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Sample records for waste-coal slurry solid

  1. Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The three tasks conducted in this research project were related to understanding the geochemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals and rock fragments are separated from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to an impoundment. After dewatering and closure of the impoundment, the pyrite can oxidize and produce acid that can migrate into the underlying groundwater system. The addition of FBC residue to the CSS will buffer the pore water pH to approximately 7.8. In Task 1, soluble components and acid-base react ion products from mixtures of FBC waste and CSS were extracted for 3 to 180 days in aqueous batch experiments. The results of these extractions showed that, eventually, the extracts would attain a pH between 7 and 8. That pH range is characteristic of an aqueous system in equilibrium with calcite, gypsum, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. After 180 days, the mean calcium concentration in all of the extracts was 566{+-}18 mg/L and sulfate concentrations averaged 2420{+-}70 mg/L. In Task 2, three extracts from CSS/FBC residue mixtures were prepared for use in experiments to determine the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between solutes in the extracts and two common Illinois soils. Time constraints allowed the use of only two of the extracts for adsorption studies. The concentrations of most solutes were not significantly lowered by adsorption at the pH of the extract-soil suspension, nor over a wide range of pH. The results suggest that the type of solutes that were released by the CSS/FBC residue mixture would not be attenuated by adsorption. In a modified Task 3, the literature on the kinetics of pyrite oxidation in near-neutral to alkaline pH was reviewed in preparation for future development of a computer model of pyrite oxidation in CSS/FBC residue codisposal.

  2. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  3. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  4. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  5. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  6. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  7. Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  8. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  9. Numerical simulation of the preparation of semi-solid metal slurry with damper cooling tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In semi-solid forming process, preparing the slurry with rosette or globular microstructure is very important. A new approach named the damper cooling tube method (DCT), to produce the semi-solid metal slurry, has been introduced. To optimize the technical parameters in designing the apparatus, the finite volume method was adopted to simulate the flow process. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries were also considered. The effects of the technical parameters on the slurry properties were studied in detail.

  10. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  11. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  12. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  13. Microstructure and rheological properties of semi-solid 7075 slurries using SEED rheocasting process

    OpenAIRE

    Bolouri, A.; Zhao, Q. F.; Côté, P.; X. G. Chen

    2016-01-01

    The SEED rheocasting process was used to produce semisolid slurries of high strength 7075 aluminum wrought alloys. The effects of the SEED processing parameters on the microstructure of semisolid slurries were studied. The impact of grain refinement on the grain morphology and size was investigated. The rheological properties of semisolid 7075 alloys were characterized at different solid fractions using a parallel plate compression viscometer. Results indicated that the grain refinement could...

  14. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    Improved recycling of the solid fraction of separated pig slurry, which is considerably enriched in the essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P), could balance the P input in differently used agricultural areas and reduce the unsustainable depletion of the limited P rock reserves. By subsequent...... the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig...... slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...

  15. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    biological or thermal treatment, the P concentration of the pig slurry-derived products is furthermore increased, but these processes are also expected to affect P availability from the respective products. Consequently it was the overall objective of this PhD project to identify options for upgrading...... the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig...... slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...

  16. Velocity Distribution of Slurry in Horizontal Pipe When Solid Particles Sliding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShilin; XuZhenliang; Shaolongtan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the laws of momentum conservation and impulse in accelerating process, the distribution on speed of ununiform slurry flow in a horizontal pipe was studied. According to the momentum change of solid particles and conveying liquid of slurry flow during accelerating, and some effect factors, the relationship between the speed of solid particles and the speed of conveying liquid was obtained.When dealing with the friction between sliding solid particles and pipe, it is pivotal to reasonably distribute component of friction to each solid particle. The friction coefficient between solid particles was obtained by forces analysis and theoretic calculation, and can be used to calculate the friction force on every solid particle. The effect of friction on speed of ever), solid particle was investigated through the impulse law. The result is more accurate than that by using uniform friction on solid particles. It is completely new method to use above theory to get solid particles speed distribution, conveying liquid speed distribution and slurry speed distribution.

  17. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taviarides, Lawrence L.

    2005-06-01

    Our effort in this project is to develop an acoustic monitor for accurate, real-time characterization of the size and weight fractions of solids in slurries for process monitoring and to determine the optimal timing for slurry transfers. This capability will be valuable in the Savannah River Site accelerated clean-up program. Our scientific work during the first research period developed a theory, supported by experiments, to describe sound attenuation of solids in suspensions in the presence of bubbles, which permits us to determine the solid-liquid weight percent. Engineering developments during the second research period led to the design, construction, and demonstration, in our laboratories, of the Syracuse Acoustic Monitor (SAM) system that measures weight percent solids accurately in slurries of 0.5 to 8.0 weight percent on-line and in real-time. Also, we had shown the potential for these measurements in solid-gas-liquid slurries by removing the interference due to the presence of gas bubbles.

  18. PREPARATION OF SEMI-SOLID AlSi7Mg ALLOY SLURRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.D. Zhao; W.M. Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this article, semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry were studied. The results showed that the semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, 127 mm in diameter, could be prepared by using the low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring technology and this new technology could save energy and make the pouring process convenient. When the liquid AlSi7Mg alloy was poured at 650°C or 630°C, the solidified microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, was remarkably improved when compared with that of the slurry prepared without stirring. The primary α-Al grains appeared rosette-like or spherical. When the pouring temperature was decreased, the shape of the primary α-Al grains gradually changed from dendritic-like grains to spherical grains. When the pouring temperature was appropriately increased, that is, raised to a certain superheat, the pouring processbecame easier and an ideal spherical microstructure of the AlSiTMg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, could also be obtained. In this experiment,when the stirring power was 0.36 kW, the optimized pouring temperature parameter was 630°C. When the AISiTMg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouring temperature was 630°C. Increasing the stirring power appropriately could gain better spherical primary α-Al grains, but if the stirring power was increased to a certain value, the shape of the primary α-Al grains did not improve further. In this experiment, the optimized stirring power parameter was 0.36 kW.

  19. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing phosp...

  20. Relationship between solid fraction of slurry and property of steel/mushy Al-20Sn semi-solid bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杜云慧; 邢书明; 张励忠; 曾大本; 崔建忠; 巴立民

    2002-01-01

    The slurry of Al-20Sn alloy was prepared using electromagnetic-mechanical stirring method. The bonding of steel/mushy Al-20Sn was conducted using casting rolling technique. The bonding parameters were 505℃ for preheat temperature of steel plate and 10mm/s for rolling speed. The interfacial mechanical property and structure of steel/mushy Al-20Sn bonding plate were studied. The results show that the relationship between solid fraction of Al-20Sn slurry and interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is S=52.9+0.998φs-0.0144φ2s (where S is interfacial shear strength, φs is solid fraction). The largest interfacial shear strength is 70.2MPa when solid fraction is 34.6%. The interface of bonding plate is made up of Fe-Al compound and Fe-Al solid solution alternatively.

  1. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  2. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the

  3. Filling ability of semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry in rheo-diecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelong Bai; Weimin Mao; Songfu Gao; Guoxing Tang; Jun Xu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of slurry temperature, injection pressure, and piston velocity on the rheo-filling ability of semisolid A356 al-loys were studied by the reho-diecasting methods. The results show that the slurry temperature of the semi-solid A356 aluminum al-loy has an important effect on the filling ability; the higher the slurry temperature, the better is the filling ability, and the appropriate slurry temperature for rheo-filling is in the range of 585-595~C. The injection pressure also has a great effect on the filling ability, and it is appropriate to the rheo-fiUing when the injection pressure is in the range of 15-25 MPa. The piston velocity also has a great effect on the filling ability, and it is appropriate to the rheo-filling when the piston velocity is in the range of 0.072-0.12 m/s. The Idling ability of the slurry prepared by low superheat pouring with weak electromagnetic stirring is very good and the microstructural distribution in the rheo-formed die castings is homogeneous, which is advantageous to the high quality die casting.

