, unclear in what manner the differentiation between the terminal dominants may be related to the starting season.

  12. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  13. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  14. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  15. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug

  16. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  17. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  18. Systematic clustering of transcription start site landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Parker, Brian J;

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide, high-throughput methods for transcription start site (TSS) detection have shown that most promoters have an array of neighboring TSSs where some are used more than others, forming a distribution of initiation propensities. TSS distributions (TSSDs) vary widely between promoters...

  19. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  20. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  1. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  2. A strong start, a promising future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihe Rao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Protein & Cell has made a very strong start in its first full year of publication, covering 12 monthly issues with a consistently high standard of content and production. Thanks to the contributors, editors, editorial board, editodal staff and publishers, both the scientific quality and the production quality of the journal have been outstanding.

  3. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  4. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  5. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  6. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  7. The Prickly Politics of School Starting Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    1999-01-01

    Tinkering with school schedules to accommodate adolescents' sleep patterns is politically risky. A University of Minnesota study analyzing stakeholders' attitudes toward later high school starting times showed that changing a school's schedule provokes as emotional a reaction as that of closing a school or changing its attendance area. Open…

  8. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  9. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  10. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  11. Starting New Schools: Lessons for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wayne B.

    Arguments for beginning new schools as a robust alternative to the incremental improvement of existing schools are presented in this paper. The educational improvement approach of starting new schools or programs, rather than making incremental improvements or generating comprehensive change in existing schools, is advocated. Two major types of…

  12. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  13. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  14. Construction of Shanghai Chemical Park Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park started construction on January 6, 2001 with the first pile driven for the 200,000-ton phenol acetone plant of Gaoqiao Branch,Sinopec Ltd. This is one of the largest industrial investment projects of the city of the country as well as the city at the beginning of the new century.

  15. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  16. Getting started with Magento module development

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzele, Branko

    2013-01-01

    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  17. Philadelphia's Independence Starts Here: Disability Arts Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mimi Kenney

    2008-01-01

    In tribute to Philadelphia's world-changing past, Festival partners dubbed the month-long Disability Arts Festival "Independence Starts Here." Through it, they hoped to begin to change the future for over 675,000 people with disabilities in the area and their families. Led by Amaryllis Theatre Company, which now also serves as VSA arts…

  18. Technology Roadmapping for Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.

    2003-02-26

    Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects.

  19. Method for recovering materials from waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  20. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  3. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months...... delay. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three public ART facilities in Jimma, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Participants: Adults with HIV eligible for ART with body mass index (BMI) >16. Intervention: Daily supplementation with 200 g (4600 kJ) of supplement containing whey or soy during either...... and CD3 and CD8 counts. Results: Of 318 patients enrolled, 210 (66%) were women, mean age was 33 (SD 9), and mean BMI was 19.5 (SD 2.4). At three months, participants receiving the supplements containing whey or soy had increased their lean body mass by 0.85 kg (95% confidence interval 0.16 kg to 1.53 kg...

  4. Principios Multiculturales para los Programas Head Start (Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Spanish-language report outlines 10 multicultural principles for Head Start preschool programs and ancillary services. The report assets that Head Start programming should: (1) treat every child as an individual; (2) represent the cultural groups in the community; (3) emphasize accurate information about cultural groups and discard…

  5. Separate collection of plastic waste, better than technical sorting from municipal solid waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Jansen, Michael; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U

    2017-02-01

    The politically preferred solution to fulfil legal recycling demands is often implementing separate collection systems. However, experience shows their limitations, particularly in urban centres with a high population density. In response to the European Union landfill directive, mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been installed all over Europe. This technology makes it possible to retrieve plastic waste from municipal solid waste. Operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants, both in Germany and the Netherlands, have started to change their mechanical separation processes to additionally produce plastic pre-concentrates. Results from mechanical biological waste treatment and separate collection of post-consumer packaging waste will be presented and compared. They prove that both the yield and the quality of plastic waste provided as feedstock for the production of secondary plastic raw material are largely comparable. An economic assessment shows which conditions for a technical sorting plant are economically attractive in comparison to separate collection systems. It is, however, unlikely that plastic recycling will ever reach cost neutrality.

  6. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen K

    2012-02-01

    The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. The purpose of this study was to compare different sprint start positions and to generate correction factors between popular timing triggering methods on 40-m/40-yd sprint time. Fourteen female athletes (17 ± 1 years), personal best 100 m: 13.26 (±0.68) seconds and 11 male athletes (20 ± 5 years), personal best 100 m: 11.58 (±0.74) seconds participated. They performed 2 series of 3 40-m sprints in randomized order: (a) start from the block, measured by means of Brower audio sensor (BAS) and Dartfish video timing (DVT), (b) 3-point start, measured by using hand release pod (HR) and DVT, and (c) standing start, triggered by both photocell across starting line (SFC), and foot release (FR) plus DVT. Video analysis was performed by 2 independent observers and averaged. Simultaneous measurements at national athletics competitions demonstrated that DVT and BAS were equivalent to Omega Timing within the limits of precision of video timing (±0.01 seconds). Hand and floor timer triggering showed small but significant biases compared with movement captured from video (0.02-0.04 seconds), presumably because of sensitivity of pressure thresholds. Coefficient of variation for test-retest timing using different starting positions ranged from 0.7 to 1.0%. Compared with block starts reacting to gunfire, HR, SFC, and FR starts yielded 0.17 ± 0.09, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.69 ± 0.11 second faster times, respectively, over 40 m (all p sprint performances.

