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Sample records for waste-package wp system

  1. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  2. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  3. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  4. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  5. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  6. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  7. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  8. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  9. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  10. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  11. Tabulation of thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving 58 elements common to radioactive waste package systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    The rate of release and migration of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository to the biosphere is dependent on chemical interactions between groundwater, the geologic host rock, and the radioactive waste package. For the purpose of this report, the waste package includes the wasteform, canister, overpack, and repository backfill. Chemical processes of interest include sorption (ion exchange), dissolution, complexation, and precipitation. Thermochemical data for complexation and precipitation calculations for 58 elements common to the radioactive waste package are presented. Standard free energies of formation of free ions, complexes, and solids are listed. Common logarithms of equilibrium constants (log K's) for speciation and precipitation reactions are listed. Unless noted otherwise, all data are for 298.15/sup 0/K and one atmosphere.

  12. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  13. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  14. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  15. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  16. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  17. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  18. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  19. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  20. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  1. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  2. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  3. Monitoring of a 1 kWp Solar Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, M. F.; Zainuddin, H.; Rejab, S. N. M.; Shaari, S. N.; Shaari, S.; Omar, A. M.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    A 1 kWp `stand alone' PV system consists of 4 module (2 BP SX75U module and 2 BP 275F module), inverter, 2 thermocouple, 3 voltage sensor, 3 current sensor, 4 battery and data logger (Data Taker DT80) has been set up. This research involve nine parameters which are irradiance (Ia), ambient temperature (Tamb), module temperature (Tmod), module voltage (Vmod), battery voltage (Vbat), load voltage (Vload), module current (Imod), battery current (Ibat) and load current (Iload). All parameters were measured using the equipments and sensors that connected directly to data logger (Data Taker DT80) to interpret and show the data on computer using the Delogger sofware. The data then was transferred into the computer and analyzed using the Deview and Microsoft Excel software to determine the performance indices for the stand alone PV system. From the analysis a few performance indices were determined. The range of daily solar irradiation is between 2.20 kWhm-2 to 4.00 kWhm-2, while the range of total global irradiation is between 5.76 kWh to 10.48 kWh. For daily total energy yield, the range is between 0.23 kWh d-1 to 0.28 kWh d-1. The range for clearness index is between 0.49% to 0.89%. The range for final yield is between 0.77 kWh d-1 kWp-1 to 0.93 kWhd-1 kWp-1 while the range of array efficiency is between 2.53% to 4.65%. Lastly, the range of the performance ratio is between 22.08% to 40.58%.

  4. Dose Rate Calucaltion for the DHL W/DOE SNF Codisposal Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulescu

    2000-02-12

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of the short codisposal waste package (WP) of defense high-level waste (DHLW) and TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The WP contains the TRIGA SNF, in a standardized 18-in. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) SNF canister, and five 3-m-long Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW pour glass canisters, which surround the DOE SNF canister.

  5. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of the Naval Long and Short Waste Package Three-Dimensional Thermal Interface Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the Naval Long and Naval Short spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WP) in the repository emplacement drift. The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the temperature profiles upon the surfaces of the Naval Long and Short SNF waste package for up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The temperatures on the top of the outside surface of the naval canister are the thermal interfaces for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP). The results of this calculation are intended to support Licensing Application design activities.

  7. Geochemistry Model Abstraction and Sensitivity Studies for the 21 PWR CSNF Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot; S. LeStrange; E. Thomas; K. Zarrabi; S. Arthur

    2002-10-29

    The CSNF geochemistry model abstraction, as directed by the TWP (BSC 2002b), was developed to provide regression analysis of EQ6 cases to obtain abstracted values of pH (and in some cases HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration) for use in the Configuration Generator Model. The pH of the system is the controlling factor over U mineralization, CSNF degradation rate, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration in solution. The abstraction encompasses a large variety of combinations for the degradation rates of materials. The ''base case'' used EQ6 simulations looking at differing steel/alloy corrosion rates, drip rates, and percent fuel exposure. Other values such as the pH/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} dependent fuel corrosion rate and the corrosion rate of A516 were kept constant. Relationships were developed for pH as a function of these differing rates to be used in the calculation of total C and subsequently, the fuel rate. An additional refinement to the abstraction was the addition of abstracted pH values for cases where there was limited O{sub 2} for waste package corrosion and a flushing fluid other than J-13, which has been used in all EQ6 calculation up to this point. These abstractions also used EQ6 simulations with varying combinations of corrosion rates of materials to abstract the pH (and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the case of the limiting O{sub 2} cases) as a function of WP materials corrosion rates. The goodness of fit for most of the abstracted values was above an R{sup 2} of 0.9. Those below this value occurred during the time at the very beginning of WP corrosion when large variations in the system pH are observed. However, the significance of F-statistic for all the abstractions showed that the variable relationships are significant. For the abstraction, an analysis of the minerals that may form the ''sludge'' in the waste package was also presented. This analysis indicates that a number a different iron and aluminum minerals may form in

  8. Waste Package Outer Barrier Stress Due to Thermal Expansion with Various Barrier Gap Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Lewis

    2001-11-27

    The objective of this activity is to determine the tangential stresses of the outer shell, due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer shells of the current waste package (WP) designs. Based on the results of the calculation ''Waste Package Barrier Stresses Due to Thermal Expansion'', CAL-EBS-ME-000008 (ref. 10), only tangential stresses are considered for this calculation. The tangential stresses are significantly larger than the radial stresses associated with thermal expansion, and at the WP outer surface the radial stresses are equal to zero. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the tangential stresses the waste package outer shell is subject to due to the interference fit, produced by having two different shell coefficients of thermal expansions. The inner shell has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer shell, producing a pressure between the two shells. This calculation is associated with Waste Package Project. The calculations are performed for the 21-PWR (pressurized water reactor), 44-BWR (boiling water reactor), 24-BWR, 12-PWR Long, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF - Short (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel), 2-MCO/2-DHLW (multi-canister overpack), and Naval SNF Long WP designs. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the types of WPs considered in this calculation. This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for SR (Ref.7). The calculation is documented, reviewed, and approved in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref.1).

  9. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  10. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  11. WAPDEG Analysis of Waste Package and Drip shield Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-09-29

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), an analysis of the degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS) drip shields and waste packages at the Yucca Mountain repository is developed. The purpose of this activity is to provide the TSPA with inputs and methodologies used to evaluate waste package and drip shield degradation as a function of exposure time under exposure conditions anticipated in the repository. This analysis provides information useful to satisfy ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) requirements. Several features, events, and processes (FEPs) are also discussed (Section 6.2, Table 15). The previous revision of this report was prepared as a model report in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Due to changes in the role of this report since the site recommendation, it no longer contains model development. This revision is prepared as a scientific analysis in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'' and uses models previously validated in (1) ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]); (2) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169984]); and (3) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169845]). The integrated waste package degradation (IWPD) analysis presented in this report treats several implementation-related issues, such as defining the number and size of patches per waste package that undergo stress corrosion cracking; recasting the weld flaw analysis in a form as implemented in the Closure Weld Defects (CWD) software; and, general corrosion rate manipulations (e.g., change of

  12. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  13. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wallace

    2004-10-13

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  14. 44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-08-25

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

  15. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to

  16. SECOND WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF INTERNAL CRITICIALITY CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Gottlieb, J.R. Massari, J.K. McCoy

    1996-03-27

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department to provide an evaluation of the criticality potential within a waste package having sonic or all of its contents degraded by corrosion and removal of neutron absorbers. This analysis is also intended to provide an estimate of the consequences of any internal criticality, particularly in terms of any increase in radionuclide inventory. These consequence estimates will be used as part of the WPD input to the Total System Performance Assessment. The ultimate objective of this analysis is to augment the information gained from the Initial Waste Package Probabilistic Criticality Analyses (Ref. 5.8 and 5.9, hereafter referred to as IPA) to a degree which will support preliminary waste package design recommendations intended to reduce the risk of waste package criticality and the risk to total repository system performance posed by the consequences of any criticality. The IPA evaluated the criticality potential under the assumption that the waste package basket retained its structural integrity, so that the assemblies retained their initial separation, even when the neutron absorbers had been leached from the basket. This analysis is based on the more realistic condition that removal of the neutron absorbers is a consequence of the corrosion of the steel in which they are contained, which has the additional consequence of reducing the structural support between assemblies. The result is a set of more reactive configurations having a smaller spacing between assemblies, or no inter-assembly spacing at all. Another difference from the IPA is the minimal attention to probabilistic evaluation given in this study. Although the IPA covered a time horizon to 100,000 years, the lack of consideration of basket degradation modes made it primarily applicable to the first 10,000 years. In contrast, this study, by focusing on the degraded modes of the basket, is primarily

  17. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

  18. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Compatibility studies for the waste packaging program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1969-03-01

    A program is now underway by Battelle-Northwest to develop the technology required for a waste packaging plant. Cesium chloride and strontium fluoride have been selected as the prime candidates for packaging. Cesium diuranate and strontium pyrophosphate have been selected as backup compounds for packaging in case either or both of the prime candidates should be rejected for any reason. No detailed studies of CsCl compatibility have been reported and long term data are needed. As in the case with CsCl, no detailed studies have been made on SrF{sub 2} compatibility. As a result of the lack of pertinent compatibility data, it is readily apparent that detailed studies are required on CsCl and SrF{sub 2} compatibility and at least scouting studies must be made on the compatibility of the backup packaging compounds. This report summarizes the compatibility studies that are underway at PNL using non-radioactive compounds. Capsule fabrication procedures and tests schedules are outlined.

  20. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  1. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  2. Dose Calculations for the Co-Disposal WP-of HLW-Glass and the Triga SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulescu

    1999-08-02

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Operations (WPO). The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing a centrally located Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, loaded with the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) SNF. This canister is surrounded by five 3-m long canisters, loaded with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) glass. The results are to support the WP design and radiological analyses.

  3. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  4. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, April 1984-September 1984. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Veakis, E.; Soo, P.

    1985-06-01

    This ongoing study is part of a task to specify tests that may be used to verify that engineered waste package/repository systems comply with NRC radionuclide containment and controlled release performance objectives. Work covered in this report includes crushed tuff packing material for use in a high level waste tuff repository. A review of available tests to quantify packing performance is given together with recommendations for future testing work. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data: Biannual report, August 1986-January 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.; Escalante, E.; Fraker, A.; Harrison, S.; Shull, R.; Linzer, M.; Ricker, R.; Ruspi, J.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes results of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) evaluations of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The waste package is a proposed engineered barrier that is part of a permanent repository for HLW. Metal alloys are the principal barriers within the engineered system. Technical discussions are given for the corrosion of metals proposed for the canister, particularly carbon and stainless steels, and copper. In the section on tuff, the current level of understanding of several canister materials is questioned. Within the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) section, discussions are given on problems concerning groundwater, materials for use in the metallic overpack, and diffusion through the packing. For the proposed salt site, questions are raised on the work on both ASTM A216 Steel and Ti-Code 12. NBS work related to the vitrification of HLW borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is covered. NBS reviews of selected DOE technical reports and a summary of current waste-package activities of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is presented. Using a database management system, a computerized database for storage and retrieval of reviews and evaluations of HLW data has been developed and is described. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  7. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  8. Performance of a 34 kWp grid-connected PV system in Indonesia - A comparison of tropical and European PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed a monitored grid-connected PV system of 34 kWp in Indonesia to investigate the performance of PV systems in tropical climates. The PV system has been installed in Jayapura, the capital of the Province of Papua, Indonesia, by the beginning of 2012. Due to the aged gensets and frequent

  9. WP 2: "Data collection and processing systems (DCPS) for the conventional markets" and WP 3: "Data collection and processing systems for organic markets"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, J.; Kramer, K.J.; Richter, T.; Hempfling, G.; Lux, S.; Recke, G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the EU concerted action EISfOM (QLK5-2002-02400) (European Information System for Organic Markets) is to build up a framework for reporting valid and reliable data for relevant production and market sectors of the European organic sector in order to meet the needs of policy-makers,

  10. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  12. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  13. Performance analysis of a 11.2 kWp roof top grid-connected PV system in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Barren land and roof tops of buildings are being increasingly used worldwide to install solar panels for generating electricity. One such step has been taken by Siksha ‘O’Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (Latitude 20.24° N and Longitude 80.85° E by installing a 11.2 kWp grid connected solar power system during February, 2014. This PV system is tilted at an angle of 21° on the top floor of a 25 metre height building. This system was installed This paper presents the results of this grid connected photovoltaic system which was monitored between September 2014 to August 2015. The entire electricity generated by the system was fed into the state grid. The different parameters of the system studied include PV module efficiency, array yield, final yield, inverter efficiency and performance ratio of the system. The total energy generated during this period was found to be 14.960 MWh and the PV module efficiency, inverter efficiency and performance ratio were found to be 13.42%, 89.83% and 0.78 respectively.

  14. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    The potential of WAPPA, a second-generation waste package system code, to meet the needs of the regulatory community is analyzed. The analysis includes an indepth review of WAPPA`s individual process models and a review of WAPPA`s operation. It is concluded that the code is of limited use to the NRC in the present form. Recommendations for future improvement, usage, and implementation of the code are given. This report also describes the results of a testing program undertaken to determine the chemical environment that will be present near a high-level waste package emplaced in a basalt repository. For this purpose, low carbon 1020 steel (a current BWIP reference container material), synthetic basaltic groundwater and a mixture of bentonite and basalt were exposed, in an autoclave, to expected conditions some period after repository sealing (150{sup 0}C, {approx_equal}10.4 MPa). Parameters measured include changes in gas pressure with time and gas composition, variation in dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and certain ionic concentrations of water in the packing material across an imposed thermal gradient, mineralogic alteration of the basalt/bentonite mixture, and carbon steel corrosion behavior. A second testing program was also initiated to check the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels and Incoloy 825 which are being considered for use as waste container materials in the tuff repository program. 82 refs., 70 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Brenner, Ceri M; Stitt, Camilla A; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R; Mirfayzi, Seyed R; Wilson, Lucy A; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M H; Clarke, Robert J; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David; Kar, Satya; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-11-15

    A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500keV), with a source size of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Preliminary Criticality Analysis of Degraded SNF Accumulations to a Waste Package (SCPB: N/A) 

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Davis

    2005-12-15

    This study is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide input to a separate evaluation on the probability of criticality in the far-field environment. These calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide conservatively bounding configurations to support separate probabilistic analyses. The objective of this evaluation is to provide input to a risk analysis which will show that criticalities involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are not credible, or indicate additional measures that are required for the Engineered Barrier Segment (EBS) to make such events incredible. Minimum critical volumes and masses of UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/tuff mixtures are determined without application of regulatory safety limits. This study does not address or demonstrate compliance with regulatory limits.

  17. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP

  18. WP7 -Dissemination Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henn, Patrick; Hynes, Helen; Maher, Bridget; Stieger, Lina; Druener, Susanne; Sopka, Sasa; Schroeder, Hanna; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Orrego, Carola; Hartkopf, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The document describes the dissemination plan and activities within the PATIENT project. The focus of work package WP7 is the dissemination of the PATIENT project. This means spreading the message about our activities, and our project outcomes to as wide and diverse an audience as possible. We used

  19. Repository documentation rethought. A comprehensive approach from untreated waste to waste packages for final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthofer, Anton Philipp; Schubert, Johannes [VPC GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The German Act on Reorganization of Responsibility for Nuclear Disposal (Entsorgungsuebergangsgesetz (EntsorgUebG)) adopted in June 2017 provides the energy utilities with the new option of transferring responsibility for their waste packages to the Federal Government. This is conditional on the waste packages being approved for delivery to the Konrad final repository. A comprehensive approach starts with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and extends from waste disposal and packaging planning to final repository documentation. Waste package quality control measures are planned and implemented as early as in the process qualification stage so that the production of waste packages that are suitable for final deposition can be ensured. Optimization of cask and loading configuration can save container and repository volume. Workflow planning also saves time, expenditure and exposure time for personnel at the facilities. VPC has evaluated this experience and developed it into a comprehensive approach.

  20. HORIZONTAL LIFTING OF 5 DHLW/DOE LONG, 12-PWR LONG AND 24-BWR WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. de la Brosse

    2001-05-17

    The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural response of a 12-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Long, a 24-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and a 5-Defense High Level Waste/Department of Energy (DHLW/DOE)--Long spent nuclear fuel waste packages lifted in a horizontal position. The scope of this calculation was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities in the trunnion collar sleeves. In addition, the maximum stress intensities in the inner and outer shells of the waste packages were presented for illustrative purposes. The information provided by the sketches (Attachments I, II and III) is that of the potential design of the types of waste packages considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for these designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with the ''Technical work plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 7). AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref. 13), was used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  1. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  2. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  3. Toolkit for a systems analysis framework of the EU bioeconomy : overview of WP2 in the EU FP 7 SAT-BBE project: systems analysis tools framework for the EU Bio-Based Economy Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Smeets, E.M.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the SAT-BBE project is to describe, monitor and model the bioeconomy part of the economic system, by the development of an appropriate conceptual toolkit. In WP1, the concepts of bioeconomy and non-bioeconomy sectors have been defined, the major interactions and feedback effects

  4. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    -profile threaded connections at each end. The internal-flush design would be suitable for loading waste that arrives from the originating site in weld-sealed, cylindrical canisters. Internal, tapered plugs with sealing filet welds would seal the tubing at each end. The taper would be precisely machined onto both the tubing and the plug, producing a metal-metal sealing surface that is compressed as the package is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The lower plug would be welded in place before loading, while the upper plug would be placed and welded after loading. Conceptual Waste Packaging Options for Deep Borehole Disposal July 30, 2015 iv Threaded connections between packages would allow emplacement singly or in strings screwed together at the disposal site. For emplacement on a drill string the drill pipe would be connected directly into the top package of a string (using an adapter sub to mate with premium semi-flush tubing threads). Alternatively, for wireline emplacement the same package designs could be emplaced singly using a sub with wireline latch, on the upper end. Threaded connections on the bottom of the lowermost package would allow attachment of a crush box, instrumentation, etc.

  5. Preclosure analysis of conceptual waste package designs for a nuclear waste repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neal, W.C.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Russell, E.W.; Stein, W.

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for possible disposal of high-level nuclear waste at a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The design requirements that the waste package must conform to are listed, as are several desirable design considerations. Illustrations of the reference and alternative designs are shown. Four austenitic stainless steels (316L SS, 321 SS, 304L SS and Incoloy 825 high nickel alloy) have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and ecnonmic analyses supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Postclosure containment and release rates are not analyzed in this report.

  6. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  7. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  8. Estimation of waste package performance requirements for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B J

    1980-07-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described, and based on federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment, a simple and conservative transport model, and baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios.

  9. A roof-integrated 12.75 kWp photovoltaic system in the heritage-protected village centre of Wettingen, Switzerland; 12.75 kWp Photovoltaik-Anlage Dachintegration Dorfkernzone Wettingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppel, H.-D.; Koeppel, G. [Eigentuemergemeinschaft P.P. Stoeckli und H.-D. Koeppel Stoeckli, Kienast and Koeppel, Landschaftsarchitekten AG, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the first two years of operation of the 12.75 kWp photovoltaic installation on the office building of SKK Landschaftsarchitekten AG in Wettingen, Switzerland (www.skk.ch). The unexpectedly high amount of 11'788 kWh produced in the first year of operation was even topped by the second year with an annual production of 13'247 kWh. Both the selection of high efficiency electrical components as well as the professional installation helped - together with the favourable location - achieving an annual production rate of up to 1039 kWh/kWp. The predicted annual production of approx. 10'500 kWh was outbalanced by 2000 kWh on average. The office building is located in the old part of the village Wettingen. Buildings in this area are subjected to special regulations in order to protect and preserve the harmonic village scenery and to retain the superordinate architectonic ensemble. One of the main aspects of these conservation efforts is the impression of the roof-landscape. In the opinion of the owners, who were looking for an exemplary urbanistic solution, the preservation of this roof-landscape was only possible by replacing the existing roof by a roof-integrated PV-installation. The project was realised in close cooperation with the administration and the consulting architect. The choice of material and the layout have been decided together. The building permit was issued without any public or private objections. Many positive reactions from neighbours and passers-by could be registered. Most often it was pointed out that it was advantageous that the whole roof was replaced with panels and not just a portion of it. The new look of the roof, albeit yet unfamiliar, was recognized as consistent and good looking. (author)

  10. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher P., E-mail: cj0810@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brenner, Ceri M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Stitt, Camilla A. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mirfayzi, Seyed R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lucy A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Allott, Ric [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Butler, Nicholas M.H. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, Adam [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jowsey, John [Ground Floor North B582, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10{sup 7}–10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm{sup 2} scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  11. Emplacement Drift System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier

  12. Requirements and constraints of EIR design option on WP2, WP4, WP5: Milestone M3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    In this document we will review the design task of the WP3 (EIR), namely EIR optics (task 1), Machine Detector Interface (task 2), and Beam-Beam effects (task 3) and map the related challenges into the constraints and requirements for the other work packages – arc design (WP2), cryogenic beam vacuum (WP4) and magnet design (WP5). We will also include a section on how the EIR WP3 constraints and design optimization issues may affect the design of the Experimental Detector (this is outside the scope of EuroCirCol, but is one of the key activity area of FCC-hh community design efforts).  

  13. Evaluating Progress: State Education Agencies and the Implementation of New Teacher Evaluation Systems. WP #2015-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In a 2012 paper for the Center for American Progress, "The State of Evaluation Reform," Patrick McGuinn (Drew University) identified the opportunities and challenges facing education agencies in Race to the Top (RTTT) grant-winning states as they prepared for the implementation of new teacher evaluation systems. The 2012 study undertook…

  14. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. (ed.)

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC`s review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs.

  15. WP7 Design Tools for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The main goal for the WP7 was to bridge the gap between the wind load simulations (WP8) and the detailed structural FEM models used in design (WP6).......The main goal for the WP7 was to bridge the gap between the wind load simulations (WP8) and the detailed structural FEM models used in design (WP6)....

  16. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  17. Shielding Calculations on Waste Packages – The Limits and Possibilities of different Calculation Methods by the example of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Waste Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mike

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nuclear waste packages the expected dose rates and nuclide inventory are beforehand calculated. Depending on the package of the nuclear waste deterministic programs like MicroShield® provide a range of results for each type of packaging. Stochastic programs like “Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System” (MCNP® on the other hand provide reliable results for complex geometries. However this type of program requires a fully trained operator and calculations are time consuming. The problem here is to choose an appropriate program for a specific geometry. Therefore we compared the results of deterministic programs like MicroShield® and stochastic programs like MCNP®. These comparisons enable us to make a statement about the applicability of the various programs for chosen types of containers. As a conclusion we found that for thin-walled geometries deterministic programs like MicroShield® are well suited to calculate the dose rate. For cylindrical containers with inner shielding however, deterministic programs hit their limits. Furthermore we investigate the effect of an inhomogeneous material and activity distribution on the results. The calculations are still ongoing. Results will be presented in the final abstract.

  18. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  19. Use of bremsstrahlung information for the nondestructive characterization of radioactive waste packages; Nutzung von Bremsstrahlungsinformation zur zerstoerungsfreien Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallgebinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmoser, Benjamin Paul

    2016-11-10

    In order to minimize pseudo activity whilst storage of radioactive waste packages it is required to determine the nuclide inventory as precisely as possible. The in Gamma spectra contained parts of bremsstrahlung can be used to identify and quantify certain beta nuclides. For this an analytical method has been developed. This was mainly tested with beta-emitter Sr-90 and Tm-170, as well as commonly present gamma-emitters in laboratory scale and actual 200 liter waste packages. As a result, non-destructive determination of radioactive wastes can be conducted more precisely.

  20. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Feasibility study of fissile mass quantification by photofission delayed gamma rays in radioactive waste packages using MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Eric, E-mail: eric.simon@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance cedex (France); Jallu, Fanny; Pérot, Bertrand [CEA, DEN, Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance cedex (France); Plumeri, Stéphane [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2016-12-21

    The feasibility of fissile mass quantification in large, long-lived medium activity radioactive waste packages using photofission delayed gamma rays has been assessed with MCNPX. The detection limit achievable is lower than the expected uranium mass in these waste packages, but the important sensibility to the waste matrix density and sample localization imposes to get an accurate measurement of these parameters. An isotope discrimination method based on gamma-ray ratios has been evaluated showing that photofission delayed gamma rays can be used to measure the fissile mass as well as the total uranium mass.

  2. User requirements Massive Point Clouds for eSciences (WP1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.; Alkemade, I.; Kodde, M.P.; Nonhebel, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a milestone in work package 1 (WP1) of the project Massive point clouds for eSciences. In WP1 the basic functionalities needed for a new Point Cloud Spatial Database Management System are identified. This is achieved by (1) literature research, (2) discussions with the project

  3. WP1 – Final project report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Scheffel, Maren; Orrego, Carola; Stieger, Lina; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Henn, Patrick; Hynes, Helen; Przibilla, Monika; Geiger, Uschi; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the complete project reporting of the PATIENT project from October 2012 until end of March 2015. It provides a summary of all project activities and achievements that are based on the previous WP deliverables such as the project progress reports from WP1 (D1.01) and the quality

  4. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  5. Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

    2014-09-01

    The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as α-cadinol, δ-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  7. The Probabilistic Nature of Environmental Cracking in Candidate Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.M. Gordon; P.L. Andresen; L.M. Young

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of material condition and applied stress on environmental cracking in candidate waste package materials for the Yucca Mountain Project. Time-to-failure experiments were performed on smooth bar tensile specimens in a hot, concentrated, mixed-salt solution chosen to simulate concentrated Yucca Mountain water. Smooth tensile specimens were individually loaded by the internal pressure of a 55-liter autoclave, where the applied stress varied with the individual specimen gauge cross section. The effects of material, applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatment were investigated for Alloy 22, Titanium Grade 7, and 316NG stainless steel. Testing of multiple specimens allowed statistical differences among material conditions to be determined. Sensitized 304SS specimens were included in the test matrix to provide benchmark data. Microstructural effects on time-to-failure were studied for Alloy 22, where heat treatments designed to produce topologically close-packed phases (TCP) and long-range ordering (LRO) were investigated. This research complements high-resolution crack-growth-rate experiments performed in a parallel research project.

  8. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  9. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  10. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  11. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  12. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  13. FLOAT2 WP4: Development of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Aarup, Bendt

    This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC.......This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC....

  14. Wpływ Specjalnych Stref Ekonomicznych

    OpenAIRE

    Pastusiak, Radosław; Keller, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Celem publikacji jest ocena wpływu funkcjonowania przedsiębiorstw w polskich SSE na gospodarkę Polski, z wykorzystaniem modelu enklaw. Główna hipoteza brzmi: funkcjonowanie SSE w Polsce przyniesie gospodarce krajowej wymierne korzyści ekonomiczne. Do oceny wpływu SSE wykorzystano model enklaw, po raz pierwszy opublikowany przez P.G. Warra w 1983 roku. Dane wykorzystane do analizy mają charakter historyczny oraz po 2013 roku są wynikiem prognozy rozwoju przedsiębiorstw działających w SSE. Wyko...

  15. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Volume 8: Biannual report, August 1989--January 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (MSEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of some of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, August 1989--January 1990. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Short discussions are given relating to the publications reviewed and complete reviews and evaluations are included. Reports of other work are included in the Appendices.

  16. WP2 Annual Report 1st year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2006-01-01

    This report constitutes a contribution to the consolidated annual report covering the activities in SAFEDOR for the first year (1/2-2005 to 1/2-2006). The report deals in five separate chapters one for each of the five subprojects. The objectives of WP2 are • To develop and / or refine such advan...

  17. CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 NPAA WP-3D Radar dataset used the NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft, which has two separate research radars to collect meteorological data. One is mounted on the...

  18. CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D CLOUD PHYSICS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D Cloud Physics dataset used the NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft, which has multiple meteorological and microphysical sensors. These include, for...

  19. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Quarterly progress report on the DOE Waste Package project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, July 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladkany, S.G.

    1993-11-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: overview and progress of waste package project and container design; waste container design considerations (criticality analysis, experimental drift model); waste container alternate design considerations; thermal simulation of high level nuclear waste canister emplacement; structural analysis and design of nuclear waste package canister; robotic manipulation of the nuclear waste container; investigation of stress in a circular tunnel due to overburden & thermal loading of horizontally placed 21PWR multi-purpose canisters; investigation of faulted tunnel models by combined photoelasticity and finite element analysis; and transport phenomena in the near field.

  1. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Biannual report, February 1989--July 1989: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (IMSE), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, February through July 1989. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Outlines for planned interpretative reports on the topics of aqueous corrosion of copper, mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and internal failure modes of Zircaloy cladding are included. For the publications reviewed during this reporting period, short discussions are given to supplement the completed reviews and evaluations. Included in this report is an overall review of a 1984 report on glass leaching mechanisms, as well as reviews for each of the seven chapters of this report.

  2. Introduction and development of the Swedish district heating systems. Critical factors and lessons learned. D5 of WP2 from the RES-H Policy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Karin (Lund Univ., Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund (Sweden)). e-mail: karin.ericsson@miljo.lth.se

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this report is to describe the introduction and development of the Swedish DH systems and to identify what factors that have shaped this development. Elements that will be studied include for example the use of fuels and energy sources, CHP production, total DH supply, ownership and economics. Particular attention is paid to different policy incentives and regulations that directly or indirectly have influenced the DH systems. Non-policy factors that have shaped the district heating development are, however, also discussed. The main questions that are addressed in this report are: - What policy instruments and regulations have promoted, or in other ways influenced, the expansion of the DH systems? - What non-policy factors have influenced the expansion of the DH systems? - What policy instruments and regulations have influenced the use of fuels and energy sources, RES in particular, in DH production? - What non-policy factors have influenced the use of RES in DH production? The work behind this report was mainly conducted through literature studies using government official reports, reports from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish District Heating Association, and academic publications encompassing articles in scientific journals, reports and PhD theses

  3. Komisje w Parlamencie Europejskim: podział wpływów, stanowisk i raportów

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.; Raunio, T.

    2008-01-01

    The committee system: powers, appointments and report allocation Skutecznie funkcjonujące komisje są dla Parlamentu Europejskiego niezbędne zarówno ze względu na ich wpływ legislacyjny, jak i na kontrolowanie organów wykonawczych. Wraz ze wzrostem wpływów Parlamentu wzrosła rola komisji w

  4. Report to Congress on the potential use of lead in the waste packages for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    In the Report of the Senate Committee on Appropriations accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriation Act for 1989, the Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the use of lead in the waste packages to be used in geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The evaluation that was performed in response to this directive is presented in this report. This evaluation was based largely on a review of the technical literature on the behavior of lead, reports of work conducted in other countries, and work performed for the waste-management program being conducted by the DOE. The initial evaluation was limited to the potential use of lead in the packages to be used in the repository. Also, the focus of this report is post closure performance and not on retrievability and handling aspects of the waste package. 100 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; Paraskevoulakos, C; Banos, A; Rennie, S; Jowsey, J; Scott, T B

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed.

  6. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, N. J.; Hallam, K. R.; Paraskevoulakos, C.; Banos, A.; Rennie, S.; Jowsey, J.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed. PMID:26176551

  7. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  9. Waste Package Misload Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Knudsen

    2001-11-20

    The objective of this calculation is to calculate the probability of occurrence for fuel assembly (FA) misloads (i.e., Fa placed in the wrong location) and FA damage during FA movements. The scope of this calculation is provided by the information obtained from the Framatome ANP 2001a report. The first step in this calculation is to categorize each fuel-handling events that occurred at nuclear power plants. The different categories are based on FAs being damaged or misloaded. The next step is to determine the total number of FAs involved in the event. Using the information, a probability of occurrence will be calculated for FA misload and FA damage events. This calculation is an expansion of preliminary work performed by Framatome ANP 2001a.

  10. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages; Synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des betons. Application aux colis cimentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L' Hostis, V.; Levera, P

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational

  11. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  12. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-02-27

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant.

  14. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remove...

  15. Physical barrier to reduce WP mortalities of foraging waterfowl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochop, P.A.; Cummings, J.L.; Yoder, C.A.; Gossweiler, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    White phosphorus (WP) has been identified as the cause of mortality to certain species of water-fowl at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh in Alaska, used as an ordinance impact area by the US Army. A blend of calcium bentonite/organo clays, gravel, and binding polymers was tested for effectiveness as a barrier to reduce duck foraging and mortality. Following the application of the barrier to one of two contaminated ponds, the authors observed greater duck foraging and higher mortality in the untreated pond and no mortality in the treated pond after a year of tidal inundations and ice effects. Emergent vegetation recovered within a year of treatment. WP levels in the barrier were less than the method limit of detection, indicating no migration of WP into the materials. Barrier thickness remained relatively stable over a period of 4 years, and vegetation was found to be important in stabilizing the barrier material.

  16. Weissella paramesenteroides WpK4 reduces gene expression of intestinal cytokines, and hepatic and splenic injuries in a murine model of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, L B; Sandes, S H C; Silva, B C; Steinberg, R S; Campos, M H A; Acurcio, L B; Arantes, R M E; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Nunes, Á C

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhoea in piglets by Salmonella and other pathogens can be a serious health problem. Non-drug treatments such as probiotic microorganisms have various effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis and host immune system modulation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the suitable use of Weissella paramesenteroides WpK4 strain isolated from healthy piglets as an alternative prophylactic or therapeutic treatment against Salmonella Typhimurium. Out of 37 lactic acid bacteria isolates, 24 strains belonging to the Weissella and Lactobacillus genera were analysed in vitro for desirable probiotic characteristics. The W. paramesenteroides WpK4 strain fulfilled all in vitro tests: resistance to acidic pH and bile salts, hydrophobic cell surface, antagonism against bacterial pathogens, H2O2 production and exopolysaccharide secretion, and non-transferable resistance to antibiotics. Mice fed with WpK4 showed no signs of bacterial translocation to the liver or spleen and decreased Salmonella translocation to these organs. Significantly, WpK4 intake attenuated the weight loss, fostered the preservation of intestinal architecture and integrity, and promoted survival in mice following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. In addition, WpK4 modulated immune cellular response by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory mediators. These findings validate the probiotic properties of W. paramesenteroides WpK4 strain, and its eventual use in piglets.

  17. CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D FLIGHT LEVEL DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D Flight Level Data dataset used the NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft, which collects numerous in-situ meteorological measurements along with...

  18. WP6 - Application Integration, Trials and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Moran, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    middleware platform during their trials. The pilots aim to cover different business sectors, scenarios and applications related to RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems, thus giving a diverse set of outcomes that will be able to provide a better perspective on how ASPIRE will help in the reduction...... of the Total cost of ownership (TCO) associated to RFID systems as well as to confirm the ease of implementation of ASPIRE open source software (OSS) components into current IT SME infrastructure.The different pilot trials described in this deliverable are the following: • A Logistics pilot for the packing...

  19. Reports from dissemination and feed-back workshops with presentation of Volante results from WP1 and WP2, and response from local, regional, and national stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2014-01-01

    The report constitutes an overview of the dissemination and feed-back workshops in the Volante case study countries: Netherlands, Romania, Austria, Greece and Denmark. The workshops were conducted based on the presentation of findings from WP1 and WP2 to national, regional and local stakeholders...