  4. A simplified method for the measurement of insoluble solids in pretreated biomass slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Noah D; Stickel, Jonathan J; Wolfe, Jeffrey L; Nguyen, Quang A

    2010-10-01

    The biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels includes the breakdown of biomass into its soluble, fermentable components. Pretreatment, the initial step in the conversion process, results in heterogeneous slurry comprised of both soluble and insoluble biomass components. For the purpose of tracking the progress of the conversion process, it is important to be able to accurately measure the fraction of insoluble biomass solids in the slurry. The current standard method involves separating the solids from the free liquor and then repeatedly washing the solids to remove the soluble fraction, a laborious and tedious process susceptible to operator variations. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for calculating the fraction of insoluble solids which does not require a washing step. The proposed method involves measuring the dry matter content of the whole slurry as well as the dry matter content in the isolated liquor fraction. We compared the two methods using three different pretreated biomass slurry samples and two oven-drying techniques for determining dry matter content, an important measurement for both methods. We also evaluated a large set of fraction insoluble solids data collected from previously analyzed pretreated samples. The proposed new method provided statistically equivalent results to the standard washing method when an infrared balance was used for determining dry matter content in the controlled measurement experiment. Similarly, in the large historical data set, there was no statistical difference shown between the wash and no-wash methods. The new method is offered as an alternative method for determining the fraction of insoluble solids.

  5. Preparation of semi-solid slurry containing fine and globular particles for wrought aluminum alloy 2024

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of wrought aluminum alloy 2024 was prepared by a well developed rheocasting process, low superheat pouring with shearing field(LSPSF). The appreciate combination of pouring temperature and rotation speed of barrel, can give rise to a transition of the growth morphology of primary α(Al) from coarse-dendritic to coarse-particle-like and further to fine-globular. The combined effects of both localized rapid cooling and vigorous mixing during the initial stage of solidification can enhance wall nucleation and nuclei survival, which leads to the formation of fine-globular primary α(Al). By using semi-solid slurry prepared by LSPSF, direct squeeze cast cup-shaped component with improved mechanical properties such as yield strength of 198MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 306 MPa and elongation of 10.4%, can be obtained.

  6. Semi-solid slurry of AZ91 magnesium alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring near liquidus temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An electromagnetic stirring process near liquidus temperature was designed and demonstrated experimentally to produce semi-solid slurry of AZ91 magnesium alloy, in order to avoid not only contamination from mechanical stirring but also the inflammation of Mg alloy melt at elevated temperature. AZ91 alloy feedstock was isothermally heat treated at 600-610 ℃ for 20 min, and then stirred by electromagnetic field. Globular primary particle characteristic was observed optically in the castings. Mechanical properties were also studied.

  7. Pretreatment methods to obtain pumpable high solid loading wood–water slurries for continuous hydrothermal liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dãrãbana, Iulia-Maria; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer

    2015-01-01

    Feedstock pretreatment is a prerequisite step for continuous processing of lignocellulosic biomass through HTL, in order to facilitate the pumpability of biomass aqueous slurries. Until now, HTL feedstock pumpability could only be achieved at solid mass content below 15%. In this work, two...... pretreatment methods to obtain wood-based slurries with more than 20% solid mass content, for continuous processing in HTL systems, are proposed. The effect of biomass particle size and pretreatment method on the feedstock pumpability is analyzed. The experimental results show that pumpable wood-based slurries...... containing 20% solids can be prepared using recycle HTL biocrude as carrier fluid, if particles smaller than 0.125 mm are used. The recycle biocrude concentration used for slurry make-up is strongly affected by the sawdust size distribution. A second pretreatment option is feedstock thermal treatment...

  8. Semi-solid A356 alloy slurry for rheocasting prepared by a new process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the semi-solid slurry with uniform and fine structure morphology that satisfies the requirement of rheocasting process, a new process for preparing semi-solid Al alloy slurry was developed, in which local chilling was combined with low superheat pouring and slight electromagnetic stirring (LSPSEMS. The morphology and the size of primary α-Al in the A356 alloy slurry prepared with the new process, i.e., LSPSEMS with local chilling, were investigated using MIAPS image analyzing software, and the grain refinement mechanism was discussed. The results indicate that the semi-solid primary phase consists of particle-like or globular-like α-Al, and the morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in the slurry can be markedly improved by the new process. The fine primary α-Al distributes uniformly in the slurry, which satisfies the requirement of rheocasting. Compared with the alloy prepared by LSPSEMS, the average equal-area-circle grain diameter of primary α-Al in semi-solid A356 alloy ingot prepared by the new process is decreased from 85.6 μm to 68.8 μm at the central area, 112.6 μm to 77.6 μm at the transition area and is 84.7 μm in the edge area, respectively. The corresponding shape factor of primary α-Al is increased from 0.78 to 0.83, 0.54 to 0.77 and 0.28 to 0.59, respectively. In addition, the pouring temperature could be suitably raised from 620-630 ℃ of the traditional process to 650 ℃ using this technique, which is convenient for practical operation. The mechanism of grain refinement, in the new process, is that the local chilling quickens up the temperature decrease in the center of the melt. The nuclei could not grow up in a short time so the finer grains are formed in the melt.

  9. Improving rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries by adding lignosulfonate and long-chain fatty alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hongming; Wu, Shun; Li, Xiuli; Lan, Tianqing; Yang, Dongjie; Pang, Yuxia; Qiu, Xueqing; Li, Xuehui; Huang, Jinhao

    2014-08-20

    The effects of lignosulfonate (SXSL) and long-chain fatty alcohols (LFAs) on the rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries were investigated. The application of 2.5% (w/w) SXSL increased the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of high-solid corncob slurries at 72 h from 31.7 to 54.0%, but meanwhile it increased the slurry's yield stress and complex viscosity to make the slurry difficult to stir and pump. The smallest molecular weight (MW) SXSL fraction had the strongest enhancement on SED. The SXSL fraction with large MW had a negative effect on rheology. n-Octanol (C8) and n-decanol (C10) improved the rheological properties of high-solid slurry and are strong enough to counteract the negative effect of SXSL. Furthermore, C8 and C10 clearly enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries with and without SXSL. A mechanism was proposed to explain the observed negative effect of SXSL and the positive effect of LFAs on the rheological properties.

  10. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  11. Particle Concentration and Yield Stress of Biomass Slurries During Enzymatic Hydrolysis at High-Solids Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C. M.; Dibble, C. J.; Knutsen, J. S.; Stickel, J. J.; Liberatore, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Effective and efficient breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass remains a primary barrier for its use as a feedstock for renewable transportation fuels. A more detailed understanding of the material properties of biomass slurries during conversion is needed to design cost-effective conversion processes. A series of enzymatic saccharification experiments were performed with dilute acid pretreated corn stover at initial insoluble solids loadings of 20% by mass, during which the concentration of particulate solids and the rheological property yield stress ({tau}{sub y}) of the slurries were measured. The saccharified stover liquefies to the point of being pourable ({tau}{sub y} {le} 10 Pa) at a total biomass conversion of about 40%, after roughly 2 days of saccharification for a moderate loading of enzyme. Mass balance and semi-empirical relationships are developed to connect the progress of enzymatic hydrolysis with particle concentration and yield stress. The experimental data show good agreement with the proposed relationships. The predictive models developed here are based on established physical principles and should be applicable to the saccharification of other biomass systems. The concepts presented, especially the ability to predict yield stress from extent of conversion, will be helpful in the design and optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis processes that operate at high-solids loadings.

  12. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  13. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Separation is an option when livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas producing a surplus of nutrients. Separation of the slurry into a liquid nitrogen rich fraction and a more solid phosphorus rich fraction, which is exported away from the farm, may alleviate this problem. Separation...

  14. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  15. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage.

  16. Coal slurry solids/coal fluidized bed combustion by-product mixtures as plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Green, W.P.; Dreher, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Fine-textured, pyritic waste produced by coal cleaning is stored in slurry settling ponds that eventually require reclamation. Conventionally, reclamation involves covering the dewatered coal slurry solids (CSS) with 1.3 m of soil to allow plant growth and prevent acid generation by pyrite oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the feasiblity of a less costly reclamation approach that would eliminate the soil cover and allow direct seeding of plants into amended CSS materials. Potential acidity of the CSS would be neutralized by additions of fluidized-bed combustion by-product (FBCB), an alkaline by-product of coal combustion. The experiment involved two sources of CSS and FBCB materials from Illinois. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) were seeded in the greenhouse into pots containing mixtures of the materials. CSS-1 had a high CaCO3:FeS2 ratio and needed no FBCB added to compensate for its potential acidity. CSS-2 was mixed with the FBCB materials to neutralize potential acidity (labeled Mix A and B). Initial pH was 5.6, 8.8, and 9.2 for the CSS-1, Mix A, and Mix B materials, respectively. At the end of the 70-day experiment, pH was 5.9 for all mixtures. Tall fescue and sweet clover grew well in all the treatments, but birdsfoot trefoil had poor emergence and survival. Elevated tissue levels of B, Cd, and Se were found in some plants. Salinity, low moisture holding capacity, and potentially phytotoxic B may limit the efficacy of this reclamation method.