  7. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Pepper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%; because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%; and quitting or reducing smoking (30%. Nearly two-thirds (65% of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001. The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%, using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%, and users did not like the taste (14%. Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  8. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  9. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  10. Getting started with MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  11. Starting and developing a surveying business

    CERN Document Server

    Imber, Austen

    2013-01-01

    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  12. New START: The Contentious Road to Ratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senate ratification of the New START treaty re-established effective bilateral inspection and monitoring of American and Russian nuclear holdings and has the potential to further enhance U.S.-Russian cooperation on key issues, including containing the Iranian nuclear program, and further reductions in the two countries' arsenals. Although the accord was widely heralded as a foreign policy success of the Obama administration, the contentious Senate ratification may impede future progress on arms control.

  13. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  14. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  15. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  16. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  17. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G.; Balls, V.; Shea, T.; Thiesen, T.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project.

  18. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  19. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  20. Look into Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help British teachers introduce concepts of waste to secondary school students. The document focuses on various types of waste and pollution--air, land, water, and industrial--and suggests activities to help students understand and combat waste of natural and human resources. It is presented in 11 chapters. Six chapters…

  1. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  2. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  3. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  4. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  5. Let’s limit our waste production and let’s’ sort it!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Let’s limit our waste production! – Why ? Preventing the production of waste is the best solution to avoid environmental issues, economic impacts and technical constraints. So, whenever you are involved in the design, manufacturing, distribution, use or dismantling of a product or an activity in general, always remember that the best waste is that which is not produced. The limitation of waste production being an HSE objective declared in 2013 by the CERN Director-General, we encourage everyone to help limit the amount of waste produced through CERN activities. Let’s sort it! – Why ? Since the 90s, CERN has implemented a policy to promote recovery of the waste* generated by its activities. Nowadays, CERN is committed to continuously improving its sorting and recovery and therefore various initiatives have been started by GS-IS to improve the recovery of waste (e.g. recovery of organic waste from restaurants; implementation of solar trash compactors - see Bulletin 27-...

  6. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts project...

  7. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  8. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  9. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Hansen, E.; Herman, C.; Marra, S.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-03-06

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project is currently transitioning its emphasis from an engineering design and construction phase toward facility completion, start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements that must be met during the actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program. In general, the waste qualification program involves testing and analysis to demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria, determine waste processability, and demonstrate laboratory-scale unit operations to support WTP operations. The testing and analysis are driven by data quality objectives (DQO) requirements necessary for meeting waste acceptance criteria for transfer of high-level wastes from the tank farms to the WTP, and for ensuring waste processability including proper glass formulations during processing within the WTP complex. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which were based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested subject matter experts (SMEs) from SRNL to support a technology exchange with respect to waste qualification programs in which a critical review of the WTP program could be initiated and lessons learned could be shared. The technology exchange was held on July 18-20, 2011 in Richland, Washington, and was the initial step in a multi-phased approach to support development and implementation of a successful waste qualification program at the WTP. The 3-day workshop was hosted by WTP with representatives from the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and SRNL in attendance as well as representatives from the US DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Site Representative office. The purpose of the

  10. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  11. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  12. End-of-waste criteria for waste paper: Technical proposals

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK Alejandro; Eder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents proposals of end-of-waste (EoW) criteria for waste paper, defining the technical requirements that waste paper has to fulfil in order to cease to be waste in the EU. The report includes the background data and assessments used to support the proposals, including a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of waste paper recycling, and analyses of the potential economic, environmental and legal impacts when waste paper ceases to be waste. This report is a contribution to ...

  13. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  14. Getting started with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Patawari, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  15. Start your own information marketing business

    CERN Document Server

    Skrob, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Breaking down the information marketing world from A to Z, the undisputed info marketing expert offers professional strategies to set up a successful information marketing business. These businesses are easy to start, can be run from home, don't require any employees, need little cash outlay, can be run part-time, and can produce millions of dollars a year. Readers learn everything they need to jump into this lucrative field, creating an entirely new business that gives them added income or replaces their current salary entirely.

  16. China Starts Its Lunar Exploration Prbgram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    Why China Starts Lunar Exploration Program.Lunar exploration is always a subject of great interest, for the earth's I nearest neighbour probably holds the key to humanity's future subsistence and development. The unique mineral and energy resources on the moon are important supplement and reserve to the Earth resources, which will generate farreaching influence on the sustainable development of human society. The helium-3 resource unique to lunar soil is a clean, efficient, safe and cheap new-type nuclear fusion fuel, and it will help change the energy structure of human society.

  17. How To Start a Prep Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse D.

    1998-04-01

    At City College, we follow our mother institution, the University of California at Berkeley, in that we require high school physics as a prerequisite for general college physics and then provide a one-semester prep physics course as an alternative to meet this prerequisite. Many people have asked me how they can start such a course. In traveling about on my sabbatical, doing Physics Of Magic (1) at various schools, I have observed how various schools implement this prerequisite course. I will discuss my observations.

  18. Opening the insider's eye: starting action research

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of getting started on a process of action research (AR). I hope that the paper encourages a few teachers to begin classroom investigations, because it is important for the TESOL and TEFL profession that we have more teacher-researchers. Only if we establish action research as a more attractive aspect of teaching can we avoid the almost complete separation between research on the one hand and practice on the other (Wallace 1991, p. 10). This gap between theory an...