  20. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  1. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT, but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  2. Design of a 20-kWp photovoltaic concentrator experiment at Fauquier High School, Warrenton, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-18

    The design and systems analysis of the photovoltaic concentrator system for Fauquier High School in Warrenton, Virginia, are presented. The system provides both electrical energy from the photovoltaic modules and thermal energy from the cooling of those modules. The dc electrical energy from the photovoltaic modules will be first converted to ac and then used to provide power for lighting in the vocational/technical building and the system control building. The thermal energy collected is stored in a 6500-gallon tank for use in the wintertime to provide heat for a greenhouse located adjacent to the array. The photovoltaic system supplies 20 kWp of electrical power by means of 40 6' wide by 10' long parabolic-cylinder collectors mounted in a polar mode. (WHK)

  3. CAMEX-4 NOAA WP-3D FLIGHT LEVEL DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft collects numerous in-situ meteorological measurements along with navigation and aircraft state parameters during each flight (these...

  4. WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P. (2010, 19 May). WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3). Presentation at idSpace Final Review, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. idSpace-project.

  5. EPOS-WP16: A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calignano, Elisa; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, Chris; Willingshofer, Ernst; Drury, Martyn; van Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, Francesca; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Laboratory facilities are an integral part of Earth Science research. The diversity of methods employed in such infrastructures reflects the multi-scale nature of the Earth system and is essential for the understanding of its evolution, for the assessment of geo-hazards and for the sustainable exploitation of geo-resources. In the frame of EPOS (European Plate Observing System), the Working Package 16 represents a developing community of European Geoscience Multi-scale laboratories. The participant and collaborating institutions (Utrecht University, GFZ, RomaTre University, INGV, NERC, CSIC-ICTJA, CNRS, LMU, C4G-UBI, ETH, CNR*) embody several types of laboratory infrastructures, engaged in different fields of interest of Earth Science: from high temperature and pressure experimental facilities, to electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue tectonic and geodynamic modelling and paleomagnetic laboratories. The length scales encompassed by these infrastructures range from the nano- and micrometre levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetres-sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. The aim of WP16 is to provide two services by the year 2019: first, providing virtual access to data from laboratories (data service) and, second, providing physical access to laboratories (transnational access, TNA). Regarding the development of a data service, the current status is such that most data produced by the various laboratory centres and networks are available only in limited "final form" in publications, many data remain inaccessible and/or poorly preserved. Within EPOS the TCS Multi-scale laboratories is collecting and harmonizing available and emerging laboratory data on the properties and process controlling rock system behaviour at all relevant scales, in order to generate products accessible and interoperable through services for supporting

  6. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  7. Metformin, but not sitagliptin, enhances WP 631-induced apoptotic HepG2 cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Rogalska, Aneta; Marczak, Agnieszka; Kasznicki, Jacek; Drzewoski, Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Metformin and sitagliptin are hypoglycemic drugs with potential use in cancer treatment. Evidence indicates that metformin may inhibit the proliferation and growth of various types of cancer cells. Data regarding the relationship between sitagliptin and cancer cells is limited. Therapy based on anthracycline derivatives, mainly doxorubicin, is commonly used in the treatment of resistant liver cancers. WP 631 is a new structural analogue of doxorubicin that exerts an anticancer action by the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of metformin and sitagliptin on WP 631-induced apoptotic cell death in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). HepG2 cancer cells are known to be resistant to chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents. Both MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that WP 631 reduced the growth of HepG2 cells by apoptosis induction, accompanied by elevated NF-κB and p53 levels. Metformin enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of WP 631, increasing the NF-κB level but not the p53 level. Sitagliptin did not affect the action of WP 631 in HepG2 cancer cells, however, it increased the p53 level. To conclude, our results suggest that metformin significantly enhances the efficacy of anthracycline derivative, although this effect is not observed in the case of sitagliptin. Therefore, metformin seems to be a good candidate for combined therapy of resistant liver cancer with anthracycline derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress report on first year of WP5.2. Including detailed description of planned research for WP 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemers, N.; Van Dijk, E.; Terwel, B.; De Vries, G. [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    This document contains the progress report on the first half year of the CATO-2 WP5.2 PhD project 'Framing effects in communication about CCS'. In the first few months a literature study has been conducted, both on (factors that influence) public perceptions and acceptance of CCS, and on framing. In the last two month, a first study was designed. This study consists of an experiment designed to examine how framing a company's involvement in CCS in terms of economic benefits and/or CSR of the organization affects the corporate image, trust, and perceived 'greenwashing' (deceit). Furthermore, this experiment serves to test the quality of newly developed questionnaires to measure these variables. In addition, this document contains a detailed description of the research planned for WP5.2 written by senior (CATO-2) researchers from January 2010 on. The objective of the research planned for WP5.2 is to examine whether framing of communications by an organization can improve the perceived credibility and trustworthiness of the organization and the information provided. This issue will be examined by a combination of experimental studies and a survey-type study.

  9. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL 24 BWR UCF TUBE BASKET DESIGN DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-12-18

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 24 boiling water reactor (BWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package (WP) to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the UCF waste package do not preclude UCF waste package compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual UCF WP design under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts. Future design efforts will focus on UCF design changes as further design and operations information becomes available.

  10. Flow and wakes in large wind farms: Final report for UpWind WP8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offsho...

  11. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  12. AET III 100 kWp photovoltaic installation in Riazzino - Results of monitoring; Monitoraggio dell'impianto PV da 100 kWp AET III a Riazzino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzonico, S.; Bura, E.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a monitoring project that monitored the performance of the 100 kWp, grid-connected photovoltaic installation in Riazzino in southern Switzerland. The original installation, dating from 1992, was refurbished with three new inverters and new cabling. The results of a three-year monitoring project are presented and discussed. Figures are presented on the plant's power production, which illustrate the improved performance of the new inverters. Further investigations made on the power ratings of the modules and the results of infrared examination are discussed.

  13. Large magnetoresistance in the type-II Weyl semimetal WP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aifeng; Graf, D.; Liu, Yu; Du, Qianheng; Zheng, Jiabao; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.

    2017-09-01

    We report a magnetotransport study on type-II Weyl semimetal WP2 single crystals. Magnetoresistance exhibits a nonsaturating Hn field dependence (14 300% at 2 K and 9 T), whereas systematic violation of Kohler's rule was observed. Quantum oscillations reveal a complex multiband electronic structure. The cyclotron effective mass close to the mass of free electron me was observed in quantum oscillations along the b axis, while a reduced effective mass of about 0.5 me was observed in a -axis quantum oscillations, suggesting Fermi surface anisotropy. The temperature dependence of the resistivity shows a large upturn that cannot be explained by the multiband magnetoresistance of conventional metals. Even though the crystal structure of WP2 is not layered as in transition-metal dichalcogenides, quantum oscillations suggest partial two-dimensional character.

  14. Free-standing ternary NiWP film for efficient water oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Zhou, Kuo; Ma, Lili; Liang, Yanqin; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo; Zhu, Shengli; Li, Zhaoyang

    2018-03-01

    High-efficient catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great concern in improving energy efficiency for water splitting. Here we report a high-performance OER electrocatalyst of nickel-tungsten-phosphorus (NiWP) film prepared by template method. This free-standing ternary electrocatalyst exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity of OER in alkaline medium due to the synergetic effect among these elements and the good electrical conductivity. The reported NiWP composite catalyst has an overpotential of as low as 0.4 V (vs. RHE) at 30 mA cm-2, better than that of the commercial RuO2 catalyst. Moreover, a small charge transfer resistance of 4.06 Ω and a Tafel slope of 68 mV dec-1 demonstrate the outstanding catalytic activity.

  15. Effects of W/P ratio and limestone filler on permeability of cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Phung, Quoc; Maes, Norbert; Jacques, Diederik; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Because of environmental and economic benefits, a fraction of cement is increasingly replaced by limestone fillers raising a question on to what extent limestone fillers affect the durability of cementitious materials. This work aims at understanding the effects of water/powder (w/p) ratio and limestone filler replacement on water permeability of cement pastes. A newly proposed technique using a controlled constant flow concept was applied to measure permeability of hardened ce...

  16. WP3 Prototype development for operational planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, T.; Meibom, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Apfelbeck, J.; Barth, R.; Brand, H. (IER, Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany))

    2008-04-15

    This report documents the model development carried out in work package 3 in the SUPWIND project. It was decided to focus on the estimation of the need for reserve power, and on the reservation of reserve power by TSOs. Reserve power is needed to cover deviations from the day-ahead forecasts of electricity load and wind power production, and to cover forced outages of power plants and transmission lines. Work has been carried out to include load uncertainty and forced outages in the two main components of the Wilmar Planning tool namely the Scenario Tree Tool and the Joint Market Model. This work is documented in chapter 1 and 2. The inclusion of load uncertainty and forced outages in the Scenario Tree Tool enables calculation of the demand for reserve power depending on the forecast horizon. The algorithm is given in Section 3.1. The design of a modified version of the Joint Market Model enabling estimation of the optimal amount of reserve power to reserve day-ahead before the actual operation hour is documented in Section 3.2. With regard to the evaluation of a power system, its ability to cope with extreme events is crucial to be investigated. Chapter 4 gives a definition of such extreme events. Further, the methodology to identify extreme events on the basis of the existing tools is described. Within the SUPWIND consortium there has been an interest in using the Joint Market Model to model smaller parts of a power system but with more detailed representation of the transmission and distribution grid. Chapter 5 documents this work. (author)

  17. Quick-Scan Wind Energy and Storage. Final Report Working Package 1; Quick-Scan Windenergie en Opslag. Eindrapport WP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummels, B.C. [Faculteit Elektrotechniek, Wiskunde en Informatica FEWI, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-12-14

    This quick scan examines the extent to which energy storage in the Dutch system is a useful and necessary addition for the Dutch electricity supply system with large scale wind power. The quick scan aims to classify various options and to make an assessment of the total benefits of these options. The quick scan is organized in four work packages, with work package 1 (WP1) will examine the operational management of the Dutch system for large scale wind power and storage. The quick scan provides answers to questions from both the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Transition Platform Sustainable Energy Supply and examines, among other things, current project proposals of various Dutch market parties. [mk]. [Dutch] In deze quickscan zal worden bekeken in hoeverre energie-opslag in het Nederlandse systeem een nuttige en noodzakelijke toevoeging is voor het Nederlandse elektriciteitsvoorzieningsysteem met grootschalig windvermogen. De quick-scan is bedoeld om tot een rangschikking te komen van de verschillende opties en een ordegrootte-schatting te maken van totale baten van deze opties. De quickscan is georganiseerd in vier werkpakketten, waarvan werkpakket 1 (WP1) in detail zal kijken naar de bedrijfsvoering van het Nederlandse systeem met grootschalig windvermogen en opslag. De quick-scan levert antwoorden op vragen vanuit zowel het Ministerie van Economische Zaken als het Transitieplatform Duurzame Energievoorziening en onderzoekt ondermeer actuele projectvoorstellen van verschillende Nederlandse marktpartijen.

  18. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  19. Enhancing the adaptability of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to high pressure and low temperature by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhe; Jian, Huahua; Jin, Zheng; Xiao, Xiang

    2017-12-21

    The oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments and microbes have developed variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce the antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanism and adaptation of bacteria to HHP/LT. In this study, using the wild-type strain (WT) of a deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited better tolerance not only to H2O2 stress but also to HHP/LT (20 MPa/4°C). Whole-genome sequencing identified deletion mutation in the gene oxyR, which encodes the transcription factor that controls oxidative stress response. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the genes associated with oxidative stress defense, anaerobic respiration, DNA repair, flagella and bacteriophage synthesis were differentially expressed in OE100 compared with the WT at 20 MPa/4°C. Genetic analysis of oxyR and ccpA2 indicated the OxyR-regulated cytochrome c peroxidase CcpA2 significantly contributed to the adaptation of WP3 to HHP/LT. Taken together, these results confirmed the inherent relationship between antioxidant defense mechanism and HHP/LT adaptation in benthic microorganism.IMPORTANCE The oxidative stress exists in various niches including the deep-sea ecosystem, which is an extreme environment with conditions of HHP, and predominantly LT. Although previous studies have shown that HHP and LT induce antioxidant defense response in cells, the direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanism and adaptation of bacteria to HHP/LT is lacking. In this work, using the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 as a model, we proved that enhancement of the adaptability of WP

  20. WP1066 disrupts Janus kinase-2 and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Van, Quin; Koch, Patricia; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Wang, Yongtao; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Priebe, Waldemar; Estrov, Zeev

    2007-12-01

    Several cytokines and growth factors that stimulate the proliferation of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells transduce their signals by activating the transcription factor Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2). Accordingly, the inhibition of JAK2 or of its downstream signaling pathways suppresses the proliferation of AML cells. Because (E)-3(6-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-cyano-N-((S0-1-phenylethyl)acrylamide) (WP1066) is a novel analogue of the JAK2 inhibitor AG490, we tested its activity in AML cells and investigated its mechanism of action. Using clonogenic assays, we found that although WP1066 had a marginal effect on normal marrow progenitors, it inhibited the proliferation of AML colony-forming cells obtained from patients with newly diagnosed AML and that of the AML cell lines OCIM2 and K562. WP1066 inhibited OCIM2 cell multiplication by inducing accumulation of cells at the G(0)-G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Similar to its parent compound AG490, WP1066 inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2, but unlike AG490, WP1066 also degraded JAK2 protein, thereby blocking its downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathways. These effects resulted in the activation of the caspase pathway. Incubation of both OCIM2 and K562 cells with WP1066 activated caspase-3, induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caused caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Thus, WP1066 is a potent JAK2 inhibitor whose effects in AML and other hematologic malignancies merit further investigation.

  1. Wpływ temperatury na kinetykę utwardzania wybranych mas ze spoiwami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Jamrozowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań wpływu temperatury osnowy na przebieg procesu wiązania mas samoutwardzalnych.Badaniom poddano 3 masy na bazie: żywicy alkidowej, żywicy fenolowej typu rezolowego (proces -set i żywicy furfurylowej (procesfuranowy. Ponadto wyznaczono kinetykę procesu utwardzania i określono żywotność masy przy różnych temperaturach osnowy (10oC;20oC; 30oC. Badania prowadzono przy wykorzystaniu techniki ultradźwiękowej.

  2. Flow and wakes in large wind farms. Final report for UpWind WP8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Frandsen, S.T.; Rathmann, O. (Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Hansen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Politis, E.; Prospathopoulos, J. (CRES (Greece)); Schepers, J.G. (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Rados, K. (NTUA, Athens (Greece)); Cabezon, D. (CENER, Sarriguren (Spain)); Schlez, W.; Neubert, A.; Heath, M. (Garrad Hassan and Partners (Germany) (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore. A crosscutting activity was to improve and compare the performance of computational fluid dynamics models with wind farm models. The report contains 6 deliverable reports and guideline to wind farm wake analysis as appendices. (Author)

  3. Management of radioactive waste packaging drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il-Sik; Shon, Kang J. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Song, I. T.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Radioactive waste drums of dismantled equipment and contaminated soil waste generated from KAERI research reactor, Seoul in 1988 were transferred to KAERI in Taejeon and are stored at low and medium level storage building until now. As a result of relatively long term storage, a corrosion on the surface of the drums was progressed and a remedial action was conducted to take a measure for the enhancement of safety. Thus, we examined the corrosion status on the surface of waste drums and studied mostly applicable methods. Resultingly, the seriously corroded drums were repackaged and the slightly corroded drums were painted after removing a corroded part on the surface. 12 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  4. Fermi surface of the Weyl type-II metallic candidate WP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönemann, R.; Aryal, N.; Zhou, Q.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Chen, K.-W.; Martin, T. J.; McCandless, G. T.; Chan, J. Y.; Manousakis, E.; Balicas, L.

    2017-09-01

    Weyl type-II fermions are massless quasiparticles that obey the Weyl equation and which are predicted to occur at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in certain semimetals, i.e., the (W,Mo )(Te ,P ) 2 compounds. Here, we present a study of the Fermi surface of WP2 via the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect. Compared to other semimetals, WP2 exhibits a very low residual resistivity, i.e., ρ0≃10 n Ω cm , which leads to perhaps the largest nonsaturating magnetoresistivity [ρ (H )] reported for any compound. For the samples displaying the smallest ρ0,ρ (H ) is observed to increase by a factor of 2.5 ×107% under μ0H =35 T at T =0.35 K. The angular dependence of the SdH frequencies is found to be in excellent agreement with the first-principles calculations when the electron and hole bands are shifted by 30 meV with respect to the Fermi level. This small discrepancy could have implications for the predicted topological character of this compound.

  5. ALM – nowatorskie metryki wskaźników wpływu w publikacjach naukowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fenner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytowania przytaczane w literaturze światowej, a ostatnio statystyki wykorzystania materiału naukowego dostarczające informacji na temat zainteresowania i oddźwięku, jakie zdobywają publikacje naukowe, nadal pozostają ważnymi wskaźnikami wpływu w ocenie publikacji. Ukazują one bowiem widoczny wkład danej pracy naukowej w rozwój nauki i badań. Public Library of Science (PLOS, platforma projektu typu non profit oferująca dostęp do czasopism naukowych na zasadzie licencji wolnej dokumentacji oraz wydawca publikacji typu open access, była jednym z pierwszych tego typu projektów, w którym wprowadzono możliwość analizy innowacyjnych metryk, tzw. article-level metrics (ALM, tj. badania wpływu publikacji naukowych na poziomie artykułu, a nie czasopisma, z uwzględnieniem zmian, jakie zaszły w komunikacji naukowej wraz z rozwojem sieci. Badania uzupełniane są danymi kontekstowymi świadczącymi o zakresie społecznej uwagi poświęcanej danej pracy naukowej, uzyskiwanymi w czasie rzeczywistym z naukowych portali społecznościowych lub z alternatywnych metryk, takich jak blogi naukowe, zakładki, media społecznościowe.

  6. ENETRAP III WP7. European guidance on the implementation of the requirements of the EURATOM BSS; ENETRAP III WP7. Europaeische Leitlinien zur Umsetzung der Aus- und Weiterbildungs-Anforderungen der EURATOM-Grundnormen im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paynter, R. [EUTERP (Netherlands); Stewart, J. [PHE (United Kingdom); Schmitt-Hannig, A. [BfS (Germany); Coeck, M. [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Falcao, A. [IST (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    The Euratom BSS lays down specific requirements for the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and for the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) and education and training requirements associated with these roles. A guidance document has been developed within the framework of ENETRAP III WP7 ''Guidance to support the implementation of E and T requirements for RPE and RPO as defined in the Euratom BSS''. The objective of WP7 activities is to facilitate the implementation of the new requirements for RPE and RPO in Member States and to help ensuring a consistent approach throughout the European Union.

  7. Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nose, M.; Iyemori, T.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    . The stack plots and digital data of the Wp index are available at the Web site (http://s-cubed.info) for public use. These products would be useful to investigate and understand space weather events, because substorms cause injection of intense fluxes of energetic electrons into the inner magnetosphere...... and potentially have deleterious impacts on satellites by inducing surface charging. Citation: Nose, M., et al. (2012), Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude, Space Weather, 10, S08002, doi:10.1029/2012SW000785....

  8. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  9. Global helioseismology (WP4.1): From the Sun to the stars & solar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Rafael A.

    2017-10-01

    Sun-as-a star observations put our star as a reference for stellar observations. Here, I review the activities in which the SPACEINN global seismology team (Working Package WP4.1) has worked during the past 3 years. In particular, we will explain the new deliverables available on the SPACEINN seismic+ portal. Moreover, special attention will be given to surface dynamics (rotation and magnetic fields). After characterizing the rotation and the magnetic properties of around 300 solar-like stars and defining proper metrics for that, we use their seismic properties to characterize 18 solar analogues for which we study their surface magnetic and seismic properties. This allows us to put the Sun into context compared to its siblings.

  10. PENGARUH MEDIA YANG MENGANDUNG PESTISIDA CONFIDOR 5 WP TERHADAP EFEKTIVITAS CACING PARASIT ROMANOMERMIS IYENGARI MENGINVASI LARVA ANOPHELES ACONITUS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hadi Suwasono; Sukajiyah Sukajiyah; Ludfi Santoso

    2012-01-01

    .... The preparasite stage of R. iyengari could not invade the second stage instar of An. aconitus larva if the media contains of Confidor 5 WP with the dosages of 0.0038 mg/l; 0.00958 mg/l and 0.01816 mg/l.

  11. Effect of Chemical Composition and Temperature on Viscosity and Structure of Molten CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System / Wpływ Składu Chemicznego I Temperatury Na Lepkość I Strukturę Ciekłego Układu Cao-Al2O3-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řeháčková L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the change of chemical composition and temperature on the viscosity of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 oxide system with basicity from 0.78 to 1.63 were investigated in this paper. Experimental measurements of viscosity were performed with use of the high-temperature viscometer Anton Paar FRS 1600. Viscosity was measured in a rotational mode during heating at the rate of 2.2 K/min in the temperature interval from 1673 to 1873 K. Viscosity is often sensitive to the structural changes in molten oxide systems, which implies that the analysis of viscosity is an effective way to understand the structure of molten oxide systems. Exact clarification of the change of structure of the oxide system caused by increased content of CaO was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition-assisted synthesis of porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper as a 3D flexible cathode for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Mingyu; Guo, Weimeng; Wu, Tianli; Wang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dingke; Wang, Shuxia; Chen, Shijian

    2017-10-01

    Herein, porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper (P-WP2 NSs/GP) as 3D flexible cathode for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are prepared by in situ phosphidation via vacuum encapsulation assisted by pulsed laser deposition technique. Compared to the electrode without pre-deposition process, the enhanced catalytic activities are attributed to the increased effective catalyst loading and the reinforced charge transport kinetics. The results make the present P-WP2 NSs/GP as a promising cathode for energy conversion and paves a new way for designing and fabricating efficient electrodes toward HER.

  13. Oczekiwany wpływ implementacji zintegrowanego systemu informatycznego na jakość informacji – studium przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jabłoński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest określenie oczekiwań pracowników badanego przedsiębiorstwa w odniesieniu do wpływu implementacji zintegrowanego systemu informatycznego na jakość informacji (i w ten sposób na funkcjonowanie organizacji, w szczególności zaś na jakość informacji generowanych przez system rachunkowości zarządczej. Dla realizacji tak określonego celu badawczego przeprowadzone zostało studium przypadku z wykorzystaniem kwestionariusza standaryzowanego ankiety w przedsiębiorstwie wdrażającym system ERP. Uzyskane wyniki pozwalają na stwierdzenie, że pracownicy badanej organizacji wykazywali pozytywne postawy w stosunku do procesu wdrożenia, a główną przesłanką implementacji tego systemu było dążenie do poprawy kontroli. Oczekiwania w stosunku do wprowadzanego systemu były wysokie i znacząco różne od starego systemu. W opinii respon- dentów zintegrowany system informatyczny miał przede wszystkim podnieść jakość ich pracy, umożliwić szybsze wykonywanie obowiązków oraz usprawnić proces decyzyjny. Największe nadzieje pokładano w poprawie szybkości pozyskania informacji oraz ich dostępności. Spodziewane zmiany odnośnie do pozostałych cech jakościowych (dokładności, wiarygodności i zrozumiałości także były znaczące. Najważniejszymi problemami, których obawiano się w związku z implementacją, były wysokie koszty oraz pracochłonność wdrożenia i późniejszego utrzymania systemu.

  14. Oczekiwany wpływ implementacji zintegrowanego systemu informatycznego na jakość informacji – studium przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jabłoński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest określenie oczekiwań pracowników badanego przedsiębiorstwa w odniesieniu do wpływu implementacji zintegrowanego systemu informatycznego na jakość informacji (i w ten sposób na funkcjonowanieorganizacji, w szczególności zaś na jakość informacji generowanych przez system rachunkowości zarządczej. Dla realizacji tak określonego celu badawczego przeprowadzone zostało studium przypadku z wykorzystaniem kwestionariusza standaryzowanego ankiety w przedsiębiorstwie wdrażającym system ERP. Uzyskane wyniki pozwalają na stwierdzenie, że pracownicy badanej organizacji wykazywali pozytywne postawy w stosunku do procesu wdrożenia, a główną przesłanką implementacji tego systemu było dążenie do poprawy kontroli. Oczekiwaniaw stosunku do wprowadzanego systemu były wysokie i znacząco różne od starego systemu. W opinii respon-dentów zintegrowany system informatyczny miał przede wszystkim podnieść jakość ich pracy, umożliwić szybsze wykonywanie obowiązków oraz usprawnić proces decyzyjny. Największe nadzieje pokładano w poprawieszybkości pozyskania informacji oraz ich dostępności. Spodziewane zmiany odnośnie do pozostałych cech jakościowych (dokładności, wiarygodności i zrozumiałości także były znaczące. Najważniejszymi problemami,których obawiano się w związku z implementacją, były wysokie koszty oraz pracochłonność wdrożenia i późniejszego utrzymania systemu.

  15. A PC-based discrete event simulation model of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airth, G.L. [Hands-on GPSS Training, Corvallis, OR (United States); Joy, D.S.; Nehls, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A System Simulation Model has been developed for the Department of Energy to simulate the movement of individual waste packages (spent fuel assemblies and fuel containers) through the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). A discrete event simulation language, GPSS/PC, which runs on an IBM/PC and operates under DOS 5.0, mathematically represents the movement and processing of radioactive waste packages through the CRWMS and the interaction of these packages with the equipment in the various facilities. This model can be used to quantify the impacts of different operating schedules, operational rules, system configurations, and equipment reliability and availability considerations on the performance of processes comprising the CRWMS and how these factors combine to determine overall system performance for the purpose of making system design decisions. The major features of the System Simulation Model are: the ability to reference characteristics of the different types of radioactive waste (age, burnup, etc.) in order to make operational and/or system design decisions, the ability to place stochastic variations on operational parameters such as processing time and equipment outages, and the ability to include a rigorous simulation of the transportation system. Output from the model includes the numbers, types, and characteristics of waste packages at selected points in the CRWMS and the extent to which various resources will be utilized in order to transport, process, and emplace the waste.

  16. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  17. MIC evaluation and testing for the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Rivera, A.; Lain, T.; Jones, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential deep geological repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the containment and storage of high-level nuclear waste. There is growing awareness that biotic factors could affect the integrity of the repository directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of waste package (WP) materials and other repository elements. A program to determine the degree that microorganisms, especially bacteria, influence the corrosion of waste package materials has therefore been undertaken. These studies include testing candidate waste package materials for their susceptibility to MIC, and also seek to determine rates of biocorrosion under varying environmental conditions, as well as predict rates of waste package corrosion over the long term. Previous characterization of bacterial isolates derived from YM geologic material showed that many possessed biochemical activities associated with MIC, 2. Various Yucca Mountain microbes demonstrated the abilities to oxidize iron, reduce sulfate to sulfide, produce acids, and generate exopolysaccharides (or `slime`). Table 1 summarizes previously characterized YM organisms and their associated relevant activities. A subset of the characterized YM bacteria were spread on WP alloy coupons in systems designed to collect polarization resistance (Rp) data for corrosion rate calculations, and to determine cathodic and anodic potentiodynamic polarization to assess corrosion mechanisms. Coupons inoculated with bacteria were compared to those that remained sterile, to determine the bacterial contribution to overall corrosion rates.

  18. Wpływ czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zachowania zdrowotne nastolatków mieszkających w Rybniku

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Dudek; Joanna Kasznia-Kocot

    2016-01-01

    Wstęp. Wpływ czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zdrowie od lat jest tematem badań naukowców. Wykazano znaczny wpływ tych czynników na zdrowie populacji. Bezrobocie, niski dochód, migracje oraz status rodziny (pełna, niepełna, rozbita) wpływają na zdrowie rodziny i dzieci. Celem pracy było określenie wpływu czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zachowania zdrowotne młodzieży zamieszkującej miasto Rybnik. Materiał i metody. Badanie ankietowe przeprowadzono pośród 391...

  19. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: Material Degradation and Release Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Stockman

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the Material Degradation and Release (MDR) model that predicts degradation and release of radionuclides from a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This AMR is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 17). The intended use of the MDR model is to estimate the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages (WPs) containing U. S . Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The model is intended to predict (1) the extent to which criticality control material, such as gadolinium (Gd), will remain in the WP after corrosion of the initial WP, (2) the extent to which fissile Pu and uranium (U) will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water, and (3) the chemical composition and amounts of minerals and other solids left in the WP. The results of the model are intended for use in criticality calculations. The scope of the model validation report is to (1) describe the MDR model, and (2) compare the modeling results with experimental studies. A test case based on a degrading Pu-ceramic WP is provided to help explain the model. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance. This document has been prepared according to AP-3.10Q, ''Analyses and Models'' (Ref. 2), and prepared in accordance with the technical work plan (Ref. 17).

  20. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation.

  1. The fermentation stress response protein Aaf1p/Yml081Wp regulates acetate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Walkey

    Full Text Available The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality of a wine can be affected by the amount of acetic acid it contains. We found that the C2H2-type zinc-finger transcription factor YML081Wp regulated the mRNA levels of ALD4 and ALD6, which encode a cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH and a mitochondrial ACDH, respectively. These enzymes produce acetate from acetaldehyde as part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass. This regulation was also reflected in the protein levels of Ald4p and Ald6p, as well as total ACDH activity. In the absence of ALD6, YML081W had no effect on acetic acid levels, suggesting that this transcription factor's effects are mediated primarily through this gene. lacZ reporter assays revealed that Yml081wp stimulates ALD6 transcription, in large part from a GAGGGG element 590 base pairs upstream of the translation start site. The non-annotated ORF YML081W therefore encodes a transcription factor that regulates acetate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We propose AAF1 as a gene name for the YML081W ORF.

  2. 'Freestyle' - 5.5 kWp photovoltaic roof; Toiture photovoltaique Freestyle de 5,5 kWp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, P. [Solstis, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a photovoltaics installation on a villa in the vineyards above the Lake of Geneva in Switzerland. The 'Freestyle' roofing system used, which allows a roof to be covered with an unglazed, watertight photovoltaic system, is described. This system features aluminium profiles that are fixed to the roof structure, corrugated panels that form a self-draining sub-roof and laminated photovoltaic (PV) cells based on triple-cell amorphous silicon technology. This pilot system with a peak power of 5.5 kW covers an area of 160 m{sup 2}. The active PV area amounts to 100 m{sup 2}. The aesthetics of the installation is discussed. The operation and performance of the system, which was put into service in May 2003, is discussed. The results of measurements made over a period of more than 12 months are presented. The author states that these results are far better than expected.

  3. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  4. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry; Etude et developpement d'une technique de dosage des actinides dans les colis de dechets radioactifs par interrogation photonique ou neutronique active et spectrometrie des gamma retardes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, F

    2007-10-15

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ({sup 239}Pu in fission, {sup 235}U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  5. PENGARUH MEDIA YANG MENGANDUNG PESTISIDA CONFIDOR 5 WP TERHADAP EFEKTIVITAS CACING PARASIT ROMANOMERMIS IYENGARI MENGINVASI LARVA ANOPHELES ACONITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricefields constitute the most important breeding places of Anopheles aconitus which known as malaria vector in Java and Bali. With the increase in environmental awareness, the use of biological agents for pest control appears to have been revived especially for larva. The larval parasites such as mermethid nematodes Romanomermis iyengari have been shown effective to use in open field mosquito habitats like ricefields. However the use of pesticides for controlling agricultural pests at least have an impact to nontarget organism who live in the waters. The preparasite stage of R. iyengari could not invade the second stage instar of An. aconitus larva if the media contains of Confidor 5 WP with the dosages of 0.0038 mg/l; 0.00958 mg/l and 0.01816 mg/l.

  6. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  7. Wpływ czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zachowania zdrowotne nastolatków mieszkających w Rybniku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dudek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp. Wpływ czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zdrowie od lat jest tematem badań naukowców. Wykazano znaczny wpływ tych czynników na zdrowie populacji. Bezrobocie, niski dochód, migracje oraz status rodziny (pełna, niepełna, rozbita wpływają na zdrowie rodziny i dzieci. Celem pracy było określenie wpływu czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych na zachowania zdrowotne młodzieży zamieszkującej miasto Rybnik. Materiał i metody. Badanie ankietowe przeprowadzono pośród 391 uczniów rybnickich szkół. Poziom majętności rodziny określono za pomocą skali FAS. Za istotny statystycznie przyjęto poziom p<0,05. Wyniki. Badanie wykazało znaczący wpływ statusu rodziny na zachowania zdrowotne, uczniowie z rodzin rozbitych znacznie częściej sięgali po używki, oraz częściej zaniedbywali swoje zdrowie. Podobne wyniki wykazano wśród dzieci migrantów. Status materialny nie determinuje w tak dużym stopniu zachowań zdrowotnych nastolatków. Wnioski. Czynnik społeczno-ekonomiczne silnie determinują zdrowie młodzieży. Szczególnie narażeni na negatywne zachowania zdrowotne są nastolatkowie wychowujący się w rodzinach niepełnych oraz w rodzinach, w których co najmniej jeden z rodziców wyemigrował."

  8. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Validation and Verification on National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Lockheed WP-3D Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, George; Daniels, Taumi S.; Zysko, Jan; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting project (TAMDAR) developed a low-cost sensor for aircraft flying in the lower troposphere. This activity was a joint effort with support from Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and industry. This paper reports the TAMDAR sensor performance validation and verification, as flown on board NOAA Lockheed WP-3D aircraft. These flight tests were conducted to assess the performance of the TAMDAR sensor for measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and wind parameters. The ultimate goal was to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological data, downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. The envisioned system will initially be used on regional and package carrier aircraft. The ultimate users of the data are National Centers for Environmental Prediction forecast modelers. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. NASA worked with an industry partner to develop the sensor. Prototype sensors were subjected to numerous tests in ground and flight facilities. As a result of these earlier tests, many design improvements were made to the sensor. The results of tests on a final version of the sensor are the subject of this report. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated air speed, true air speed, ice presence, wind speed and direction, and eddy dissipation rate. Summary results from the flight test are presented along with corroborative data from aircraft instruments.