  17. Degassing effect of ultrasonic vibration in molten melt and semi-solid slurry of Al-Si alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shusen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the process of semi-solid slurry preparation with direct ultrasonic vibration (UV by dipping the horn into the melt, one of the questions is whether the gas content in the melt would be increased or not by the cavitation effect of ultrasonic vibration. By application of quantitative gas content measurement technique, this paper investigated the effect of the ultrasonic vibration on the gas content of both the melt and the semi-solid slurry of Al-Si alloys, and the variations of the gas contents in two kinds of aluminum alloys, i.e., A356 alloy and Al-20Si-2Cu-1Ni-0.6RE alloy (Al-20Si for short. The results show that ultrasonic vibration has an obvious degassing effect on the molten melt, especially on the semi-solid slurry of Al-Si alloy which is below the liquidus temperature by less than 20 ℃. The ultrasonic degassing efficiency of the A356 alloy decreases with the reduction of the initial gas content in the melt, and it is nearly unchanged for the Al-20Si alloy. The gas content of both alloys decreases when the ultrasonic vibration time is increased. The best vibration time for Al-20Si alloy at the liquid temperature of 710 ℃ and semi-solid temperature of 680 ℃ is 60 s and 90 s, respectively; and the degassing efficiency is 48% and 35%, respectively. The mechanism of ultrasonic degassing effect is discussed.

  18. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  19. X-ray fluorescent emission analysis of slurried samples of particulate solids: application to thorium and uranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Problems of sample preparation can be avoided by analyzing the solids as slurries. A sealed sample cell with a belt-driven stirrer was constructed for use with the GE XRD-3 spectrometer. A problem arose owing to radiolytic gas; an open, bottom-window cell would solve the problem. A ThO/sub 2/ analysis was carried out; the ThO/sub 2/ assay was observed to increase with prolonged x-ray exposure. (DLC)

  20. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse different separation concepts in order to evaluate the overall costs based on a systems approach from stable to field. When livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas the distribution of manure without creating a surplus of nutrients is often a pro...... with biogas production as the solid fraction gives a much higher gas production per tonne than slurry....

  1. New method for the preparation of semi-solid AISi7Mg alloy slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Mao; Hai Lin; Yuelong Bai; Songfu Gao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of pouring temperature and short electromagnetic stirring with low strength on the microstructures of AlSi7Mg alloy were investigated.The results show that if liquid AlSi7Mg alloy is poured at 630 or 650 ℃,many primary α-Al grains in the solidified melt are rosette-like,and only a small number of them are spherical.However,if liquid AlSi7Mg alloy is poured at a lower superheat and meanwhile is stirred by an electromagnetic field at a low power for a short time,then most primary α-Al grains in the solidified melt become spherical,and only a few are rosette-like.The theoretical analysis indicates that the strengthened melt flow motion induced by the short electromagnetic stirring makes the temperature field more homogeneous in the melt,which is poured at a lower superheat,and makes the primary α-Al grains deposit in a larger region at the same time,so this new solidification kinetic condition leads to the microstructure of spherical primary α-Al grains.The experiments also demonstrate that pouring at an appropriate superheat and stirring by an electromagnetic field at a low power for a short time is a good new method for preparing the semi-solid slurry or billet of AlSi7Mg alloy.

  2. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 2. Nitrogen effect of slurry solid matter at rising mineral fertilizer rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-01-01

    A combination of organic manuring and mineral fertilization had positive effects on crop yields, first of all on sandy soils, particularly after high nitrogen applications (up to a maximum of 4 g N/pot). These effects correlate with a higher utilization of the mineral nitrogen. Rising mineral fertilizer rates, soil substrate, and parameters of slurry solid matter, especially their C:N ratio, influence the mobility of soil nitrogen as well as the uptake of organic manure nitrogen. The solid matter nitrogen of pig slurry was more easily available to plants on sandy and loess soils. Slurry solid matter applied in addition to mineral nitrogen had positive effects on the quality of the harvested products.

  3. Progression towards optimization of viscosity of highly concentrated carbonaceous solid-water slurries by incorporating and modifying surface chemistry parameters with and without additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Amrita

    Carbonaceous solid-water slurries (CSWS) are concentrated suspensions of coal, petcoke bitumen, pitch etc. in water which are used as feedstock for gasifiers. The high solid loading (60-75 wt.%) in the slurry increases CSWS viscosity. For easier handling and pumping of these highly loaded mixtures, low viscosities are desirable. Depending on the nature of the carbonaceous solid, solids loading in the slurry and the particle size distribution, viscosity of a slurry can vary significantly. Ability to accurately predict the viscosity of a slurry will provide a better control over the design of slurry transport system and for viscosity optimization. The existing viscosity prediction models were originally developed for hard-sphere suspensions and therefore do not take into account surface chemistry. As a result, the viscosity predictions using these models for CSWS are not very accurate. Additives are commonly added to decrease viscosity of the CSWS by altering the surface chemistry. Since additives are specific to CSWS, selection of appropriate additives is crucial. The goal of this research was to aid in optimization of CSWS viscosity through improved prediction and selection of appropriate additive. To incorporate effect of surface chemistry in the models predicting suspension viscosity, the effect of the different interfacial interactions caused by different surface chemistries has to be accounted for. Slurries of five carbonaceous solids with varying O/C ratio (to represent different surface chemistry parameters) were used for the study. To determine the interparticle interactions of the carbonaceous solids in water, interfacial energies were calculated on the basis of surface chemistries, characterized by contact angles and zeta potential measurements. The carbonaceous solid particles in the slurries were assumed to be spherical. Polar interaction energy (hydrophobic/hydrophilic interaction energy), which was observed to be 5-6 orders of magnitude higher than the

  4. Performance of Semi-solid Slurry Produced by Twin-screw Stirring Mixer and Rheo-diecasting Process of AZ91D Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ze-hui; LUO Ji-rong; WU Shu-sen; LI Dong-nan

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of semi-solid slurry of AZ91D alloy, which was produced by twin-screw stirring mixer under the different parameters, was investigated.Rheoforming by cold chamber die casting process was performed thereafter. The results indicate that with decreasing of the barrel temperature of the mixer and the pouring temperature of molten Mg alloy, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry increases and the size of non-dendritic grains becomes smaller. While the shear rate increases, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of metal rheoformed by die casting are higher by about 37% and 44% respectively than those produced by conventional liquid die casting.

  5. Removal of Suspended Solids in Anaerobically Digested Slurries of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Coagulation Using Different Dosages of Polyaluminum Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Zhang, C. J.; Zhao, T. K.; Zhong, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, anaerobically digested slurries of livestock and poultry manure were pretreated by coagulation-sedimentation using an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different PAC dosages on suspended solids (SS) removal and pH in the biogas slurries was assessed to provide reference values for reducing the organic load of biogas slurry in the coagulation-sedimentation process and explore the feasibility of reducing the difficulty in subsequent utilization or processing of biogas slurry. The results showed that for the pig slurry containing approximately 5000 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS reached up to 81.6% with the coagulant dosage of 0.28 g/L PAC. For the chicken slurry containing approximately 2600 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS was 30.2% with the coagulant dosage of 0.33 g/L PAC. The removal rate of SS in both slurries of livestock and poultry manure exhibited a downward trend with high PAC dosage. Therefore, there is a need to control the PAC dosage in practical use. The pH changed little in the two types of biogas slurries after treatment with different PAC dosages and both were in line with the standard values specified in the “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality”.

  6. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglovsky, J; Sasakova, N; Vargova, M; Pacajova, Z; Placha, I; Petrovsky, M; Harichova, D

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7 degrees C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55 degrees C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8 degrees C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105 degrees C (DM), ash (550 degrees C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4)(+)), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO(3)(-)), total nitrogen (N(t)), total phosphorus (P(t)); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates.

  7. Numerical simulation and analysis of solid-liquid two-phase three-dimensional unsteady flow in centrifugal slurry pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 汪西力; 徐海良

    2015-01-01

    Based on RNGk-ε turbulence model and sliding grid technique, solid−liquid two-phase three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady turbulence of full passage in slurry pump was simulated by means of Fluent software. The effects of unsteady flow characteristics on solid−liquid two-phase flow and pump performance were researched under design condition. The results show that clocking effect has a significant influence on the flow in pump, and the fluctuation of flow velocity and pressure is obvious, particularly near the volute tongue, at the position of small sections of volute and within diffuser. Clocking effect has a more influence on liquid-phase than on solid-phase, and the wake-jet structure of relative velocity of solid-phase is less obvious than liquid-phase near the volute tongue and the impeller passage outlet. The fluctuation of relative velocity of solid-phase flow is 7.6% smaller than liquid-phase flow at the impeller outlet on circular path. Head and radial forces of the impeller are 8.1% and 85.7% of fluctuation, respectively. The results provide a theoretical basis for further research for turbulence, improving efficient, reducing the hydraulic losses and wear. Finally, field tests were carried out to verify the operation and wear of slurry pump.