  19. Robotics: Hephaestus is Starting all Over Again

    OpenAIRE

    Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hephaestus is starting all over again with new Pandoras. They are no longer of clay, but mecatronic. And they are animated. The roboticist keeps on asking the question of autonomy: what adaptability can we hope to give these new machines? The analogy between humans and machines has to be made; it cannot be avoided. In the end, does Hephaestus have the keys to knowledge? With his machines that adapt, that “decide” on their actions, what can he tell us about our own “functioning”? The question ...

  20. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  1. Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    Learn fundamental Web design principles and become comfortable working in Dreamweaver's complex interface! Dreamweaver 8 is a great Web design tool for pros, but newcomers may be overwhelmed by its interface or want to know more about how to work creatively and intelligently in the program. Help is at hand in Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver, which offers a detailed tutorial for making your first site in Dreamweaver. Author Arnie Keller, who teaches Web design at the University of Victoria, shows you how to style type the smart way with CSS, create a sophisticated page layout

  2. Getting started with Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The book starts with the basics of Foundation and helps you build your skills as you advance from installation to design, configuration, and customization with examples at every step.This book will be of great benefit to web architects, designers, and builders. While it helps to be a programmer, it isn't necessary for this book. You should be familiar with the basic principles of responsive web design and have a desire to create a professional website that looks great on both mobile devices and regular displays.

  3. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  4. Getting started with the Lazarus IDE

    CERN Document Server

    Person, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy-to-understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.This book is geared toward developers that have a familiarity with Delphi or Free Pascal and would like to start using the open source Lazarus Integrated Development Environment. You should have knowledge of creating a console and GUI applications as well as creating basic components. Example source code and projects are provided to help learn the differences between Delphi and Lazarus projects.

  5. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  6. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  7. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  8. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-13

    acidity with caustic soda or sodium nitrate to condition it for storage in the carbon-steel tanks. (The neutralization reaction formed a...waste ranges between from 47 to 147 curies/cubic-meter based on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant inventory. The vitrified high-level waste processed by...Facility St T Assembly MTHM 1. Arkansas Nuclear One AK P 1,517 666.7 46. Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant NC P 3,814 964.5 I 552 241.4 47. Cooper

  9. Rapid self-start of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks from subfreezing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for light-duty vehicles must be able to start unassisted and rapidly from temperatures below -20 °C. Managing buildup of ice within the porous cathode catalyst and electrode structure is the key to self-starting a PEFC stack from subfreezing temperatures. The stack temperature must be raised above the melting point of ice before the ice completely covers the cathode catalyst and shuts down the electrochemical reaction. For rapid and robust self-start it is desirable to operate the stack near the short-circuit conditions. This mode of operation maximizes hydrogen utilization, favors production of waste heat that is absorbed by the stack, and delays complete loss of effective electrochemical surface area by causing a large fraction of the ice to form in the gas diffusion layer rather than in the cathode catalyst layer. Preheating the feed gases, using the power generated to electrically heat the stack, and operating pressures have only small effect on the ability to self-start or the startup time. In subfreezing weather, the stack shut-down protocol should include flowing ambient air through the hot cathode passages to vaporize liquid water remaining in the cathode catalyst. Self-start is faster and more robust if the bipolar plates are made from metal rather than graphite.

  10. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- c

  11. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brummeler, E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIO

  12. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  13. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  14. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  15. ORGANIZING THE MUSIC CLASSES IN STARTING SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tagiltseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of children preparation for school in so called starting schools. In author’s opinion, the arts disciplines such as music, drawing and choreography can develop the aesthetic sense, moral qualities, more optimistic world outlook and respectful  attitude; the child develops creative skills and beauty perception both in fine arts and wild life.The author looks at the problems of planning and organizing the music training of preschool children, the different requirements for and concepts of the preschool and primary school normative documents being analyzed. The paper substantiates the effectiveness of poly-artistic and activity approaches to the split-level teaching, in particular – the method of projecting the familiar actions onto some sort of artistic activities. Based on the succession of preschool and primary school training, the author specifies the goals of music classes in starting schools, and outlines the most relevant game activities of role plays, didactic plays and contests.The paper is addressed to preschool and primary school teachers, music teachers, as well as methodologists and researchers dealing with preschool teaching. 

  16. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  17. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  18. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  19. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  20. Separating, baling and processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komazec Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy based on the exploitation of fossil fuels has entered the phase of disappearance, and a new one is being formed under the influence of the third industrial revolution. The third industrial revolution is developing from the process of the resolution of serious problems that have appeared in the ecosystem, and demands a new platform of interaction between the world's governments, civil society and the business world [Stigson 2008]. The consumer society that was developing until the beginning of the 21st century started from the premise that we cannot expect charity from nature. Regardless of their renewability and speed of renewal, natural resources should have been used in the measure in which humanity needed it. Needs rose uncontrollably, damaging the basic principle by which the balance of the biosphere was maintained - the parity of community members' insignificance. The man with the technosphere prevailed over the biosphere. Since nothing is provided for free and nature knows best, the beginning of the 21st century is seeing renewed attempts to establish a co-evolution of nature and society. This necessitates radical changes in people's work, lifestyle and thinking. The problem of waste requires a total break with previous practices. The existing 6.6 billion people annually produce between 2.5 and 4 billion tons of waste (The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. Developed countries such as, e.g., the US, annually produce about 700 kilograms of waste per person, while poor countries, such as, e.g., the urban parts of India, produce only 150 kilograms per person annually. Each resident of the EU leaves behind 500 kg of waste per year. Serbia has the same civilization problems. In addition, as a transition country, it is in a position to decide the extent to which this problem will be in the hands of state companies and how much will be left to private capital owners. Moreover, Serbia is creating a development strategy that also