  9. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for strain changes measurements at volcanic sites (MED-SUV project; WP 2; Sub-Task 2.2.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Fiodor; Beverini, Nicolò; Calamai, Massimo; Carbone, Daniele; Fotino, Nicoletta; Francesconi, Francesco; Gambino, Salvatore; Grassi, Renzo; Messin, Alfio Alex; Maccioni, Enrico; Morganti, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Stress and strain changes at volcanic areas are recognized among the best indicators of changes in the activity of the system, and its possible evolution towards critical stages. Depending on their time evolution, stress and strain changes have been the focus of either geodetic (static changes) or seismological (dynamical changes) studies. In volcano geodesy, encouraging results have been obtained though borehole strain-meters. However, they are not easy to install and involve high costs. Therefore, the near future of strain observations at volcanoes depends on the development of broad-band sensors which are low-cost and easy to install, even in the form of dense arrays. Advancements in opto-electronics have allowed the development of low-cost sensors, reliable, rugged and compact, which are particularly suitable for on-field application. In the framework of WP 2 (New monitoring and Observing systems) of the MED-SUV project, the sub-task 2.2 involves the development of strain sensors based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. In comparison with previous implementation of the FBG technology to study rock deformations, the system that is being developed within MED-SUV is expected to offer a significantly higher resolution and accuracy in static measurements. Moreover, a careful study is being carried out in order to obtain a smooth dynamic response up to 100 Hz, thus allowing the observation of seismic waves. Finally, the system under development will allow multi-axial strain sensing. The system performances are tailored to suit the requirements of volcano monitoring, with special attention to the trade-off between resolution and cost, and with special care to power consumption. Here we present the results of a field campaign with a preliminary, single-axis FBG strain sensor prototype on Etna, which was carried out in order to check the system performances in out-of-the-lab conditions and in the hostile volcanic environment (lack of mains electricity for

  10. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored; Application de la thermodynamique a l'evaluation de la biodegradation des colis de dechets bitumes en situation de stockage profond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  11. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  12. Joint CARE-ELAN, CARE-HHH-APD, and EUROTEV-WP3 Workshop on Electron Cloud Clearing

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Schulte, D; Zimmermann, F; Electron Cloud Effects and Technological Consequences; ECL2

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the joint CARE-HHH-APD, CARE-ELAN, and EUROTEV-WP3 Mini-Workshop on 'Electron Cloud Clearing - Electron Cloud and Technical Consequences', "ECL2", held at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, 1-2 March 2007). The ECL2 workshop explored novel technological remedies against electron-cloud formation in an accelerator beam pipe. A primary motivation for the workshop was the expected harmful electron-cloud effects in the upgraded LHC injectors and in future linear colliders, as well as recent beam observations in operating facilities like ANKA, CESR, KEKB, RHIC, and SPS. The solutions discussed at ECL2 included enamel-based clearing electrodes, slotted vacuum chambers, NEG coating, and grooves. Several of the proposed cures were assessed in terms of their clearing efficiency and the associated beam impedance. The workshop also reviewed new simulation tools like the 3D electron-ion build-up 'Faktor', modeling assumptions, analytical calculations, beam experiments, and laboratory meas...

  13. A transcriptome resource for the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 under cold and high hydrostatic pressure shock stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Huahua; Li, Shengkang; Tang, Xixiang; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are two of the most remarkable environmental factors influencing deep-sea ecosystem. The adaptive mechanisms of microorganisms which live in these extreme environments to low temperature and high pressure warrant investigation. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 in response to cold (0 °C) and HHP (50 MPa) shock were evaluated through DNA microarray analysis. Results revealed that 22, 66, and 106 genes were differentially expressed after WP3 was respectively exposed to cold shock for 30, 60, and 90 min. Of these genes, 16 genes were identified as common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). After 30 min and 120 min of HHP shock, 5 and 10 genes were respectively identified as DEGs. The hierarchical clustering analysis of the DEG pattern indicated that WP3 may employ different adaptive strategies to cope with cold and HHP shock stress. Taken together, our study provided a transcriptome resource for deep-sea bacterial responses to cold and HHP stress. This study also established a basis for further investigations on environmental adaptive mechanisms utilized by benthic bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  15. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance...... of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60...

  16. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    2000-01-28

    Alloy 22 is an extremely Corrosion Resistant Material, with a very stable passive film. Based upon exposures in the LTCTF, the GC rates of Alloy 22 are typically below the level of detection, with four outliers having reported rates up to 0.75 #mu#m per year. In any event, over the 10,000 year life of the repository, GC of the Alloy 22 (assumed to be 2 cm thick) should not be life limiting. Because measured corrosion potentials are far below threshold potentials, localized breakdown of the passive film is unlikely under plausible conditions, even in SSW at 120 deg C. The pH in ambient-temperature crevices formed from Alloy 22 have been determined experimentally, with only modest lowering of the crevice pH observed under plausible conditions. Extreme lowering of the crevice pH was only observed under situations where the applied potential at the crevice mouth was sufficient to result in catastrophic breakdown of the passive film above the threshold potential in non-buffered conditions not characteristic of the Yucca Mountain environment. In cases where naturally ocurring buffers are present in the crevice solution, little or no lowering of the pH was observed, even with significant applied potential. With exposures of twelve months, no evidence of crevice corrosion has been observed in SDW, SCW and SAW at temperatures up to 90 deg C. An abstracted model has been presented, with parameters determined experimentally, that should enable performance assessment to account for the general and localized corrosion of this material. A feature of this model is the use of the materials specification to limit the range of corrosion and threshold potentials, thereby making sure that substandard materials prone to localized attack are avoided. Model validation will be covered in part by a companion SMR on abstraction of this model.

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  18. Measuring campaign on an autonomous photovoltaic installation of 3 kW peak power; Campagne de mesures de l'installation autonome de 3,0 kWp a Soyhieres (JU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, P.; Bezencon, B. [Solstis / SGI, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The autonomous hybrid power generation system located at Soyhieres, northwestern Switzerland, comprises a photovoltaic array made of solar slates (SunslatesTM) and a diesel generator. The 3.0 kWp photovoltaic (PV) system is completely integrated into the roof annex of a farm producing wine according to the rules of organic agriculture. The system has been in operation since 1999 and its performance has been monitored between July 2003 and October 2004. The main results are as follows: a) the PV system operates well since its setting up and is correctly sized; b) the PV system delivers about 76% of the total annual energy demand; this sizing of the PV array leads to very seldom excess PV power generation; c) the losses of the system are mainly due to the necessity of cycling the battery (daily partial charging and discharging, that cause its warming up) and to its limited life-span, the latter resulting in a constantly decreasing efficiency for energy storage; d) the maximum power point (MPP) tracker installed on one part of the PV array does not significantly improve the power generation efficiency.

  19. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    in the system, the energy payback time, and the energy return factor of the facility have been obtained and are 6.31TJ equivalent primary energy, 2.06 and 12.16years, respectively. The average performance ratio is 0.8 with a slight monthly variation. Additionally, the environmental benefits of the architectural...... integration (in this case parking integration) have been quantified using a standard methodology for the calculation of several environmental parameters. Finally, the environmental benefits of renewable energy generation because of the savings of producing the same amount of electricity by the Spanish grid...

  20. Ocena wpływu systemu technologicznego oczyszczania ścieków na charakterystykę osadu czynnego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Płonka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available W przypadku oczyszczania ścieków komunalnych stosowane są procesy biologiczne. Procesy te mogą być realizowane w urządzeniach o różnych rozwiązaniach konstrukcyjnych. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań mające na celu określenie wpływu rodzaju systemu technologicznego oczyszczania ścieków na charakterystykę i właściwości osadu czynnego. Zastosowano dwa układy badawcze: przepływowy bioreaktor z wydzielonym osadnikiem (układ I oraz reaktor porcjowy SBR (układ II. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że korzystniejsze warunki pracy osadu czynnego panowały w reaktorze SBR. Osad pochodzący z reaktora SBR miał lepsze właściwości sedymentacyjne, na co wskazują uzyskane wartości indeksu objętościowego osadu oraz wielkości kłaczków. W reaktorze SBR nie ma konieczności przepompowywania osadu z osadnika do komory, co ma miejsce w bioreaktorze. W związku z tym osad nie jest poddawany niekorzystnym warunkom podczas transportu hydraulicznego i nie ulega rozdrobieniu. Ponadto wielkości kłaczków, aktywność oddechowa oraz powierzchnia właściwa osadu czynnego pochodzącego z układu II były większe w porównaniu z układem I.

  1. Exergy Analysis for Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TM-2007-3095 EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS Dr. Rama S.R. Gorla Gorla Consultants, Inc. SEPTEMBER 2006 Final...IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0602201 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  2. Wpływ leków przeciwpadaczkowych na wskaźniki występowania osteoporozy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karp-Majewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporoza jest uogólnioną chorobą szkieletu, charakteryzującą się niską masą kostną i zaburzeniem jego mikroarchitektury, prowadzącą do obniżenia wytrzymałości mechanicznej kości oraz zwiększenia podatności na złamania. Do istotnych czynników prowadzących do osteoporozy należy przyjmowanie leków przeciwpadaczkowych. Padaczka często ujawnia się u osób młodych i wymaga długotrwałego leczenia. Konieczne jest zatem wczesne rozpoznanie zaburzeń w metabolizmie ko- ści i wdrożenie odpowiedniej profilaktyki lub leczenia. Za standard diagnostyki osteoporozy uchodzi obecnie badanie gęstości mineralnej kości (BMD metodą podwójnej absorpcjometrii rentgenowskiej (DEXA. Jest to jednak badanie ujawniające obraz osteoporozy na tyle zaawansowanej, że jej przebieg trudno już odwrócić. Dlatego konieczne jest poszukiwanie nowych, bardziej czułych metod diagnostycznych, takich jak markery obrotu kostnego. Badania zostały przeprowadzone u 100 pacjentów w wieku 20-50 lat chorujących na padaczkę powyżej 2 lat oraz 40 osób z grupy kontrolnej dobranych odpowiednio pod wzglę- dem wieku i płci, nieobciążonych innymi schorzeniami. Pacjentom tym wykonywano DEXA oraz oznaczenia markerów obrotu kostnego w surowicy krwi: C-końcowego usieciowanego telopeptydu łańcucha alfa kolagenu typu I (CTX oraz osteokalcyny. Wnioskuje się, iż stosowanie przewlekle leków przeciwpadaczkowych w znaczący sposób wpływa na obniżenie gęstości tkanki kostnej. Zależność ta jest proporcjonalna do długości stosowania leków oraz ich rodzaju. Najbardziej czułym markerem w rozpoznawaniu zaburzeń metabolizmu kostnego u pacjentów leczonych AED poniżej 6 lat jest białko CTX, zaś u osób leczonych dłużej niż 6 lat – DEXA. Największe zmiany tkanki kostnej stwierdzono u pacjentów leczonych fenytoiną.

  3. Wpływ leptyny i adiponektyny na procesy chondrogenezy i osteoblastogenezy – znaczenie w patogenezie reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów

    OpenAIRE

    Urszula Skalska; Ewa Kontny

    2011-01-01

    Leptyna i adiponektyna to klasyczne adipokiny produkowane przezbiałą tkankę tłuszczową. Mają one działanie plejotropowe; ich rolębada się w takich chorobach, jak reumatoidalne zapalenie stawówczy choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów. Dotąd nie wiadomo, jakidokładnie wpływ wywierają one na procesy chondrogenezyi osteoblastogenezy. Te dwa procesy są bardzo istotne z punktuwidzenia reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów, gdyż w chorobie tejdochodzi do destrukcji chrząstki i kości stawowej. Istotne jestokreśl...

  4. Activity report of working party on reactor physics of accelerator-driven system. July 1999 to March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics, the Working Party on Reactor Physics of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS-WP) was set in July 1999 to review and investigate special subjects related to reactor physics research for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System (ADS). The ADS-WP, at the first meeting, discussed a guideline of its activity for two years and decided to concentrate upon three subjects: (1) neutron transport calculations in high energy range, (2) static and kinetic (safety-related) characteristics of subcritical system, and (3) system design including ADS concepts and elemental technology developments required. The activity of ADS-WP continued from July 1999 to March 2001. In this duration, the members of ADS-WP met together four times and discussed the above subjects. In addition, the ADS-WP conducted a questionnaire on requests and proposals for the plan of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project, which is a joint project between JAERI and KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). This report summarizes the results obtained by the above ADS-WP activity. (author)

  5. Wpływ leptyny i adiponektyny na procesy chondrogenezy i osteoblastogenezy – znaczenie w patogenezie reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Skalska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptyna i adiponektyna to klasyczne adipokiny produkowane przezbiałą tkankę tłuszczową. Mają one działanie plejotropowe; ich rolębada się w takich chorobach, jak reumatoidalne zapalenie stawówczy choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów. Dotąd nie wiadomo, jakidokładnie wpływ wywierają one na procesy chondrogenezyi osteoblastogenezy. Te dwa procesy są bardzo istotne z punktuwidzenia reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów, gdyż w chorobie tejdochodzi do destrukcji chrząstki i kości stawowej. Istotne jestokreślenie, jaką rolę odgrywają adipokiny w reumatoidalnymzapaleniu stawów oraz w jaki sposób wpływają na różnicowaniekomórek mezenchymalnych. W niniejszej pracy przedstawionoobecną wiedzę na temat roli adiponektyny i leptyny w procesachosteogenezy i chondrogenezy (tab. I i II.

  6. Pyrobaculum Yellowstonensis Strain WP30 Respires On Elemental Sulfur And/or Arsenate in Circumneutral Sulfidic Sediments of Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, Z.; Beam, Jake; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lohmayer, R.; Bodle, B.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Inskeep, William

    2015-09-15

    Thermoproteales populations (phylum Crenarchaeota) are abundant in high-25 temperature (>70° C) environments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are important in mediating biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, arsenic and carbon. The objectives of this study were to determine specific physiological attributes of the isolate Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis strain WP30, which was obtained from an elemental sulfur sediment (Joseph’s Coat Hot Spring [JCHS]; 80 °C; pH 6.1), and relate this organism to geochemical processes occurring in situ. Strain WP30 is a chemoheterotroph that utilizes organic carbon as a source of carbon and electrons and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenic as electron acceptors. Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the production of thioarsenates and polysulfides relative to sterile controls. The complete genome of this organism was sequenced (1.99 Mb, 58 % G+C) and revealed numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, multiple dimethylsulfoxide molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, and pathways for the de novo synthesis of nearly all required cofactors and metabolites. Comparative genomics of P. yellowstonensis versus assembled metagenome sequence from JCHS showed that this organisms is highly-related (~95% average nucleotide identity) to in situ populations. The physiological attributes and metabolic capabilities of P. yellowstonensis provide importanat information towards understanding the distribution and function of these populations in YNP.

  7. Wpływ wysiłku fizycznego na funkcję układu oddechowego w twardzinie układowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sierakowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cel: Powikłania ze strony układu oddechowego stanowią główną przyczynę zgonów pacjentów z twardziną układową (TU. Tętniczenadciśnienie płucne i śródmiąższowa choroba płuc stanowią najistotniejszez nich. Pacjenci są jednak często zdiagnozowani dopierow późnym okresie choroby, dlatego też istotne jest opracowaniemetody diagnostycznej do wczesnego wykrywania tych powikłań.Celem pracy była ocena wpływu wysiłku fizycznego na zmiany parametrówoddechowych. Materiały i metody: Badania przeprowadzono wśród 32 pacjentów zezdiagnozowaną TU; 72% pacjentów miało postać ograniczoną TU,28% postać uogólnioną. Wykonywano pomiar zdolności dyfuzyjnejpłuc dla tlenku węgla (DLCO, natężonej pojemności życiowej (FVC,natężonej objętości wydechowej pierwszosekundowej (FEV1 orazcałkowitej pojemności płuc (TLC w spoczynku oraz bezpośrednio pozakończeniu wysiłku fizycznego. Wyniki: Pod wpływem wysiłku fizycznego obserwowano wzrostDLCO od 59,7% do 68,1% wartości należnej (p < 0,005. Nie stwierdzononatomiast istotnych statystycznie zmian wartości FVC, FEV1oraz TLC. Wnioski: U chorych na TU zdolność dyfuzyjna płuc dla tlenku węglapo wysiłku fizycznym uległa istotnej statystycznie poprawiew porównaniu z wartościami spoczynkowymi. Związane jest toz koniecznością zapewnienia właściwego utlenowania krwi tętniczeji wynika m.in. ze zwiększenia pojemności łożyska naczyniowego.W klinicznej interpretacji wartości DLCO należy uwzględniać opróczstężenia hemoglobiny i objętości pęcherzykowej także wpływ wysiłkuoraz związane z nim zmiany wielkości objętości rzutu serca.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  9. Wpływ niskich nierumieniotwórczych dawek promieniowania ultrafioletowego B na ekspresję reduktazy metylenotetrahydrofolianowej w skórze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sysa-Jędrzejowska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wprowadzenie: Promieniowanie ultrafioletowe (ultraviolet radiation –UVR jest jednym z głównych czynników zaangażowanych w procesfo to kancerogenzy. Powszechnie uznany jest fakt niszczenia folianówprzez ekspozycję na promieniowanie UVA, jednakże do chwili obecnejnie został do końca wyjaśniony wpływ promieniowania UVB na stężenietych związków. Dane z piśmiennictwa sugerują, że foliany, a zwłaszczaich metabolit 5-metylenotetrahydrofolian, jest niezbędny w procesach na -praw czych zmian w DNA zachodzących pod wpływem UVR. Reduktazametylenotetrahydrofolianowa (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase – MTHFRjest enzymem odgrywającym istotną rolę w metabolizmie folianów. Cel pracy: Ocena wpływu promieniowania UVB na ekspresję MTHFRw skórze. Materiał i metodyka: Badaniem objęto cztery grupy zdrowych wolontariuszy.Pierwszą grupę stanowiły osoby naświetlane nierumieniotwórczymidawkami UVB przez 10 kolejnych dni (10 × 0,7 MED – całeciało. Grupę drugą stanowili wolontariusze eksponowani równieżprzez 10 kolejnych dni na nierumieniotwórcze dawki UVB, a następnienaświetlani aplikowaną miejscowo (10 × 10 cm, skóra pośladkawysoką dawką 3 MED UVB. Kolejną grupę ochotników poddawanoekspozycji jedynie na pojedynczą, miejscowo aplikowaną dawkę3 MED. Grupę kontrolną stanowiły osoby nienaświetlane. U wszystkichwolontariuszy pobierano biopsje ze skóry pośladka, w którychoceniano ekspresję MTHFR przy zastosowaniu metody Western blot. Wyniki: Ekspresja MTHFR była istotnie wyższa w grupie naświetlanejprzez 10 kolejnych dni nierumieniotwórczymi dawkami UVBw porównaniu z ekspresją tego białka u wolontariuszy eksponowanychprzewlekłe przez 10 kolejnych dni na nierumieniotwórcze dawkiUVB, a następnie naświetlanych w obrębie skóry pośladka dawką3 MED (p < 0,05. Wnioski: Wzrost ekspresji MTHFR występujący pod wpływem niskichprzewlekłych dawek UVB może być dowodem na fotoprotekcyjne właściwościfolianów.

  10. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  11. Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis Strain WP30 Respires on Elemental Sulfur and/or Arsenate in Circumneutral Sulfidic Geothermal Sediments of Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Z J; Beam, J P; Dohnalkova, A; Lohmayer, R; Bodle, B; Planer-Friedrich, B; Romine, M; Inskeep, W P

    2015-09-01

    Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota) populations are abundant in high-temperature (>70°C) environments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are important in mediating the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, arsenic, and carbon. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific physiological attributes of the isolate Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis strain WP30, which was obtained from an elemental sulfur sediment (Joseph's Coat Hot Spring [JCHS], 80°C, pH 6.1, 135 μM As) and relate this organism to geochemical processes occurring in situ. Strain WP30 is a chemoorganoheterotroph and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenate as an electron acceptor. Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the formation of thioarsenates and polysulfides. The complete genome of this organism was sequenced (1.99 Mb, 58% G+C content), revealing numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, were identified. Pathways for the de novo synthesis of nearly all required cofactors and metabolites were identified. The comparative genomics of P. yellowstonensis and the assembled metagenome sequence from JCHS showed that this organism is highly related (∼95% average nucleotide sequence identity) to in situ populations. The physiological attributes and metabolic capabilities of P. yellowstonensis provide an important foundation for developing an understanding of the distribution and function of these populations in YNP. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontatio...

  13. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  14. Grid-connected photovoltaic system design for local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the design analyses roof-mounted Grid-connected 148.5kWp Photovoltaic System with Energy Storage for use in a Local Government secretariat in Nigeria. The design was simulated using PV*SOL software to evaluate the system's production performance and to know the amount of electric power generation ...

  15. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  16. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  17. The Impact of Propeller on Aerodynamics of Aircraft / Wpływ Śmigła Na Aerodynamikę Samolotu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewski Wiesław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono analizę numeryczną wpływu pracujących śmigieł na aerodynamikę samolotu na przykładzie dwusilnikowego, bezzałogowego samolotu o napędzie elektrycznym. Analiza koncentrowała się głównie na symulacji wzajemnego oddziaływania układu skrzydło-śmigło samolotu. Badano i porównywano trzy konfiguracje: samolot bez śmigieł, samolot ze śmigłami pchającymi i samolot ze śmigłami ciągnącym. Dla każdej konfiguracji wyznaczono rozkłady współczynników aerodynamicznych wzdłuż rozpiętości skrzydła oraz ich globalne wartości dla całego samolotu. Obliczenia wykonano za pomocą programu Fluent z implementacja modelu śmigła opartą na Teorii Elementu Łopaty.

  18. Total System Performance Assessment- License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Higher Thermal Loa (Feature 26)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design feature that is evaluated in this report is a higher thermal load (Feature 26 or F26). The following paragraph briefly describes the motivation for evaluating higher thermal loading. Higher thermal load has been identified as a design feature that might have a beneficial effect on long-term repository performance. A higher thermal load will increase temperatures and decrease relative humidity on the waste package surface. The decrease in relative humidity may delay the onset of corrosion, thus delaying the failure of waste packages and the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system (EBS). For the current calculation a thermal load of 109 MTU/acre (metric tons of uranium per acre) is considered. Two cases are evaluated, one with the base case inventory and a higher thermal load and a second with an increased inventory that would cover the current repository footprint at the higher thermal load. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of higher thermal loading. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose-rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design feature to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  19. Monitoring and remote failure detection of grid-connected PV systems based on satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drews, A.; de Keizer, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298114240; Beyer, H.G.; Lorenz, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Heydenreich, W.; Wiemken, E.; Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P.; Bofinger, S.; Schneider, M.; Heilscher, G.; Heinemann, D.

    Small grid-connected photovoltaic systems up to 5 kWp are often not monitored because advanced surveillance systems are not economical. Hence, some system failures which lead to partial energy losses stay unnoticed for a long time. Even a failure that results in a larger energy deficit can be

  20. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  1. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests; Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; LaTorre, V.R.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Nitao, J.J.; Towse, D.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Watwood, D.; Wilder, D.

    1989-07-26

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  2. 75 kWp photovoltaic plant on a noise barrier on the A1 motorway in Safenwil; PV-Anlage an der A1 in Safenwil 75 kWp Photovoltaik-Schallschutzwand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottiger-Reck, R.; Hawkins, A. C.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy describes the solar power installation mounted on a noise barrier along part of the A1 motorway in Safenwil, Switzerland. The history of this prize-winning project, which is a privately built and operated photovoltaic (PV) power plant rated at 75 kW that is mounted alongside one of Switzerland's busiest motorways, is described. Details are given on the installation's mechanical and electrical design. Performance measurements made over a two-year period are presented and commented on. The public, Internet and on-site, display-based information systems used to help promote this kind of use of solar energy are described. Illustrations provide further information on the construction and erection of the PV power plant and on problems involving shading and soiling caused in winter by heavy traffic on the motorway.

  3. Wpływ dodatku α - Al2O3 na wytrzymałość resztkową utwardzanych mikrofalami mas formierskich ze szkłem wodnym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań wstępnych wpływu bezwęglowego dodatku - tlenku aluminium α - Al2O3 na wytrzymałośćresztkową mas ze szkłem wodnym sodowym utwardzanych mikrofalami. Wytrzymałość oznaczano w temperaturze otoczenia na wygrzewanychw piecu próbkach walcowych. Masy do badań sporządzono na osnowie kwarcowej z dodatkiem 2,5% niemodyfikowanego, krajowegoszkła wodnego gatunku 145. Wykonane z nich standardowe próbki walcowe utwardzano, stosując innowacyjny proces nagrzewaniamikrofalowego, po czym wygrzewano przez 30 minut w temperaturach od 100 do 1200 °C. Po ostudzeniu do temperatury otoczeniaokreślono parametry wytrzymałościowe wygrzewanych próbek. Otrzymane wyniki porównano z danymi literaturowymi oceniając wpływzastosowanej w badaniach metody utwardzania oraz specjalnego dodatku na przebieg zmian wytrzymałości resztkowej w funkcji temperaturywygrzewania. Analizując wyniki badań stwierdzono pozytywny wpływ na wytrzymałość resztkową mas zarówno innowacyjnego procesu nagrzewania, jak również zastosowanego dodatku α - Al2O3.

  4. AtlantOS WP2, Enhancement of ship-based observing networks - Bathymetric integration and visualization of Europe's data holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Devey, Colin; Augustin, Nico

    2017-04-01

    The European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project AtlantOS - Optimising and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems - aims to improve the present-day ocean observing activities in the Atlantic Ocean by establishing a sustainable, efficient and integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System. 62 partners from 18 countries are working on solutions I) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, II) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, III) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, IV) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, V) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and VI) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. The Work Package 2 of the AtlantOS project focuses on improving, expanding, integrating and innovating ship-based observations. One of the tasks is the provision of Europe's existing and future bathymetric data sets from the Atlantic Ocean in accessible formats enabling easy processing and visualization for stakeholders. Furthermore, a new concept has recently been implemented, where three large German research vessels continuously collect bathymetric data during their transits. All data sets are gathered and processed with the help of national data centers and partner institutions and integrated into existing open access data systems, such as Pangaea in Germany, EMODnet at European level and GMRT (Global Multi-Resolution Topography synthesis) at international level. The processed data will be linked to the original data holdings, that can easily be accessed if required. The overall aim of this task is to make bathymetric data publicly available for specialists and non-specialists both

  5. Field Measurement of PV Array Temperature for Tracking and Concentrating 1 k Wp Generators Installed in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Effendy Ya’acob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature elements for PV array with tracking and concentrating features installed in the tropical ground condition is presented. The temperature segment covers ambient temperature and surface and bottom temperature for three types of PV generator systems, namely, Fixed Flat (FF, Tracking Flat (TF, and Concentrating PV (CPV generators. The location of measuring the cell temperature, Tc for the PV module is still being debated by researchers with the issue of how much the cell temperature (Tc is being affected by the surface temperature (Ts, bottom temperature (Tb, and surrounding temperature (Ta furthermore when it is located in fluctuating weather conditions. In this study, ΔT is calculated based on the difference between surface temperature and bottom-side temperaturewhichever the highest recorded at site for different kinds of PV generator systems but using the same CEEG 95 W monocrystalline PV module. The study embraces the direct correlation of various temperature elements in tropical-based condition with ΔT values of 2.19°C for FF module, 2.22°C for TF module, and 2.72°C for CPV module. These values which reflect the different unique configurations are further analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR and analysis of variance (ANOVA test for Tarray models. This study supports the continuous research in adapting PV technology for Malaysia.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Underground Mining Exploitation Influence Upon Terrain Surface / Modelowanie Numeryczne Wpływu Podziemnej Eksploatacji Górniczej Na Powierzchnię Terenu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Underground mining exploitation may result in mining damages to building objects located on a terrain surface. Considering high harmfulness of this phenomenon, the scientists from all over the world have tried to describe impact of underground exploitation on deformations of terrain surface and objects located thereon. The first theories, based on the Gaussian distribution, have emerged in the 1950s and are in use until now. Later on, in connection with development of computational techniques, their availability and numerical methods, a possibility of numerical computations use for forecasting of deformations has emerged. These methods, when suitable numerical models are adopted, enable to include higher number of factors influencing the results being obtained. When constructing numerical model, particular attention should be paid on selection of: appropriate geometry of model, proper constitutive model describing behavior of rock and soil layers, adequate values of rock mass parameters prior to execution of mining exploitation, and after it. The author presented in this article part of these problems, based on own experience. Podziemna eksploatacja górnicza może wywołać szkody górnicze w obiektach budowlanych znajdujących się na powierzchni terenu. Z uwagi na wysoką szkodliwość tego zjawiska naukowcy z całego świata próbowali opisać wpływ eksploatacji podziemnej na deformacje powierzchni terenu i obiektów na niej się znajdujących. W latach pięćdziesiątych pojawiły się pierwsze teorie oparte na rozkładzie Gaussa które stosowane są po dzień dzisiejszy. Później w związku z rozwojem technik obliczeniowych, ich dostępności oraz metod numerycznych pojawiła się możliwość wykorzystania obliczeń numerycznych do prognozowania deformacji. Metody te przy przyjęciu odpowiednich modeli numerycznych pozwalają na ujęcie większej liczby czynników wpływających na uzyskiwane rezultaty. Przy budowie modeli numerycznych należy zwr

  7. Dynamics-Enabled Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2014-0144 DYNAMICS-ENABLED NANOELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( NEMS ) OSCILLATORS Michael Roukes California Institute...SYSTEMS ( NEMS ) OSCILLATORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-1-7029 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61101E 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Roukes...engineer, and demonstrate nonlinear-dynamics-enabled nanoelectromechanical system ( NEMS ) frequency-source technology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  8. Systemic Approach of a Virtual Enterprise that Constructs Wireless Payment Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, Nikitas A.; Riggas, Anastasis N.; Kotsimpos, George K.

    2004-08-01

    Enterprises and Organizations are realizing that there are many win-win scenarios, for their customers and business partners, using the latest technology to enact convenient and secure purchases `over the air'. Wireless Payment (W/P) is the key element of Wireless Commerce. Businesses around the world are attempting to position themselves to operate in a highly competitive global economy. A single organization is often not able to develop sufficient internal design or production capabilities to respond effectively within a short period of time. The focus of this paper will be on the development and analysis of a Virtual Enterprise Architecture for the construction of W/P Mechanisms using Systemic Methodologies. A framework for the rapid and efficient integration of the business processes of the participating companies that construct W/P Mechanisms is provided.

  9. 4{sup th} Annual workshop proceedings of the collaborative project ''Redox phenomena controlling systems'' (7{sup th} EC FP CP RECOSY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Kienzler, Bernhard; Duro, Lara; Grive, Mireia; Montoya, Vanessa (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The EURATOM 7{sup th} EC Framework Program Collaborative Project REdox phenomena Controlling SYstems (RECOSY) started in April 2008 and extends over 4 years. Although redox is not a new geochemical issue, different questions are still not resolved. For this reason, main objectives of RECOSY project are a) the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal, b) providing tools to apply the result to Performance Assessment/Safety Case, c) training of next generation and d) documentation and communication of the results. To this aim, the project set up a consortium of 32 Beneficiaries/Contractors and 6 Associated Groups. The consortium includes key European Research Institutes, Universities, National Waste Management Agencies and SMEs, from 13 EURATOM signatory states, Russia, Japan, Korea, USA and one European Joint Research Centre. The ReCosy concept is innovative in the scientific approach to the redox phenomena. It includes i) advanced analytical tools, ii) investigations of processes responsible for redox control (thermodynamically and kinetically controlled processes, surface reactions and microbial processes,..), iii) provision of required data on redox controlling processes, and iv) response to disturbances in disposal systems. The work program is structured along six RTD workpackages (WP1-6). They cover near-field and far field aspects as well as all relevant host-rocks considered in Europe. In WP1, the scientific state-of-the-art and its application to Performance Assessment/Safety Case is documented and regularly updated. WP2 focuses on development of redox determination methods. WP3 focuses on redox response of defined and near-natural systems. WP4 studies the redox reactions of radionuclides. WP5 focuses on Redox processes in radionuclide transport and WP6 deals with redox reactions affecting the spent fuel source-term. Specific workpackages on knowledge management, education

  10. WP4 Case study: INFORSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; van Gameren, Valentine; Pel, Bonno

    2015-01-01

    The INFORSE case consists of an analysis of the transnational network INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy), the Danish local initiative VE and the Belgian local initiative APERe. All three are dealing with renewable energy and energy savings. The link between INFORSE and VE...... the INFORSE case....

  11. Musik for folket! http://www.aabenraa-lokal-tv.dk/wp/2010/11/22/22-november-%E2%80%93-29-november-musik-for-folket/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.; Araghipour, Janus Høgfeldt; Bonne, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The TV-documentary "Musik for folket!" (in Danish) was filmed during the November 11 lunchtime concert and through a series of interviews with Carsten Sjødahl, Jane Bonne, Leif Jensen, Søren R. Frimodt-Møller, Janus Høgfeldt Araghipour and Cynthia M. Grund, it recounts the story behind the luncht...... the lunchtime concert series at SDU. The program aired November 22-29, 2010 on ALTV and is permanently available from November 22, 2010 onwards at http://www.aabenraa-lokal-tv.dk/wp/2010/11/22/22-november-%E2%80%93-29-november-musik-for-folket/...

  12. The effect of oxidative modifications of amino acid residues in the active center of tyrosinase on the process of graying = Wpływ oksydacyjnych modyfikacji reszt aminokwasowych w centrum aktywnym tyrozynazy na proces siwienia

    OpenAIRE

    Cwynar, Anna; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Pukownik, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cwynar Anna, Olszewska-Słonina Dorota, Pukownik Ewelina. The effect of oxidative modifications of amino acid residues in the active center of tyrosinase on the process of graying = Wpływ oksydacyjnych modyfikacji reszt aminokwasowych w centrum aktywnym tyrozynazy na proces siwienia. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(9):102-108. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.30027 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.30027 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%289%29%...

  13. Badanie wpływu programu studiów zagranicą na interkulturową kompetencję komunikacyjną studentów uczelni wyższych

    OpenAIRE

    Róg, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Wydział Anglistyki Centralnym zagadnieniem dysertacji jest interkulturowa kompetencja komunikacyjna (IKK), a konkretnie jej rozwój w wyniku uczestnictwa w programie wymiany studenckiej. W rozprawie czytelnik znajdzie informacje odnoszące się do wpływu programów wymiany studenckiej (na przykładzie programu Erazmus) na rozwój interkulturowej kompetencji komunikacyjnej tychże studentów. Historyczny rys rozwoju terminu "kompetencja" w językoznawstwie stosowanym, jego ewolucja w kierunku kompet...

  14. Small-scale evaluation of the efficacy and residual activity of alpha-cypermethrin WG (250?g AI/kg) for indoor spraying in comparison with alpha-cypermethrin WP (50?g AI/kg) in India

    OpenAIRE

    Uragayala, Sreehari; Kamaraju, Raghavendra; Tiwari, Satyanarayana; Ghosh, Sushanta Kumar; Valecha, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with different formulations of insecticides is being used for the control of mosquito vectors in many countries. In the present study, residual efficacy and duration of effectiveness of IRS with alpha-cypermethrin WG-SB (250?g AI/m2) formulation was compared with WP formulation (50?g AI/kg) in a small scale (Phase II) field trial. Methods Two dosages, i.e. 20 and 30?mg AI/m2, were used and the efficacy and duration of effectiveness was assessed on alp...