  8. Concentration and Velocity Measurements of Both Phases in Liquid-Solid Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Stephen; Hill, Kimberly; Caprihan, Arvind

    2007-03-01

    Natural and industrial slurry flows abound. They are difficult to calculate and to measure. We demonstrate a simple technique for studying steady slurries. We previously used time-of-flight techniques to study pressure driven slurry flow in pipes. Only the continuous phase velocity and concentration fields were measured. The discrete phase concentration was inferred. In slurries composed of spherical, oil-filled pills and poly-methyl-siloxane oils, we were able to use inversion nulling to measure the concentration and velocity fields of both phases. Pills are available in 1-5mm diameter and silicone oils are available in a wide range of viscosities, so a range of flows can be studied. We demonstrated the technique in horizontal, rotating cylinder flows. We combined two tried and true methods to do these experiments. The first used the difference in T1 to select between phases. The second used gradient waveforms with controlled first moments to produce velocity dependent phase shifts. One novel processing method was developed that allows us to use static continuous phase measurements to reference both the continuous and discrete phase velocity images. ?

  9. Latent Heat storage characteristics of solid-liquid phase change Heat Storage Microcapsule Slurry by Boiling Heat Transfer under a Vacuum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Katayama, Masatoshi; Manabe, Ken

    Recently, the new heat transfer medium, which fulfills both functions of heat storage and heat transportation, has been developed in ah eat storage field. Solid-liquid latent heat microcapsule slurry would correspond to the topical medium, so-called functionally thermal fluid. The preset study has clarified the latent heat storage characteristics of microcapsule slurry by making heat transfer enlargement with the help of slurry water pool boiling phenomenon. The paraffin wax at a melting point of 62°C was used as a phase change material which was packed into the microcapsule. The heating surface temperature and concentration of paraffin in the microcapsule slurry was selected as experimental parameters. As a result, the non-dimensional correlation equations of heat storage completion time and heat transfer were derived in terms of non-dimensional parameters.

  10. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasakova, N.; Vargova, M.; Pacajova, Z.; Placha, I.; Pretrovsky, M.; Harichova, D. [University of Veterinary Medicine, Kosice (Slovakia). Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7{sup o}C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55{sup o}C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8{sup o}C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105{sup o}C (DM), ash (550{sup o} C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}), total nitrogen (N{sub t}), total phosphorus (P{sub t}); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates. (author)

  11. High performance anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by a novel slurry-casting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Nan-Qi; Yan, Dong; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2015-02-01

    Tubular solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated and evaluated for their microstructure and electrochemical performance. The tubular substrate was prepared by casting NiO-Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) slurry on the inner wall of a plastic mold (tube). The wall thickness and uniformity were controlled by slurry viscosity and rotation speed of the tube. The cells consisted of Ni-YSZ functional anode, YSZ electrolyte and (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3-δ (LSM)-YSZ cathode prepared in sequence on the substrate by dip-coating and sintering. Their dimension was 50 mm in length, 0.8 mm in thickness and 10.5 mm in outside diameter. The peak power density of the cell at temperatures between 650 and 850°C was in the range from 85 to 522 mW cm-2 and was greatly enhanced to the range from 308 to 1220 mW cm-2 by impregnating PdO into LSM-YSZ cathode. During a cell testing at 0.7 A cm-2 and 750°C for 282 h, the impregnated PdO particles grew by coalescence, which increased the cathode polarization resistance and so that decreased the cell performance. According to the degradation tendency, the cell performance will be stabilized in a longer run.

  12. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  13. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  14. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  15. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING FOR MAKING RHEOLOGIC SEMI-SOLID SLURRY OF ZL112Y ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To realize the technology of fabricating the rheologic semi-solid slurry of ZL112Y aluminum alloy via continues electromagnetic stirring process, ANSYS software was used to simulate electromagnetic force field and fluid velocity field in the alloy melt in a crucible tube in three coils. In the first section of the paper, eletromagnetic force field and fluid velocity field caused by single coil were simulated. The result of this simulation gives an average velocity of 3.2 cm/s and it is called critical velocity because a fluid velocity over it will cause a fine and spherical structure of solid primary a in a semi-solid melt. And, from this result, a reasonable temperature of semi-solid of the alloy and an electrical current intensity were established. The electrical current intensity of the result of this simulation corresponded to the current intensity used in a practice experiment, in which the primary a was obviously refined and sphericized. Based on this simulation of single coil electromagnetic stirring, in the second section of the paper, eletromagnetic force field and fluid velocity field caused by three coils were simulated. The result of the simulation shows that, 1) there is a semi-solid zone of 32 mm from bottom of the crucible tube to the upper; 2) the electrical current intensities of three coils of 400 A, 600 A, and 400 A, which were set to top range, middle range and bottom range of the tube, respectively, were the optimum parameters of electromagnetic current intensity under the condition of this investigation; and 3) under effect of these electromagnetic current intensity, the fluid velocities of the melt in the tube were 6.3 cm/s in top range, 3.75 cm/s in middle range, and 3.9 cm/s in bottom range of it, respectively.

  16. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.

  17. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  18. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density...... and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF....

  19. Research on semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry were investigated. The results indicated that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting can be manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat) and the stirring power remarkably affected the morphology of primary α-Al and the size of primary α-Al, and there is no obvious effect of stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring with no stirring, the nucleation rate, particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 were markedly improved by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. On the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouting temperature with low superheat can be suitably raised to reach the effectiveness obtained from the lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  20. Manufacture technique of semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng; MAO Wei-ming; ZHAO Zheng-duo

    2006-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry making process were investigated. The results indicate that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting requirement can be made by a combination of low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat) and the stirring power significantly affect the morphology and the size of primary α-Al, while there is no obvious effect of the stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring without stirring, the nucleation rate,particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 Al alloy are markedly improved by a process of applying both low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. Under the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring applied, the pouring temperature with low superheat can be equivalerttly to reach the effectiveness obtained from the even lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  1. Manufacture technique of semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zheng

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry making process were investigated. The results indicate that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting requirement can be made by a combination of low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat and the stirring power significantly affect the morphology and the size of primary α-Al, while there is no obvious effect of the stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring without stirring, the nucleation rate, particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 Al alloy are markedly improved by a process of applying both low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. Under the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring applied, the pouring temperature with low superheat can be equivalently to reach the effectiveness obtained from the even lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  2. Preparation for Semi-Solid Aluminum Alloy Slurry under Weak Electromagnetic Stirring Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Yuelong BAI; Guoxing TANG

    2006-01-01

    The effects of pouring temperature, short electromagnetic stirring with low strength and then soaking treatment on the microstructure of AlSi7Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that if AlSi7Mg alloy is poured at 630 or 650℃ and meanwhile stirred by an electromagnetic field at a low power for a short time, the pouring process can be easily controlled and most solidified primary α-Al grains become spherical and only a few of them are rosette-like. Weak electromagnetic stirring makes the temperature field more homogeneous and makes the primary α-Al grains disperse in a larger region, which leads to the spherical microstructures of primary α-Al grains. When the AlSi7Mg alloy is soaked or reheated at the semisolid state, the primary α-Al grains ripen further and they become more spherical, which is favorable tothe semi-solid forming of AlSi7Mg alloy.

  3. Study of the possibility of iron extraction from waste coal by magnetizing roasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynkina, E. P.; Zorya, V. N.; Korovushkin, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of magnetizing roasting of waste coal in converting iron, contained in the mineral part, from weak-magnetic and non-magnetic minerals (siderite, pyrite, marcasite) into high-magnetic ones (magnetite, maghemite) is shown. Products of magnetizing roasting are used as raw material for the subsequent magnetic separation.