  1. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  2. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  3. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  4. Early start of dialysis has no survival benefit in end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Hyun; Rim, Min Young; Sung, Jiyoon; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Kim, Dong Ki; Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Kim, Sejoong

    2012-10-01

    The timing for dialysis initiationis still debated. The aim of this study was to compare mortality rates, using a propensity-score approach, in dialysis patients with early or late starts. From January 2000 to June 2009, incident adult patients (n = 836) starting dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were enrolled. The patients were assigned to either an early- or late-start group depending on the initiation time of the dialysis. After propensity-score-basedmatching, 450 patients remained. At the initiation of dialysis, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 11.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the early-start group compared with 6.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the late-start group. There were no significant differences in survival between the patients in the early- and late-start groups (Log rank tests P = 0.172). A higher overall mortality risk was observed in the early-start group than in the late-start group for the patients aged ≥ 70 yr (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.29; P = 0.048) and/or who had albumin levels ≥ 3.5 g/dL (HR: 2.53; P = 0.046). The survival of the ESRD patients was comparable between the patients in the early and late-start groups. The time to initiate dialysis should be determined based on clinical findings as well as the eGFR.

  5. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  6. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  7. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  8. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  9. Getting started with LevelDB

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  10. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  11. When to start: not so fast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains controversial whether and, if so, the extent to which antiretroviral therapy (ART results in net benefit if used by HIV-positive persons with a high CD4 count, particularly those with early HIV infection. This controversy is primarily reflecting lack of solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. Currently published trials have compared early ART with initiation of ART below currently globally accepted thresholds for initiation (i.e. CD4 count at 350 cells/µL and, hence, are unable to inform this discussion. Analyses on large observational studies that have attempted to address this question have shown inconsistent results; therefore, those results are considered low-quality evidence, as per the GRADE criteria used by, for example, WHO when formulating guidelines. In resource-constrained regions, not even observational data are available to inform this question. The START study is underway to answer this question. Data remain blinded, but START may show net harm from early use of ART; such a result would severely undermine use of ART as prevention in early HIV infection. Prescription of any type of medicine is guided by the principle of “do no harm” – that is, “the doctor should not prescribe medications unless s/he knows that the treatment is unlikely to be harmful.” Hence, the balance of risk/benefit to individuals versus prevention benefit is important to accurately determine, and current guidelines of generally initiating ART once the patient develops HIV-related symptoms or the CD4 count drops to levels around 350 cells/µL should be adhered to until further evidence has emerged.

  12. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  13. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  14. Solvent pre-wetting as an effective start-up method for point-of-use filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Momota, Makoto; Sevegney, Michael; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Numaguchi, Toru

    2012-03-01

    An effective filter start-up method has been required by device manufacturers, mainly in order to reduce waste volume of lithography process chemicals, which become more expensive as lithography technology advances. Remaining air was monitored during static-pressure-driven filter start-up. As a result, 3500 ml of the resist was needed to eliminate remaining air. For improvement, cyclohexanone pre-wetting was applied prior to the resist introduction. As a result, the resist volume needed for the solvent displacement was 1900 ml, approximately half the volume required for staticpressure- driven start-up. Other solvents were evaluated for the pre-wetting start-up method. Results, in descending order of performance were PGME (best) Hansen solubility parameter distance between each solvent and nylon 6,6 material.

  15. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  16. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  17. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  18. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, D. S.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Ponce, D. M.; Young, A. T.

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H- current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration.

  19. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-11

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes.

  20. Who owns urban waste? Appropriation conflicts in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavé, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Managing solid waste in developing cities is not an easy task and many public policies have failed to bring the expected results. It is here argued that comprehending the solid waste handling in the South implies reconsidering the proper definition of waste. Where does the product end and where does rubbish begin? The answer to this question is far from being obvious. Solid waste appears as a blurred concept. Such a thorny issue is all the more relevant today, as municipal solid waste management approaches in the developing world are being reformulated: dumping sites are banned, sanitary landfills are imposed, and separate collection is being introduced. The current sector transformations are here analysed through a novel theoretical analysis combined with an original qualitative and quantitative empirical work. Through two case-studies of one-million inhabitant cities from emerging countries, it is shown that if appropriation conflicts arise that is because the urban solid waste deposit in Southern countries can be defined as an impure public good. This issue does not only involve private service operators and informal wastepickers; several other actors covet the urban solid waste deposit's cream, that is, recyclable items. In emerging countries, huge industrial groups are starting to target domestic recyclable waste as an alternative for raw materials, which costs are increasing ever more. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  2. Waste not, want not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Sadly, modern society has developed very wasteful habits over the last few decades: consumer products, food and energy are perphaps waste items that are most obvious. Attempting to show how we can counteract wasteful habits, this article (a) makes reference to Helen Czerski in her efforts to stop her cycle from rusting away; and (b) shows how a relatively simple task can give new life to a domestic toaster.

  3. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  4. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  5. Pollution reality of gold mining waste on the Witwatersrand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available system still remain. The pollution reality of gold mining waste is illustrated by a case study in the West Rand area, where decant from gold mines started in 2002. Potential receptors of the pollution in the cast study area include neighbouring property...