  15. Human-in-the-loop Control of Multi-agent Aerial Systems Under Intermittent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    evident. Therefore, intentional intermittent feedback and its repercussions need to be investigated in more detail. To the best of our knowledge, to...in-the-loop control, human machine interaction, multi-agent systems, decentralized control, supervised autonomy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... feedback . . . . . . . . . . 13 WP 4Aerial manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 T 4.1

  16. General and Localized Corrosion of Outer Barrier of High-Level Waste Container in Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.; McCright, D.; Gdowski, G.; Wang, F.; Summers, T.; Bedrossian, P.; Horn, J.; Lian, T.; Estill, J.; Lingenfelter, A.; Halsey, W.

    2000-05-02

    As described in the License Application Design Selection Report, the recommended waste, package design is Engineering Design Alternative II (CRWMS M&O 1999). This design includes a double-wall waste package (WP) underneath a protective drip shield (DS). purpose and scope of the process-level model described here is to account for both general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB), which assumed to be Alloy 22 (UNS N06022-21Cr-13Mo-4Fe-3W-2C-Ni) (ASTM 1997a). This model will include several sub-models, which will account for dry oxidation (DOX), humid air corrosion (HAC), general corrosion (GC) in the aqueous phase, and localized corrosion (LC) the aqueous phase. This model serves as a feed to the waste package degradation (WAPDEG) code for performance, assessment.

  17. Groundwork for Universal Canister System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gross, Mike [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prouty, Jeralyn L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craig, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Zenghu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, John Hok [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pope, Ron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connolly, Kevin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feldman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Radulescu, Georgeta [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    . Future work includes collaboration with the Hanford Site to move the cesium and strontium capsules into dry storage, collaboration with the Deep Borehole Field Tes t to develop surface handling and emplacement techniques and to develop the waste package design requirements, developing universal canister system design options and concepts of operations, and developing system analysis tools. Areas in which f urther research and development are needed include material properties and structural integrity, in - package sorbents and fillers, waste form tolerance to heat and postweld stress relief, waste package impact limiters, sensors, cesium mobility under downhol e conditions, and the impact of high pressure and high temperature environment on seals design.

  18. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2017-02-21

    Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  19. Modeling the Creation of Actionable Knowledge within a Joint Task Force Command System (Project GNOSIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    SYSTEM SJ SYSTEM INTERACTIONS AND INFLUENCES SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM SYSTEM I Multiple actors egaglng In comunities of Commrunitles of Interest...STINFO COPY AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2006-0156 Modeling the Creation of Actionable Knowledge within a Joint Task Force Command System (Project GNOSIS) Dennis K...Cognitive Systems Branch WPAFB OH 45433-7604 Best Available Copy 20070129146 NOTICE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in

  20. Overview of Intelligent Power System for Future Aircraft (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Electrical Systems Branch Power and Control Division Luis Herrera and Bang-Hung Tsao University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) SEPTEMBER... obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0032 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR...Chief Program Manager Electrical Systems Branch Electrical Systems Branch Power and Control Division Power and Control Division

  1. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Wybrane aspekty wpływu asymetrii funkcjonalnej półkul mózgowych na funkcjonowanie poznawcze oraz emocjonalne człowieka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sabiniewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Przez wiele lat asymetria półkul mózgowych rozpatrywana była jako wyraźny podział funkcjonalny. W tym dychotomicznym modelu badacze wiązali półkulę lewą wyłącznie z funkcjami werbalnymi, a prawą – ze zdolnościami niewerbalnymi. Podział ten jest jednak niewyczerpujący i zdecydowanie upraszcza tematykę specjalizacji półkul mózgowych. Najnowsze doniesienia wskazują na współpracę i zarazem pewną niezależność międzypółkulową w zakresie kontroli funkcjonowania człowieka. Ponadto podkreśla się, że różnice funkcjonalne istnieją, ale są znacznie subtelniejsze, niż zakładano na początku badań dotyczących tej tematyki. Aby ułatwić zrozumienie istoty asymetrii funkcjonalnej, stworzono modele, które wyjaśniały mechanizm specjalizacji półkulowej i odrębność stylów przetwarzania bodźców. Dane potwierdzające istnienie asymetrii funkcjonalnej półkul pochodzą m.in. z doniesień o jednostronnych uszkodzeniach mózgu, agenezji spoidła wielkiego, zabiegach komisurotomii czy hemisferektomii. Na tej podstawie dokonano analizy funkcjonowania kognitywnego i emocjonalnego pacjentów. Wykryto pewne prawidłowości dotyczące różnic i podobieństw w funkcjonowaniu półkul mózgowych w zakresie percepcji wzrokowej, funkcji werbalnych, praksji, uwagi, pamięci i uczenia się czy funkcji wykonawczych. Jeśli chodzi o lateralizację emocji w mózgu, pojawia się wiele sprzecznych doniesień. Potrzebne są dalsze, dobrze zaprojektowane badania, które pomogą zrozumieć, czy istnieje lateralizacja emocji w mózgu, a jeśli tak, to jakich aspektów funkcjonowania afektywnego ona dotyczy. Niniejsza praca przedstawia przegląd poglądów na wpływ asymetrii półkul mózgowych na funkcjonowanie poznawcze, emocjonalne i behawioralne człowieka.

  3. The Impact of the Estimation of the Parameters Values on the Accuracy of Predicting the Impacts of Mining Exploitation / Wpływ Oszacowania Wartości Parametrów Modelu Na Dokładność Prognozowania Wpływów Eksploatacji Górniczej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedojadło, Zygmunt; Gruszczyński, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of the assessment of the probability that the acceptable values of deformation indexes will be exceeded and the introduction of the coefficient of safety are more and more seriously considered in case of predicting the impacts of exploitation both on the surface and the shaft tube. This article presents the mentioned above issue focusing on the authors' project of the exploitation in the protective pillars of the shafts of the Legnica and Głogów Copper Area (LGOM). To assess the accuracy of the predicted deformation indexes Monte Carlo method (often used in statistics) was proposed as well as the strict and approximate analysis using the law of error propagation. The values of vertical strains were analysed, as the most important at the assessment of the state of deformation of the shaft tube. The comparison of the results obtained with different methods confirmed the correctness of the carried out calculations. The applied methods allowed the analysis of the impact of individual parameters of the model on the prediction of the accuracy of forecast. This article makes the continuation of the solutions of the article (Niedojadło & Gruszczyński, 2010) thus some contents essential for the continuity of understanding were repeated here. Możliwość oceny prawdopodobieństwa przekroczenia dopuszczalnych wartości wskaźników deformacji oraz wprowadzenie współczynnika bezpieczeństwa coraz częściej są brane pod uwagę w przypadku prognozowania wpływów eksploatacji tak na powierzchnię jak i rurę szybową. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono powyższe zagadnienie na przykładzie autorskiego projektu eksploatacji w filarach ochronnych szybów LGOM. Do oceny dokładności prognozowanych wskaźników deformacji zaproponowano wykorzystywaną w statystyce metodę Monte Carlo oraz analizę ścisłą i przybliżoną wykorzystującą prawo przenoszenia się błędów średnich. Analizowano wartości odkształceń pionowych, jako najistotniejsze przy

  4. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  5. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  6. Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0021 Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1) Daniel Taggart Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake...July 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-C-6376 5b. GRANT NUMBER...complications ranging from surgical site infection to death. Consequently, military surgeons need dependable and modern sterilization equipment to ensure

  7. Wpływ aktywności fizycznej na sprawność funkcji poznawczych osób w podeszłym wieku i na przebieg choroby Alzheimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gabryelewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available W miarę starzenia się społeczeństwa coraz więcej osób doświadcza związanego z wiekiem osłabienia pamięci i zaburzeń innych funkcji poznawczych. Dla części tych osób zaburzenia te mogą być zwiastunem otępienia. Wiadomo, że jego najczęstszą przyczyną jest choroba Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD. Stosowane obecnie metody farmakologicznego zapobiegania i leczenia AD są mało skuteczne. Powoduje to, że podejmowane są próby terapii mających na celu spowolnienie przebiegu AD i opóźnienie początku objawowej fazy klinicznej choroby. Może to znacząco wpływać na zmniejszenie zapadalności na AD. Wyniki biologicznych, epidemiologicznych i randomizowanych badań kontrolowanych wskazują na korzystny wpływ regularnej aktywności fizycznej na zapobieganie występowaniu zaburzeń poznawczych u osób w podeszłym wieku i spowolnienie przebiegu AD. Okazuje się, że aktywność fizyczna, szczególnie w połączeniu z aktywnością umysłową i intensywną aktywnością społeczną, może być użyteczną, a przy tym tańszą i bezpieczniejszą metodą zapobiegania AD niż profilaktyka farmakologiczna. Dalszych badań wymaga określenie precyzyjnych zaleceń dotyczących rodzaju, czasu trwania i intensywności tych form terapii. Istnieje jednak szansa, że w bliskiej przyszłości będziemy mogli stosować potwierdzone zasady zapobiegania AD dotyczące zachowań dietetycznych, aktywności społecznej, umysłowej i fizycznej. Wymienione wyżej rodzaje interwencji niefarmakologicznych wpływają również pozytywnie na codzienne funkcjonowanie i ogólną jakość życia osób w podeszłym wieku i pacjentów z AD.

  8. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  10. The application of systems approach for road safety policy making, Deliverable 8.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. Thomas, P. Talbot, R. Quigley, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Theofilatos, A. Aigner-Breuss, E. Kaiser, S. Machata, K. Weijermars, W.A.M. Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Hermitte, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D8.1) describes the co-ordination of the analysis of risks and measures using a systems framework within the SafetyCube project. It outlines the results of Task 8.1 of Work Package (WP) 8 of SafetyCube. This has involved (i) defining the systems approach to be used within

  11. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  12. Wpływ wybranych czynników środowiskowych na maksymalny przepływ nosowy wdechowy - część projektu ECAP (Epidemiologia Chorób Alergicznych w Polsce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Furmańczyk, Konrad; Piekarska, Barbara; Sybilski, Adam; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2017-02-28

    Celem niniejszej pracy była próba określenia wpływu wybranych czynników/parametrów na wynik maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF, ang. peak nasal inspiratory flow) w badanej populacji polskiej projektu Epidemiologia Chorób Alergicznych w Polsce (ECAP). Materiał/metody: Badaną populację stanowiła grupa dzieci w wieku 6-7 lat (n=1123), młodzieży w wieku 13-14 lat (n=1136) oraz dorosłych (n=1876) zamieszkałych w siedmiu dużych polskich miastach. W badaniu posłużono się pomiarem maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF). Do oceny wpływu wybranych czynników na wartości PNIF wykorzystano przetłumaczone i walidowane kwestionariusze opracowane na potrzeby światowych badań ECRHS II (European Community Respiratory Health Survey II) i ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Wyniki: Określone warunki wewnątrz gospodarstwa domowego, m.in. ogrzewanie węglem, drewnem lub piecem gazowym, istotnie zwiększają przekrwienie błony śluzowej nosa. W grupie biernych palaczy PNIF był niższy niż w grupie czynnych palaczy. Wskaźnik PNIF malał wraz ze wzrostem liczby domowników palących papierosy. Wnioski: Wybrane czynniki środowiska.

  13. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  14. Didactical games made by waste packaging at primary school class degree design and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Šetina, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Game consists of various activities of a child or adult. It is defined by universal characteristics and specialities. It changes within child's age and development. Learning goals and assignments can be realized by didactic games during class lessons which are organized and systematic educational process. Didactic game is a game with certain goal and assignment, with selected, organized rules, and subject matter. It encourages activities which are helpful with learning and developing skills....

  15. Thermal behavior and pyrolytic degradation kinetics of polymeric mixtures from waste packaging plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuffi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior and pyrolytic kinetic analysis of main waste polymers (polypropylene (PP, polyethylene film (PE, poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, polystyrene (PS and three synthetic mixtures representing commingled postconsumer plastics wastes (CPCPWs output from material recovery facilities were studied. Thermogravimetry (TG pyrolysis experiments revealed that the thermal degradation of single polymers and the synthetic mixture enriched in PP occurred in one single step. The other two mixtures underwent a two-consecutive, partially overlapping degradation steps, whose peaks related to the first-order derivative of TG were deconvoluted into two distinct processes. Further TG experiments carried out on binary mixtures (PS/PP, PET/PP, PET/PEfilm and PP/PEfilm showed a thermal degradation reliance on composition, structure and temperatures of single polymer components. A kinetic analysis was made for each step using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS method, thus determining almost constant activation energy (Ea for pyrolysis of PS, PET, PP and PE film in the range 0.25<α<0.85, unlike for pyrolysis of CPCPWs, with particular reference to CPCPW1 and the second step of CPCPW2 and CPCPW3, both ascribable to degradation of PP and PE film. To account for the reliability of these values the integral isoconversional modified method developed by Vyazovkin was also applied.

  16. Evaluation of the data available for estimating release rates from commercial low-level waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, an overview of our findings concerning the distribution of activity within low-level radioactive wastes will be presented. This will begin in a general fashion and consider the distribution of the total activity by each of the following: waste class, waste stream, wasteform, and waste container. A radionuclide specific breakdown by waste class and wasteform follows. The findings are reviewed in terms of performance assessment modeling needs. Finally, we present our conclusions.

  17. FABRICATION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE 9979 TYPE AF RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2013-10-10

    This paper summarizes the development, testing, and certification of the 9979 Type A Fissile Packaging that replaces the UN1A2 Specification Shipping Package eliminated from Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR 173. The DOT Specification Package was used for many decades by the U.S. nuclear industry as a fissile waste container until its removal as an authorized container by DOT. This paper will discuss stream lining procurement of high volume radioactive material packaging manufacturing, such as the 9979, to minimize packaging production costs without sacrificing Quality Assurance. The authorized content envelope (combustible and non-combustible) as well as planned content envelope expansion will be discussed.

  18. (Self-Explaining Road) SER and SER approaches : state-of-the-art. Evaluation to Realise a common Approach to Self-explaining European Roads ERASER, Deliverable No. 1, Report No. WP01-01. Project initiated by “ERA-NET ROAD – Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe”.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, G. Dietze, M. Marchesini, P. Houtenbos, M. & Fürdös, A.

    2012-01-01

    ERASER is an acronym of “Evaluation to Realise a common Approach to Self-explaining European Roads”. This report is part of the ERASER project and serves as input for subsequent work-packages (WPs) within ERASER: It guides research in WP 2 during which road user pilots will be conducted. Based on

  19. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  20. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  1. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  2. A Thermal Management System Using Ammonium Carbamate as an Endothermic Heat Sink (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    introduce and demonstrate a thermal management system (TMS) architecture integrating a vapor compression heat pump, phase change thermal energy...Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate /apthermengA thermal management system using ammonium carbamate as an endothermic heat...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0159 A THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AMMONIUM CARBAMATE AS AN ENDOTHERMIC HEAT SINK (POSTPRINT) Nicholas P

  3. ENRICO FERMI FAST REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL CRITICALLY CALCULATIONS: INTACT MODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Mobasheran

    1999-04-12

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform intact mode and partially degraded mode criticality evaluations of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Enrico Fermi (EF) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) co-disposed in a 5 Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP) and emplaced in a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The criticality evaluations estimate the values of the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, a measure of nuclear criticality potential, for the 5-DHLW/DOE SNF WP with intact or partially degraded internal configurations. These evaluations contribute to the WP design.

  4. Redundant Flight-Critical Control System Evaluation: Analog and Digital Systems Failure Analyses and Preflight Test Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    required in some instances to perform required functions such as making manual control inputs, operating switches, observing displays, engine ...startup, and sequencing the reference power supply systems. •MM MMM _.^L - ■--’■-- Restrictions on the operation of engines (for prevention of...FAILED BITS IN A MEMORY WORD 163 wp^ wmw ^’inw^^jl-t-i’MP ■ lliHipillWifW’^iPH^WIg i \\\\m TABLEA-1.-COUNTDOWNAND WAVESHAPING TRANSITIONS-NO

  5. Analysis of four years of a grid-connected photovoltaic system 200KWr. UNIVER project; Analisis de cuatro anos de funcionamiento del sistema fotovoltaico conectado a la red de 200 kWr. Proyecto UNIVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drif, M.; Perez, P. J.; De la Casa, J.; Aguilera, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we will present the performance analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic system installed in Jaen (Spain) based on four years of monitoring data. This system of 200kWp which well known as Univer Project (THERMIE Project SE/083/95/ES/UK) has been set up in order to provide the Jaen university campus with more than 8% of its electricity needs, i.e. 210MWh/year. In fact, the system is composed of four subsystems completely integrated at Jaen university via one medium power transformer : two parking covers (2 x 70 kWp), facade (40 kWp) and one pergola (20kWp). The analysis of monitoring data is relative to the period of 2000-2003. The analysis of performance was carried out according to the guidelines set by the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment and concerns : energy output, losses, efficiencies, performance ratio etc. In addition, the behavior of all PV system components is also presented. (Author)

  6. Wpływ żeńskich hormonów płciowych na rozwój i przebieg kliniczny stwardnienia rozsianego i jego modeli doświadczalnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Śmietanka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stwardnienie rozsiane jest postępującą chorobą ośrodkowego układu nerwowego o złożonej immunopatogenezie, w której występują zapalenie, uszkodzenie mieliny i utrata aksonów. W badaniach doświadczalnych nad patofizjologią stwardnienia rozsianego istotną rolę odgrywa model zwierzęcy – eksperymentalne autoimmunologiczne zapalenie mózgu i rdzenia. Badania kliniczne i doświadczalne wskazują na autoimmunologiczne tło zapalenia w tej chorobie. Niestety, przyczyny rozwoju stwardnienia rozsianego nie zostały dotąd w pełni poznane, a dostępne leki tylko hamują progresję objawów neurologicznych. Z badań epidemiologicznych jednoznacznie wynika, że płeć istotnie wpływa na zachorowalność, a także na przebieg stwardnienia rozsianego. Liczne dane wskazujące na ważną rolę zarówno płci, jak i ciąży były bodźcem do rozwoju badań nad rolą hormonów płciowych w tej chorobie oraz do poszukiwania nowych form terapii. W niniejszej publikacji dokonano przeglądu literatury omawiającej wpływ żeńskich hormonów płciowych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem estrogenów i progestagenów, na przebieg stwardnienia rozsianego. Pod uwagę wzięto dane z badań klinicznych i eksperymentalnych. Estrogeny i progestageny należą do najważniejszych żeńskich hormonów steroidowych. Są niezbędne do prawidłowego rozwoju i różnicowania narządów rozrodczych, a także do utrzymania płodności i ciąży. Od dawna znany jest wpływ tych hormonów na regulację odpowiedzi immunologicznej. W niniejszym opracowaniu szczególną uwagę poświęcono nie tylko działaniu immunomodulacyjnemu, ale również neuroprotekcyjnemu i neuroregeneracyjnemu żeńskich hormonów płciowych. Omówiono też nowe możliwości terapeutyczne związane z terapią hormonalną.

  7. Jebel Ali Hotel PV lighting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, M.

    1984-05-01

    A large stand-alone PV lighting project was installed in June 1983 at the Jebel Ali Hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A high mast lighting system provides illumination for a 130 meter diameter traffic roundabout. The high mast system is powered by a 15 kilowatt peak array of Mobil Solar ribbon PV modules. Along the 700 meter access road leading to the hotel entrance, twenty-one PV powered streetlights provide low-level lighting. Each streetlight consists of a 20 watt fluorescent tube powered by two 35 Wp modules. Operation of both systems is completely automatic. Design, installation, and operating experience to date are reviewed.

  8. Ocena wpływu czynników ryzyka chorób sercowo-naczyniowych na śmiertelność w udarze mózgu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Syta-Krzyżanowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: W przeprowadzonych w Polsce badaniach epidemiologicznych stwierdzono utrzymujący się od kilkunastu lat wysoki współczynnik zapadalności na pierwszy w życiu udar mózgu, wzrastający wykładniczo z wiekiem oraz połączony z nadal dużą śmiertelnością. Dynamika natężenia objawów udaru mózgu jest tak duża, że w ciągu pierwszych trzech tygodni umiera 25–30% chorych. Celem pracy była ocena śmiertelności w udarach mózgu pacjentów hospitalizowanych w Pododdziale Udarowym Kliniki Neurologii USK w Białymstoku z uwzględnieniem wpływu czynników ryzyka udaru mózgu. Materiał i metoda: Rozpatrzono wszystkie przypadki pacjentów hospitalizowanych w Klinice Neurologii USK w Białymstoku z powodu udaru mózgu w latach 2002–2006. Materiał badawczy zebrano na podstawie analizy historii chorób pacjentów. Obliczenia statystyczne wykonywano przy użyciu programu Statistica w wersji 8.0. Wyniki: Przeanalizowano przypadki 1129 pacjentów, w tym 541 kobiet i 588 mężczyzn. Średni wskaźnik śmiertelności wyniósł 19,6%. Udar niedokrwienny mózgu rozpoznaliśmy u 86% chorych, spośród których zmarło 16,4%. Udar krwotoczny wystąpił u 14%, do zgonu doszło w 39,2%. Odnotowując liczbę zgonów w ciągu 5-letniej obserwacji, możemy stwierdzić zmniejszającą się śmiertelność z powodu udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu – z 22,1% do 17,8%, przy stale wzrastającej liczbie chorych. Wnioski: Najczęstszymi czynnikami ryzyka udaru mózgu wpływającymi na większą śmiertelność są przebyty zawał serca oraz migotanie przedsionków. Pomimo wzrostu zapadalności na udary mózgu obserwuje się tendencję spadkową śmiertelności.

  9. Belgia – jeden kraj – dwa systemy szkolnictwa : wpływ konfliktu językowego na politykę oświatową

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinardi Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the educational system in Belgium, taking into account the structure of the different levels of education. It presents mainly the situation of higher education, revealing specifics of the two systems of education in the two language zones – the Dutch and the French zone, focusing more on the latter. The article also highlights the historical impact of the language conflict in Belgium on its educational policy. Most attention is paid to the Belgian system of librarian training. The article presents the main centers in the French community which prepare students for the profession of a librarian-documentalist.

  10. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    -Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data not available in the datasheets to the model is described....

  11. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    -Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data not available in the datasheets to the model is described....

  12. Wpływ Rafy Żoliborskiej na warunki przepływu na śródmiejskim odcinku Wisły w Warszawie (km 508–518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sosnowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono wyniki obliczeń położenia zwierciadła wody na warszawskim odcinku Wisły w oparciu o pomiary geodezyjne. Pozwoliły one na utworzenie modelu rozpatrywanego odcinka Wisły dla przepływu ustalonego w programie HEC-RAS (wersja 4.1.0, za pomocą którego przeprowadzono symulacje różnych warunków przepływu. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników symulacji podjęto próbę określenia znaczenia Rafy Żoliborskiej dla śródmiejskiego odcinka Wisły w Warszawie. Analiza wykazała, że jest ona ważnym elementem w profilu podłużnym rzeki i ma wpływ na poziom zwierciadła wody w warszawskiej Wiśle.

  13. Pension Generosity in Oregon and Its Impact on Midcareer Teacher Attrition and Older Teachers' K12 Workforce Exit Decisions. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin E.; Dyke, Andrew; Tapogna, John

    2016-01-01

    Oregon's Tier One Public Employees Retirement System (PERS) covered members prior to January 1, 1996. This "Issue Brief" documents the generosity of the money match provision under Oregon's Tier One plan relative to the Tier One defined-benefit formula, and relative to other plans in Oregon and Washington and to representative plans…

  14. D1.1 Research communities identification and definition report : Europeana Cloud: Unlocking Europe’s Research via The Cloud; WP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, MA Kees-Jan; Links, P.; Ekman, Stefan; Sjögren, Björn; Benardou, Agiatis

    Europeana Cloud’s main objectives are to provide new content, new metadata, a new linked storage system, new tools and services for researchers and a new platform, Europeana Research. For Europeana Cloud to achieve these objectives, it is essential that researchers’ needs are thoroughly understood.

  15. Performance of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System in Two Sites in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hajiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the electricity generated by photovoltaic (PV grid-connected systems in Kuwait. Three years of meteorological data are provided for two main sites in Kuwait, namely, Al-Wafra and Mutla. These data and a PV grid-connected system mathematical model are used to assist a 100 kWp grid-connected PV system proposed for both sites. The proposed systems show high energy productivity whereas the annual capacity factors for Mutla and Al-Wafra are 22.25% and 21.6%, respectively. Meanwhile the annual yield factors for Mutla and Al-Wafra are 1861 kWh/kWp/year and 1922.7 kWh/kWp/year, respectively. On the other hand the cost of the energy generated by both systems is about 0.1 USD/kWh which is very close to the price of the energy sold by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW. Furthermore the invested money is recovered during the assumed life cycle time whereas the payback period for both sites is about 15 years. This work contains worthwhile technical information for those who are interested in PV technology investment in Kuwait.

  16. Coyote unmanned aircraft system observations in Hurricane Edouard (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cione, J. J.; Kalina, E. A.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Farber, A. M.; Damiano, B.

    2016-09-01

    Horizontal wind, temperature, and moisture observations are presented from two Coyote unmanned aircraft system (UAS) flights in the boundary layer of Hurricane Edouard (2014). The first flight sampled the meteorological conditions in the eye and eyewall at altitudes from 900 to 1500 m while Edouard was a major hurricane (105 kt) on 16 September 2014. The following day, a second Coyote sampled the inflow layer outside of the storm core at 760 m altitude, when Edouard had weakened to an 80-kt hurricane. These flights represent the first deployments of a UAS from an airborne manned aircraft into a tropical cyclone. Comparisons between the Coyote data and the Lockheed WP-3D Orion (WP-3D) flight-level measurements and analyses constructed from dropsonde data are also provided. On 16 September 2014, the Coyote-measured horizontal wind speeds agree, on average, to within 1 m s-1 of the wind speeds observed by the WP-3D and reproduce the shape of the radial wind profile from the WP-3D measurements. For the inflow layer experiment on 17 September, the mean wind speeds from the Coyote and the dropsonde analysis differ by only 0.5 m s-1, while the Coyote captured increased variability (σ = 3.4 m s-1) in the horizontal wind field compared to the dropsonde analysis (σ = 2.2 m s-1). Thermodynamic data from the Coyote and dropsondes agree well for both flights, with average discrepancies of 0.4°C and 0.0°C for temperature and 0.7°C and 1.3°C for dew point temperature on 16 and 17 September, respectively

  17. Description of Fracture Systems for External Criticality Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot

    2001-09-21

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe probabilistically the main features of the geometry of the fracture system in the vicinity of the repository. They will be used to determine the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in the fractured rock underneath a waste package as it degrades. This AMR is to feed the geochemical calculations for external criticality reports. This AMR is done in accordance with the technical work plan (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001 b). The scope of this AMR is restricted to the relevant parameters of the fracture system. The main parameters of interest are fracture aperture and fracture spacing distribution parameters. The relative orientation of the different fracture sets is also important because of its impact on criticality, but they will be set deterministically. The maximum accumulation of material depends primarily on the fracture porosity, combination of the fracture aperture, and fracture intensity. However, the fracture porosity itself is not sufficient to characterize the potential for accumulation of a fracture system. The fracture aperture is also important because it controls both the flow through the fracture and the potential plugging of the system. Other features contributing to the void space such as lithophysae are also investigated. On the other hand, no analysis of the matrix porosity is done. The parameters will be used in sensitivity analyses of geochemical calculations providing actinide accumulations and in the subsequent Monte Carlo criticality analyses.

  18. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-05-13

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. High Work, High-Efficiency Turbines for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Addendum to AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2013-0198

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    high-lift LPT designs include extra power generation for auxilliary systems such as air conditioning, radar and other electrical requirements, as well as...AFRL Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is inductively driven by a 125-hp electric motor pow- ering an axial flow fan located downstream of the 0.85m tall...or a capacitive thickness gauge. The film calibration procedure involves applying a specified load to the film surface and measuring the corresponding

  20. Modeling Slip System Strength Evolution in Ti 7Al Informed by In situ Grain Stress Measurements (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0215 MODELING SLIP SYSTEM STRENGTH EVOLUTION IN TI-7AL INFORMED BY IN - SITU GRAIN STRESS MEASUREMENTS (POSTPRINT...7Al informed by in - situ grain stress measurements Darren C. Pagan a, *, Paul A. Shade b, Nathan R. Barton a, Jun-Sang Park c, Peter Kenesei c, David B...with increasing macroscopic strain measured during in - situ ff-HEDM. From the figure, we can view the general evolution of the slip system strengths

  1. Analysis-Driven Design of Representations For Sensing-Action Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0196 ANALYSIS-DRIVEN DESIGN OF REPRESENTATIONS FOR SENSING-ACTION SYSTEMS Stefano Soatto University of...Layered Sensing Exploitation Division This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its...MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2017 Final 26 September 2011 – 30 June 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS-DRIVEN DESIGN

  2. Trust-Based Analysis of an Air Force Collision Avoidance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2015-0030 TRUST -BASED ANALYSIS OF AN AIR FORCE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM Joseph B. Lyons Air Force Research Laboratory Nhut T. Ho...findings _______________________________________ Joseph Lyons, Ph.D., Work Unit Manager Human Trust and Interaction Branch Human Effectiveness...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1-Dec-15 Interim 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trust -Based Analysis of an Air Force Collision Avoidance

  3. Wpływ głębokiej stymulacji mózgu na funkcje poznawcze i emocjonalne u chorych na epilepsję – przegląd badań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Potasz-Kulikowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsja to zespół zaburzeń neurologicznych, na który – według danych Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia – cierpi niemal 50 milionów osób na świecie. Oprócz napadów padaczkowych o różnym przebiegu chorzy bardzo często doświadczają zaburzeń poznawczych i zaburzeń nastroju, którym niekiedy towarzyszą myśli samobójcze. Choroba znacznie obniża poczucie jakości życia pacjentów i utrudnia im wykonywanie codziennych czynności. Niemal 40% chorych cierpi na lekooporną postać epilepsji, a wielu ma także przeciwwskazania do poddania się zabiegom chirurgicznym lub pomimo przebytego zabiegu doświadcza napadów. Sposobem leczenia, który można zaproponować tym pacjentom, jest głęboka stymulacja mózgu. W 2010 roku stymulacja jądra przedniego wzgórza została zaakceptowana w Europie jako metoda wspomagająca w leczeniu napadów częściowych u dorosłych chorych z epilepsją. Wciąż jednak trwają badania nad bezpieczeństwem i efektywnością tej metody. Obiektem badań jest też stymulacja innych struktur, ponieważ nadal poszukuje się najlepszego celu stereotaktycznego w leczeniu padaczki. Zabieg polega na stymulacji głęboko położonych struktur mózgu i jest metodą mniej inwazyjną niż metody chirurgiczne. Wiele dotychczasowych badań wskazuje na skuteczność głębokiej stymulacji mózgu w redukowaniu częstości napadów padaczkowych. Ze względu na fakt, iż stymulowane struktury w większości należą do układu limbicznego, w badaniach analizujących skuteczność zabiegu coraz częściej zwraca się uwagę na wpływ stymulacji na funkcje poznawcze i emocjonalne chorych. Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu przegląd badań dotyczących efektywności zabiegu i wpływu głębokiej stymulacji mózgu na funkcje neuropsychiatryczne u osób z epilepsją, zaakcentowanie zarówno pożądanych, jak i ubocznych efektów zabiegu oraz zwrócenie uwagi na znaczenie badania neuropsychologicznego w

  4. Influence of sludge-ash composts on some properties of reclaimed land / Wpływ kompostów osadowo-popiołowych na niektóre właściwości rekultywowanego gruntu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Stanisław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Badania prowadzono w obszarze oddziaływania kopalni siarki w Jeziórku. Celem badań była ocena zmian odczynu, pojemności sorpcyjnej i zawartości przyswajalnych form fosforu, potasu i magnezu po 6 latach od przeprowadzenia rekultywacji. W doświadczeniu (poletka o powierzchni 15 m2 przeprowadzono rekultywację zdegradowanego gruntu wapnem poflotacyjnym, oraz kompostami: z osadu ściekowego, osadu ściekowego i popiołu z elektrociepłowni. Komposty w dawce suchej masy 180 t · ha-1 (6%, ustalonej w oparciu o rozporządzenie MŚ z 2001 roku, zastosowano w wariantach: kontrola (grunt rodzimy tylko zwapnowany; kompost z komunalnego osadu ściekowego; kompost z osadu ściekowego (80% i popiołu (20%; kompost z osadu ściekowego (70% i popiołu (30%. Na zrekultywowanych poletkach zasiano mieszankę traw rekultywacyjnych. Jednorazowe odkwaszenie i nawożenie gruntu i dalsze 6-letnie ekstensywne (bez nawożenia użytkowanie wywarły zróżnicowany wpływ na kształtowanie właściwości rodzimego utworu bezglebowego. Bez względu na sposób rekultywacji, po sześciu latach użytkowania gruntu, w wierzchnich warstwach, zwiększyła się średnia zawartość przyswajalnego fosforu, zawartość przyswajalnego potasu nie uległa znacznym zmianom natomiast około 10-krotnie zmniejszyła się zawartość przyswajalnego magnezu.

  5. Drift-scale thermomechanical analysis for the retrievability systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, F.C. [M& O/Woodward Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A numerical method was used to estimate the stability of potential emplacement drifts without considering a ground support system as a part of the Thermal Loading Systems Study for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The stability of the drift is evaluated with two variables: the level of thermal loading and the diameter of the emplacement drift. The analyses include the thermomechanical effects generated by the excavation of the drift, subsequently by the thermal loads from heat-emitting waste packages, and finally by the thermal reduction resulting from rapid cooling ventilation required for the waste retrieval if required. The Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) code was used to analyze the thermomechanical response of the rock mass of multiple blocks separated by joints. The result of this stability analysis is used to discuss the geomechanical considerations for the advanced conceptual design (ACD) with respect to retrievability. In particular, based on the rock mass strength of the host rock described in the current version of the Reference Information Base, the computed thermal stresses, generated by 111 MTU/acre thermal loads in the near field at 100 years after waste emplacement, is beyond the criterion for the rock mass strength used to predict the stability of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift.