  4. Slurry spin coating of thin film yttria stabilized zirconia/gadolinia doped ceria bi-layer electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joong; Kim, Manjin; Neoh, Ke Chean; Han, Gwon Deok; Bae, Kiho; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Thin ceramic bi-layered membrane comprising yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) is fabricated by the cost-effective slurry spin coating technique, and it is evaluated as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is demonstrated that the slurry spin coating method is capable of fabricating porous ceramic films by adjusting the content of ethyl-cellulose binders in the source slurry. The porous GDC layer deposited by spin coating under an optimal condition functions satisfactorily as a cathode-electrolyte interlayer in the test SOFC stack. A 2-μm-thick electrolyte membrane of the spin-coated YSZ/GDC bi-layer is successfully deposited as a dense and stable film directly on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support without any interlayers, and the SOFC produces power output over 200 mW cm-2 at 600 °C, with an open circuit voltage close to 1 V. Electrochemical impedance spectra analysis is conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuel cell components in relation with the microstructure of the spin-coated layers.

  5. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  6. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine samples after dispersive solid-liquid extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Méndez, J.; Barciela García, J.; García Martín, S.; Peña Crecente, R. M.; Herrero Latorre, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of Cd and Pb in urine samples has been developed. The method involves dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), slurry sampling (SS), and subsequent electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the sorbent material. The isolated MWCNT/analyte aggregates were treated with nitric acid to form a slurry and both metals were determined directly by injecting the slurry into the ETAAS-atomizer. The parameters that influence the adsorption of the metals on MWCNTs in the DSPE process, the formation and extraction of the slurry, and the ETAAS conditions were studied by different factorial design strategies. The detection and quantification limits obtained for Cd under optimized conditions were 9.7 and 32.3 ng L- 1, respectively, and for Pb these limits were 0.13 and 0.43 μg L- 1. The preconcentration factors achieved were 3.9 and 5.4. The RSD values (n = 10) were less than 4.1% and 5.9% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed in recovery studies, with values in the range 96-102% obtained for Cd and 97-101% for Pb. In addition, the analysis of certified reference materials gave consistent results. The DSPE-SS-ETAAS method is a novel and useful strategy for the determination of Pb and Cd at low levels in human urine samples. The method is sensitive, fast, and free of matrix interferences, and it avoids the tedious and time-consuming on-column adsorption and elution steps associated with commonly used SPE procedures. The proposed method was used to determine Cd and Pb in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained.

  7. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-09-17

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today’s technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  8. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  9. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  10. Evolution of process control parameters during extended co-composting of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Marfà, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to monitor process parameters when two by-products (green waste - GW, and the solid fraction of cattle slurry - SFCS) were composted to obtain growing media. Using compost in growing medium mixtures involves prolonged composting processes that can last at least half a year. It is therefore crucial to study the parameters that affect compost stability as measured in the field in order to shorten the composting process at composting facilities. Two mixtures were prepared: GW25 (25% GW and 75% SFCS, v/v) and GW75 (75% GW and 25% SFCS, v/v). The different raw mixtures resulted in the production of two different growing media, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. A new parameter has been proposed to deal with attaining the thermophilic temperature range and maintaining it during composting, not only it would be useful to optimize composting processes, but also to assess the hygienization degree.

  11. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  12. Removal of pyrite and trace elements from waste coal by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation and chelating agents. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (United States); Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to use ultrafine bubbles generated by dissolved C0{sub 2} to recover useable fuel, and reject pyrite and other minerals from a waste coal in flotation. In addition, a chelating agent was used to remove trace metals from the froth products. Illinois No. 6 waste coal obtained from a refuse thickener of a coal cleaning circuit was used as the feed in flotation. The as-received waste coal had a top size of 2400 microns. The waste coal was ground to {minus}75 microns ({minus}200 mesh) and {minus}44 microns ({minus}325 mesh). The as-received and the ground waste coal samples were subjected to flotation. Dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation tests were performed mainly in a 3-inch diameter by 8 feet high packed column under various test conditions. Some tests were also performed in a 2-inch diameter microbubble column for comparison. The flotation performance of the waste coal in the microbubble column was higher than that for the packed column. The packing in the packed column hindered the coal flotation. The separation efficiency of the ground coal was less than that for the asreceived coal. Flotation of the waste coal was also performed in the packed column using coarser bubbles generated by dispersed C0{sub 2} and air. The separation efficiency of the ground waste coal of 44 microns top size was higher than that for dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation. Additives were used to modify the waste coal surfaces. Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant and EDTA, a chelating agent, increased the separation efficiency of the waste coal.Most of the trace metals in coal were reduced in different degrees by flotation. Triton X-100 or EDTA enhanced removal of chromium, nickel, and selenium. Applying EDTA to the froth products further removed lead significantly.

  13. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    and the reduction of livestock numbers in Denmark have made separation less favourable. This article discusses the many options with focus on the dominant separation technologies in Denmark, such as decanter and flocculation, as well as source separation, in order to compare them with to traditional handling. Key......-operation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be stored in the solid fraction. Separation can be combined with biogas production and the solid fraction from flocculation seems to give the highest gas production per tonne....

  14. Distribution of Pb and its chemical fractions in liquid and solid phases of digested pig and dairy slurries%猪、奶牛粪厌氧发酵中Pb的形态转化及其分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 付广青; 常志州; 叶小梅

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment effectively degrades the organic matter and causes obvious variations in physical and chemical properties of digested slurries, such as water content, pH, oxidation reduction potential and microbial activities. These changes may influence the chemical fraction of Pb, which is a critical factor in predicting its toxicity, environmental mobility, bioavailability and optimum removal methods. The speciation and phytotoxic effects of lead from sewage sludge and composted manure have been widely studied. There has been no study about the transfer and distribution of Pb during anaerobic digestion of manure slurries. The aim of the present work was to analyze the distribution of Pb in both liquid and solid phase after anaerobic digestion of pig slurries and dairy slurries, and their chemical speciation in solid fraction of digested residuals. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at condition of medium temperature [(37 ± 2)℃] was operated for 130 d. Lead in liquid and solid phases of raw materials and digested slurries was analyzed by first passing through a 0.45 µm filter paper. The chemical fractions in digested slurry solids were extracted by BCR method. Results showed that total amount of Pb was decreased 70% and 19% in digested pig slurries (DPS) and dairy slurries (DDS), respectively, , compared with raw slurries. The percentages of Pb in liquid fractions of DPS and DDS were 29%and 17%, which decreased by 17%and 58%. The decrease of Pb in DDS was significantly lower than that in DPS. One reason is that 90%of solids in DDS were discharged during the anaerobic digestion. Another reason is that Pb in digested slurries mainly exists as the solid form. Thus the amount of Pb left in the reactor for dairy manure digestion was significantly lower than that for pig manure digest. Due to the high removal efficiency, easy operation and low treatment cost of heavy metals in solid phase, transformation of liquid phase of heavy metals to the

  15. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    for P-balance is stricter in Denmark than before, but developments in feeding, changes in regulation and the reduction of livestock numbers have made separation less favourable. This article compares dominant separation technologies in Denmark, such as decanter and flocculation, as well as source....... Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and cooperation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be removed from the farm in the solid fraction. Separation will in the future in many cases be combined...

  16. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  17. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  18. Preparation of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy slurry by serpentine pouring channel%蛇形通道浇注制备半固态7075铝合金浆料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文志; 毛卫民; 涂琴

    2014-01-01

    采用蛇形通道浇注技术制备半固态7075铝合金浆料,研究浇注温度和弯道数量对半固态7075铝合金浆料微观组织的影响。结果表明:当浇注温度为680~700°C时,可以制备出质量较好的半固态7075铝合金浆料;在相同浇注温度条件下,随着弯道数量的增加,初生α(Al)的平均晶粒尺寸减小,形状因子提高。在浇注制备半固态7075铝合金浆料过程中,合金熔体在具有一定弧度且封闭的蛇形弯道内流动并多次改变流动方向,具有类似“搅拌”的功能,使得初生晶核逐渐演变为球形或近球形晶粒。%The semi-solid slurry of 7075 aluminum alloy was prepared by a serpentine pouring channel (SCP). Influences of pouring temperature and the number of turns on the microstructure of semi-solid 7075 alloy slurry were investigated. The results demonstrated that the semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy slurry with satisfied quality could be generated by a serpentine pouring channel when the pouring temperature was in the range of 680-700 °C. At a given pouring temperature, the equivalent size of the primaryα(Al) grains decreased and the shape factor increased with the increase of the number of turns. During the slurry preparation of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy, the flow direction of alloy melt changed many times when it flowed in a curved and closed serpentine channel. With the effect of“stirring”in it , the primary nuclei gradually evolved into spherical and near-spherical grains.