  6. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  7. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  8. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  10. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  11. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  12. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  13. Biodegradation kinetics during different start up of the anaerobic tapered fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Parthiban

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic study for different start up conditions of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the sago processingfrom tubers of tapioca (Mannihot utillisema is discussed. The experiment is carried out with synthetic waste water usinga tapered fluidized bed reactor. Mesoporous granulated activated carbon is used as a bacterial support. The kinetic modelfollows half order kinetics for substrate utilization and for methane formation and it exhibits an order of 0.20 during thestart up of the reactor without acclimatization. For the remaining start up with acclimatized sludge, kinetic parameters areexpressed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for the substrate utilization. The methane formation kinetics followsan order of the reaction as 0.30. The values of the kinetic constants are in the range of 0.13–0.21.

  14. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  15. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  16. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  17. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  18. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  19. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  20. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John B; Green, Jonathon P; Levin, Gregory T; Brughelli, Matt E; Frost, David M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of different starting stances from a standing position on short sprint times and the subsequent variability in times was investigated in this study. A dual-beam timing light system was used to measure 5- and 10-m times for 3 different standing starts commonly found in the sporting environment: parallel (feet parallel to the start line), split (lead left foot on start line, right leg back), and false (initial parallel start, right leg drops back to split start when movement initiated). The parallel start was found to be significantly (alpha men and women. The split and false start seem to offer the best option as a movement strategy for minimizing short-distance sprint times. However, the benefits of these 2 starts are less clear if total movement time is the variable of interest.

  1. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  2. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  3. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  4. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John

    2017-04-01

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008.

  6. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  7. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  8. Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerkvist, Anders, E-mail: al@ltu.se; Pelkonen, Markku; Wikström, Tommy

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A fast, and original, start up procedure for anaerobic digestors has been applied at full scale. • The development of a methanogenic culture has been documented using fluorescent in situ hybridization. • The technique can be widely applied. - Abstract: A conventional 1300 m{sup 3} continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

  9. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  10. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  11. Eco-friendly dialysis with the Systemic Design methodology: an eco-friendly dialysis may start from "the grave"

    OpenAIRE

    Pereno, Amina; Barbero, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Hemodialysis produces about 600,00 tons of plastic wastes per year. The Systemic Design is an innovative method to analyse the environmental impact and the improvement strategies needed for a "friendly planet" production hardware and supplies, in all field of human life, with an approach that progressively moved from the study of the lifespan of the object to the continuous start of new cycles "from cradle to cradle". In medicine, attention to the environmental impact is still limited...

  12. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  13. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  14. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  15. The Waste Makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2005-01-01

    The throw-away spirit or the spirit of wastefulness has become part of American life and consumption (消费)only keeps rising. Besides, according to the economists, we depend so much on this wasting and buying that people will probably be encouraged to consume even more in the years to come if the US economy is to prosper(兴隆).

  16. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  19. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  20. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  1. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  2. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  3. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  4. Program to improve the inside and outside wastes management of University area. Programa de mejora de la gestion interna y externa de los residuos de los centros universitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieradevall, J.; Hidalgo, M.

    1994-01-01

    In Catalonia companies and centers of education are increasing their worry about the industrial waste management produced in small quantities. Nowadays there are still laboratory technicians which do not know the volume and characteristics of the wastes the produce. The guide plan about the industrial wastes treatment produced in small quantities is not very extensive and it does not include very much about laboratory wastes. Because of this it has been started an study to know the present situation in this field. (Author)

  5. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  6. Structures, Mixed Types - Residual Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Residual Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Residual Waste Program. Residual waste is waste generated at an industrial,...

  7. Waste management in the post-accident phase; La gestion des dechets en phase post-accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Bodenez, Ph. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Dir. des Installations de Recherche et des Dechets, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Post-accidental waste management is an essential step to carry out strategies of reduction of contamination of a contaminated land and to carry out strategies of population protection. Different actions that have to be carried out have been identified: waste collection, waste packaging, waste transport, stabilisation of putrefying waste, treatments to reduce the volume of the wastes, storage and waste disposal. The volumes of post-accidental wastes (mainly very low activity wastes) could be large, for the first scenarios studied by the CODIRPA. The different constraints lead to recommend the building of waste treatment and elimination facilities as near as possible from the places where the wastes are produced. Although wastes will have to be taken care of as soon as the transition phase starts, it will take months to build waste treatment facilities and disposal repositories. Therefore, it seems necessary-to build storage facilities from the beginning of the transition phase. Anyway, in order to manage the wastes as quickly as possible, some actions have to be set up anticipatory. The work of the group will be carried on in 2008 and 2009 to go into detail concerning regulatory, organizational, health, technical and financial aspects related to the different treatment and disposal solutions identified. (authors)

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  9. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  10. Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posters Books & Cards Jewelry & Accessories Video & Music Stay Connected Get Apraxia Kids News Notifications Home Family Start Guide Introduction Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech If you are new to the diagnosis of ...

  11. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德

    2004-01-01

    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  13. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  14. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page on hazardous waste transportation . Top of Page Hazardous Waste Recycling, Treatment, Storage and Disposal To the extent possible, EPA ... Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) provide temporary storage and final treatment or disposal for hazardous wastes. Since they manage large volumes of waste and ...

  15. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  16. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  17. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    2009-01-01

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with oth

  18. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  19. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of discretionary selection of New Starts projects for Funding. SUMMARY...

  20. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  1. Changing Incidence and Risk Factors for Kaposi Sarcoma by Time Since Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyss, Natascha; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains a frequent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We examined incidence rates and risk factors for developing KS in different periods after starting cART in patients from European...... observational HIV cohorts. METHODS:  We included HIV-positive adults starting cART after 1 January 1996. We analyzed incidence rates and risk factors for developing KS up to 90 and 180 days and 1, 2, 5, and 8 years after cART start and fitted univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS:  We...... included 109 461 patients from 21 prospective clinical cohorts in Europe with 916 incident KS cases. The incidence rate per 100 000 person-years was highest 6 months after starting cART, at 953 (95% confidence interval, 866-1048), declining to 82 (68-100) after 5-8 years. In multivariable analyses adjusted...