  6. Studi Pemanfaatan Catu Daya Hibrida PLTS 3,7 kWp Dan PLN Pada Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah Desa Pemecutan Kaja Denpasar Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Arimbawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Pemecutan Kaja waste treatment plant (WTP was a community treatment plant located in one of Denpasar city ward to process sewerage produced by community members. The WTP uses radial flow anaerobic system which mainly consists of rabic pro and up flow tanks. The water produced by the WTP was released to nearby river as it already met envinronmental quality standard. The WTP was driven by an electric pump to circulate sewer material within the process flow. The pump was fed by hybrid power supply combining 3.7 kW solar PV and power from utility grid. The WTP was operated by village council of Pemecutan Kaja. The study presented here was result of firstly, evaluation on the utilization and performance of solar PV plant, and secondly, to propose managerial model that can manage the plant effectively and sustainably. The study found that daily average energy produced bythe PVplant was 23.59 kWh yielding cost of energy at IDR 7,766/kWh. Experiment to clean filters of the plant reduced daily energy consumption from 8.84 kWh to 3.05 kWh or 65%. Household that connected to the plant pay monthly subscription currently at IDR 10,000.  However, for sustainable operation of the plant, the household need to pay IDR 51,654. Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar PV, Hybrid Power Supply, Waste Treatment, Managerial Model Abstrak—Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL Desa Pemecutan Kaja adalah IPAL yang terletak di salah satu lingkungan kota Denpasar yang berfungi untuk mengolah air limbah yang dihasilkan oleh anggota masyarakat. IPAL ini meggunakan sistem radial flow anaerobic yang terdiri tangki rabic pro dan tangki up flow filter. Air hasil pengolahan limbah dapat langsung disalurkan ke sungai karena sudah memenuhi baku mutu limbah cair. IPAL ini menggunakan pompa listrik untuk mengalirkan limbah menuju tangki penyaringan. Pompa ini mengunakan catu daya hibrida PLTS 3,7 kW dan PLN. IPAL ini dikelola langsung oleh masyarakat desa Pemecutan Kaja. Hasil

  7. Economic evaluation of small-scale photovoltaic hybrid systems for mini-grid applications in far north Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbaka, Nfah Eustace; Godpromesse, Kenne [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee, I.U.T. Fotso Victor, P.O. Box 134, Bandjoun, University of Dschang (Cameroon); Mucho, Ngundam John [Automation and Control Laboratory, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 8390, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon)

    2010-10-15

    A comparison between photovoltaic hybrid systems (PVHS), standalone photovoltaic (PV) and standalone diesel generator options is performed using the net present value (NPV) technique. A typical village mini-grid energy demand of 7.08 kWh/day is considered in the computation of energy costs and breakeven grid distances. A first sensitivity analysis is conducted using remote diesel prices of 0.8 EUR/l, 0.98 EUR/l, 1.12 EUR/l, 1.28 EUR/l with a PV module cost of 7.5 EUR/Wp. A second sensitivity analysis is also done using PV module costs of 5.25 EUR/Wp, 6 EUR/Wp, 6.75 EUR/Wp, 7.5 EUR/Wp with a diesel price of 1.12 EUR/l. The energy cost for the diesel option was found to be 0.812 EUR/kWh at a diesel fuel price of 1.12 EUR/l. The sensitivity analyses showed that minimum energy costs were attained in PVHS at renewable energy fractions in the range 82.6-95.3%. In the second sensitivity analysis the energy costs and breakeven grid distances were found to be in the ranges 0.692-0.785 EUR/kWh and 5.1-5.9 km respectively. For a PV module cost of 5.25 EUR/Wp, the lowest energy cost for the PVHS option was 0.692 EUR/kWh at a final renewable energy fraction of 95.3% with the diesel generator hours being 37 h compared to 2075 h in the standalone diesel generator option. Consequently, a 30% reduction in custom duties and taxes on imported PV modules and sub-systems would increase the use of small-scale and climate friendly PV mini-grids in remote areas of far north Cameroon that have an annual insolation of at least 5.55 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. (author)

  8. RESEARCH FOR THE AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Materials Compatibility Tests of Synthesized Hydrocarbon Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2017-0092 RESEARCH FOR THE AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy...additional restrictions described on inside pages AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH...Lead Engineer Turbine Engine Division Aerospace Systems Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information

  9. Industrial Energy Mapping: THERMCYC WP6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Baijia; Bühler, Fabian; Holm, Fridolin Müller

    these natural resources. Solar can supply heat at temperatures up to 100°C, geothermal energy can supply heat at temperatures up to 90 °C and air/water average around 2°C during colder seasons and 17 °C in warmer seasons. When looking across all the sectors there are two major energy sources. One of them origi......, the accessible heat from three natural energy sources is also included in the evaluation. The quantification of the potential waste heat is based on a number of approaches such as, professional experience within Viegand Maagøe, input from project partners, theoretical calculations, case studies, input from...... suppliers, input from end-users etc. It must be emphasized that the total energy consumption used in this study covers all end-users and utility companies and therefore the total energy consumption can be higher than what can be found in other statistic. By including both utility companies and end...

  10. WP4 CASE STUDY Report: Living Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorland, Jens; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    conception and lay insights on perceived problems to science. Science shops are an interesting entity to study to see what kind of long-term impacts they have implied as an initiative which has been running since the 80’ties, and how CSO’s have been empowered through the relationship with the university....

  11. Wind Plant Performance Prediction (WP3) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Anna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    The methods for analysis of operational wind plant data are highly variable across the wind industry, leading to high uncertainties in the validation and bias-correction of preconstruction energy estimation methods. Lack of credibility in the preconstruction energy estimates leads to significant impacts on project financing and therefore the final levelized cost of energy for the plant. In this work, the variation in the evaluation of a wind plant's operational energy production as a result of variations in the processing methods applied to the operational data is examined. Preliminary results indicate that selection of the filters applied to the data and the filter parameters can have significant impacts in the final computed assessment metrics.

  12. Evaluation "Angels and Demons" (WP-116)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordewier, M.; Jonge, de J.; Stapel, D.; Fischer, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    One way to generate the money needed for sustainable innovation is by consumer choosing freely for sustainable products. This way, consumer choice pays for the innovative production method. This requires consumer willingness to buy these products. Willingness to buy is however not so easily measured

  13. Effect of β-lactoglobulin A and B whey protein variants on cheese yield potential of a model milk system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Nieto, M A; González-Córdova, A F; Piloni-Martini, J; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield mainly depends on the amount and proportion of milk constituents; however, genetic variants of the proteins present in milk may also have an important effect. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the variants A and B of β-lactoglobulin (LG) on cheese yield using a model system consisting of skim milk powder fortified with different levels of a mixture containing α-lactalbumin and β-LG genetic variants (A, B, or A-B) in a 1:2 ratio. Fortified milk samples were subjected to pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min. Miniature cheeses were made by acidifying (pH=5.9) fortified milk and incubating with rennet for 1h at 32 °C. The clot formed was cut, centrifuged at 2,600 × g for 30 min at 20 °C and drained for determining cheese yield. Cheese-yielding capacity was expressed as actual yield (grams of cheese curd per 100g of milk) and dry weight yield (grams of dried cheese curd per 100g of milk). Free-zone capillary electrophoresis was used for determining β-LG A or B recovery in the curd during rennet-induced coagulation. The presence of β-LG variant B resulted in a significantly higher actual and dried weight cheese yield than when A or A-B were present at levels ≤ 0.675% of whey protein (WP) addition. Results of free-zone capillary electrophoresis allowed us to infer that β-LG B associates with the casein micelles during renneting, as shown by an increase in the recovery of this variant in the curd when β-LG B was added up to a maximum at 0.45% (equivalent to 0.675% WP). In general, actual or dried weight cheese yield increased as WP addition was increased from 0.225 to 0.675%. However, when WP addition ranged from 0.675 to 0.90%, a drastic drop in cheese yield was observed. This behavior may be because an increase in the aggregation of casein micelles with a concomitant inclusion of whey protein in the gel occurs at low levels of WP addition, whereas once the association of WP with the casein micelles reach a saturation point

  14. Investigations of the Temperature Influence on Formation of Compounds from the BTEX Group During the Thermal Decomposition of Furan Resin / Badania wpływu temperatury na powstawanie związków z grupy BTEX podczas termicznego rozkładu żywicy furanowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubecki M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spoiwa organiczne stosowane w odlewnictwie bazujące na żywicach syntetycznych, z jednej strony wpływają na uzyskanie przez masę formierską odpowiednich właściwości technologicznych a w konsekwencji tego otrzymania dobrych odlewów, a z drugiej w procesach odlewniczych stanowią źródło lotnych związków organicznych (LZO. Wraz z żywicami syntetycznymi stosowane są również ich utwardzacze, których dodatek stanowi wprawdzie niewielki procent w stosunku do masy żywicy, ale związki uwalniane w trakcie ich termicznego rozkładu mogą negatywnie oddziaływać na środowisko naturalne. Zarówno żywice jak i utwardzacze dopiero pod wpływem temperatury towarzyszącej zalewaniu formy ciekłym metalem generują szkodliwe lotne związki organiczne, w tym związki z grupy BTEX. Badania wpływu temperatury na rodzaj oraz ilość związków organicznych powstających podczas termicznego rozkładu wybranych spoiw i utwardzaczy oraz ich mieszanin, pozwalają określić zarówno zakres temperatur najbardziej charakterystycznych dla uwalniania szkodliwych związków, jak również dokonać porównania ich emisji z wybranych materiałów.

  15. Validation of a simulation program for photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, G.; Catalanotti, S.; Coscia, U.; Troise, G.

    1991-12-01

    A program simulating the long term behaviour of PV system is validated by means measurements done for about two years on a stand alone system of 760 W_p, with a storage battery of 280 Ah. The simulation is carried on with measured solar radiation as well as with data generated by stochastic technique. The simulated and measured solar total covered load are compared. For both radiation kinds the simulation fits the experimpntal data in a satisfying way. The effect on the storage of the autocorrelated nature of daily radiation sequences is accounted for using a generation technique which reproduces well the short term fluctuations.

  16. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  17. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Grzegorz; Skrajda, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Dąbrowski Grzegorz, Skrajda Marta. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(9):357-366. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.62002 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Sci...

  18. Wpływ terapii BEMER na wybrane wskaźniki krwi w ramach procesu odnowy biologicznej po wysiłku wytrzymałościowym. Studium przypadku = Effect of BEMER therapy on selected indicators of blood in the process of wellness after exercise endurance. Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mrozkowiak, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Mrozkowiak Mirosław. Wpływ terapii BEMER na wybrane wskaźniki krwi w ramach procesu odnowy biologicznej po wysiłku wytrzymałościowym. Studium przypadku = Effect of BEMER therapy on selected indicators of blood in the process of wellness after exercise endurance. Case study. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(4):278-298. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.17080 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%284%29%3A278-298   http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/...

  19. Próba określenia wpływu terapii BEMER na wybrane wskaźniki krwi w ramach procesu odnowy biologicznej po wysiłku wytrzymałościowym. Studium przypadku = An attempt to determine the effect of BEMER therapy on selected blood indicators in the process of biological restitution after endurance effort. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Posłuszny, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Posłuszny Mariusz. Próba określenia wpływu terapii BEMER na wybrane wskaźniki krwi w ramach procesu odnowy biologicznej po wysiłku wytrzymałościowym. Studium przypadku = An attempt to determine the effect of BEMER therapy on selected blood indicators in the process of biological restitution after endurance effort. A case study. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(10):121-140. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32524 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/...

  20. Sukcesy reprezentacji Polski w piłce siatkowej mężczyzn i ich wpływ na popularność siatkówki = The successes of the Polish national team in men's volleyball, and their impact on the popularity of volleyball

    OpenAIRE

    Przybylska, Klaudia; Cieślicka, Mirosława; Zukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    Przybylska Klaudia, Cieślicka Mirosława, Zukow Walery. Sukcesy reprezentacji Polski w piłce siatkowej mężczyzn i ich wpływ na popularność siatkówki = The successes of the Polish national team in men's volleyball, and their impact on the popularity of volleyball. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):375-399. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.60732 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3771       The jour...

  1. Wpływ muzykoterapii receptywnej na ciśnienie tętnicze krwi podczas zabiegów masażu leczniczego u pacjentów po przebytym udarze mózgu = Impact of receptive music therapy on blood pressure during healing massage on patients after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Tadych, Adam; Pospiech, Wojciech; Sielski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Tadych Adam, Pospiech Wojciech, Sielski Łukasz. Wpływ muzykoterapii receptywnej na ciśnienie tętnicze krwi podczas zabiegów masażu leczniczego u pacjentów po przebytym udarze mózgu = Impact of receptive music therapy on blood pressure during healing massage on patients after stroke. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(10):263-278. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.162076 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3933         The j...

  2. Main Sources of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout, Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Exploitation Operators (2011 USAFSAM Survey Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2012-0010 Main Sources of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout , Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among...of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout , Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence...occupational burnout , clinical distress, post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as vicarious exposure to combat. The results of the study suggest

  3. Crop physiology in (semi-)closed greenhouses - Final report of the TransForum scientific project “SynErgy: Monitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouse” (WP-066)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Qian, T.; Elings, A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, since 2002, a number of (semi-)closed greenhouses was constructed. Climate conditions in these greenhouses were found to differ considerably from those in conventional greenhouses. Knowledge of the effects of these climate conditions on the crop was scarce. Therefore, in the

  4. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Spectra Research, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  5. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A.; Campos, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  6. Optimal Photovoltaic System Sizing of a Hybrid Diesel/PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhamadia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost analysis study of a hybrid diesel and Photovoltaic (PV system in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. It first presents the climate conditions of the city followed by the load profile of a 2MVA network; the system was evaluated as a standalone system. Diesel generator rating was considered such that it follows ISO 8528. The maximum size of the PV system was selected such that its penetration would not exceed 25%. Several sizes were considered but the 400kWp system was found to be the most cost efficient. Cost estimation was done using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. Based on the simulation results, the climate conditions and the NEC 960, the numbers of the maximum and minimum series modules were suggested as well as the maximum number of the parallel strings.

  7. Integrated modelling of the glass-iron-clay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bildstein, O

    2007-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of integrated calculations on the near-field evolution in the VHLW/steel/bentonite/clay system. The calculations of the near-field evolution include different components: the vitrified waste packages, the steel container, the bentonite-based EBS (optional), the EDZ and the geological medium. Coupled reaction-transport (X-T) is used to simulate the corrosion of the steel canister and the glass alteration phase in presence of corrosion products (CPs), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silica, pH, and porosity change. Calculations as performed give actual parameters for PA calculations: rate of glass alteration (through the calculated pH) as a function of time, extension of altered zone for iron-clay interactions with their own transport parameters, nature of CPs, effect on porosity distribution. According to the operational model currently used at the CEA and the calculations performed on the glass-iron-clay system, the alteration rate of glass and the evolution of the system strongly depend on the timing of CPs saturation with respect to silica sorption. The fate of silica which can be sorbed or precipitate is crucial to the lifetime of glass and to the overall evolution of the system. The other process that might influence the glass is the porosity decrease due to the precipitation of CPs and silica rich phases. However, it is difficult to assign a safety functions to clogging. It is scarcely observed in experiments, either because the conditions are not met for clogging or because the timescale of experiments does not allow for observable clogging. Moreover, the effect of mechanical stress in the NF has to be accounted for in the assessment of the effect of porosity changes. (author)

  8. WP 2 Report: Integrated Status Quo and Trends Assessment in Wuxi. Overview of WP 2 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienst, Carmen; Hoeller, Samuel; Saurat, Mathieu; Schneider, Clemens; Xia-Bauer, Chun (Wuppertal Institute (Germany)); Oberheitmann, Andreas (China Environmental Research (China)); Fischer, Tom; Gemmer, Marco; Jiang Tong (China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Centre (China)); Wang Can; Wang Haoping (Tsinghua University, Research Centre for International Environmental Policy (China)); Ren Hongyan; Sui Xinying (Wuxi Low Carbon Development Research Centre (China))

    2013-04-01

    The overall project will scientifically explore the Low Carbon Future City (LCFC) concept in two case studies: the German region of Dusseldorf and the Chinese city of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The Wuppertal Institute together with a consortium of Chinese scientific institutes is developing integrated low carbon city strategies for the two pilot regions. The project is funded by the German Stiftung Mercator. Provided in this report, as part of the scientific analysis of the Chinese pilot region, is a comprehensive status quo and trends assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and resource use in Wuxi. It includes a GHG inventory, a business-as-usual scenario for GHG emissions, scenarios for future climate change and its impacts as well as an analysis of future resource use in the energy and buildings sector of Wuxi. Based on this assessment, the authors have selected key sectors for which low carbon scenarios as well as policy strategies will be finalised.

  9. Advanced Technology for Ultra-Low Power System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0115 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON-CHIP (SoC) Jason Woo, Weicong Li, and Peng Lu University of California...September 2015 – 31 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON- CHIP (SoC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-1-7574 5b...ABSTRACT The purpose of this advanced study is to provide an analytic framework for silicon on chip (SoC) technology that is based on numerical, simulation

  10. Semi-Automatic Contacting System ’GR-1’ in Marine Radios,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-26

    TECIHOOY Do. 100411 TECNOLOGY IVISION VISION. WP.APG. OHIO. FMD -ID(RS)T-1043-92 Date 26 Oct 19 62 * 6~~ * -’ *(.* b ~ ~ ~ -C *; PVN’ 7 ’.\\ Th’% q...34Regulamin’Radiokommunikacyjing z salecenia CCIR Nr 476" (Radio Communication Regulations recom- mended by "CCIR" Number 476) and many other publications... communication links. The basic block diagram of the system is presented in Figures 1 and 2. The operating procedures of the system are defined by the

  11. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  12. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  13. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    can be combined and used for an efficient development and verification of new fail-safe systems. The expected result is a methodology for using domain-specific, formal languages, techniques and tools for more efficient development and verification of robust software for railway control systems......This paper presents work package WP4.1 of the RobustRails research project. The work package aims at suggesting a methodology for efficient development and verification of safe and robust railway control systems. 1 Project background and state of the art Over the next 10 years all Danish railway...... signalling systems are going to be completely replaced with modern, computer based railway control systems based on the European standard ERTMS/ETCS [3, 4] by the Danish Signaling Programme [1]. The purpose of these systems is to control the railway traffic such that unsafe situations, like train collisions...

  14. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  15. A Probabilistic Method for Determining Grid-Accommodable Wind Power Capacity Based on Multiscenario System Operation Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianyao; Kang, Chongqing; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    When conducting the wind power (WP) planning, it is very important for electric power companies to evaluate the penetration limit of the grid-accommodable WP. This paper proposes a probabilistic method for determining grid-accommodable WP capacity based on the multiscenario analysis. Typical power...

  16. Supplement to ORNL/Sub/86-SA094/1 on use of transportable storage casks in the nuclear waste management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high level waste will be accepted in the following categories: failed fuel; consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; non-fuel-assembly hardware; fuel in metal storage casks; fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; inspection and testing requirements for wastes; canister criteria; spent fuel selection for delivery; and defense and commercial high-level waste packages. This document discusses the use of transportable storage casks. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. A pillararene-based ternary drug-delivery system with photocontrolled anticancer drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guocan; Yu, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Huang, Feihe

    2015-02-25

    A novel ternary drug delivery system (DDS) is constructed using a photodegradable anticancer prodrug (Py-Cbl), a water-soluble pillararene supramolecular container (WP6), and the diblock copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)114 -block-poly(L -lysine hydrochloride)200. This DDS successfully addresses three important issues: enhancement of the water solubility of the anticancer prodrug; controlled release of the anticancer drug; accurate and quantitative measurement of the drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  19. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  20. A Proposed RTN Officer Performance Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    subordinates. IRef, 38 :pp. 61-63] 32b b. Peery td Ce-Worker: Rati*~ Syae A rating by those of equal rank or position in a hierarchical social system is tanned...w~ _ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o - 5*4- S C . 55m U d U~t..#5Cs5.d me ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .1.-Sý .d .P ý 5 ds 55Ws. SSe SP 0 0, 0 0- 0 0 0 1E tVMUSI2 aSU =595 -Wdo 5...F2A -f 500 gb0" 5W0.* P54 b . M- I--d ! Td . I. -4.WP . w .~ A5 �" or- V 6P.- W." of -- P5 .W - ’. owD vd94r " S -. -d55 0 hwo5 W" -% g555e5 k*.~ bws

  1. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  2. Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2008-09-14

    PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination.

  3. Analyses of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1994-04-01

    Radionuclide releases due to drilling into the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository have been evaluated as part of a recent total-system performance assessment. The probability that a drilling event intersects a waste package is a function of the sizes of the drill bit and the waste package, and the density of placement of the containers in the repository. The magnitude of the releases is modeled as a random function that also depends on the amount of decay the radionuclides have undergone. Four cases have been analyzed, representing the combinations of two waste-package designs (small-capacity, thin-wall, vertically emplaced; and large-capacity, thick-wall, horizontally emplaced) and two repository layouts (lower thermal power dissipation, low waste-package placement density; and higher thermal power dissipation, high waste-package placement density). The results show a fairly pronounced dependence on waste-package design and slight dependence on repository layout. Given the assumptions in the model, releases from the larger containers are 4--5 times greater than from the smaller packages.

  4. Analyses of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Radionuclide releases due to drilling into the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository have been evaluated as part of a recent total-system performance assessment. The probability that a drilling event intersects a waste package is a function of the sizes of the drill bit and the waste package, and the density of placement of the containers in the repository. The magnitude of the release is modeled as a random function that also depends on the amount of decay the radionuclides have undergone. Four cases have been analyzed, representing the combinations of two waste-package designs (small-capacity, thin-wall, vertically emplaced; and large-capacity, thick-wall, horizontally emplaced) and two repository layouts (lower thermal power dissipation, low waste-package placement density; and higher thermal power dissipation, high waste-package placement density). The results show a fairly pronounced dependence on waste-package design and slight dependence on repository layout. Given the assumptions in the model, releases from the larger containers are 4-5 times greater than from the smaller packages.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL STRENGTH OF MATERIALS APPROACH TO DESIGN WITH THE FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    2002-04-30

    The objective of this activity is to show that the use of the traditional strength of materials approach to the drip shield and the waste package (WP) designs is bounding and appropriate when compared to the fracture mechanics approach. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the failure assessment diagrams for the two materials at issue: Ti-7 and Alloy 22. This calculation is intended for use in support of the license application design of the drip shield and the WP. This activity is associated with the drip shield and the WP designs. The activity evaluation for work package number P32 12234F2, included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 1, p. A-6), has determined that the development of this document is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' requirements. The control of the electronic management of data is accomplished in accordance with the methods specified in Reference 1, Section 10. AP-3.124, ''Design Calculations and Analysis'' (Ref. 2), is used to develop and document the calculation.

  6. A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 ke

  7. An energy analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system with an active cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzmann, Tony L.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2010-08-01

    The recent focus on renewable energy has lead to an increased awareness of solar energy. Concentrating photovoltaic systems have seen a resurgence in research interest since their earlier pilot plant origins in the 1970s and 1980s. The use of concentration reduces the amount of expensive photovoltaic materials while maintaining a high level of incident solar radiation. This research combines the advantage of concentrating solar energy with high efficiency multijunction cells and an active cooling system to create a system that efficiently produces both electricity and heat. A linear concentrating photovoltaic system model was developed in order to simulate the system under actual solar and climatic conditions, where a number of different system variables can be adjusted. This simulation was used to evaluate the effects of domestic hot water use on a 6.2 kWp system. The results show the changes in solar cell efficiency, electricity produced, thermal energy produced, dollar value displaced, and global warming potential displaced as the domestic hot water use of the system is varied. This simulation can be used to find an optimal system for given input conditions and can be used to find optimal operating conditions for a given system size.

  8. REMEDIATION FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  9. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  10. system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  11. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Description and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.; Strachan, D.M.; Reid, C.R.; Windisch, C.F.; Erikson, R.L.; Johnson, K.I.

    1987-10-01

    The geologic repository system consists of several components, one of which is the engineered barrier system. The engineered barrier system interfaces with natural barriers that constitute the setting of the repository. A model that simulates the releases from the engineered barrier system into the natural barriers of the geosphere, called a source-term model, is an important component of any model for assessing the overall performance of the geologic repository system. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model being developed is one such model. This report describes the current state of development of the AREST model and the code in which the model is implemented. The AREST model consists of three component models and five process models that describe the post-emplacement environment of a waste package. All of these components are combined within a probabilistic framework. The component models are a waste package containment (WPC) model that simulates the corrosion and degradation processes which eventually result in waste package containment failure; a waste package release (WPR) model that calculates the rates of radionuclide release from the failed waste package; and an engineered system release (ESR) model that controls the flow of information among all AREST components and process models and combines release output from the WPR model with failure times from the WPC model to produce estimates of total release. 167 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic System Design as Specifically Applied to Commercial Buildings in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Blackledge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the viability of installing photovoltaic (PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Dublin. Data collected from previously installed photovoltaic systems at the Dublin Institute of Technology was analysed in order to determine the potential solar resource available in Ireland. A 1.1 kWp photovoltaic system installed in Dublin can produce over 900 kWh of electricity in a given year depending on the available solar resource for that year. A feasibility study was conducted in Dublin city centre in order to evaluate the technical, financial and environmental aspects of integrating a PV system into an existing building. The intention is that the results from this work will help in demonstrating the benefits and challenges associated with installing PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Ireland.

  13. Glastuinbouw Waterproof : WP5: Haalbaarheidstudie zuiveringstechnieken restant- water substraatteelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgens, R.; Appelman, W.; Kuipers, N.; Feenstra, L.; Creusen, R.; Os, van E.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Balendonck, J.

    2010-01-01

    Op een rozenbedrijf is de toepassing van geavanceerde oxidatie (combinatie van waterstofperoxide (H2O2) en UV-licht getest als methode om groeiremming bij recirculatie op te heffen. Bij goede resultaten kan het drainwater langer worden hergebruikt en vermindert de lozing van water met meststoffen en

  14. WP3 Prototype development for operational planning tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine; Meibom, Peter; Apfelbeck, J.

    is documented in chapter 1 and 2. The inclusion of load uncertainty and forced outages in the Scenario Tree Tool enables calculation of the demand for reserve power depending on the forecast horizon. The algorithm is given in Section 3.1. The design of a modified version of the Joint Market Model enabling...... of electricity load and wind power production, and to cover forced outages of power plants and transmission lines. Work has been carried out to include load uncertainty and forced outages in the two main components of the Wilmar Planning tool namely the Scenario Tree Tool and the Joint Market Model. This work...

  15. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Detection of Water (WP #205)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-12

    Internal corrosion of natural gas pipelines is the result of interaction between the inside pipe wall and impurities in the product being transported. Such interactions can lead to an overall loss of material thereby thinning the pipe wall and thus r...

  16. WP/072 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Promoting Sustainable Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    One of the dual objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is to promote sustainable development in the host countries. With different CDM indicators for 58 CDM host countries over 2005-10, this paper empirically assesses whether CDM project development fulfils...

  17. WP3: wettelijke regelingen over gebruik van kruiden bij landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Noordam, M.Y.; Kleter, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dit rapport is geschreven in het kader van het LNV onderzoeksproject FYTO-V (www.fytov.nl) en beschrijft de wettelijke regelingen voor het gebruik van kruiden bij landbouwhuisdieren. Er wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen gebruik van kruiden als onderdeel van diervoeder, als aanvullend diervoeder, als

  18. Cassandra - WP400 - final report of living lab 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engler, M.; Klievink, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This CASSANDRA LL2 final deliverable contains all information regarding the CASSANDRA Living Lab Europe – USA via Bremerhaven including information from two intermediate reports (CASSANDRA D4.21 and D4.22) about the very same Living Lab handed in during runtime of the Living Lab. CASSANDRA Living

  19. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  20. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  1. REFUGIA WP4 Hedgerows as refugees for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Presentation headlines: More plant species in hedgerows at organic farms compared to conventional More food for pollinators in hedgerow at organic farms Biodiversity takes time - continuity in organic practice important

  2. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  3. Impact of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba extracts on expression level of transcriptional factors and xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes / Wpływ ekstraktów z Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba na poziom ekspresji czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów cytochromu P450 metabolizujących ksenobiotyki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Mimo powszechnego stosowania Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba dane dotyczące bezpieczeństwa, a także interakcji pomiędzy preparatami roślinnymi a lekami syntetycznymi są bardzo ograniczone. W niniejszych badaniach założono, iż żeń-szeń oraz miłorząb mogą modulować aktywność i zawartość izoenzymów cytochromu P450 biorących udział w biotransformacji różnych substancji ksenobiotycznych. Cel: Określenie wpływu preparatów roślinnych na poziom ekspresji enzymów CYP i ich czynników transkrypcyjnych. Metody: Szczurom rasy Wistar podawano standaryzowany Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg oraz Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg przez 3 do 10 dni. Ekspresję w tkance wątrobowej analizowano za pomocą metody PCR w czasie rzeczywistym. Wyniki: Uzyskane wyniki wykazały spadek poziomu mRNA CYP3A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP3A4 po podaniu ekstraktu z żeń-szenia. Ekspresja genu CYP2C6 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP2C9 również uległa obniżeniu. Dodatkowo, obserwowaliśmy wzrost ekspresji CYP1A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A1 i CYP1A2 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A2 po 10 dniach stosowania P. ginseng. Ponadto, ekstrakt z G. biloba spowodował również wzrost poziomu mRNA CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 i CYP3A2 w modelu in vivo. Wnioski: Badania sugerują, że wyciągi roślinne mogą modulować ekspresję czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów CYP uczestniczących w metabolizmie ksenobiotyków i chemicznej karcynogenezie.

  4. License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative V: Very High Thermal Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Linden

    1999-06-22

    through 2066 (Section 6.2.2). This schedule is based on the VA reference design schedule with the monitoring period shortened such that the total preclosure period from the start of emplacement is 50 years. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) would be blended to produce a targeted average and maximum thermal load. That is, the waste would be specifically sorted according to its type, heat output, and age and then put into packages with other similarly selected waste for the purpose of controlling the heat output of each waste package (WP). Blending would be done to create an average pressurized water reactor (PWR) heat output per waste package of 9.8 kW and a maximum of 11.8 kW. With blending, the heat output from the different waste packages is more consistent from package to package, thus resulting in a more nearly uniform linear heat-generation rate in the drift and from drift to drift for the repository as a whole. This will possibly reduce the waste package cladding temperatures for the hottest waste packages. The inclusion of waste blending in the EDA V conceptual design may increase the amount of surface waste handling and will also increase costs due to an addition of approximately 3,750 MTU of surface storage (Section 5.5).

  5. Development of a methodology to determine the radionuclide inventory of bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklid-Inventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortmann, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C.

    2016-02-22

    For the declaration of the nuclide-inventory of bituminous waste there are currently no standardized sampling-, dissolving- and analysis methods such as for cemented waste, resins and sludge is the case. The aim of this project was to develop a method for the destructive sampling and subsequent radionuclide separation and declaration for the characterization of bituminized waste. The qualitative and quantitative results of non-destructive measurement methods (segmented gamma scanning in combination with digital radiography and gamma transmission computed tomography) are compared with results from destructive analysis. The project involves: - the development of a routine method for sampling bituminized 200-L-waste containers, exemplarily applied to real drums with bituminized waste. - the development of destructive treatment and preparation methods for the obtained bitumen samples with subsequent analysis for: - Alpha emitters, e.g. Pu-, Am- and Cm-isotopes, - Beta/Gamma emitters, e.g. Co-60, Cs-137, - pure Beta emitters, e.g. Sr-90. - Comparison of the results from destructive and non-destructive methods.

  6. [The Waste Package Project. Final report, July 1, 1995--February 27, 1996]: Volume 2, Experimental verification of structural response of a flexible three-link hydraulic steel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channarayapatna, Shashidhar S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents experimental techniques for determining the static and dynamic response, in three dimensional space, of a flexible three-link hydraulic steel robot. The flexible robot was originally built under a grant from the Army Research Office (ARO) and has been the subject of a six year research project involving 12 graduate students and four faculty members. The research was continued under grant from the U.S. Department of Energy which is considering the use of robot in remote handling, placement and retrievability of H.L.N.W. canisters in geological formations. A series of static and dynamic experiments was conducted under two different loads at various angular positions of the robot links.

  7. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes; Modellierung zur Speziation von Radionukliden in Abfallgebinden mit hoch radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-15

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  8. Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mastilovic

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance

  9. Measurement of Small Values of Hydrostatic Pressure with the Compensation of Atmospheric Pressure Influence / Pomiar Małych Wartości Ciśnienia Hydrostatycznego Z Kompensacją Wpływu Ciśnienia Atmosferycznego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Krzysztof; Filipek, Wiktor

    2013-09-01

    structure has been simplified and the measurement accuracy has increased. Znajomość rozkładu ciśnienia (lub różnicy ciśnień) determinuje opis przepływu płynu przez ośrodek porowaty. W przypadku dużych liczb Reynoldsa nie nastręcza to większych trudności, lecz dla przepływów laminarnych (tj. dla liczb Re (Bear, 1988; Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957) z zakresu 0.01 do 3) jest to praktycznie niemożliwe w oparciu o dostępne na rynku przyrządy. Przyczyny powodujące taką sytuację zostały omówione w poprzednim opracowaniu (Broda i Filipek, 2012), w którym zwrócono uwagę na trudności pomiarów związane z napięciem powierzchniowym czy włoskowatością (Adamson, 1997). Zaproponowano (Broda i Filipek, 2012) nową, autorską metodę pomiaru bardzo małych różnic ciśnień oraz skonstruowano odpowiednie stanowisko składające się z dwóch oddzielnych zbiorników pomiarowych oraz przeprowadzono pomiary. Z przeprowadzonych badań (Broda i Filipek, 2012) wynikała konieczność zastosowania stabilizacji temperatury urządzenia oraz kompensacji wpływu ciśnienia atmosferycznego na proces pomiarowy. Niniejsza publikacja przedstawia wyniki kontynuacji badań nad metodami i aparaturą do pomiaru bardzo małych różnic ciśnień z uwzględnieniem zdobytych doświadczeń, w oparciu o nowe stanowisko pomiarowe, którego zasadę działania i budowę przedstawiono na rys. 1-5, kolejno przedstawiając koncepcję wykonania pomiaru małych wartości ciśnienia hydrodynamicznego z kompensacją wpływu ciśnienia atmosferycznego rys. 1; ilustrację obrazującą stan odpowiadający przypadkowi braku przepływu płynu przez badany obiekt rys. 2; omawiając stan odpowiadający przypadkowi przepływu płynu przez badany obiekt rys. 3. Kolejno omówiono stan odpowiadający pomiarowi spadku ciśnienia na badanym obiekcie rys. 4 oraz przedstawiono metodykę pomiaru (zależności (1) - (20)). Zdjęcie stanowiska badawczego oraz jego elementów ilustruje rys. 5. W

  10. A decision support system for the promotion of Employee in Plaza Asia Method Using Weighted Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egi Badar Sambani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in a company is important because decisions taken by managers is the result of a final thought to be carried out by employees. Asia is the largest mall Plaza sepriangan east, where the assessment process includes the promotion employee attendance, productivity (work, integrity (nature, skill (ability and loyalty (faithfulness. Method Using Weighted Product (WP can help in decision-making to determine the promotion of employees in the company, as well as the appraisal process more efficient so the store manager can determine employee promotions quickly. By using decision support system that has a database, employee data can be stored in the database. So that in case of errors in inputting can be corrected without having to re-enter the data. With the Decision Support System will address the issues raised in the Plaza Asia, so the promotion process will be faster.