  19. Hydrodynamic Characteristics in an External Loop Airlift Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Qing; Tang Xiaojin; Hu Lifeng; Wang Shaobing; Zhang Zhanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Three different types of gas distributors were used in an external loop airlift slurry reactor to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics. To predict the important hydrodynamic parameters, such as the total gas holdup, the slurry circulating velocity, the bubble size distribution, and the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase, the cor-relations are developed. The calculated results fit the experimental data very well. According to the influence of the solid holdup on the bubble size, the fluid flow in the reactor can be divided into two regimes, while a 10% value is regarded as the critical solid holdup value. Whenεs is≤10%, the bubble size is determined by both the gas phase and the slurry phase. Whenεs is ≥10%, the bubble size is determined mainly by the slurry phase. By analyzing the relationship between the slip velocity and the gas holdup, the bubble coalescence plays a key role in the slurry reactor.

  20. Development of rapid slurry methods for flame and direct current plasma emission and graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis of solid animal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies are presented describing developments in the rapid, direct atomic spectrochemical analysis of meat samples by the technique of slurry atomization. The number of elements that can be determined in meat slurry samples has been increased and the concentration range that can be detected extended to included analysis at the part per billion as well as the percent level. Slurry atomization involves the rapid preparation procedure whereby the sample is simple homogenized with deionized distilled water prior to analysis. In this manner, rapid, quantitative analysis of hot dogs (processed meat) for dietary salt (Na, K) was achieved by premixed air-natural gas flame emission spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of mechanically separated meat for residual bone fragments (as Ca) was attained using a simple photometer when the premixed air-acetylene flame was used. The phosphate interference of the Ca emission signal was overcome by placing an insert in the spray chamber which decreased the droplet size of the aerosol reaching the flame. Slight matrix modification in the form of 2% nitric acid was necessary to solubilize the Ca from the bone fragments. Determining elements present at very low concentrations i.e. part per billion levels, in homogenized beef liver was evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption and shown to be viable for determinations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni. Qualitative multielement analysis of several types of meat slurries by direct current plasma (DCP) emission spectrometry using both photographic and electronic modes of detection was reported for the first time.

  1. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  2. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  3. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  4. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  5. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  6. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  7. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  8. Injection of Aqueous Slurry for Making Zirconia Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shun'ai; LI Maoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia aqueous slurry was prepared with fine zirconia powder.Injection process for making zirconia fiber was demonstrated,including preparation of aqueous slurry,injection of slurry,fiber setting in acetone,and fiber firing.The principle of the process was discussed.The effects of solid loading in the zirconia slurry,addition of dispersant in the slurry,and ball milling time on the rheological properties of the slurry,especially yield stress,were illustrated.The role of acetone as curing agent was discussed.Zirconia poly-crystalline fber with at 1 530 ℃ for 5 h.Microstructure of the sintered zirconia fiber was investigated.

  9. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  10. Research Progress of Advanced Preparation Technology for Semi-Solid Metal Slurry%半固态金属浆料先进制备技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卫民

    2012-01-01

    总结了10多年来半固态金属浆料先进制备工艺的研究和应用现状,分别介绍了压室浆料、双螺旋机械搅拌浆料、低过热度倾斜板浇注浆料、低过热度浇注和弱机械搅拌浆料、连续流变转换浆料、低过热度浇注和弱电磁搅拌浆料、蛇形通道浇注浆料、熔体分散混合浆料、转桶搅拌浆料、波浪倾斜板浇注浆料、旋转倾斜圆筒浆料、超声振动浆料、倒锥形通道浇注浆料、自孕育浆料、偏旋热焓平衡浆料、气泡搅拌浆料、环状电磁搅拌浆料等金属浆料的先进制备工艺及其发展前景.%The research status of advanced preparation technologies for semi-solid metal slurry and their application in the recent decade were overviewed. The semi-solid slurry preparation in injection sleeve, the twin screw mechanical stirring process, the new rheocasting process, the low superheat pouring and weak mechanical stirring process, the continuous rheoconversion process, the low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring process, the serpentine channel pouring process, the melt spreading and mixing technique process, the rotating barrel stirring process, the wavelike sloping plate process, the low superheat pouring with a shear field process, the ultrasonic vibration process, the inverted cone channel pouring process, the self-inoculation process, the swirled enthalpy equilibration device process, the gas induced semi-solid process, the annular electromagnetic stirring process and so on were described, and the main characteristics and know-how of these slurry preparation technologies were also depicted and their prospects were analyzed.

  11. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  12. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  13. Efeito do arejamento no processo de compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume de pecuária leiteira Influence of aeration on the process of composting dairy cattle slurry solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2009-01-01

    muito elevado (8-9 durante o processo de compostagem.Manure surpluses in dairy farms can be reduced by separation of the solid fraction from slurry whereas composting allows the stabilization of the organic matter of the solid fraction. The solid fraction can be exported to other farms with a high demand for organic amendments after composting because this turns cattle slurry solids into a uniform, easily handled, organically stable, without pathogens or viable weed seeds that can be land applied and marketed as a soil amendment. However, when 60% moisture content of solids is exceeded, and this is the situation for most separated slurry solids, oxygen movement is somewhat restricted. Therefore, the effect of turning the compost pile must be researched since it provides oxygen for the decomposition process. Dairy cattle slurry solids from two different farms located at the NW Portugal (Vila do Conde, with 70% and 78% moisture contents, were removed from the tank using an auger encased in a perforated stainless steel screen, allowing removal of excess water. Twelve pile treatments of 15 m³ of freshly separated solids were placed in bare soil. The effects of using straw as a framework and of turning with a tractor-mounted front-end loader were evaluated through chemical analysis on pile samples collected over a 15 week period. Thermophilic temperatures were achieved soon after separation for 70% moisture solids, but these temperatures were attained for 78% moisture solids only once mixed with straw, indicating that differences in bedding material affects the temperature and oxygen concentration during composting. Moreover, solids with initial 70% moisture had a faster rate of composting and took shorter time to reach maturity than solids with 78% moisture. Although chemical evolution based on parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and C/N ratio provided substantial evidence that agronomical suitable compost can be obtained, future challenges include optimizing

  14. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  15. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  17. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  18. Effects of Main Parameters on Rheological Properties of Oil-Coal Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; HAO Li-fang; XIONG Chu-an; SUN Xiu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  20. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  1. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  2. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  3. Flashing Slurry Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  4. Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; Demartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    ..., a streamlined approach we term 'co-hydrolysis' was developed. In this method, the solids and liquid in the pretreated biomass slurry are not separated, but instead hydrolysis is performed by adding enzymes to the whole pretreated slurry...

  5. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Case, Sean; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified...

  6. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  7. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  8. Slurry transport medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  9. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  11. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  12. Extraction of organotin species in sediment employing solid phase microextraction coupled to graphite furnace and total tin determination by slurry sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Soriano Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho de Tese visa acoplar a fibra, empregada em microextração em fase sólida (SPME, do inglês solid phase microextraction), ao espectrômetro de absorção atômica com forno de grafite (GF AAS, do inglês graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), visando reter espécies organometálicas volatilizadas nas etapas de secagem e pirólise do GF AAS. O elemento escolhido para avaliar o acoplamento SPME-GF AAS foi o Sn. Primeiramente, a concentração total de Sn foi determinada, uti...

  13. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  14. The Optimizing Conditions by Taguchi Method for Fabricating Semi-Solid Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Slurry by Cooling Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Yong; Park, Hyung-Won; Jeong, In-Sang; Lim, Su-Gun

    In order to optimize the condition for the semi-solid Al-Zn-Mg aluminium alloy fabricated by cooling plate method, the Taguchi design was used. The cooling plate method effectively separating the grains formed from the mold wall can be used to form a semi-solid material by flowing molten metal over an inclined Cu plate and casting in a mold for the near-net shape component. In Taguchi's design method, the higher signal vs noise (S/N) ratio the better. Therefore, the manufacturing conditions were arranged as a table of orthogonal arrays (L9(34)), and the influence of two factors, pouring temperature and cooling plate angle, was examined. From the observed microstructures, the grain size and aspect ratio were measured by image analyzer. The results indicated that the pouring temperature exerts the main effect on the spherical microstructures since the S/N ratio, which is the sensibility of the surrounding environment, was the highest. The optimum condition for the Al-Zn-Mg alloy was a cooling plate angle of 40° and a pouring temperature of 680°C. The grain size and aspect ratio were 70 μm and 1.3, respectively.