  2. Vermicomposting of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treatment, the nightcrawler earthworm are used to treat the food waste. The food will be collected from UTHM cafe. The experiment consist of peat soil as a base, earthworms and the food waste. The pH number and moisture content of each container were controlled at 7.0 to 7.2 and 60 to 80 % to maintain the favorable environment condition for the earthworms. The weight of the sample will be measured in three days time after exposure to the earthworm. The vermicomposting study was taken about two weeks time. After the treatment, the soil sample are tested for nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, and Potassium (K concentration. Based on the result obtained, it shows that vermicomposting will reduce the weight of treatment sample and the concentration of N, P, and K for the soil is greater than the chemical fertilizer. Therefore, vermicomposting is a promising  alternative treatment of food waste as it is more ecofriendly.

  3. La comprensión de la salud: punto de partida del enfoque sanológico en la promoción de la salud de la mujer adulta joven Understanding health: a starting point in the healing focus when promoting health among young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM PATRICIA PARDO TORRES

    2007-12-01

    . In order to explore the concept of health and the actions needed to preserve health before and after, we used the semi-structured interview instrument, as of the judgments issued by women. We identified criteria and defined categories in order to understand the health concept and its evolution. At the beginning of the intervention, half the women understood health in terms of the absence of illnesses; one fifth associated it with corporal care, psycho spiritual and environmental care and one third integrated complex elements close to the category comprehension of healing in ones health. After the interventions the majority of the judgments issued by participants included criteria in this latter category. As a conclusion it is shown that the intervention strategy of promoting health with a healing focus to adult young women favors self thinking and the evolution of health conception, towards the recognition by women of their definitive role in being healthy and in the need for social contributions to a life project.

  4. Understanding health: a starting point in the healing focus when promoting health among young adult women La comprensión de la salud: punto de partida del enfoque sanológico en la promoción de la salud de la mujer adulta joven1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÚÑEZ GÓMEZ NICOLÁS ARTURO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Via an intervention study with a before and after design, we worked with a group of 100 women between 20 and 40 years who are residents of the area of the Fourth regional district of the Capital, i.e. Bogotá (San Cristóbal, specifically, with the purpose of identifying the understanding of health before and after an intervention when promoting health drives with a healing focus, and the transformation that is generated after such intervention. In order to explore the concept of health and the actions needed to preserve health before and after, we used the semi-structured interview instrument, as of the judgments issued by women. We identified criteria and defined categories in order to understand the health concept and its evolution. At the beginning of the intervention, half the women understood health in terms of the absence of illnesses; one fifth associated it with corporal care, psycho spiritual and environmental care and one third integrated complex elements close to the category comprehension of healing in ones health. After the interventions the majority of the judgments issued by participants included criteria in this latter category. As a conclusion it is shown that the intervention strategy of promoting health with a healing focus to adult young women favors self thinking and the evolution of health conception, towards the recognition by women of their definitive role in being healthy and in the need for social contributions to a life project.Através de un estudio de intervención con diseño antes-después, se trabajó con un grupo de 100 mujeres en-tre 20 y 40 años residentes en la Localidad Cuarta del Distrito Capital de Bogotá (San Cristóbal, con el objetivo de identificar la comprensión de la salud antes de una intervención en promoción de la salud con enfoque sanológico, y la transformación que se genera después de la intervención. Para explorar el concepto de salud y las acciones para mantener la salud antes

  5. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  6. ZeroWaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Byg) was established two years ago and covers the broad range of expertise, required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have, prior to that......, developed methods for removal of heavy metals and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes, providing the basis of to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector. Initial results for upgrading and using different types of ashes are presented...

  7. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam).

  8. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国

    2001-01-01

    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  9. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H{sup {minus}} current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  11. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  12. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization...

  13. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  14. Give Your Child a Head Start = Dele a Su Hijo la Ventaja Educativa Inicial de Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This pamphlet, in English- and Spanish-language versions, offers information to parents on the functioning and benefits of Head Start, a federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The pamphlet's sections answer the following questions: (1) "What Is Head Start?" (2) "What Can the Head Start Program Offer to Your…

  15. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  16. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  17. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2...... with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization...

  18. Deliverable D4.5. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for 100% waste concrete. SUS-CON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    On January 1st 2012, the European project SUS-CON has been started: “SUStainable, innovative and energy efficient CONcrete, based on the integration of all waste materials” (grant agreement no: 285463). The SUS-CON project aims at developing new technology routes to integrate waste materials in the

  19. Sustainable municipal solid waste management: A qualitative study on possibilities and solutions in Mutomo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Selin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This report investigates the possibilities and solutions for a sustainable municipal solid waste management in the community of Mutomo, situated in Kitui County, Kenya. The aim was to formulate an action plan to start reaching for a sustainable development in the waste sector, with citizen participation. Specific research questions were to find requests and ideas from the community members. Also, how the Swedish solid waste management system is built up in order to find potential good example...

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991.

  1. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  2. Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y

    2017-04-01

    Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  4. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  5. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  6. Geotechnics of waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husami, Z.I. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Seven lectures are presented on the geological aspects hazardous and nuclear waste disposal are presented. Each lecture has been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base (EDB).