  11. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  12. Influence of the Plow Filling and Thread Angle onto the Plow Head Efficiency / Wpływ Współczynnika Wypełnienia Organu Oraz Kąta Nawinięcia Płata Ślimaka Na Sprawność Ładowania Frezującymi Organami Ślimakowymi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydro, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory examinations on the plow heads at various filling rate and material grain-size, as well as various values of worm thread angle of the plow head have been executed. Influence of the worm thread angle and plow head filling onto optimal loading efficiency, has also been tested. Eksploatacja węgla kamiennego w Polsce odbywa się przy zastosowaniu kompleksów ścianowych kombajnowych jak również kompleksów strugowych. Ten drugi z kompleksów jest znacznie mniej rozpowszechniony w Polsce i stosowany do pokładów o miąższości poniżej 1,5 m. Do głównych maszyn i urządzeń ścianowego kompleksu kombajnowego należy zaliczyć maszynę urabiająco - ładującą jaką jest kombajn ścianowy, obudowę zmechanizowaną oraz przenośnik ścianowy. Elementami roboczymi w kombajnie ścianowym są frezujące organy ślimakowe, które mocowane są na ramionach kombajnu. Zadaniem frezujących organów ślimakowych jest realizacja jednocześnie dwóch procesów. Pierwszym z procesów jest frezowanie czyli oddzielanie kawałków węgla od calizny. Drugi proces to proces ładowania urobku, polegający na ciągłym odprowadzaniu urobku na przenośnik ścianowy. Równoległość realizacji pracy tych dwóch procesów, uniemożliwia w warunkach rzeczywistych przeprowadzenie obserwacji procesu ładowania i dokonania jakichkolwiek pomiarów i analiz. Dlatego też, przeprowadzane badania i pomiary opisywane w literaturze zwykle miały charakter modelowy lub stanowiskowy, gdyż tylko takie warunki umożliwiały rozdział tych funkcji organu (Chodura, 1992; Hyong Jong Gol, 1990; Jaszczuk & Tomaszewski, 2004; Krauze, 1997). W związku z powyższym, chcąc bliżej poznać prawa rządzące procesem ładowania, zdecydowano się na rozdzielenie tych dwóch procesów i przeprowadzenie badań laboratoryjnych. Przedmiotowe badania zostały przeprowadzone w laboratorium Katedry Maszyn Górniczych, Przeróbczych i Transportowych AGH. W badaniach uwzględniono wpływ jednego z

  13. TRIGA FUEL PHASE I AND II CRITICALITY CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Angers

    1999-11-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to characterize the criticality aspect of the codisposal of TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomic) reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW). The TRIGA SNF is loaded into a Department of Energy (DOE) standardized SNF canister which is centrally positioned inside a five-canister defense SRS HLW waste package (WP). The objective of the calculation is to investigate the criticality issues for the WP containing the five SRS HLW and DOE SNF canisters in various stages of degradation. This calculation will support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR).

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  16. Performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power a split air conditioner system in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Air conditioner for cooling air is one of the major needs for those who live in hot climate area such as Indonesia. This work presents the performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power air conditioner under a hot tropical climate in Surabaya, Indonesia. A 800 WP grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system was used, and its performance was tested to power a 0.5 pk of split air conditioner system. It was found that about 3.5 kWh daily energy was consumed by the tested air conditioner system, and about 80% it could be supplied from the PV system. While the other 20% was supplied by the grid during periods of low solar irradiation, 440 Wh of energy was fed into the grid during operation out of office hours. By using the grid-tied PV system, the energy production by PV system did not need to match the consumption of the air conditioner. However, a larger capacity of PV system would mean that a higher percentage of the load would be covered by PV system.

  17. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  18. The demographic challenge of the interconnected education and pension system in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey; Vinogradov, Viatcheslav

    -, č. 326 (2007), s. 1-19 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : public education * demographic development * pay-as-you-go pension s Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp326.pdf

  19. Design, Characterization and Modelling of High Efficient Solar Powered Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, Peter; Svane, Frederik; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp with a peak efficiency of 99.1% at 1.5 W output power at PV to battery and almost similar characteristics for a 10-50 Wp. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data...

  20. Diagnosis of the operation state of photovoltaic water pumping systems installed in Pernambuco state, Brazil; Diagnostico do estado de funcionamento de sistemas de bombeamento de agua fotovoltaico (SBFV) instalados em Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: hscosta@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    The major projects concerning the dissemination of the use of photovoltaic solar energy (PVSE) in Brazil are located in the Northeast region. Particularly, the state of Pernambuco has the largest number of installations and the largest installed power of autonomous systems. There exist approximately 700 residencies, 250 schools and 150 water pumping systems among other applications using PVSE, totaling 250 k Wp installed in more than 80 cities of that State. This work analyses a diagnosis report on the state of functioning of 64 one-year-old water-pumping installations in 30 m to 60 m depth wells, driven by 300 to 1,600 Wp photovoltaic generators, the flows varying from 200 l/h to 6,000 l/h. Technical and non-technical problems were identified, ranging from improper location choice, wrong system dimensioning, inadequate photovoltaic generator installations, lack of user instruction and training, lack of responsibility definitions regarding the technical assistance and the needed follow-up. In the final part of this report proposals are enumerated concerning the establishment of a local and municipal organizing structure aiming the management of the water-pumping installations and the assurance of a larger success probability in the use of that technology. (author)

  1. Mobile Communication Networks and Digital Television Broadcasting Systems in the Same Frequency Bands – Advanced Co-Existence Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for wireless multimedia services provided by modern communication systems with stable services is a key feature of advanced markets. On the other hand, these systems can many times operate in a neighboring or in the same frequency bands. Therefore, numerous unwanted co-existence scenarios can occur. The aim of this paper is to summarize our results which were achieved during exploration and measurement of the co-existences between still used and upcoming mobile networks (from GSM to LTE and digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DVB systems. For all of these measurements and their evaluation universal measurement testbed has been proposed and used. Results presented in this paper are a significant part of our activities in work package WP5 in the ENIAC JU project “Agile RF Transceivers and Front-Ends for Future Smart Multi-Standard Communications Applications (ARTEMOS”.

  2. Development of wireless sensor network for landslide monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi; Puranto, Prabowo; Adinanta, Hendra; Tohari, Adrin; Priambodo, Purnomo S.

    2017-05-01

    A wireless sensor network has been developed to monitor soil movement of some observed areas periodically. The system consists of four nodes and one gateway which installed on a scope area of 0.2 Km2. Each of nodehastwo types of sensor,an inclinometer and an extensometer. An inclinometer sensor is used to measure the tilt of a structure while anextensometer sensor is used to measure the displacement of soil movement. Each of nodeisalso supported by awireless communication device, a solar power supply unit, and a microcontroller unit called sensor module. In this system, there is also gateway module as a main communication system consistinga wireless communication device, power supply unit, and rain gauge to measure the rainfall intensity of the observed area. Each sensor of inclinometer and extensometer isconnected to the sensor module in wiring system but sensor module iscommunicating with gateway in a wireless system. Those four nodes are alsoconnectedeach other in a wireless system collecting the data from inclinometer and extensometer sensors. Module Gateway istransmitting the instruction code to each sensor module one by one and collecting the data from them. Gateway module is an important part to communicate with not only sensor modules but also to the server. This wireless system wasdesigned toreducethe electric consumption powered by 80 WP solar panel and 55Ah battery. This system has been implemented in Pangalengan, Bandung, which has high intensity of rainfall and it can be seen on the website.

  3. The quality of PV systems; De kwaliteit van PV-systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Rooij, P.M. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands); Molenbroek, E.C.; Deege, P.W.F. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    With more than 1.3 Wp of grid connected Wp per capita, the Netherlands ranks among countries with the highest installed PV power per capita. Since the start with demonstration systems in the early nineties, projects have increased in size and numbers. In 2002, 5 MWp of grid connected PV-systems was installed, adding up to a total of 21.7 MWp installed grid-connected PV capacity. Now that the PV-market is growing and more and more consumers are coming into contact with the technology, detailed monitoring is not necessary and not done anymore. On the other hand, demands on quality and reliability are increasing, which makes assurance of quality all the more important. Rumours about bad functioning PV systems spread faster than about the good functioning ones. These rumours can affect the trust of the market in this technology. In this report, results of the first investigation of this kind in the Netherlands are presented. Information on quality was obtained through review of results of commissioning tests, contacting the involved market actors, experience with operation and maintenance, through analysis of performance data and through carrying out extra tests where needed. In this way, information was gathered on 25% of the total installed capacity in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Verhalen over slecht functionerende PV-systemen, ook al zijn het slechts geruchten, incidenten of kleine aantallen, verspreiden zich sneller dan verhalen over goed functionerende PV-systemen en kunnen het vertrouwen van de markt schaden. Het is daarom van groot (en algemeen) belang dat er toezicht gehouden wordt op de kwaliteit van PV-systemen, zodat ongewenste ontwikkelingen tijdig gesignaleerd en aangepakt kunnen worden. Eveneens is het van belang dat de consument geinformeerd wordt over de kwaliteit van PV-systemen. In dit project is daarom onderzoek verricht om een overzicht over de kwaliteit van PV-systemen in Nederland te verkrijgen.

  4. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  5. Photovoltaic systems for the nature parks of Rio de Janeiro municipality; Sistemas fotovoltaicos para os parques municipais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio; Silva, Patricia de Castro da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: marcoag@cepel.br, patricia@cepel.br; Masi, Monica di [Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro (SMAC/RJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: monica.masi@smac.rio.rj.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the current status of the project run by the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, though its Secretary for the Environment, aiming the implantation of photovoltaic (PV) systems for electrification of the Nature Parks of the City. Relevant characteristics of 6 parks, which are to receive first the PV systems, are discussed here, including Parks Prainha, Dois Irmaos, Chico Mendes, Marapendi and Bosque da Barra, as well as the PV systems to be installed in each park. The projects include stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems, and plans to install a total power of more than 60kWp of PV panels. This activity is considered innovative and a part of the preparation of the City for important international events of the coming years: World Cup 2014 and Olympic Games 2016. (author)

  6. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  7. DT II (Development Test II) of LADDS (Laundry and Decontamination Dry Cleaning System). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-12

    17111 ED -"[-115"LAD-003 DT II LADM LAWIDY/DRY CLEANER GClLAD INDICATMIC THE SYSTEM lIS NON aHARCING. NO ACTION HAS TAKEN. AT 2030 HOURS, OPSHRS - 94...K / 11. MR 12, i1 gWP0RTABILI1 ANALYSIS CHART PACE: 23 PROJECT NUIRER PROJECT MONE ITE 13 -iS-115-LAD-003 IT Il LADMS LAUNDRY/DR? CLEANER LADD01 INC...S-115-LADO-03 IT II LADMS LAUIDRY/DRY CLEANER LADDOl INC-DOTI: 900918 ---------SCORING INFOR1nATION _ TIR1: L5"-0000" 01 INC CLASS: fNIJOR STEP CLASS

  8. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  9. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  10. WATER DIVERSION MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Case

    1999-12-21

    The distribution of seepage in the proposed repository will be highly variable due in part to variations in the spatial distribution of percolations. The performance of the drip shield and the backfill system may divert the water flux around the waste packages to the invert. Diversion will occur along the drift surface, within the backfill, at the drip shield, and at the Waste Package (WP) surface, even after the drip shield and WP have been breached by corrosion. The purpose and objective of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) are to develop a conceptual model and constitutive properties for bounding the volume and rate of seepage water that flows around the drip shield (CRWMS M&O 1999c). This analysis model is to be compatible with the selected repository conceptual design (Wilkins and Heath, 1999) and will be used to evaluate the performance of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), and to provide input to the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Model. This model supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) postclosure performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (SR). This document characterizes the hydrological constitutive properties of the backfill and invert materials (Section 6.2) and a third material that represents a mixture of the two. These include the Overton Sand which is selected as a backfill (Section 5.2), crushed tuff which is selected as the invert (Section 5.1), and a combined material (Sections 5.9 and 5.10) which has retention and hydraulic conductivity properties intermediate to the selected materials for the backfill and the invert. The properties include the grain size distribution, the dry bulk density and porosity, the moisture retention, the intrinsic permeability, the relative permeability, and the material thermal properties. The van Genuchten relationships with curve fit parameters are used to define the basic retention relationship of moisture potential to volumetric moisture content, and the basic relationship of unsaturated

  11. Towards a first realization of the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Laura; Ihde, Johannes; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Marti, Urs; Agren, Jonas; Sideris, Michael; Novak, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    The IAG Resolution No. 1 released during the IUGG 2015 General Assembly outlines five conventions for the definition of the International Height Reference System (IHRS). The definition is given in terms of potential parameters: the vertical coordinates are geopotential numbers referring to an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realized by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. The spatial reference of the position P for the potential W(P) = W(X) is given by coordinates X of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). This Resolution also states that parameters, observations, and data shall be related to the mean tidal system/mean crust. At present, the main challenge is the realization of the IHRS; i.e., the establishment of the International Height Reference Frame (IHRF). It is expected that the IHRF follows the same structure as the ITRF: a global network with regional and national densifications, whose geopotential numbers referring to the global IHRS are known. According to the GGOS objectives, the target accuracy of these global geopotential numbers is 1 x 10-2 m2s-2. In practice, the precise realization of the IHRS is limited by different aspects; for instance, no unified standards or methods for the determination of the potential values W(P); application of different conventions for the gravity field modelling and the estimation of the position vectors X; inhomogeneous distribution of the geodetic infrastructure; restricted accessibility to terrestrial gravity data to increase the GGM resolution; insufficient modelling of geodynamic phenomena, etc. This may restrict the expected accuracy of 1 x 10-2 m2s-2 to some orders lower (from 10 x 10-2 m2s-2 to 100 x 10-2 m2s-2). This contribution discusses the required steps to outline a sustainable realization of the IHRS.

  12. 78 FR 58526 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-011 (WP-2401): Development of Low- Mr. Joseph Clubb, Naval Toxicity Liquid Propellant System for.... 10:30 a.m 14 WP01-009 (WP-2400): Environmentally Mr. Gary Holland, Aerojet Sustainable Liquid Gas... ER03-028 (ER-2429): Combining Mass Balance Dr. Philip Gschwend, Modeling with Passive Sampling at...

  13. Demonstration system for renewable power supply in the Bernburg/Roschwitz vocational training schools. Final report; Demonstrationsanlage von regenerativen Energien fuer die Berufsbildenden Schulen Bernburg/Roschwitz. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerich; Strauss

    2002-03-01

    The vocational schools of the district of Bernburg, which have about 1000 students, have become a training center for renewable energy and environmental protection. The project 'SOLARIUS' is used especially for training heating systems experts, technical facilities experts and electrical engineering experts. Other schools are interested in using the systems for demonstration and teaching purposes, too. The system comprises a 12 m{sup 2} solar collector system for space and water heating; an 1.4 kWp PV system for electric power generation and power supply to the public grid; a 0.6 kW wind power system to support the PV system on cloudy but windy days; 5 kW air-to-water heat pumps for demonstration and also for auxiliary heating. [German] Die Berufsbildenden Schulen des Landkreises Bernburg, seit 1999 verantwortlich fuer die zentrale Ausbildung von zirka 1000 Lehrlingen der verschiedensten Berufsgruppen, haben sich zu einem Berufsschulzentrum fuer regenerative Energie und Umweltschutz entwickelt. Fachlehrer riefen das Projekt 'SOLARIUS' ins Leben, das vor allem in der Ausbildung von Heizungs- und Sanitaermonteuren sowie Elektrotechnikern genutzt wird. Verschiedene Gymnasien und Sekundarschulen haben ihr Interesse bekundet, die Demonstrationsanlage als Anschauungsobjekt zu nutzen. Folgende Anlagenkomponenten sollen bei der Demoanlage zum Einsatz gelangen: - 12 m{sup 2} Solarkollektoren zur Warmwasserbereitung und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. - 1,4 kWp Photovoltaikanlage zur Energieerzeugung fuer elektrische Verbraucher in der Demoanlage bzw. zur Einspeisung in das oeffentliche Netz. - 0,6 kW Windkraftanlage zusaetzliche Unterstuetzung der Photovoltaikanlage bei sonnenschwachen, aber windstarken Tagen. - 5 kW Luft-/Wasser-Waermepumpen fuer demonstrativen Zweck und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. Zur Zeit werden Heizung und Warmwasserbereitung der Berufsschule aus dem Fernwaermenetz der Stadtwerke Bernburg ueber eine Hausanschlussstation gespeist. Durch

  14. Technoeconomical Assessment of Optimum Design for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System for Rural Area in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have been used globally for a long time to supply electricity for water pumping system for irrigation. System cost drops down with time since PV technology, efficiency, and design methodology have been improved and cost of wattage drops dramatically in the last decade. In the present paper optimum PV system design for water pumping system has been proposed for Oman. Intuitive and numerical methods were used to design the system. HOMER software as a numerical method was used to design the system to come up with optimum design for Oman. Also, REPS.OM software has been used to find the optimum design based on hourly meteorological data. The daily solar energy in Sohar was found to be 6.182 kWh/m2·day. However, it is found that the system annual yield factor is 2024.66 kWh/kWp. Furthermore, the capacity factor was found to be 23.05%, which is promising. The cost of energy and system capital cost has been compared with that of diesel generator and systems in literature. The comparison shows that the cost of energy is 0.180, 0.309, and 0.790 USD/kWh for PV-REPS.OM, PV-HOMER, and diesel systems, respectively, which sound that PV water pumping systems are promising in Oman.

  15. CLADDING DEGRADATION COMPONENT IN WASTE FORM DEGRADATION MODEL IN TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Siegmann; R.P. Rechard

    2001-01-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a total system performance assessment for a site recommendation (TSPA-SR), if suitable, on Yucca Mountain for disposal of radioactive waste. Discussed here is the Cladding Degradation Component of the Waste Form Degradation Model (WF Model), of the TSPA-SR. The Cladding Degradation Component determines the degradation rate of the Zircaloy cladding on commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and, thereby, the CSNF matrix exposed and radioisotopes available for dissolution in any water present. Since the 1950s, most CSNF has been clad with less than 1 mm (usually between 600 and 900 {micro}m) of Zircaloy, a zirconium alloy. Zircaloy cladding is not a designed engineered barrier of the Yucca Mountain disposal system, but rather is an existing characteristic of the CSNF that is important to determining the release rate of radioisotopes once the waste package (WP) has breached. Although studies of cladding degradation from fluoride [F] began at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as early as 1984, cladding as a characteristic of the waste was not considered in TSPAs, conducted in the early 1990s. However, enough information on cladding performance has accumulated in the literature such that cladding was considered in 1993 when examining the performance of DOE spent nuclear (DSNF) and most recently in TSPA for the viability assessment (TSPA-VA). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently uses cladding data as the basis for extending the period of wet storage, for licensing dry storage facilities, and for licensing shipping casks for CNSF.

  16. Simulation of stand alone PV system; Dokuritsugata taiyoko hatsuden system no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekii, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Tsuda, I.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to evaluate the simulation results of a photovoltaic power generation system, an operation simulation was carried out using the actual measured data of a stand alone PV system in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, so as to make a comparison with the actual operation data. The electric power was supplied to 250 houses and primary/junior high schools in the surrounding villages, which had an average demand load of approximately 90kw and the maximum of approximately 200kw. The power was supplied through the PV power generation in the duration of the sunshine, with an excess power charged in storage batteries and then supplied from the batteries at night. The array capacity was made 750kWp, the output current and storage batteries being characteristic type with an actual efficiency curve used for the inverter. The weather data used were the actual inclined insolation quantity and the outside air temperature data for a period of one month of November. The power charged in excess of 100% in the batteries was termed as an overflow power. With the charging condition 30% or less, a diesel generator was run for a rated operation for one hour, the power of which was termed as a backup power. As a result, the simulation was found nearly in agreement with the actual measurements. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Concept design of the DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system adopting a systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gironimo, G., E-mail: giuseppe.digironimo@unina.it [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Carfora, D. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Esposito, G.; Lanzotti, A.; Marzullo, D. [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An iterative and incremental design process for cassette-to-VV locking system of DEMO divertor is presented. • Three different concepts have been developed with a systematic design approach. • The final concept has been selected with Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process in virtual reality. - Abstract: This paper deals with pre-concept studies of DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system under the work program WP13-DAS-07-T06: Divertor Remote Maintenance System pre-concept study. An iterative design process, consistent with Systems Engineering guidelines and named Iterative and Participative Axiomatic Design Process (IPADeP), is used in this paper to propose new innovative solutions for divertor locking system, which can overcome the difficulties in applying the ITER principles to DEMO. The solutions conceived have been analysed from the structural point of view using the software Ansys and, eventually, evaluated using the methodology known as Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process. Due to the lack and the uncertainty of the requirements in this early conceptual design stage, the aim is to cover a first iteration of an iterative and incremental process to propose an innovative design concept to be developed in more details as the information will be completed.

  18. 10 CFR 60.102 - Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... includes the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical systems of the region in which a geologic repository... to the engineered barrier system. (e) Isolation of waste. (1) During the first several hundred years... contain the wastes by waste packages within an engineered barrier system. This is known as the containment...

  19. High-Performance Laser Peening for Effective Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L; Hao-Lin, C; Wong, F; Hill, M

    2002-10-02

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the Yucca Mountain waste package closure welds is believed to be the greatest threat to long-term containment. Use of stress mitigation to eliminate tensile stresses resulting from welding can prevent SCC. A laser technology with sufficient average power to achieve high throughput has been developed and commercially deployed with high peak power and sufficiently high average power to be an effective laser peening system. An appropriately applied version of this process could be applied to eliminate SCC in the waste package closure welds.

  20. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used, and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to

  1. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  2. External Criticality Risk of Immobilized Plutonium Waste Form in a Geologic Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McClure

    2001-03-12

    This purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the waste package (WP) external criticality-related risk of the Plutonium Disposition ceramic waste form, which is being developed and evaluated by the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Potential accumulation of the fissile materials, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U, in rock formations having a favorable chemical environment for such actions, requires analysis because autocatalytic configurations, while unlikely to form, never-the-less have consequences which are undesirable and require evaluation. Secondly, the WP design has evolved necessitating a re-evaluation of the internal WP degradation scenarios that contribute to the external source terms. The scope of this study includes a summary of the revised WP degradation calculations, a summary of the accumulation mechanisms in fractures and lithophysae in the tuff beneath the WP footprint, and a summary of the criticality risk calculations from any accumulated fissile material. Accumulations of fissile material external to the WP sufficient to pose a potential criticality risk require a deposition mechanism operating over sufficient time to reach required levels. The transporting solution concentrations themselves are well below critical levels (CRWMS 2001e). The ceramic waste form consists of Pu immobilized in ceramic disks, which would be embedded in High-Level Waste (HLW) glass in the standard HLW glass disposal canister. The ceramic disks would occupy approximately 12% of the HLW canister volume, while most of the remaining 88% of the volume would be occupied by HLW glass.

  3. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  4. Intermittent water discharges for family orchards using photovoltaic energy and a system self-operating for a TDF; Riego intermitente para huertos familiares usando energia fotovoltaica y un sistema auto-operante para un TDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan Diaz, Candido; Garcia Villanueva, Nahun H [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Sanchez Juarez, Aaron [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work present the design of a system for automatic opening and closing of a Discharge Bottom Tank (DBT) to produce intermittent water discharges. In order to modernize and increase the production in the family orchards, the application of a integral system built with a self-operating opening and closing valve, a DBT and a PV water pumping system, is suggested. The results obtained from this integral system, is suggested. The results obtained from this integral system applied in a family experimental farm of 144 m{sup 2} are shown below. The PV system size for pumping the required water per day for that family prototype farm was of 106 W-p. Comparing the yield obtained for green tomato, red tomato, and squash in existing technical irrigation process against our integral system, it is shown that our production is almost the same. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el diseno de un sistema de apertura y cierre automatico para producir descargas de agua intermitentes en un Tanque de Descarga de Fondo (TDF). Con el objeto de aumentar la produccion agricola en los huertos familiares, se sugiere la aplicacion de un sistema integral, para riego intermitente en ellos, formado por: el sistema auto operante disenado, un TDF y un sistema de bombeo fotovoltaico, como una alternativa para modernizar y mejorar las eficiencias del riego por gravedad en ellos. Se dan a conocer los resultados obtenidos de este sistema integral en un huerto familiar experimental de 144 m{sup 2}. El tamano del sistema de bombeo fotovoltaico para extraer el agua requerida por dia-cultivo para ese huerto familiar prototipo fue de 106 W-p. El rendimiento por hectarea obtenido para cultivos de jitomate, tomate y calabacita muestra que nuestra produccion, usando el sistema integral, es comparable con los rendimientos por hectarea que se obtienen con metodologias de riego tecnificadas.

  5. Life cycle assessment of a roof-top grid connected photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, U.; Poggesi, C.; Leonardi, D.; Arcioni, L. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2008-07-01

    An environmental life cycle assesment (LCA) was conducted on a roof-top grid-connected crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) system installed at an industrial facility in Italy. The aim of the study was to determine savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy use made by replacing conventional power plants with the PV system. The system consisted of a 270.72 kWp grid-connected system mounted on the roofs of 3 sheds owned by a steel components manufacturing company. The total energy produced by the PV installation throughout its guaranteed life was evaluated by considering mean daily solar radiation levels, the active surface area of the system, and average yearly performance rates and efficiencies. Environmental impacts were obtained using a commercial simulation tool. Primary energy use was calculated by measuring cumulative energy demands. The LCA also considered the installation process, as well as the mounting system, wiring, and materials transportation. LCA results were then compared with impacts generated by current Italian electricity production processes. It was concluded that the PV system avoided the creation of 5,755,520 kg of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) equivalent emissions during its 25 year life. The energy required to build the PV system was regained after 6.08 years. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  6. Fuzzy-driven energy storage system for mitigating voltage unbalance factor on distribution network with photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jianhui; Lim, Yun Seng; Morris, Stella; Morris, Ezra; Chua, Kein Huat

    2017-04-01

    The amount of small-scaled renewable energy sources is anticipated to increase on the low-voltage distribution networks for the improvement of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. The growth of the PV systems on the low-voltage distribution networks can create voltage unbalance, voltage rise, and reverse-power flow. Usually these issues happen with little fluctuation. However, it tends to fluctuate severely as Malaysia is a region with low clear sky index. A large amount of clouds often passes over the country, hence making the solar irradiance to be highly scattered. Therefore, the PV power output fluctuates substantially. These issues can lead to the malfunction of the electronic based equipment, reduction in the network efficiency and improper operation of the power protection system. At the current practice, the amount of PV system installed on the distribution network is constraint by the utility company. As a result, this can limit the reduction of carbon footprint. Therefore, energy storage system is proposed as a solution for these power quality issues. To ensure an effective operation of the distribution network with PV system, a fuzzy control system is developed and implemented to govern the operation of an energy storage system. The fuzzy driven energy storage system is able to mitigate the fluctuating voltage rise and voltage unbalance on the electrical grid by actively manipulates the flow of real power between the grid and the batteries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy driven energy storage system, an experimental network integrated with 7.2kWp PV system was setup. Several case studies are performed to evaluate the response of the proposed solution to mitigate voltage rises, voltage unbalance and reduce the amount of reverse power flow under highly intermittent PV power output.

  7. Basalt waste isolation project. Quarterly report, April 1, 1981-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    This document reports progress made in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project during the third quarter of fiscal year 1981. Efforts are described for the following programs of the project work breakdown structure: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; in situ test facilities.

  8. Technical progress report for the quarter 1 October-31 December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments on the commercial nuclear waste management programs and on the geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The program is organized into eight tasks: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management. (DLC)

  9. Przeciwdziałanie korupcji w zamówieniach publicznych i nowy system e-zamówień "ProZorro" na Ukrainie

    OpenAIRE

    Potapenko, Khrystyna

    2017-01-01

    Niniejszy artykuł jest próbą analizy mechanizmów przeciwdziałania korupcji w zamówieniach publicznych. Zamówienia elektroniczne są najbardziej skutecznym instrumentem walki z korupcją w tym obszarze. Głównym celem e-zamówień jest wdrożenie zasad przejrzystości, dostępu do informacji, integracji i efektywności. Zamówienia publiczne były jedną z najbardziej skorumpowanych sfer na Ukrainie. Korupcja w tym zakresie wpływa negatywnie na budżet państwa i stan własności państwowej. Nowy system zamów...

  10. Sizing of photovoltaic system coupled with hydrogen/oxygen storage based on the ORIENTE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, C.; Sailler, S.; Thibault, C.; Muselli, M.; Poggi, P. [University of Corsica, UMR CNRS SPE 6134, Route des Sanguinaires, F-20000 Ajaccio (France); Hoguet, J.C.; Melscoet, S. [HELION Hydrogen Power, Domaine du Petit Arbois - Batiment Jules Verne, BP 71, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Pinton, E.; Grehant, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/LITEN), 17 rue des Martyrs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gailly, F.; Turpin, C.; Astier, S.; Fontes, G. [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), ENSEEIHT, 2 rue Charles Camichel, BP 7122, F-31071 Toulouse Cedex 7 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2010-04-15

    PEPITE is a project funded by the French ANR PAN-H research program. This project concerns, among various other tasks, a demonstration of a weather station electricity supply with help of a PV/FC/EL hybrid system located at the CEA center of Cadarache (France). To design a relevant sizing for this demonstration system, a complete sizing tool has been developed via a new numerical optimizing code named ORIENTE. It uses Matlab software based on sequential running time. The demonstration system will be composed of a PV array, a PEM fuel cell system and a PEM electrolyzer, batteries, storage tanks for H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, as well as associated converters. This paper presents the obtained optimal sizing curves for the hybrid system (P{sub pv} [kWp], Q{sub H{sub 2}}{sub max} [kg]) by taking into account the predefined constant load (6.5 kW) functioning 24/24 hours and the system energy balance for a loss-of-load probability LLP = 0. These results give the sizes of each subsystem and will make possible to build the best energy flows control mode. (author)

  11. Distributed Operating System Design Study. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    be used to carry direct video and headsets can be connected to telephons lines, for complete diversification . The WP’s continuously monitor the status...Com.uter Saciene. Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche Instituto Di Elaborazione Della Informazione, June, 1975. [91 C. T. Davis. Recovery Semantics

  12. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  13. Electrochemical corrosion studies of container materials in repository-relevant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.K.; Henshall, G.A.; McCright, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-12

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a site for a mined geologic disposal system for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste. Framatome Cogema Fuels (FCF), as a part of the Management and Operating (M&O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YAD), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), also a member of the M&O team is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. Based on a literature review of the anticipated degradation modes that may occur under the repository-relevant environmental conditions, LLNL has identified a large number of engineering materials for the various components of the waste package. One step in evaluating the performance of these materials is to conduct preliminary tests under these repository-relevant environmental conditions. This report is aimed at presenting the results of scoping electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments using nine candidate waste package container materials in various environments.

  14. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For La Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative Iiib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M&O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb.

  15. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  16. Natural stable isotopic compositions of mercury in aerosols and wet precipitations around a coal-fired power plant in Xiamen, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Sun, Lumin; Zhou, Tingjin; Yuan, Dongxing; Du, Bing; Sun, Xiuwu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples of 18 wet precipitations (WPs) and 38 aerosols were collected around a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Xiamen, southeast China, which was equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system. Total particulate mercury (TPM) in aerosol samples, and total mercury (WP-TM), dissolved mercury (WP-DM) and particulate mercury (WP-PM) in WP samples were analyzed for the natural isotopic compositions of mercury. For the first time, both mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass independent fractionation of odd (odd-MIF) and even (even-MIF) isotopes of WP-DM and WP-PM were reported and discussed. Both WP-TM and TPM displayed negative MDF and slightly positive even-MIF. Negative odd-MIF was observed in TPM and WP-PM, whereas positive odd-MIF was observed in WP-TM and WP-DM. It was found that the mercury budget in WP-PM samples was mainly controlled by atmospheric particles. Potential sources of mercury in samples were identified via analysis of mercury isotopic signatures and meteorological data with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The results showed that TPM and WP-PM in solid samples were homologous and the isotopic compositions of WP-TM depended on those of WP-DM. The ratios of Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg resulting from photochemical reactions and positive Δ200Hg values (from -0.06‰ to 0.27‰) in all samples indicated that the mercury coming from local emission of the CFPP together with long-distance transportation were the two main contributing sources.

  17. EcoGrid.dk Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Ackermann, T.; Bach, P.F.

    The overall objective of WP2 is to provide a synthesis of alternative system architectures for the future Danish electric power transmission and distribution system. A power system architecture is the specification of operating objectives, functions and components and their mutual relations in th...... throughout chapters 1.1, 2 , 2.2. WP 2 utilizes results from the EcoGrid.dk WP4 (measures)....

  18. Design and optimization of smart grid system based on renewable energy in Nyamuk Island, Karimunjawa district, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitasari, D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Rachmidha, T. D.; Reksowardojo, I. K.; Irsyad, M.

    2017-03-01

    Nyamuk Island in Karimunjawa District is one of the regions in Java that has no access to electricity grid. The electricity in Nyamuk Island relies on diesel engine which is managed by local government and only operated for 6 hours per day. It occurs as a consequence of high fuel cost. A study on smart micro grid system based on renewable energy was conducted in Combustion Engine and Propulsion System Laboratory of Institut Teknologi Bandung by using 1 kWp solar panels and a 3 kW bio based diesel engine. The fuels used to run the bio based diesel engine were diesel, virgin coconut oil and pure palm oil. The results show that the smart grid system run well at varying load and also with different fuel. Based on the experiments, average inverter efficiency was about 87%. This experiments proved that the use of biofuels had no effects to the overall system performance. Based on the results of prototype experiments, this paper will focus on design and optimization of smart micro grid system using HOMER software for Nyamuk Island. The design consists of (1) a diesel engine existing in Nyamuk Island whose fuel was diesel, (2) a lister engine whose fuel was from vegetable oil from Callophyllum inophyllum, (3) solar panels, (4) batteries and (5) converter. In this simulation, the existing diesel engine was set to operate 2 hours per day, while operating time of the lister engine has been varied with several scenarios. In scenario I, the lister engine was operated 5 hours per day, in scenario II the lister engine was operated 24 hours per day and in scenario III the lister engine was operated 8 hours per week in the weekend. In addition, a design using a modified diesel engine was conducted as well with an assumption that the modified cost was about 10% of new diesel engine cost. By modifying the diesel engine, the system will not need a lister engine. Assessments has been done to evaluate the designs, and the result shows that the optimal value obtains by the lister engine

  19. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  20. Early Warning Systems of natural disasters in the frame of EUNADICS-AV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenot, Hugues; Theys, Nicolas; Clarisse, Lieven; Kopp, Anna; Graf, Kaspar; Mona, Lucia; Coltelli, Mauro; Peltonen, Tuomas; Hirtl, Marcus; Virtanen, Timo; Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-04-01

    Aviation is one of the most critical infrastructures of the 21st century. In Europe, safe flight operations, air traffic management and air traffic control are shared responsibilities of EUROCONTROL, national authorities, airlines and pilots. All stakeholders have one common goal, namely to warrant and maintain the safety of flight crews and passengers. Currently, however, there is a significant gap in the availability of real-time hazard measurement and monitoring information for airborne hazards. The main objective of the new Horizon 2020 project EUNADICS-AV (European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation; http://www.eunadics.eu) is to close this gap in data and information availability, enabling all stakeholders in the aviation system to obtain fast, coherent, and consistent information. Here we report on WP5 of EUNADICS-AV, the objective of which is to develop a prototype multi-hazard monitoring and early warning system. This task includes the development of a service for improved near real-time analyses (delay of a few hours maximum) of observations from satellite and ground-based platforms in order to detect ash and SO2 plumes (at the global scale), as well as desert sand dusts, fire plumes, and radioactive plumes.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  2. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  3. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  4. 27 kWp photovoltaic plant at the Stadelhofen High School in Zurich; 27 kWp Photovoltaik Anlage Kantonschule Zuerich-Stadelhofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavadetscher, L.; Nordmann, T.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the results obtained from the monitoring of a photovoltaic (PV) installation that was installed on the roof and facade of a gym at the Stadelhofen High School in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. This prize-winning installation features multi-functional PV modules, whose solar cells are mounted on double-glazed roof windows as well as further laminated facade modules that provide both power and shading. The report gives details of the results obtained from measurements made on the PV installations and includes the results of laboratory measurements made on selected modules. The performance of the installation, which started operation in 1999, was monitored until 2001. The report presents the results of the monitoring campaign, that not only monitored power output and energy production but also cell temperatures. These can rise up to 85 {sup o}C in summer and lead to power losses of around 7%. The self-cleaning properties of roof, which is only lightly sloped, are also commented on by the report.