  15. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  16. Influence of Processing Parameters on Microstructure of Semi-solid A356 Slurry Prepared by Inclined Tubes%倾斜管制备A356半固态浆料工艺参数对组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 邱锡荣

    2015-01-01

    A356 aluminum alloy slurry was prepared by inclined tubes,and effects of some parameters, such as pouring temperature,rotating velocity and inclined angle of feeding tube,preheating tempera-ture of mould,on microstructure of semi-solid slurry,were investigated.Through optimizing processing parameters,desirable microstructure of the A356 alloy semi-solid slurry can be prepared.%利用倾斜管技术制备了A356铝合金半固态浆料,通过改变浇注温度、输送管转速和倾角、结晶器预热温度等工艺参数,观察了半固态浆料的组织变化,研究分析了各种工艺参数对A356半固态浆料的影响规律,获得了理想的微观组织。

  17. A study on sintering of ceramic bricks made from waste coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study on phase transformations and structure formation during firing of bricks made from wastes of coaly argillite processing. The effect of firing temperature on the processes of mineral formation and changes in the quantitative content of amorphous phase and brick porosity was defined. It was found that at 950-1050 °C the sintering takes place providing a solid brick structure.

  18. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  19. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  20. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  1. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 1. Nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in comparison with raw slurry in different soil substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-08-01

    Rising amounts of cattle and pig slurry dimensioned on the basis of its nitrogen content, and liquid and solid slurry fractions obtained after mechanical fractionation were tested on sandy, loess and low-bog soils. The dry matter yields and nitrogen utilization rates determined in a 2-years test show clear correlations with the soil class and the nitrogen amount, but also with the form of slurry nitrogen bond, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the organic manures and their content of mineral substances. The nitrogen utilization rates are influenced and vary considerably in the variants under review. On the average of the variants 'soil' and 'nitrogen increase' more than 50% of the mineral nitrogen were utilized by the plants. About 30 to 40% of the raw slurry and liquid slurry nitrogen were taken up by the plants. About 18% of the nitrogen from the solid cattle slurry fraction was utilized on the average, the figure for solid pig slurry fraction was 32%.

  2. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

  3. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  4. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  5. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  6. Physical cleaning of waste coal by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The coal wastes generated from coal mining operations and coal cleaning processes contain fine and ultrafine coals. Recovery of the fine/ultrafine coal from the coal wastes reduces the loss of useable fuels and the environmental impact. The objective of this project was to use dissolved-CO{sub 2} technology to generate ultrafine bubbles to separate fine/ultrafine coal from pyrite and other mineral matter in the coal wastes. The Illinois No. 6 coal waste used in the project was the underflow from a refuse thickener. The concentrations of the major trace metals are much higher than those found in Illinois Basin Coal database for Illinois No. 6 coals. Bench-scale conventional flotation tests of the waste coal were performed under various conditions using a 4-liter Wemco flotation cell. The tests were performed to determine the chemical dosages and flotation conditions used in dissolved-CO{sub 2} column flotation. The waste coal samples were subjected to dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation in a 2-inch diameter microbubble column under various test conditions. The flotation performance as affected by each test variable was compared. For most of the tests, the Btu recovery was above 80%, the pyrite rejection was about 60%, and the ash rejection varied from about 45% to 76%. Dissolved air was used in one test for comparison. The waste coal samples were also subjected to typical microbubble flotation. As compared to microbubble flotation, the dissolved-CO{sub 2} had higher yield, higher Btu recovery, less pyrite rejection, and less ash rejection. Almost all of the major trace metals had a substantial reduction in concentration by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation, particularly for cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead.

  7. Effects of Several Factors on Viscosity of Alumina-spinel Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Jianmin; LIU Kaiqi; LIU Zuocai

    2004-01-01

    The effects of several commercial dispersants, including AN- 2000, ammonium polyacrylate , sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and of solids loading and of electro-fused magnesia on rheological propertiesof aqueous alumina-spinel slurries were studied.The results reveal that AN- 2000 is the most effective one among the selected dispersants for alumina-spinel slurries.With 0.5% weight of AN-2000, the 57vol% solids loadobtained at shear rate of 50s-1 .

  8. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  9. Electrochemical behaviors of silicon wafers in silica slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Song; Haiping Yang; Xunda Shi; Xi He; Guanzhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of n-type silicon wafers in silica-based slurry were investigated, and the influences of the pH value and solid content of the slurry on the corrosion of silicon wafers were studied by using electrochemical DC polarization and AC impedance techniques. The results revealed that these factors affected the corrosion behaviors of silicon wafers to different degrees and had their suitable parameters that made the maximum corrosion rate of the wafers. The corrosion potential of (100) surface was lower than that of (111), whereas the current density of (100) was much higher than that of (111).

  10. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  12. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  13. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  14. Recovery of clean coal from polymer flocculated raw coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K.; Chen, Z. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (US)

    2004-11-01

    The recovery of fine clean coal from waste streams using column flotation is recognized as an efficient and economical technique. However, due to the low percent solids (around 3% by weight) found in these fine waste slurries, the flotation columns have low capacities and are, thus, underutilized. In this study, a 3% (by weight) solids suspension of Upper Freeport coal was flocculated with polymers and concentrated to 10% (by weight) solids. The flocculated slurry was then floated using 250 g/t No. 2 fuel oil and 250 g/t MIBC, which provided a clean coal with 12% ash at an 80% yield. The results showed that flocculated coal could be floated effectively. Zeta potential and contact-angle data showed that the presence of polymer on the surface of the coal did not affect its hydrophobicity, and in some cases it improved the hydrophobicity as indicated by larger contact angles.

  15. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  16. Relevance of a perchloric acid extraction scheme to determine mineral and organic phosphorus in swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, Marie-Line; Béline, Fabrice; Spérandio, Mathieu; Morel, Christian

    2008-03-01

    To increase the phosphorus recycling potential from swine slurry, mineral phosphorus products which could be used as fertilizers should be obtained and new processes need to be investigated. A routine method is needed to better evaluate the dissolved and solid mineral phosphorus in swine slurry. Cold perchloric acid extraction method previously developed for wastewater or sludge analysis was adapted. Ionic chromatography was used to measure orthophosphate in extracts. Only one extraction step was needed to distinguish between mineral and organic phosphorus in slurry. Reproducibility of the method was high (less than 5% of variation on the measured fractions). Selectivity was assessed by adding several organic and mineral phosphorus sources in the slurry. Cold perchloric extraction followed by ionic chromatography was very selective in quantifying both the mineral and organic forms of phosphorus in swine slurry.

  17. Annulus electromagnetic stirring for preparing semisolid A357 aluminum alloy slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yue-long; XU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-feng; SHI Li-kai

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pouring temperature and annulus gap width on the microstructure of the semi-solid A357 aluminum alloy slurry prepared by annulus electromagnetic stirring(AEMS) technology were investigated. The results show that low pouring temperature and narrow annulus gap are advantageous to obtaining the small spherical primary α(Al) phase. The lower the pouring temperature is and the smaller the annulus gap width is, the more uniform, the smaller and the more spherical the microstructure is. The microstructures obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring and AEMS were compared. The results indicate that the primary α(Al) particles are globular, small and distribute homogeneously in the slurry obtained by AEMS. But in the slurry obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring, the primary α(Al) particles are small dendrites in the edge of the slurry and they are large and rosette-like or dendritic in the inner of the slurry.

  18. Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bahr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application, the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process.

  19. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  20. Microstructure evolution of semi-solid 7075 Al alloy slurry during temperature homogenization treatment%半固态7075铝合金浆料温度均匀化处理过程中的组织演化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 毛卫民; 宋晓俊

    2013-01-01

    Semi-solid 7075 Al slurry was prepared by inverted cone-shaped pouring channel process (ICSPC) and temperature homogenization (TH) treatment was combined to make the slurry uniform and have a controllable solid fraction suitable for the follow-up rheocasting. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure evolution of primary α(Al) during TH treatment was investigated. The results show that as the cooling rate of the slurry after being prepared reduces, the growth of primaryα(Al) in the slurry tends to be nearly spherical and the uniformity of the organization is also enhanced. This may be due to the fact that lower cooling rate plays an important role in achieving the uniformity of temperature and composition in the remaining liquid, which is crucial to the formation of the spherical and homogeneous microstructure. However, a too low cooling rate will lead to a significant increase in grain growth time, which makes too coarse grains and more particles coalesce, so a certain abnormal growth of grain appears and the shape factor decreases slightly.%采用ICSPC法制备半固态7075铝合金浆料,再结合温度均匀化处理,使浆料组织相对均匀并获得可控的固相率,以适合后续的流变压铸。主要研究温度均匀化处理过程中冷却速率对初生α(Al)组织演化规律的影响。结果表明,随着冷却速率的降低,半固态浆料中的初生α(Al)趋向于近球状方式生长,其组织的均匀性也相对提高。这可能是由于冷却速度的降低有利于半固态浆料剩余液相中各部分温度及成分的一致性,而这种一致性则是形成均匀球状晶的关键。然而,过低的冷却速度将会显著延长晶粒的生长时间,导致晶粒过分粗大和更多的晶粒合并,因而出现部分异常长大的晶粒,并导致形状因子的轻微下降。

  1. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  2. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  3. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry.