  7. Climate Change and Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the life cycle of goods, including ways to reduce our carbon footprint. This page also includes statistics on greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of waste.

  8. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  9. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by issues of population growth and urbanisation; increasing quantity and complexity of waste; climate change; carbon economics; resource scarcity; commodity prices; energy security; globalisation; job creation; and tightening regulation (DST, 2014a...

  10. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  11. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  12. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  13. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  14. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  15. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  16. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  17. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  18. The HRA/Solarium Project: Processing of Widely Varying High- and Medium-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, M.; Luycx, P.; Gilis, R.; Belgoprocess; Renard, Cl.; Reyniers, H.; Cuchet, J. M.

    2003-02-26

    Starting in 2003, Belgoprocess will proceed with the treatment and conditioning of some 200 m{sup 3} of widely varying high- and medium-level waste from earlier research and development work, to meet standard acceptance criteria for later disposal. The gross volume of primary and secondary packages amounts to 2,600 m{sup 3}. The waste has been kept in decay storage for up to 30 years. The project was started in 1997. Operation of the various processing facilities will take 7-8 years. The overall volume of conditioned waste will be of the order of 800 m{sup 3}. All conditioned waste will be stored in appropriate storage facilities onsite. At present (November, 2002), a new processing facility has been constructed, the functional tests of the equipment have been performed and the startup phase has been started. Several cells of the Pamela vitrification facility onsite will be adapted for the treatment of high-level and highly a-contaminated waste; low-level a/a waste will be treated in the existing facility for super compaction and conditioning by embedding into cement (CILVA). The bulk of these waste, of which 95% are solids, the remainder consisting of mainly solidified liquids, have been produced between 1967 and 1988. They originate from various research programs and reactor operation at the Belgian nuclear energy research centre SCK CEN, isotope production, decontamination and dismantling operations.

  19. Head Start: A True Start to Getting Ahead: A Literature Review of the Head Start Program as a Primary Poverty Prevention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, LaPorsche C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Head Start Program plays a vital role in increasing the likelihood that under-privileged children will become academically successful in school, attend college, and become successful citizens. Yet, Head Start continuously struggles to retain its funding and is challenged in its goal of assisting low income children. A review of the literature on Head Start and related early childhood education longitudinal studies will attest to the importance of this program as a primary prevention strategy to reduce poverty, raise public awareness of its benefits, and support the efforts of its advocates to retain and expand its funding at local and federal levels.

  20. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  1. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  2. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  3. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  4. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

  6. Domestic Refuse Handling Practices Among Adult Females in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an interventional/community-based study involving a total of 436 adult ... Health education was given on domestic refuse handling and reinforcement by ... to the various challenges faced by them particularly the absence of community sanitation members. ... Key words: Solid waste, practices, female adults, obstacles.

  7. CONSERVATION AREA START-UPS: COMBINING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN S. WRIGHT; JEFF CANEEN; NATHAN ALEXANDER; ANDREW GOMEZ

    2010-01-01

    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  8. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  9. MICRO ENGINE START PERFORMANCE RESEARCH FOR RACING CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vrublevskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of modernization of the single-cylinder engine start by replacing the standard system by an electric starter is presented. Based on the calculated and experimental studies there have been provided the start-up characteristics of a single-cylinder engine. The measures to reduce the start-up time of the engine during the race in the Shell – EcoMarathon are offered.

  10. Phenotype Presentation of Hypophosphatemic Rickets in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Brusgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2010-01-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a group of rare disorders caused by excessive renal phosphate wasting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 38 HR patients was to characterize the phenotype of adult HR patients. Moreover, skeletal and endodontic severity scores were defined to assess...

  11. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...

  13. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of...

  14. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  15. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  16. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  17. STUDIES ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS ON UTILIZATION OF WASTE MATERIALS AS COARSE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. T. SEKAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and Industrialization involving construction of Infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent, for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, brick bats, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viablesubstitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing waste materials viz: ceramic tiles, ceramic insulator waste, and broken glass pieces. A total number of 24cubes, 24 cylinders and 24 beamswere cast and tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength using industrial wastes and the results presented. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, split tensile and flexure than ceramic insulator scrap and broken glass material. This paper recommends that waste ceramic tiles can be used as an alternate construction material to coarse aggregate in concrete.

  18. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  19. A review and overview of nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1984-12-31

    An understanding of the status and issues in the management of radioactive wastes is based on technical information on radioactivity, radiation, biological hazard of radiation exposure, radiation standards, and methods of protection. The fission process gives rise to radioactive fission products and neutron bombardment gives activation products. Radioactive wastes are classified according to source: defense, commercial, industrial, and institutional; and according to physical features: uranium mill tailings, high-level, transuranic, and low-level. The nuclear fuel cycle, which contributes a large fraction of annual radioactive waste, starts with uranium ore, includes nuclear reactor use for electrical power generation, and ends with ultimate disposal of residues. The relation of spent fuel storage and reprocessing is governed by technical, economic, and political considerations. Waste has been successfully solidified in glass and other forms and choices of the containers for the waste form are available. Methods of disposal of high-level waste that have been investigated are transmutation by neutron bombardment, shipment to Antartica, deep-hole insertion, subseabed placement, transfer by rocket to an orbit in space, and disposal in a mined cavity. The latter is the favored method. The choices of host geological media are salt, basalt, tuff, and granite.