  5. Final report WP 4.2 : Support Structure Concepts for Deep Water Sites: Deliverable D4.2.8 (WP4: offshore foundations and support structures)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, W.E.; Vemula, N.K.; Passon, P.; Fischer, T.; Kaufer, D.; Matha, D.; Schmidt, B.; Vorpahl, F.

    2011-01-01

    With the number of offshore wind farms rapidly increasing, in a wide variety of site conditions and using different turbine sizes, the need for alternative support structures other than the conventional monopile structure is apparent and several projects have been realised using other support

  6. REBECa WP IV - Formation and transformation of particles and other pollutants from engines using biofuel:WP IV final report (DTU project no. 50502)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Anker Degn; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This project expands present knowledge regarding diesel engine emissions and diesel particulate filter (DPF) performance and regeneration during biodiesel usage. This is done through a literature survey, a pilot-scale experimental study of DPF performance and thermo gravimetric studies of PM/catalyst/ash interactions. A pilot-scale experimental study of DPF performance and NO2 influence indicated a lower engine out particulate concentration while using Rapeseed methyl ester (RME, 26 mg/m3) co...

  7. Solvent Replacement for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 for Cleaning Oxygen System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. A.; Lowrey, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum is the result of a 2-year project funded by the Defense Logistics Agency-Aviation, Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, to identify and test two candidate solvents to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) for cleaning oxygen systems. The solvents were also compared to a second solvent composed predominantly of perfluorobutyl iodide (PFBI), which had received limited approval by the United States Air Force (USAF) for hand wipe cleaning of components for aviators’ breathing oxygen systems. The tests performed for this study were based on those reported in AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4040, “The Wipe Solvent Program,” the test program used to qualify Ikon® Solvent P for USAF applications.The study was completed in August 2014, prior to the completion of a more extensive study funded by the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) program. The results of the RPT project are reported in NASA/TP-2015-18207, “Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon–225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems.” The test methods used in this study for nonvolatile residue (NVR) background, materials compatibility, and cleaning effectiveness were different than those used for the RPT project; a smaller set of materials and contaminants were tested. The tests for this study were complementary to and provided supplementary information for the down-selection process during the course of the test program reported in NASA/TP-2015-218207.

  8. The influence of operating loads on the state of stress and strain in selected load-bearing elements of a tower-type headgear structure / Wpływ obciążeń eksploatacyjnych na stan naprężenia oraz przemieszczenia wybranych elementów nośnych konstrukcji basztowej wieży szybowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    The headgear structure allows the conveyance to be moved over the shaft top to the loading (unloading) point, at the same time it keeps in place the rope pulleys while tower-type headgear structures also accommodate the entire winder installations. The headgear is where the final stage of the hoisting installation is located and where the surface transport systems begin. These aspects strongly impact the actual shape of the tower, its height and in some cases determine the design of the entire winding gear. In order that all the headgear functions should be provided, it is required that the ultimate state conditions should be maintained throughout its entire service life. In order to assess the critical service conditions, the computation procedure should be applied based on design loads and fatigue endurance parameters. The computations of characteristic loads acting on the headgear structure use the developed model of the system based on the dynamic analysis carried out for a specific case: a hoisting installation operated in one of the underground collieries in Poland. The maximal and minimal loads acting on a Koepe pulley and those required for the system operation are determined accordingly. The laws of dynamics provide a background for finding the forces and moments of forces acting in the components of the driving system (including the electric motors and pulley blocks) for the specified loading of the Koepe pulley. Underlying the numerical FEM model of the tower-type headgear structure are the technical specifications of the analysed object and FEM calculations followed by endurance analysis to find the state of stress in structural elements of the headgear under the typical service conditions. The results help in assessing how the design of the hoisting installation should impact on safety features of load-bearing elements in the headgear structure.

  9. System studies in PA: Development of process influence diagram (PID) for SFR-1 repository near-field + far-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, M.J. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Miller, W.M.; Chapman, N.A. [QuantiSci Ltd., Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2001-05-01

    visually complex and potentially difficult to interpret. Primarily for this reason, the need for an alternative approach was recognised in 1996 and the decision was taken to develop new software for this purpose. Following a consensus on the specific requirements of the new software, a first version of SPARTA became available towards the end of 1998, with subsequent versions being released during 1999. SPARTA is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) PID consisting of a series of layers, each underlying layer providing additional (more detailed) information about the Process System. The uppermost layer or diagram may be regarded as a top-level view of the repository system (near-field, far-field and biosphere). In the PID developed for SKI, underlying layers or diagrams often have some physical meaning, e.g. sections of the repository (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF sections, repository zone), or barriers of a section (e.g. for the Silo - backfill, reinforced shell, porous grout or mortar, waste package). Other layers contain groups of related FEPs, e.g. geochemical FEPs. A total of 95 drawings, typically consisting of 6-8 FEPs each, describe the SFR-1 repository system. The two PIDs developed for the SFR-1 repository provide different representations of the near-field and far-field of the repository system; the first PID being two-dimensional and the later one three-dimensional. Despite the different approaches, the primary objective of constructing each PID has been the same: firstly, to ensure that all FEPs relevant to the future evolution of the repository system are considered, and secondly, that all 'essential' influences are identified so that they may be incorporated in the subsequent modelling of the system's evolution.

  10. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  11. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powels, C.C. [Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Bon, I. [Army Corps. of Engineers, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Okusu, N.M. [ICF Kaiser Engineering, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  12. Riccati and Ermakov Equations in Time-Dependent and Time-Independent Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Schuch

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The time-evolution of the maximum and the width of exact analytic wave packet (WP solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (SE represents the particle and wave aspects, respectively, of the quantum system. The dynamics of the maximum, located at the mean value of position, is governed by the Newtonian equation of the corresponding classical problem. The width, which is directly proportional to the position uncertainty, obeys a complex nonlinear Riccati equation which can be transformed into a real nonlinear Ermakov equation. The coupled pair of these equations yields a dynamical invariant which plays a key role in our investigation. It can be expressed in terms of a complex variable that linearizes the Riccati equation. This variable also provides the time-dependent parameters that characterize the Green's function, or Feynman kernel, of the corresponding problem. From there, also the relation between the classical and quantum dynamics of the systems can be obtained. Furthermore, the close connection between the Ermakov invariant and the Wigner function will be shown. Factorization of the dynamical invariant allows for comparison with creation/annihilation operators and supersymmetry where the partner potentials fulfil (real Riccati equations. This provides the link to a nonlinear formulation of time-independent quantum mechanics in terms of an Ermakov equation for the amplitude of the stationary state wave functions combined with a conservation law. Comparison with SUSY and the time-dependent problems concludes our analysis.

  13. Rock Melt Borehole Sealing System, Final Technical Report for SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-SC0011888

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnes, John D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Vining, Cody A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Nopola, Jay R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Roggenthen, William M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Purpose of Research Deep borehole disposal is one option that has received attention in recent years as a possible strategy for long-term disposal of the tens of thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel. The feasibility of the deep borehole option relies upon designing and constructing an effective seal within the borehole to ensure that the waste package does not communicate with the shallow subsurface biosphere through the borehole itself. Some of the uncertainty associated with the long-term suitability of the deep borehole option is related to (1) the degradation of traditional sealing materials over time and (2) the inability of traditional sealing methods to adequately seal a Disturbed Rock Zone surrounding the borehole. One possible system to address these concerns consists of encapsulating the waste in a melt generated from either the waste itself or a plug above the waste. This current project expanded on previous work to further advance the deep borehole disposal concept. Research Objectives & Findings The overarching objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a downhole heater that is capable of meeting the technical and logistical requirements to melt rock. This ultimate objective was accomplished by two primary approaches. The first approach was to define the heater requirements and conceptually design a system that is capable of melting rock. The second approach was to determine the feasibility of conducting an in situ, field-scale melting experiment to validate the suitability of the rock melt seal concept. The evaluation and conceptual design of the heater system resulted in the following primary findings: • Borehole wall temperatures capable of producing a partial melt are achievable under most expected thermal conductivities with a 12-kilowatt heater. • Commercially available components have been identified that meet the requirements of the heater system, including resistive elements that are capable of providing the

  14. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  15. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  16. Energy fluctuations in a biharmonically driven nonlinear system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The above equation is the statement of the first law of thermodynamics and can readily be obtained using stochastic energetics [44]. Since x(t) is a stochastic variable, it follows from eqs (3) and (4) that Wp, ∆Up and Qp are random variables when evaluated over different periods and realizations of x(t). The above model is.

  17. Renewable Energy Potential by the Application of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine System in Global Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, maintaining equilibrium between energy supply and demand is critical in urban areas facing increasing energy consumption and high-speed economic development. As an alternative, the large-scale application of renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, might be a long-term solution in an urban context. This study assessed the overall utilization potential of a building-integrated photovoltaic and wind turbine (BIPvWt system, which can be applied to a building skin in global urban areas. The first step of this study was to reorganize the large volume of global annual climate data. The data were analyzed by computational fluid dynamic analysis and an energy simulation applicable to the BIPvWt system, which can generate a Pmax 300 Wp/module with a 15% conversion efficiency from a photovoltaic (PV system and a 0.149 power coefficient/module from wind turbines in categorized urban contexts and office buildings in specific cities; it was constructed to evaluate and optimize the ratio that can cover the current energy consumption. A diagram of the distribution of the solar and wind energy potential and design guidelines for a building skin were developed. The perspective of balancing the increasing energy consumption using renewable energy in urban areas can be visualized positively in the near future.

  18. A feasibility study of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ryan Duwain

    Three primary objectives were defined for this work. The first objective was to determine, assess, and compare the performance, heat transfer characteristics, economics, and feasibility of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the Upper Midwest. This objective was achieved by installing two grid-connected PV systems with different mounting schemes in central Iowa, implementing extensive data acquisition systems, monitoring operation of the PV systems for one full year, and performing detailed experimental performance and economic studies. The two PV systems that were installed, monitored, and analyzed included a 4.59 kWp roof-mounted stationary system oriented for maximum annual energy production, and a 1.02 kWp pole-mounted actively controlled dual-axis tracking system. The second objective was to demonstrate the actual use and performance of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems used for building energy generation applications. This objective was achieved by offering the installed PV systems to the public for demonstration purposes and through the development of three computer-based tools: a software interface that has the ability to display real-time and historical performance and meteorological data of both systems side-by-side, a software interface that shows real-time and historical video and photographs of each system, and a calculator that can predict performance and economics of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems at various locations in the United States. The final objective was to disseminate this work to social, professional, scientific, and academic communities in a way that is applicable, objective, accurate, accessible, and comprehensible. This final objective will be addressed by publishing the results of this work and making the computer-based tools available on a public website (www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/solar). Detailed experimental

  19. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ability to understand and manipulate words and numbers as well as the ability to visualize shapes and diagrams. http://www.h fi.com/wp- content...allows an individual to process visual stimuli among distractors, understand a visual scene, and accurately encode and mentally manipulate visual ...process visual stimuli among distractors, understand a visual scene, and accurately encode and mentally manipulate visual objects or spatial relationships

  20. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  2. Large scale rooftop photovoltaics grid connected system at Charoenphol-Rama I green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketjoy, N.; Rakwichian, W. [School of Renewable Energy Technology (SERT) (Thailand); Wongchupan, V. [Panya Consultants Co., Ltd (Thailand); Sankarat, T. [Tesco Lotus, Ek-Chai Distribution System Co., Ltd. (Thailand)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a technical feasibility study project for the large scale rooftop photovoltaics (PV) grid connected system at Charoenphol-Rama I green building super store of TESCO LOTUS (TL) in Thailand. The objective of this project is (i) to study the technical feasibility of installation 350 kWp PV systems on the top of the roof in this site (ii) and to determine the energy produce from this system. The technical factors are examined using a computerized PVS 2000 simulation and assessment tool. This super store building located in Bangkok, with latitude 14 N, longitude 100 E and the building direction is 16 from North direction. The building roof area is 14,000 m2; with 3 degree face East and 3 degree face West pitch. Average daily solar energy in this area is approximately 5.0 kWh. The study team for this project consists of educational institution as School of Renewable Energy Technology (SERT) and private institution as Panya Consultants (PC). TL is the project owner, PC is responsible for project management, and SERT is a third party and responsible for PV system study, conceptual design and all technical process. In this feasibility studies SERT will identify the most attractive scenarios of photovoltaic cell technology (mono, poly-crystalline or thin film amorphous), system design concepts for owners (TL) and determine possibility of the energy yield of the system from different module orientation and tilt angle. The result of this study is a guide to help TL to make decision to select proper rooftop PV system option for this store with proper technology view. The economic view will not be considered in this study. (orig.)

  3. Differential analysis Of Maximum Power Generated By A Photovoltaic Solar System; Analise diferencial da potencia maxima gerada por um sistema solar fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CE/UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental. Curso de Administracao], E-mail: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br; Cremasco, Camila Pires [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Presidente Prudente (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Curso Tecnologia em Agronegocio], E-mail: camila@fatec.edu.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The Earth receives annually 1,5.1018 kWh of solar energy, which corresponds to 1000 times the world energy consumption in this period. This fact comes out that, besides being responsible for the maintenance of life on Earth, the solar radiation is in an inexhaustible energy source, with an enormous potential for use by systems capture and conversion into another form of energy. In many applications of low power systems that convert light directly into electricity, called photovoltaic advantageously replace other means of production processes, where its distribution is very significant. The determination of the power generated by such a system is of paramount importance for the design energy of its implementation and evaluation of the system itself. This study aims to determine a relationship between the maximum power generated by solar photovoltaic and characteristic parameters of the generator. This relationship allows to evaluate the performance of such a system. For simulations of the developed equations were used 3 photovoltaic modules with an output of 100 Wp each, and data collection was performed during one year by enrolling in addition to meteorological data, solar irradiance incident on the modules. (author)

  4. The acute effects of Waterpipe smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, R B; Vijayaraghavan, N; Sulaiman, A S; Kazi, S; Shafi, M S Mohammed

    2008-09-01

    To assess the acute effects of smoking in Waterpipe (WP) smokers in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). 202 male volunteers aged > 17 years were included. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate values of each participant, before and after a 30 minute smoking session, were measured and compared. Standardized questionnaires were also answered. Mean increases in systolic blood pressure (16 +/- 1 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (2 +/- 0.7 mmHg), heart rate (6.30 +/- 0.60 bpm) and respiratory rate (2 +/- 2 breathes/min) were observed (p smoking (WPS) to be harmful to health and 77% of smokers took up WPS for reasons of leisure. Results from the questionnaire revealed a significant relationship between smokers' beliefs of WPS and attempts to quit smoking ie. smokers who believed waterpipe to be harmful were more likely to try to quit. Education had influence on smokers ideas on WPS. 69% of smokers who claimed hookah is harmful had university qualification and further 23% has highschool qualification. Smoking Waterpipe has significant effects on both the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Waterpipe smokers despite sound knowledge, show little concern towards health. Education plays an important role and creates awareness about the hazards of smoking practices, including Waterpipe.

  5. Waterpipe effects on pulmonary function and cardiovascular indices: a comparison to cigarette smoking in real life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Saleh, Nadine; Barbour, Bernadette; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Al-Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Waked, Mirna; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-08-01

    Smoking is known to have physiological effects on biological systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate acute and chronic effects on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular indices of waterpipe (WP) smoking in real life circumstances. Three groups were included in the study: non-smokers (N = 42), WP smokers (N = 42) and cigarette smokers (N = 48). A questionnaire was completed for each participant, in addition to pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), 6 s (FEV6), percentage of FEV1/FEV6], and cardiovascular [diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR)] measures, taken before and after smoking. Mean values of FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, DBP and SBP in WP and cigarette smokers were very close. However, WP smoking significantly increased HR compared to cigarette smokers (p = 0.007); duration of smoking, age at first WP and quantity of smoking affected pulmonary function and cardiovascular values. In the subgroup of WP smokers, DBP was acutely increased by a larger WP size (p = 0.011), while the FEV6 was acutely increased by a smaller WP size (p = 0.045). WP smoking affected the cardiovascular system more than cigarette smoking, while it had similar effects on pulmonary function.

  6. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  7. Assessment of Tools and Data for System-Level Dynamic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg

    2011-06-01

    theoretical or empirical calculations on technology performance, and assumptions such as the earliest date a technology can be deployed. The only fuel cycles for which we currently have adequate data are those we are sure we will never build, e.g., a PUREX plant in the U.S. For actual candidates, even for once through LWRs, there remain missing data such as how the fuel cycle would be completed with a geologic repository. The most immediate data needs are probably basic reactor physics data for new concepts and data associated with waste management for anything other than current technology. The readiness of tools and data is fluid and depends on what purposes are envisioned to drive upcoming analyses and further definition of the waste-related characteristics of fuel cycle candidates. Tools and data sets evolve as needs evolve. Thus, much of the document explains that if the FCT program wants a certain type of analysis, then the tools and data needs are as indicated. For example, functions can be treated as either commodities or facilities. Reactors, separation, fuel fabrication, repository are treated as facility types. Other functions such as uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, and waste packaging and non-repository disposal are treated as commodities and therefore not modeled as extensively. In summary, the tools are functional and can answer many fuel cycle questions but some analyses will require that the tools be modified to support those analyses.

  8. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  9. Control and performance analysis of grid connected photovoltaic systems of two different technologies in a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layachi ZAGHBA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, is to investigate the effect of real climatic conditions on the performance parameters of a 9 kWp grid connected photovoltaic plant during one-year using typical days installed in the desert environment in south of Algeria (Ghardaia site. The PV plant contain the following components: solar PV array, with a DC/DC boost converter, neural MPPT, that allow maximal power conversion into the grid, have been included. These methods can extract maximum power from each of the independent PV arrays connected to DC link voltage level, a DC/AC inverter and a PI current control system. The PV array is divides in two parallel PV technology types; the first includes 100 PV modules mono-crystalline silicon (mc-Si arranged in 20 parallel groups of 5 modules in series, and the second of composed of 24 amorphous modules (Inventux X series, arranged in 6 parallel groups of 4 modules in series. The proposed system tested using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform in which a maximum power tracked under constant and real varying solar irradiance. The study concluded that output power and energy from two PV technology types (mc-Si and Amorphous-Si increases linearly with increase of solar irradiance.

  10. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  11. Final report for SERDP WP-2209 Replacement melt-castable formulations for Composition B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Francois, Elizabeth Green [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-19

    During this project we investigated a number of energetic materials both old and new and determined that most of them were unsuitable due to safety or sensitivity reasons. Unsuccessful coformulants include TNAZ and BNFF for volatility reasons, and DAAF due to thermal compatibility issues. The powerful explosive HMX became a focus of the work in later stages as it conferred excellent power while being commonly available in well-regulated particle size lots and is chemically compatible in the melt with many coformulants. Ultimately three preferred formulations emerged from this work: a formulation tested on large scale by ARDEC involving PrNQ and HMX; a formulation tested at ARDEC and LANL using a nitrate salt eutectic and HMX; a formulation tested at LANL using LLM-201 and HMX.

  12. Viewls - Biofuel and bioenergy implementation scenarios. Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, A.; Egging, R.; Thuijl, E. van; Tilburg, X van; Deurwaarder, W.; Lange, T. de [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Uit Policy Studies, Pttten (Netherlands); Berndes, G.; Hansson, Julia [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Dept. of Physical Resource Theory, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Theobjectiveofthisresearchistodevelopacostefficientbiof uel strategyforEuropeintermsofbiofuelproduction,costandtrade,an dto assessitslargerimpactonbioenergymarketsandtradeupto2030.Ba sed onthebiomassavailabilityandassociatedcostswithinEU25,under differentconditions,scenariosforbiofuelsproductionandcostcanb e constructedusingquantitativemodellingtools.Combiningthiswith (cost)data on conversiontechnologiesandtransportofbiomassandbiofuels, thelowestcostbiofuelsupplychaingivenacertaindemandpredetermi ned bythebiofuelsDirectivecanbedesigned.Inabroadercontext,this is supplementedbyadesignofasustainablebioenergysupplychaininvi ew ofthefactthatbiomass-heat,biomass-electricityandbiofuelsare competingforthesamebiomassresources.Inotherwords,thescarcity of bioenergycrops,asmanifestedthroughoverallbioenergydemand,isan essential variableinbioenergyscenarios. (au)

  13. Qualification, Demonstration & Validation of Compliant Removers for Aircraft Sealants and Specialty Coatings ESTCP WP-0621

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    aircraft structures • Reduce Environmental Burdens • Increase Performance • Control Costs BUSINESS SENSITIVE 4 • Phase I (FY06, FY07) – Polysulfide and...Sealant Materials • PR-1422 B-2 ( Polysulfide ) – AMS-S-8802 • PR-1750 B-2 ( Polysulfide ) – AMS 3276 • PR-1826 B-2 (Polythioether) – AMS 3277 Coated...remaining laboratory testing (UDRI) – Remaining polythioether data – Polysulfide data • Assess and report on MCCS Cherry Point dem/val for polythioether

  14. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  15. Wpływ zlodzenia na rzece Wkrze na jej zasoby energetyczne

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Bajkowski; Joanna Olifirowicz

    2014-01-01

    Zasoby energii wodnej są zróżnicowane obszarowo oraz ulegają zmianom okresowym. Zależą one od naturalnych lub regulowanych przepływów i stanów oraz czynników powodujących ich okresowe zmiany, zarastania i zlodzenia koryta. Podstawowym problemem związanym z pracą elektrowni wodnych w okresie zimowym jest tworzenie się form lodowych ograniczających dopływ wody do wlotów ujęć. Początek okresu zlodzenia zależy od czynników meteorologicznych, temperatur powietrza, opadów śniegu, związanych z ekspl...

  16. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  17. WP 90 - An overview of women's work and employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2010-01-01

    This report provides information on India on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the workfamily alance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and employment. History (2.1...

  18. Niestymulująca tradycja: wpływ temperamentu na preferencje w sztuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rządkowska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of temperament on preferences for painted artwork. Our preferences are determined by different personality traits. The study presented here was a replication of the current study of Terror Management Theory (TMT with the structures of temperament as individual differences. The results showed significant differences in preferences for traditional and modern art, depending on the degree of harmonization of the temperamental structures. Sanguines and melancholics in the no fear condition evaluated modern art most highly, however in the fear condition they evaluated traditional art most highly. This effect confirms the importance of individual differences and the situational variability of preferences in art.

  19. WP 6 - Flexible work-arrangements and the quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Cees Nierop

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, an attempt has been made to measure the consequences for the quality of life of working with a part-time and/or temporary contract. Quality of life has been defined in a utilitarian and a liberal way. In the utilitarian definition, the quality of life is determined by the extent to which one is happy or satisfied with his or her life. In the liberal definition, it is not happiness which is the chief human end, but living according to one's own, freely formed, conception ...

  20. Empirical evidence on tax cooperation between sub-central administrations [WP-IEB

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Cabré, José María; Esteller Moré, Alejandro; Salvadori, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The literature on horizontal tax interdependence pays limited attention to interactions in administrative policies, although they can play a large role in determining the amount of tax revenues collected. We investigate the incentives for sub-central tax authority cooperation in a decentralized context, with the aim of identifying the determinants of that cooperation. Our results are congruent with standard theory; in particular, the existence of reciprocity is essential for sharing tax infor...

  1. Rapport BIJ-1 WP2: Nederlands Bijenvolk Onderzoek (NBO) 2010 - 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Hok-A-Hin, C.H.; Cornelissen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Om een beter inzicht te krijgen in de praktijk van de Nederlandse imker en de bijenziekten, is in het kader van het BIJ-1 project, het Nederlands Bijenvolk Onderzoek (NBO) opgezet. Het onderzoek uitgevoerd door Bijen@wur (onderdeel van Plant Research International) en in samenwerking met het

  2. LOCOPROL - Preliminary mask elevation statistics along a trajectory - IST-2000-28103 - WP3

    OpenAIRE

    DELCOURT, S; Berbineau, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the characterization of the mask elevation angle along a specific railway line: Paris-Coulommiers. This analysis is based on video records made during the Deufrako-p project (Marais & al - 98). This analysis has been completed using other records performed in urban areas with a van. The principle of the video acquisition and analysis is detailed in (Berbineau & al). This mask elevation statistics are then used to analyse the satellite signal availability using a specific ...

  3. Reading, Writing, and Raisinets: Are School Finances Contributing to Children's Obesity? WP 2004-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Butcher, Kristin F.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of adolescents in the United States who are obese has nearly tripled over the last two decades. At the same time, schools, often citing financial pressures, have given students greater access to "junk" foods and soda pop, using proceeds from these sales to fund school programs. We examine whether schools under financial pressure are…

  4. http://ukrbiochemjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Nozdrenko_4-15.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Beregovyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in redox status of gastric mucosa cells are the main pathogenic factor of gastric erosion and gastric ulcer development. Pro-oxidants can affect cell transcription activity via changes in redox-sensitive transcription factors. Egr-1 and Sp-1 may regulate the transcription of genes that are associated with the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer (growth factors, cell cycle regulators, etc.. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible involvement of zinc-finger transcription factors Egr-1 & Sp-1 in the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric lesions caused by aspirin administration and stress. Gastric ulcer was induced in male rats (180-220 g by immobilization stress combined with water-immersion (IMO-WI or aspirin gavage (10 mg/100 g. The rats were euthanized 20 min, 1 hour, or 3 hours following the ulcerogenic factor exposure. Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR; levels of SH-groups of proteins were determined by method of Ellman et al. Development of gastric ulcer lesions was associated with twofold (P < 0.05 decrease in concentration of protein SH-groups in the rat gastric mucosa. These changes were accompanied by significant (P < 0.05 increase in the expression of Egr-1 mRNA and protein in both gastric ulcer models, and the changes in IMO-WI were more profound. Increased levels of Egr-1 were associated with the decrease in Sp1 protein levels. We showed for the first time the competitive interaction between redox-sensitive transcription factors Egr-1 and Sp1 in the early phases of gastric ulcer development, which might facilitate inducible transcriptional activity of Egr-1 at the expense of reduction in Sp1 activity.

  5. understAID WP2. Task 2.2. Final Report. Results section - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peersen, Merete Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund

    2013-01-01

    Intern projektrapport om de danske resultater fra undersøgelsen om at være nærmeste pårørende til en person med demens. Rapporten skal anvendes i det videre arbejder med at udvikle understAID platformen der skal hjælpe pårørende til at forstå og hjælpe mennesker med demens.......Intern projektrapport om de danske resultater fra undersøgelsen om at være nærmeste pårørende til en person med demens. Rapporten skal anvendes i det videre arbejder med at udvikle understAID platformen der skal hjælpe pårørende til at forstå og hjælpe mennesker med demens....

  6. WP2: Assessing multi-level activities in water and biodiversity governance. Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Paula; Quillacq, Patricia; Rauschmayer, Felix; Santos, Rui; Videira, Nuno; Egerton, Catrin

    2010-01-01

    This report constitutes the main deliverable of WorkPackage 2 of GoverNat, "Assessing multilevel activities in water and biodiversity governance", dealing with an assessment of state-ofthe- art European water and biodiversity governance, based on the analysis of a series of casestudies developed by GoverNat fellows. The cases, all dealing with participation in multi-level governance of water and biodiversity in Europe, were analysed with the support of the framework for analysis and evaluatio...

  7. WP/082 The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn; Thurlow, James

    Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest,...... that there are benefits from pre-emptive action, but also opportunity costs from precautionary adaptation investments.......Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest......, at least until 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce Vietnam’s national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (relative to a historical baseline). Damages double under more extreme projections. Our findings suggest...

  8. Project report: Experimental planning and verification of working fluids (WP 5)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) helps in the reduction of experiments for the selection/design of optimal working fluids. In reducing the number of experiments, solutions obtain by trial and error is replaced by solutions that are based on mixture-process properties. In generating optimal...

  9. WP 52 - The distribution of responsibility for social security in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Eichhorst, W.

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although there seems to be a growing consensus on the restricted governmental role in recent decades, this has not been translated into a unanimous appraisal of the role of intermediary organisations, such as ...

  10. Distinctive Human Resources Are the Core Competencies of Firms. EQW Working Papers WP18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter; Crocker-Hefter, Anne

    The interrelationship between people management practices and product market/competition was examined in a series of case comparisons of pairs of firms/organizations of the following types: professional sports teams, military services, retailing firms, information service firms, business schools, financial services, shipping services, and food and…

  11. Assessment Report on Innovative Rotor Blades (MAREWINT WP1,D1.3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; Leble, Vladimir; Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira

    with embedded sensors and actuation are being developed that will deliver an improved whole-life performance, and a structural health management based operational concept. In this report, the work of two early stage researchers within the Initial Training Network MAREWINT is presented that support......The offshore wind energy industry faces many challenges in the short to medium term if it is to meet the ambitions of the global community for sustainable energy supply in the future. Not least among these challenges is the issue of rotor blades. Innovative design for “smart” rotor blades...

  12. Screening of Microorganisms for Biodegradation of Simazine Pollution (Obsolete Pesticide Azotop 50 WP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszak, Magdalena; Pełech, Robert; Graczyk, Paulina

    2011-09-01

    The capability of environmental microorganisms to biodegrade simazine-an active substance of 2-chloro-s-triazine herbicides (pesticide waste since 2007)-was assessed. An enormous metabolic potential of microorganisms impels to explore the possibilities of using them as an alternative way for thermal and chemical methods of utilization. First, the biotope rich in microorganisms resistant to simazine was examined. Only the higher dose of simazine (100 mg/l) had an actual influence on quantity of bacteria and environmental fungi incubated on substrate with simazine. Most simazine-resistant bacteria populated activated sludge and biohumus (vermicompost); the biggest strain of resistant fungi was found in floral soil and risosphere soil of maize. Compost and biohumus were the sources of microorganisms which biodegraded simazine, though either of them was the dominant considering the quantity of simazine-resistant microorganisms. In both cases of periodic culture (microorganisms from biohumus and compost), nearly 100% of simazine (50 mg/l) was degraded (within 8 days). After the repeated enrichment culture with simazine, the rate of its degradation highly accelerated, and just after 24 h, the significant decrease of simazine (20% in compost and 80% in biohumus) was noted. Although a dozen attempts of isolating various strains responsible for biodegradation of simazine from compost and biohumus were performed, only the strain identified as Arthrobacter urefaciens (NC) was obtained, and it biodegraded simazine with almost 100% efficiency (within 4 days).

  13. WP 79 - An overview of women’s work and employment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on South Africa on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of wor...

  14. Wpływ czasu napowietrzania na pracę reaktora SBR i SBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Makowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono efekty oczyszczania małych ilości ścieków w bioreaktorach porcjowych. Przebadano dwa równolegle pracujące reaktory, z czego jeden był klasycznym systemem SBR, a drugi to reaktor SBBR ze złożem ruchomym. Obydwa ciągi technologiczne oczyszczały taką samą ilość ścieków bytowych wstępnie podczyszczonych w piaskowniku. Trzy kolejne serie badań różniły się długością napowietrzania. Porównano pracę reaktorów w kolejnych seriach oraz analizowano wyniki uzyskane w obu systemach. Największą skuteczność usuwania związków węgla organicznego (jako ChZT i azotu (jako N-NH4 uzyskano w reaktorze SBBR w trzeciej serii badań (średnio odpowiednio 90 i 62%. Reaktor SBBR pracował bardziej stabilnie oraz usuwał na drodze biologicznej fosfor z największą średnią skutecznością 83% w serii trzeciej. Ścieki oczyszczone w tym reaktorze charakteryzowały się mniejszym stężeniem zawiesiny, co świadczy o skuteczniejszej pracy reaktora z wypełnieniem w fazie sedymentacji.

  15. Czynniki wpływające na skuteczność aerozoloterapii u dzieci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gizińska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerozoloterapia należy do najczęściej wybieranych metod w postępowaniu leczniczym wielu chorób pul‑ monologicznych wieku rozwojowego. W aerozoloterapii – jest to jej podstawowa zaleta – leki są bezpośred‑ nio kierowane do chorych obszarów płuc, gwarantując szybszy efekt terapeutyczny oraz możliwość stoso‑ wania mniejszych dawek leku. Efekty inhalowania zależą od budowy anatomicznej układu oddechowego dziecka i jego funkcjonowania, właściwie dobranego leku, wielkości cząsteczek oraz zastosowanej aparatury. Integralną częścią aerozoloterapii jest także dobrze przeprowadzona edukacja w wieku rozwojowym. Sposób podawania aerozolu powinien być skoncentrowany na inhalatorach najłatwiejszych w użyciu, pra‑ widłowo dobranych do różnych grup wiekowych oraz niewymagających wielokrotnych szkoleń w zakresie obsługi. Systemy aerozoloterapii różnią się pod względem budowy, sposobu wytwarzania chmury aerozolu, techniki optymalnej inhalacji i trudności w obsłudze. W aerozoloterapii pediatrycznej w celu wdychania leków najczęściej stosowane są cztery systemy: indywidualne inhalatory ciśnieniowe pMDI (pressurized metered‑dose inhaler, pMDI ze spejserem, inhalatory suchego proszku DPI (dry powder inhaler i nebuli‑ zatory. U małych dzieci, zwykle oddychających przez nos, problemem może być nawiązanie współpracy, dlatego stosuje się u nich maski twarzowe. Bez względu na wybór inhalatora najważniejsza jest poprawna i wielokrotna edukacja poprzez demonstrację techniki oddychania i nadzorowanie wykonania inhalacji. Ważnym elementem dobrze przeprowadzonej inhalacji jest również analiza indywidualnych potrzeb dziecka ze zmianami pulmonologicznymi.

  16. Efficacité des fongicides Mancozèbe 80 WP et Chlorothalonil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques,. Université d'Abomey-Calavi .... économique et environnemental (Tandjiékpon et al., 2003), plusieurs contraintes réduisent considérablement le rendement moyen des arbres en noix cajou qui est de 3 à 6 kg/arbre. Il reste faible comparé aux 10 à ...

  17. ENLUB - 12 Months Technical Report WP3: Development of simulative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi

    A draw bead test has been developed at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering, The Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the test equipment is to simulate an actual situation in industry where draw beads are applied to constrain movement of sheet material particular in stretch...... forming operation of non-cylindrical parts....

  18. Design of Experiment Approach to Hydrogen Re-embrittlement Evaluation WP-2152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    aircraft components they do not cause embrittlement of the steel. Therefore, aircraft maintenance chemicals (cleaners, deicers, paint strippers ...this work. Mr Richard Green of Green Specialty Service and Mr Craig Willan of Omega Research Inc. are acknowledged for the material specimens and

  19. Harmonoise WP 1.1 - Source characterisation of moving vehicles with 'Acoustic Camera' antenna technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mast, A.; Dool, T.C. van den; Toorn, J.D. van der; Watts, G.; Roo, F. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of HARMONOISE Work Package 1.1 is the characterisation and modelling of road vehicle noise emission. Measurement of partial sources related to either the drive line or the tyre-road contact of moving vehicles and their contribution to the total vehicle pass-by noise is one of the research

  20. REBECa WP IV - Formation and transformation of particles and other pollutants from engines using biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Anker Degn; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    This project expands present knowledge regarding diesel engine emissions and diesel particulate filter (DPF) performance and regeneration during biodiesel usage. This is done through a literature survey, a pilot-scale experimental study of DPF performance and thermo gravimetric studies of PM....../catalyst/ash interactions. A pilot-scale experimental study of DPF performance and NO2 influence indicated a lower engine out particulate concentration while using Rapeseed methyl ester (RME, 26 mg/m3) compared to ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD, 58 mg/m3). Filter regeneration with a 50 % diluted exhaust also showed...... no significant differences in particulate reactivity or engine out NOx concentration were seen. The introduction of 400 ppm NO2 to the RME exhaust (normal NOx concentration ~ 250 ppm (can be oxidized to NO2 by an oxidation catalyst)) caused an improved filter regeneration performance (regeneration at 435 o...

  1. Deliverable No 58 for WP2.5 Prototype observations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Dinesen, Grete

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the Danish study site locations with respect to geometrical layout, materials, hydrodynamic conditions and ecological investigations. No economic investigations have been performed. The description of geometrical layout and materials are based on existing measurements, sta...

  2. Microstructure and mechanical analysis of W/P91 steel HIP-joint with Ti interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-chao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Wanjing, E-mail: wjwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Sun, Zhaoxuan; Wang, Xingli; Wei, Ran [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Xie, Chunyi; Li, Qiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Luo, Guang-nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei, 230022 (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230027 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • W and P91 steel can be joined successfully using the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method with Ti interlayer. • The experiment was conducted at 760 °C below the P91 steel austenitizing temperature with the pressure 150 MPa for 4 h. • The residual stress concentration is responsible for the fracture of HIP joints under low joining temperature. • Low temperature can reduce the reaction products and improve the mechanical properties of W/Ti/P91 steel joints. - Abstract: W and P91 steel were joined by using the Hot Isostatic Pressing method with Ti interlayer, and the experiments were conducted at 760 °C. The mechanical property, bonding quality and interface microstructure were tested by the Torsion test, Non-Destructive Test, Scanning Electron Microscope and Nano-indentation test. The minimum shear strength of joints was 225 MPa and the failure occurred at the W/Ti interfaces. Metallographic analysis revealed good bonding quality across bonding lines. Almost no reaction products were found in the diffusion region and the Nano-indentation test demonstrated that the solid solution strengthening was caused by inter-diffusion in the diffusion zone. The effect of low joining temperature on reducing reaction products and improving mechanical properties of W/Ti/Steel diffusion bonding were investigated in this paper.

  3. Wpływ zlodzenia na rzece Wkrze na jej zasoby energetyczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Bajkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zasoby energii wodnej są zróżnicowane obszarowo oraz ulegają zmianom okresowym. Zależą one od naturalnych lub regulowanych przepływów i stanów oraz czynników powodujących ich okresowe zmiany, zarastania i zlodzenia koryta. Podstawowym problemem związanym z pracą elektrowni wodnych w okresie zimowym jest tworzenie się form lodowych ograniczających dopływ wody do wlotów ujęć. Początek okresu zlodzenia zależy od czynników meteorologicznych, temperatur powietrza, opadów śniegu, związanych z eksploatacją obiektów wodnych, temperatury zrzutów wody i stosowania pływających przegród w miejscach, gdzie woda ma najmniejszą prędkość. W artykule przedstawiono analizę podstawowych parametrów wykorzystywanych w ocenie zasobów energetycznych rzek. Do określania form i okresów występowania zjawisk lodowych wykorzystano historyczne dane hydrologiczne, a współczynniki redukcji zimowej ustalono, analizując stany i przepływy. Współczynnik redukcji zimowej obliczono na podstawie krzywych przepustowości koryta rzeki odnosząc przepływy dla okresu zimowego do uzyskanych z krzywej podstawowej. Analizy obejmują przekrój Cieksyn na rzece Wkrze, w którym wystąpiło zlodzenie powodujące zmiany głównych krzywych hydroenergetycznych.

  4. WP/073 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    This research studies whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol achieves its objective of emission reductions in the host countries. It empirically investigates the impacts of CDM projects on CO2 emission reductions for 60 CDM host countries over 2005-10. This research...... makes use of the newly-developed econometric methods for dynamic panel data models associated with X-differencing procedure. It provides evidence in support of a decline in CO2 emissions in the CDM host countries. It has important policy implications that encourage the international community to support...... developing countries’ efforts towards low-carbon development via CDM projects....

  5. WP 81 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Botswana on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work an...

  6. Final report for SERDP WP-2209 Replacement melt-castable formulations for Composition B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    unique , in fact, RDX and TNT show a minor material incompatibility, although the reduction in thermal onset is small, ~20 °C. Figure 3, Melting...ice water. The mixture is neutralized with sodium carbonate or bicarbonate to a pH of 4 – 16 7. The mixture is extracted with 3 portions of ethyl

  7. KEADILAN PROSEDUR DAN KEPERCAYAAN WP TERHADAP OTORITAS PAJAK: ANALISIS MEDIASI KEPATUHAN PAJAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Zelmiyanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this is the influence of procedural justice on tax compliance through public confidence in the DJP. This study focus is on the SME sector because it would talk about PP 46 in 2013, and is expected to help policymakers in maximizing the potential taxation of SMEs. Based on this research, fairness heuristic theory argued that the procedural fairness of the tax authorities will increase taxpayer compliance. The study also examines the mediating effect relationship justice against tax compliance procedures in the presence of public confidence in the tax authorities. This research is using survey, by distributing questionnaires to taxpayers SMEs. In this research, there is validity and reliability test too. The analysis tool is used Structural Equation Modelling - Partial Least Square (PLS-SEM using software WarpPLS 3.0. P. For the conclude of the research shows that procedural justice effect on tax compliance. Hypothesis two in this study also supported that procedural justice effect on tax compliance through the existence of public confidence in the tax authorities. Keywords: Compliance; Tax SMEs; Fairness and Trust.   Abstrak. Tujuan dari hal ini adalah pengaruh keadilan prosedural terhadap kepatuhan pajak melalui kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap DJP. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pada sektor UKM karena akan membicarakan PP 46 pada tahun 2013, dan diharapkan dapat membantu pembuat kebijakan dalam memaksimalkan potensi perpajakan UKM. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, teori heuristik keadilan berpendapat bahwa keadilan prosedural otoritas pajak akan meningkatkan kepatuhan wajib pajak. Penelitian ini juga menguji independensi hubungan mediasi terhadap prosedur kepatuhan pajak dengan adanya kepercayaan publik terhadap otoritas pajak. Penelitian ini menggunakan survei, dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada pembayar pajak UKM. Dalam penelitian ini ada uji validitas dan reliabilitas juga. Alat analisisnya menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling - Partial Least Square (PLS-SEM menggunakan perangkat lunak WarpPLS 3.0 P. Untuk kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah menunjukkan bahwa efek keadilan prosedural terhadap kepatuhan pajak. Hipotesis dua dalam penelitian ini juga mendukung efek keadilan prosedural. Tentang kepatuhan pajak melalui adanya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap otoritas pajak. Kata Kunci: Kepatuhan;UKM Pajak; Keadilan dan Kepercayaan

  8. WP 100 - Low wages in the retail industry in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren

    2010-01-01

    This Working Paper is basically a “source book”, accounting the results of over five years of research into the retail industry and the sources used for that research. It originates from the Future of Work in Europe research project of the New York-based Russell Sage Foundation (RSF), in which the AIAS and STZ advies & onderzoek (consultancy & research) carried out the Dutch part, resulting in the monograph Low-Wage Work in the Netherlands (RSF, 2008). It also incorporates sources for the ret...

  9. Toward an Emic Understanding of Professionalism among Technical Workers. EQW Working Papers WP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Bonalyn J.; Barley, Stephen R.

    In a continuation of research on the technical labor force that was initiated in 1990 at a large northeastern university, professionalism among technical workers was examined from an emic perspective. (Emics are conceptual strategies that explain phenomena in terms meaningful to the people being studied, whereas etics explain phenomena in terms…

  10. Research networks and scientific production in Economics: The recent spanish experience (WP)

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Juan Carlos; Ramos Lobo, Raúl; Royuela Mora, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies Spanish scientific production in Economics from 1994 to 2004. It focuses on aspects that have received little attention in other bibliometric studies, such as the impact of research and the role of scientific collaborations in the publications produced by Spanish universities. Our results show that national research networks have played a fundamental role in the increase in Spanish scientific production in this discipline.

  11. Report on environmental and socio-economic analysis (WP 2 Task 3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, E. H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2008-01-01

    The potential damage costs assessment indicates substantial economic benefits can be gained by controlling Dvv. The economic benefits of the Wageningen workshop scenario are about 472 million Euro per year. The economic benefits of control justify eradication and containment strategies of the EU. The environmental and socio-economic analysis of Diabrotica control programs undertaken in this report gives a global idea of what are the benefits and the inconvenient of each possible control strat...

  12. Report on environmental and socio-economic analysis (WP 2 Task 3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fall, E.H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2008-01-01

    The potential damage costs assessment indicates substantial economic benefits can be gained by controlling Dvv. The economic benefits of the Wageningen workshop scenario are about 472 million Euro per year. The economic benefits of control justify eradication and containment strategies of the EU.

  13. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  14. YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

    2002-11-22

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

  15. Pilot testing of a membrane system for postcombustion CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Wei, Xiaotong [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Carlisle, Trevor [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); White, Steve [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Pande, Saurabh [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Watson, Robert [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Hoffman, Thomas [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This final report summarizes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) to scale up an efficient post-combustion CO2 capture membrane process to the small pilot test stage (award number DE-FE0005795). The primary goal of this research program was to design, fabricate, and operate a membrane CO2 capture system to treat coal-derived flue gas containing 20 tonnes CO2/day (20 TPD). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Babcock and Wilcox (B&W), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), WorleyParsons (WP), the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC), Enerkem (EK), and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). In addition to the small pilot design, build and slipstream testing at NCCC, other project efforts included laboratory membrane and module development at MTR, validation field testing on a 1 TPD membrane system at NCCC, boiler modeling and testing at B&W, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) by EPRI/WP, a case study of the membrane technology applied to a ~20 MWe power plant by ISTC, and an industrial CO2 capture test at an Enerkem waste-to-biofuel facility. The 20 TPD small pilot membrane system built in this project successfully completed over 1,000 hours of operation treating flue gas at NCCC. The Polaris™ membranes used on this system demonstrated stable performance, and when combined with over 10,000 hours of operation at NCCC on a 1 TPD system, the risk associated with uncertainty in the durability of postcombustion capture membranes has been greatly reduced. Moreover, next-generation Polaris membranes with higher performance and lower cost were validation tested on the 1 TPD system. The 20 TPD system also demonstrated successful operation of a new low-pressure-drop sweep module that will reduce parasitic energy losses at full scale by as much as 10 MWe. In modeling and pilot boiler testing, B&W confirmed the

  16. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Barr, D. [Office of Repository Development, DOE (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  17. Electrification of the Galapagos island, Floreana, using a PV hybrid system and innovative tariff model; Elektrifizierung der Galapagosinsel Floreana mit einem PV Hybridsystem und innovativem Tarifmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosseler, I.; Vallve, X.; Ramirez, E.; Gavalda, O. [TRAMA TECNOAMBIENTAL, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Galapagos islands in Ecuador are Natural Park since 1959. Four of these are inhabited and about 5 million litres of diesel per year are shipped 1000km from the mainland to generate electricity. This could be representative of other parts of the world. Floreana, the smallest inhabited island has 173km2 and about 200 inhabitants; a diesel genset microgrid was operating in the only village of the island (Puerto Velasco Ibarra), 13h per day. The operating scheme for the electric service is representative of a situation where the users pay a standard grid tariff, and the electric utility (EEPG) is sustained through a cross-subsidy of 25.000 US$ per year. Some users in the island are far from the grid and not connected. Small businesses have to operate their own gensets to complement the existing schedule. With funding mainly from the Parque Nacional Galapagos of Ecuador and support to the European NGO SEBA from AECI and the EC, a project for the implementation of Sustainable infrastructures in Floreana has been executed with the objective to reduce substantially the operational deficit, to offer electricity service to ALL potential users 24 hours a day and to reduce substantially the dangerous fuel transports. So, in the late 2003 a MSG (Multi User Hybrid Grid) was commissioned in Puerto Velasco Ibarra which gives electricity service to 54 users by an 18 kWp PV generator backed by the existing diesel gensets. The scattered houses are supplied with individual stand-alone PV systems with a total of 5,9 kWp. This new service approach with PV hybrid technology is supposed to create yearly savings of nearly 20.000 US$ based on a life-cycle analysis compared with the previous generation scheme by genset. The most important aspects of project implementation are that all users are contractually linked to the energy operator in a unified tariff scheme with segmented flat rated monthly fees (whether connected to the MSG or supplied by individual systems), standard grid

  18. Preliminary waste form characteristics report Version 1.0. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.R. [eds.

    1991-10-11

    This report focuses on radioactive waste form characteristics that will be used to design a waste package and an engineered barrier system (EBS) for a suitable repository as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The term waste form refers to irradiated reactor fuel, other high-level waste (HLW) in various physical forms, and other radioactive materials (other than HLW) which are received for emplacement in a geologic repository. Any encapsulating of stabilizing matrix is also referred to as a waste form.

  19. SAS2H Generated Isotopic Concentrations For B&W 15X15 PWR Assembly (SCPB:N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Davis

    1996-08-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide pressurized water reactor (PWR) isotopic composition data as a function of time for use in criticality analyses. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate burnup and decay dependant isotopic inventories and to provide these inventories in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent criticality calculations.

  20. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. W-P Sung. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 3 June 2009 pp 421-437. A model for signal processing and predictive control of semi-active structural control system · M-H Shih W-P Sung Ching-Jong Wang · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The theory for structural control has been ...

  1. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  2. Demonstration of the Performance of an Air-Type Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT System Coupled with a Heat-Recovery Ventilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A heat-recovery ventilator (HRV effectively conducts ventilation by recovering waste heat from indoors to outdoors during heating periods. However, dew condensation associated with the HRV system may arise due to the difference between the indoor temperature and the very low outdoor temperature in winter, and this can decrease the heat exchange efficiency. These problems can be solved by the pre-heating of the incoming air, but additional energy is required when pursuing such a strategy. On the other hand, an air-type photovoltaic thermal (PVT system produces electricity and thermal energy simultaneously using air as the heat transfer medium. Moreover, the heated air from the air-type PVT system can be connected to the HRV to pre-heat the supply air instead of taking in the cold outdoor air. Thus, the ventilation efficiency can be improved and the problems arising during the heating period can be resolved. Consequentially, the heating energy required in a building can be reduced, with additional electricity acquired as well. In this paper, the performance of an air-type PVT system coupled with an HRV is assessed. To do this, air-type PVT collectors operating at 1 kWp were installed in an experimental house and coupled to an HRV system. Thermal performance and heating energy required during the winter season were analyzed experimentally. Furthermore, the electrical performances of the air-type PVT system with and without ventilation at the back side of the PV during the summer season were analyzed.

  3. Overview of Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the late 1980's, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in the design of a closed loop life support system.

  4. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  5. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  6. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    vulnerable to LNAPL release; upper bound inventory estimates of LNAPLs; incorporating the lack of any hydraulic resistance of the package vent; the lack of any degradation of dissolved LNAPL; and, significantly, the small threshold displacement pressure assumed at which LNAPL is able to enter initially water-saturated pores. Initial scoping calculations on the latter suggested that the rate at which LNAPL is able to migrate from a waste package is likely to be very small and insignificant for likely representative displacement pressure data: this represents a key result. Adopting a conservative displacement pressure, however, allowed the effect of other features and processes in the system to be assessed. High LNAPL viscosity together with low density contrast with water reduces LNAPL migration potential. Migration to the host rock is less likely if waste package vent fluxes are small, solubility limits are high and path lengths through the backfill are short. The capacity of the system to dissolve all of the free LNAPL will, however, depend on groundwater availability. Even with the conservatisms invoked, the overall conclusion of model simulations of intact and compromised (cracked or corroded) waste packages, for a range of realistic ILW LNAPL scenarios, is that it is unlikely that significant LNAPL would be able to migrate from the waste packages and even more unlikely it would be sufficiently persistent to reach the host rock immediately beyond the GDF. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  8. Decentralized Power System Emergency Control in the Presence of High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    in the neighborhood of event point. The method efficiency is confirmed by numerical simulations conducted in DigSilent PowerFactory software with cascading events and islanding contingencies with different level of Wind Power (WP) share and active power deficit and compared to the classical UFLS method....

  9. Performance monitoring of different module technologies and design configurations of PV systems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Serameng, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available this, a 400 kWp PV Solar plant has been installed and monitored since January 2015 at the Eskom Research and Innovation Centre (ERIC) in Rosherville, Gauteng. The plant consists of polycrystalline silicon (c-Si) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS...

  10. MULTISCALE THERMOHYDROLOGIC MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Buscheck

    2005-07-07

    geometry of the gravel grains). Thus, given that reasonable invert properties are applied, the ability to predict a reasonable range of relevant MSTHM output parameters for the invert are based on valid predictions of thermal-hydrologic processes in the host rock. The MSTHM calculates the following thermal-hydrologic parameters: temperature, relative humidity, liquid-phase saturation, evaporation rate, air-mass fraction, gas-phase pressure, capillary pressure, and liquid- and gas-phase fluxes. The thermal-hydrologic parameters used to support ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' are identified in Table 1-1. The thermal-hydrologic parameters are determined as a function of position along each of the emplacement drifts and as a function of waste package type. These parameters are determined at various reference locations within the emplacement drifts, including the waste package and drip-shield surfaces and in the invert. The parameters are also determined at various defined locations in the adjoining host rock.

  11. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  12. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying

  13. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ``simple`` analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ``failure`` distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ``failures``. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides.

  14. Evaluation of Mechanical Ventilator Use with Liquid Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    this report from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0006 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS... reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...portable device during a walk test in COPD patients on long-term oxygen therapy. Respir Med. 2008; 102(7):1021- 1025. 6. Schaanning J, Strøm K, Boe J. Do

  15. Distributed Photovoltaics in the Swedish Energy System. Model Development and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widen, Joakim

    2009-06-15

    showed that the appearance of daily load profiles, and thus the degree of matching to PV generation, are highly variable. Studies of matching of PV generation to aggregate domestic demand showed that load matching at moderate overproduction levels can be improved by PV panel orientation, demand side management (DSM) and storage. At high overproduction levels, however, the only impacting option is storage. Probabilistic power-flow simulations with the developed models yield a versatile picture of how impacts are distributed among customers and over time, as compared to often-used static simulations. Contrary to the trend towards higher time resolution in international research, hourly resolution was found to be sufficient for determining probability distributions for LV grid voltages. Power-flow simulations of three Swedish LV grids showed that a penetration level of 1 kWp PV systems at every customer was most beneficial in terms of on-site coverage of demand, counteracted voltage drops and decreased network losses. However, much higher penetration levels, up to the highest studied level of 5 kWp per household, can be handled without voltage rise above prescribed limits

  16. Análisis energético de un sistema fotovoltaico integrado a una cubierta plana horizontal; Energetic analysis of a photovoltaic system integrated to a horizontal flatrooftop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liomnis Osorio Laurencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el desempeño energético de un sistema fotovoltaico a base de silicio amorfo, integrado a la cubierta plana horizontal del Edificio Docente #2 del Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico de Moa.Con el software PV syst se determinó la producción anual de energía eléctrica del sistema de 3 kWp conectado a la red, así como las pérdidas por sombras, cableado, electrónica de potencia, modificación del ángulo deinclinación y por efecto de la irradiancia y temperatura. También se calcularon los parámetros característicos de la instalación, útiles para establecer perfiles mensuales para la planificación del consumo eléctrico. Los resultados demostraron que la energía anual generada, es equivalente al consumo eléctrico del Instituto durante dos días y además, constituye una alternativa para la generación de energía, a partir del aprovechamiento de espacios disponibles en azoteas de las áreas docentes y administrativas.In this research the energy performance of a photovoltaic system based on amorphous silicon is analyzed. It is integrated to the flat horizontal rooftop of Teaching Building # 2 of the Metallurgical Mining Institute of Moa. Withthe PVsyst software annual electricity production of 3 kWp system connected to grid, as well as losses shadows, wiring, power electronics, also, tilt angle and the effect of irradiance and temperature were determined. Thecharacteristic parameters of the installation, useful were calculated to establish monthly planning profiles for electrical consumption. The results showed that the annual energy generated is equivalent to the electricityconsumption of the Institute for two days and also an alternative for generation energy from the use of space available on rooftops of teaching and administrative areas.

  17. [The waterpipe (shisha) - indoor air quality, human biomonitoring, and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking, also known as shisha or hookah smoking, is growing in western countries as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that shisha smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking.In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include well-known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and there are indications that WP smoke is associated with cancer. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk.More research on the health effects of WP is urgently needed and more preventive measures for public health protection. Moreover, public WP facilities should be implemented under specific nonsmoker protection laws and consequently controlled.This review summarizes recent data on exposure to WP smoking in indoor environments, the results of biomonitoring data, and the known health effects based on currently available toxicological or epidemiological studies.

  18. Safety study of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. KA21 (higher Basidiomycetes) assessed by prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Masuro; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    As part of the safety evaluation of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis KA21, for human consumption, we performed the bacterial reverse mutation test, the mouse micronucleus test, and mouse lymphoma test using A. brasiliensis KA21 as the test substance. The reverse mutation test utilized five bacterial strains, including Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrAO. For the micronucleus test we used mice. For the mouse lymphoma test, we used one of the most commonly used mammalian cell mutagenesis systems; the L5178YTK +/- mouse lymphoma-TK assay detects the mutations at the thymidine kinase locus caused by base-pair changes, frameshift, and small deletions. All the tests were conducted according to the guidelines for genotoxicity testing of drugs by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, no toxicity was observed up to a dose of 5,000 μg/plate. In the mouse micronucleus test, no toxicity was noted up to a dose of 1 g/kg body weight. In the mouse lymphoma test, frequency of the mutation was equal both in the presence or absence of KA21. Supporting the long history of human consumption of A. brasiliensis, the data shown in this study strongly indicate the safety of this mushroom.

  19. Duckweed does not improve the efficiency of municipal wastewater treatment in lemna system plants / Rzęsa nie poprawia efektywności oczyszczania ścieków komunalnych w oczyszczalniach typu Lemna System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Badania prowadzono w trzech czyszczalniach hydrofi towych z powierzchniowym przepływem ścieków typu Lemna System, zbudowanych według projektu Lemna Corporation. Składają się one ze stawu napowietrzanego i stawu rzęsowego wyposażonego w system barier mających na celu równomierne rozmieszczenie roślin. Stawy poprzedzone są osadnikiem wstępnym. Według projektantów odpowiednia praca tych oczyszczalni związana jest z występowaniem rzęsy na powierzchni stawu rzęsowego. Badano efektywność oczyszczania ścieków komunalnych w trzech oczyszczalniach Lemna System usytuowanych w centralnej Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem roli stawu rzęsowego i samej rzęsy. Oczyszczalnie różniły się między sobą występowaniem rzęsy. W dwóch z nich (w Rakowie i Bąkowcu w trakcie całego okresu badań rzęsa nie występowała, natomiast w trzeciej (w Falęcinie Starym w okresie wegetacyjnym pokrywała do 90%.powierzchni stawu. Efektywność oczyszczanie ścieków nie różniła się w oczyszczalni z rzęsą i bez rzęsy. Rzęsa nie wpływała istotnie na efektywność oczyszczania ścieków. We wszystkich oczyszczalniach główną rolę w redukcji zanieczyszczeń odgrywał staw napowietrzany

  20. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...

  1. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  2. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  3. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system.......Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  4. Benefit Cost Analysis for Surface Engineering Solutions Funded by SERDP/ESTCP Weapons, Systems & Platforms Program Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    costs from manufacturing to ultimate disposal o ENVIRONMENTAL RISK : Reduced environmental risks in manufacturing and maintenance depot...further DOD deployments and benefits? • Identify DOD benefits in cost savings, environmental risk reduction, and readiness. Quantify these benefits...Missile (ESSM), ATFLIR and Test Range Metrology 8 If you have questions, comments or suggestions for WP Benefit Cost Analysis project, please

  5. Deliverable 1.2 Specification of industrial benchmark tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    Technical report for the Growth project: IMPRESS, Improvement of precision in forming by simultaneous modelling of deflections in workpiece-die-press system - Output from WP1: Numerical simulation of deflections in workpiece-die-press system.......Technical report for the Growth project: IMPRESS, Improvement of precision in forming by simultaneous modelling of deflections in workpiece-die-press system - Output from WP1: Numerical simulation of deflections in workpiece-die-press system....

  6. Deliverable 1.1 Spec. of industrial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    Technical report for the Growth roject: IMPRESS, Improvement of precision in formong by simultaneous modelling of deflections in workpiece-die-press system -IMPRESS Output from WP1: Numerical simulation of deflections in workpiece-die-press system......Technical report for the Growth roject: IMPRESS, Improvement of precision in formong by simultaneous modelling of deflections in workpiece-die-press system -IMPRESS Output from WP1: Numerical simulation of deflections in workpiece-die-press system...

  7. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  8. Burnup Credit Approach Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy has submitted a license application (LA) for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The license application is currently under review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper will describe the methodology and approach used in the LA to address the issue of criticality and the role of burnup credit during the postclosure period. The most significant and effective measures for prevention of criticality in the repository include multiple redundant barriers that act to isolate fissionable material from water (which can act as a moderator, corrosive agent, and transporter of fissile material); inherent geometry of waste package internals and waste forms; presence of fixed neutron absorbers in waste package internals; and fuel burnup for commercial spent nuclear fuel. A probabilistic approach has been used to screen criticality from the total system performance assessment. Within the probabilistic approach, criticality is considered an event, and the total probability of a criticality event occurring within 10,000 years of disposal is calculated and compared against the regulatory criterion. The total probability of criticality includes contributions associated with both internal (within waste packages) and external (external to waste packages) criticality for each of the initiating events that could lead to waste package breach. The occurrence of and conditions necessary for criticality in the repository have been thoroughly evaluated using a comprehensive range of parameter distributions. A simplified design-basis modeling approach has been used to evaluate the probability of criticality by using numerous significant and conservative assumptions. Burnup credit is used only for evaluations of in-package configurations and uses a combination of conservative and bounding modeling approximations to ensure conservatism. This paper will review the NRC regulatory

  9. Ingeniería Energética, 2016:XXXVII(1:45-54, Enero/Abril, ISSN 1815-5901 45 Análisis energético de un sistema fo tovoltaico integrad o a una cubierta plana horizontal; Energetic analysis of a photovoltaic system integrated to a horizontal flatrooftop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liomnis – Osorio Laurencio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el desempeño energético de un sistema fotovoltaico a base de silicio amorfo, integrado a la cubierta plana horizontal del Edificio Docente # 2 del Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico de Moa. Con el software PV syst se determinó la producción anual de ene rgía eléctrica del sistema de 3 kWp conectado a la red, así como las pérdidas por sombras, cableado, electrón ica de potencia, modificación del ángulo de inclinación y por efecto de la irradiancia y temperatura. Tambi én se calcularon los parámetros característicos de la instalación, útiles para establecer perfiles mensuales para la planificación del consumo eléctrico. Los resultados demostraron que la energía anual generada, es equivalente al co nsumo eléctrico del Instituto durante dos días y además, constituye una alternativa para la generación de energí a, a partir del aprovechamiento de espacios disponibles en azoteas de las áreas docentes y administrativas. In this research the energy performance of a photovolta ic system based on amorphous silicon is analyzed. It is integrated to the flat horizontal rooftop of Teaching Building # 2 of the Metallurgical Mining Institute of Moa. With the PVsyst software annual electricity production of 3 kWp system connected to grid, as well as losses shadows, wiring, power electronics, also, tilt angle and the effect of irradiance and temperature were determined. The characteristic parameters of the installation, useful were calculated to establish monthly planning profiles for electrical consumption. The results showed that the annual energy generated is equivalent to the electricity consumption of the Institute for two days and also an alternative for generation energy from the use of space available on rooftops of teaching and administrative areas.

  10. Enhanced Soil Carbon Storage under Agroforestry and Afforestation in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon (C in three Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. agroforestry systems, afforestation (Ginkgo alone; G, and an agricultural cropping system were compared over a five-year period. The agroforestry systems were Ginkgo + Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. + Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.; GWP; Ginkgo + Mulberry (Morus alba L.; GM; and Ginkgo + Rapa (Brassica napus L. + Peanut (GRP. The agricultural system consisted of wheat and peanut (WP. Total soil carbon (TSC, soil organic (SOC and inorganic carbon (SIC, and the pools of five SOC chemical fractions were measured. TSC and SOC were always lower under WP than the G-based planting systems, and TSC in the latter increased significantly across years in the top 20 cm. Stocks of SIC under WP were significantly greater than the G-based systems, whereas SOC fractions tended to be lower. Most fractions increased across years but not in WP.

  11. The Influence of Operating Loads on the State of Stress and Strain in Selected Load-Bearing Elements of a Tower-Type Headgear Structure in the Light of the Experimental Data / Wpływ Obciążeń Eksploatacyjnych Na Stan Naprężenia Oraz Przemieszczenia Elementów Nośnych Konstrukcji Basztowej Wieży Szybowej W Świetle Przeprowadzonych Eksperymentów

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    In order that the ultimate state method should be applied to the strength analysis of the tower-type headgear structure, it is required that the design loads and endurance parameters be first established. For that purpose the characteristics of loads experienced by structural elements of the headgear structure are required (Wolny, 2012) as well as the numerical analysis of stresses and strains. Thus obtained results are verified through stress (strain) measurements taken in structural elements subjected to highest loads found on the basis of the stress map derived from numerical analysis, being the subject matter of the present study. Strain (stress) measurements are taken on the beams located at the floor level +65.00 m on which the winding machines are positioned (drive shaft bearings, stators in the electric motors), as shown schematically in Fig. 2. The strength analysis by numerical methods is restricted to those elements of the load bearing structure in the headgear at the level (+65.00) where the strain (stress) and measurements are taken and where loads are measured that give rise to the maximal strain changes (Wolny, 2012). Alongside the strain (stress) measurements in the load-bearing elements of the headgear structure, measurements are taken of horizontal displacements at selected points of the structure with the use of an interferometric radar IBIS-S. Results of the repeated numerical analysis of the state of stress, restricted to those elements of the load bearing structure in the tower-type headgear where the maximal loads are registered (Wolny, 2010), agree well with experimental data obtained from tests done on a real object. Therefore, the numerical analyses of the state of stress and strain in the load-bearing elements of the headgear structures operated in the Polish collieries lead us to the assumption that when analysing the geometry of the driving systems in the winding gear, the structures on which the elements of the winder installation are

  12. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys- tems, time-shared systems. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Operating Systems. 1. Objectives and Evolution. M Suresh Babu. In this article we examine the objectives and fun.ctions of operating systems, and then we trace the evolution ...

  13. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  14. Bitcoin System

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Lánský

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system co...

  15. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  16. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  17. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  18. Effect of salt stress on growth and accumulation of proline and soluble sugars on plantlets of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica used as rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintala, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Appalachian grasslands, soil acidity and highly variable topography are the main factors negatively affecting the productivity. There was a need to develop a yield response function and determine nutritive value of grasslands. Soil factors such as water potential (WP, soil pH, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P levels are highly variable across mountainous grasslands. A greenhouse study was conducted to study the effects of WP, soil pH, N, and P levels on the herbage production and nutrient concentration of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. mixed sward. Central composite rotatable design was used to conduct this pot study. The effects of two levels of WP and five levels each of pH, N, and P fertilizers were evaluated. WP, pH, N and P levels as their interactions WP x pH, WP x N, pH x N, and N x P explained a significant part of sward accumulation in our trial. The importance of the different factors in explaining herbage accumulation variations was, in decreasing order, WP > pH > WP x pH > WP x N > P > N > N x P > pH x N. Optimum conditions for the production of bluegrass and white clover crop system were predicted, from this pot experiment, as follows WP of -422 to -171 kPa, 5.5 to 6.1 soil pH, 50 to 68 N mg·kg-1, and 38 to 40 P mg·kg-1. Concentration (% of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg were determined in shoot tissue to understand the impact of the different factors on nutrient content of forage. WP and soil pH had shown significant influence on concentration of all elements. Effects of soil pH and N level had significant effect on N concentration in plant tissue. Plant P concentration was significantly influenced by interaction of P level with WP and soil pH. Yield response function of Kentucky bluegrass and white clover mixture from this case study should be evaluated in field trials to obtain practical significance. Effect of WP, soil pH, and N and P levels

  19. Can Indigenous and Introduced Bacteria Affect the Performance of an Engineered Barrier System in the Designated Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Dias, V.; Carrillo, C.; van Buuren, N.; Horn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been tasked with establishing a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV and assessing the effects of long-term storage of the waste. Studies are being performed to identify the role of microorganisms, both indigenous and introduced during the construction phase, to waste package material corrosion. Some microorganisms produce by-products that may be deleterious to waste package materials, such as bacteria that produce hydrogen and mineral acids, or reduce sulfate, and fungi that produce organic acids. Long-term and accelerated tests in continuous flow reactors were conducted to assess the biogenic effects on waste package materials, and batch tests were implemented to identify corrosion products and biochemical changes to ground water chemistry. Surfacial and gravimetric analyses of the metal samples coupled with water chemistry analysis allow us to determine the overall contribution that organisms may make to waste package corrosion. Metal samples were periodically removed from the reactors and examined with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Effluent samples were also collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Sterile controls were run in parallel to understand abiotic contributions to metals corrosion. In addition, we have characterized the microbial community at Yucca Mountain in order to define the physiological potential of the organisms extant at the site and evaluate the conditions required for growth (we have determined that water availability will be the major limiting factor). Analysis of the fluids from batch tests containing the Alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy) metal suggest the solubilization of Mo, albeit in very low concentrations. Because we did not observe the solubilization of other metal components, it is unclear whether selective solubilization or dealloying is occurring. Endpoint analysis of precipitated particles in the

  20. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.