  20. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  1. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  2. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  3. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  4. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  5. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables 2006. Catalogue descriptif des familles de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  6. The Urban Solid Wastes in Guipuzkoa (Spain): a plural reality; Los RSU en Guipuzcoa: una realidad plural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Olazaga, C.; Aguirre, A. [Departamento de Obras Publicas y Medio Ambiente Diputacion Foral de Gupuzcoa, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    The Government of the Region of Guipuzcoa (Basque Country) have set up a plant to start the separated collection of urban solid waste. Some years ago the plan was started with the collection of glass, paper. The batteries were collected in the shops where they were sold. (Author)

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  8. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  9. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  10. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  11. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  12. Response Time Comparisons among Four Base Running Starting Techniques in Slow Pitch Softball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; Brown, Rodney L.

    1981-01-01

    Response times among four starting techniques (cross-over step, jab step, standing sprinter's start, and momentum start) were compared. The results suggest that the momentum start was the fastest starting technique for optimum speed in running bases. (FG)

  13. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change to performance,…

  14. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  15. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... work, purchase of a site, site surveys or soil testing, site preparation, site excavation, construction... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Start of construction. 36.15 Section 36.15 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements § 36.15 Start of construction. The applicant may not begin construction of a new irradiator prior...

  16. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  17. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  18. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  19. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  20. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  1. Starting Time and School Life: Reflections from Educators and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Particia K; Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Bemis, Amy E.

    1999-01-01

    Using teacher surveys and focus groups, a University of Minnesota study examined the effects of changing school starting times on school operations at all levels and on the community. The least desirable start time was 9:40 a.m. at middle schools. Later schedules benefited high school students. No one schedule can accommodate everyone. (MLH)

  2. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  3. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  4. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  5. Numerical study of unsteady starting characteristics of a hypersonic inlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weixing; Guo Rongwei

    2013-01-01

    The impulse and self starting characteristics of a mixed-compression hypersonic inlet designed at Mach number of 6.5 are studied by applying the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the assumption of viscous perfect gas model,and the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω two-equation Reynolds averaged NavierStokes (RANS) model is used for turbulence modeling.Results indicate that during impulse starting,the flow field is divided into three zones with different aerodynamic parameters by primary shock and upstream-facing shock.The separation bubble on the shoulder of ramp undergoes a generating,growing,swallowing and disappearing process in sequence.But a separation bubble at the entrance of inlet exists until the freestream velocity is accelerated to the starting Mach number during self starting.The mass flux distribution of flow field is non-uniform because of the interaction between shock and boundary layer,so that the mass flow rate at throat is unsteady during impulse starting.The duration of impulse starting process increases almost linearly with the decrease of fleestream Mach number but rises abruptly when the freestream Mach number approaches the starting Mach number.The accelerating performance of booster almost has no influence on the self starting ability of hypersonic inlet.

  6. Early versus Late Start in Foreign Language Education: Documenting Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Rocio; Pessoa, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    This study compares 27 sixth grade students who have been learning Spanish since kindergarten with 5 who have had Spanish for only 1 year using a battery of Spanish oral and written tests. The students who started early out performed the new students in listening, speaking, and writing Spanish. Those who started early also displayed a positive…

  7. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  8. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  9. Local waste management constraints and waste administrators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2008-01-01

    Local level waste authorities and their officials directly interact and serve the people on behalf of higher governments. Given the influential positions they have on the quality of life of the citizens, these local waste authorities deserve more attention from researchers. This study throws light on the factors related to local waste management and administrators that have caused waste management failures in three mainland Chinese cities. Based on a survey conducted in 2002-2003, it was found that waste administrators in these cities are not professionally competent in their jobs and they are also not confident in using economic instruments to address waste management issues in their cities. These local waste authorities are generally under-funded, and funding politics has to some extent eroded the incentives to carry out the instructions of higher waste authorities. The community at large also does not respect local waste management work. The residents frequently litter, are unobservant of waste collection times and are unwilling to pay for waste collection service. All of these are handicapping environmentally sound waste management.

  10. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  11. Office of Waste Isolation. Progress report, November 1977. [National waste terminal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhines, R.C.; Asher, J.M. (eds.)

    1977-12-28

    This program is part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The Geologic Review Group meeting was held in New Orleans, November 16-17. Start-up of the near-surface heater experiment in the Conasauga Shale formation is under way at Oak Ridge. The first shipment of experimental equipment from Oak Ridge to Avery Island, Louisiana, for the dome salt in-situ test was successfully completed. On November 9-10, a design status review on the spent fuel repository conceptual design was held with Kaiser Engineers, Inc. On November 2, OWI personnel reviewed the progress on the Economic Studies with TRW representatives.

  12. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  13. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar......-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins...

  14. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  15. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  16. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  17. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  18. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  19. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  20. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  1. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  3. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  4. Adult neurogenesis in humans- common and unique traits in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are continuously generated in specific regions in the adult brain. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that adult-born neurons have specific functional features and mediate neural plasticity. Data on the extent and dynamics of adult neurogenesis in adult humans are starting to emerge, and there are clear similarities and differences compared to other mammals. Why do these differences arise? And what do they mean?

  5. Economic evaluation of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis versus urgent-start hemodialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.

  6. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    unique waste stream. It is anticipated that the challenge will be more in integrating the system and complying with process limitations than in developing entirely new technologies. Several assumptions have been made in this document about the acceptability of radionuclide decontamination and potential waste forms for disposal. These assumptions have been used to define acceptability criteria for feasibility studies on removal. These limits are not intended to define regulatory or facility limits, but rather provide a starting point for evaluating various technologies.

  7. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  8. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  9. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  10. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  11. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  12. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  13. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  14. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  16. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  19. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)