  4. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  5. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  6. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  7. Gaseous emissions and modification of slurry composition during storage and after field application: Effect of slurry additives and mechanical separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Twum, Maxwell Yeboah; Polastre, Adele; Subedi, Raghunath; Santos, Ana Sofia; Mendes Ferreira, Luis Miguel; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of slurry treatment by additives (EU200(®) (EU200), Bio-buster(®) (BB), JASS(®) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4)) and mechanical separation on the physical-chemical characteristics, gaseous emissions (NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O) during anaerobic storage at ∼20 °C (experiment 1) and NH3 losses after field application (experiment 2). The treatments studied in experiment 1 were: whole slurry (WS), WS+H2SO4 to a pH of 6.0, WS+EU200 and WS+BB. Treatments for experiment 2 were: WS, slurry liquid fraction (LF), composted solid fraction (CSF), LFs treated with BB (LFB), JASS(®) (LFJ), H2SO4 to a pH of 5.5 (LFA) and soil only (control). The results showed an inhibition of the degradation of organic materials (cellulose, hemicellulose, dry matter organic matter and total carbon) in the WS+H2SO4 relative to the WS. When compared to the WS, the WS+H2SO4 increased electrical conductivity, ammonium (NH4(+)) and sulphur (S) concentrations whilst reducing slurry pH after storage. The WS+H2SO4 reduced NH3 volatilization by 69% relative to the WS but had no effect on emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O during storage. Biological additive treatments (WS+EU200 and WS+BB) had no impact on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions relative to the WS during storage. After field application, the cumulative NH3 lost in the LF was almost 50% lower than the WS. The losses in the LFA were reduced by 92% relative to the LF. The LFB and LFJ had no impact on NH3 losses relative to the LF. A significant effect of treatment on NH4(+) concentration was found at the top soil layer (0-5 cm) after NH3 measurements with higher concentrations in the LF treatments relative to the WS. Overall, the use of the above biological additives to decrease pollutant gases and to modify slurry characteristics are questionable. Reducing slurry dry matter through mechanical separation can mitigate NH3 losses after field application. Slurry acidification can increase the

  8. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...

  9. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  10. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  11. Microchannel Heat Sink with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Material (MEPCM) Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    beds or fluidized beds , depending on the concentration of the slurry. The authors assumed local thermal equilibrium for both liquid and solid...simulating MEPCM slurry flows assumed homogeneous distribution of particles. The model proposed by Tao et al. [16] use fluidized bed correlations to solve...directly fabricated in a silicon substrate and had direct circulation of water. It is so compact that heat is efficiently carried from the substrate

  12. Numerical Simulation on A356 Aluminum Alloy Semi-solid Slurry Preparation with Electromagnetic Stirring%A356铝合金半固态浆料电磁搅拌法制备过程的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶文琉; 赵升吨; 林文捷

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional model coupling of the electromagnetic field, temperature field asd flow field of A356 alloy semi-solid slurry preparation by electromagnetic stirring (EMS) method is established. The power law cut-off (PLCO) semi-solid model is used to model the slurry. The effects of EMS parameters such as stirring frequency and stirring current on the electromagnetic field, temperature field and flow field are investigated by finite element code ANSYS combined with secondary development INTEL FORTRAN software. The results show that, electromagnetic field increases but non-uniformly distributes as stirring frequency and stirring current increase, as a result, flow field increases but non-uniformly distributes. The reasonable stirring parameters for A356 alloy semi-solid slurry preparation by EMS are obtained. The simulation results are verified with corresponding experiments.%建立电磁搅拌法制备A356铝合金半固态浆料过程的电磁场、温度场和流体力学场多场耦合的二维数值模型,采用Power law cut-off(PLCO)半固态模型来描述铝合金浆料的流场,并利用有限元软件ANSYS和编程软件INTEL FORTRAN相结合对电磁场、温度场和流场耦合模拟,研究多场搅拌参数对电磁场、温度场和流场的影响规律.模拟结果表明,搅拌频率和搅拌电流增加时会使电磁场增大且分布不均匀,从而造成浆料流速迅速增大并且分布不均匀.进一步获得电磁搅拌法制备A356铝合金半固态浆科的合理搅拌参数.在所研制的试验装置上验证了数值模拟的可靠性.

  13. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The properties of slurries made of pyrolysis oil mixed with wood, char or ground char were investigated with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental compositions, and energy density. Also the pumping properties of the slurries were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40...... and 60 C and solid loadings from 0 to 20 wt%. The phase transitions of the wood slurry samples were observed at lower solid loadings compared to the char slurry samples. The apparent viscosity of the slurry samples was found to be considerably impacted by solid loading (0e20 wt%) and temperature (25e60 C......), especially in the phase transition region. The slurry viscosities with 20 wt% char loading, 20 wt% ground char loading and 15 wt% wood loading (at a shear rate of 100 s1) are 0.7, 1.0 and 1.7 Pa.s, respectively at 60 C and these values increases 1.2e1.4 times at 40 C and 3e4 times at 25 C. The wood, char...

  14. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... with a reference scenario. The treatment scenarios were field acidification, in-house acidification, screw press separation with and without composting of the solid fraction, decanter centrifuge separation with and without ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction, and four anaerobic digestion scenarios...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  15. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  16. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Three-Phase Airlift Loop Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 王金福; 王铁峰; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber optic probe system and a set of commercial ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters have been used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of a three-phase airlift loop (TPAL) slurry reactor. Experiments have been carried out in a loop reactor with 100 mm inner diameter and 2.5 m height, in which air, tap water and silica gel particles are used as the gas, liquid and solid phase, respectively. The radial profile of gas holdup, bubble size, bubble rising velocity, liquid circulating velocity, and the influence of the main operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity and solids concentration have been studied experimentally in the TPAL slurry reactor. The experimental results show that the bubble characteristics are different in various flow regimes and the radial profiles of some hydrodynamic parameters in the TPAL slurry reactor are more uniform than those in traditional three-phase reactors. The distribution of the bubble size and bubble rising velocity can be described by a lognormal function. The influence of superficial gas velocity on the hydrodynamic parameters is more remarkable than that of the solids concentration.

  17. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in......-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  18. Hydrogen absorption of slurry system composed of different MgNi alloy and benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡官明; 陈长聘; 安越; 徐国华; 陈立新; 王启东

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption amount and kinetics of the slurry formed by suspending the MgNi alloy powderin liquid benzene were studied. It is discovered that hydrogen is absorbed by both the solid phase(alloy) and liquidphase(C6 H6) and the hydrogen absorption rate varies with the temperature and the content of the Mg-Ni in the slur-ry. Most hydrogen absorption curves of the slurry fall into two regions, in which the mechanism of hydriding reac-tion in the slurry system is different. In the former region, the hydriding of the alloy proceeds with hydrogen diffu-sing through C6 H6. The part in the second region is the outcome of the hydrogenation of C6 H6. At 548 K and underthe hydrogen pressure of 4.5 MPa the saturation capacity for the slurry of 80% C6 H6 (mass fraction)+20% MgNi(mass fraction) is 5.9% (mass fraction) hydrogen, which is 97% of the theoretic capacity of the slurry system.The hydride of the alloy MgNi, which is only the hydride of Mg2Ni phase, Mg2NiH4, is an efficient catalyst for thehydrogenation of C6 H6 into C6 H12 (C6 H6 +3H2→C6 H12 ) in the slurry system.

  19. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-06-25

    Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.

  20. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  1. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  2. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  3. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cattle Slurry with Maize Stalk at Mesophilic Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adebayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion from batch digester containing varying ratio of mixture of cow slurry and maize stalk was studied at mesophilic temperature (37oC. Cattle slurry and maize stalks were co-digested at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 using the percentage volatile solid of each substrate. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory scale batch digester. The digester was fed with cattle slurry-maize stalks mixtures calculated for the selected ratios based on the volatile solid (VS concentration of the selected substrates. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 3:1 at mesophilic temperature gave biogas yields of 0.426, 0.385 and 0.391m3 /kgoDM respectively while the methane yields were 0.297, 0.270 and 0.262m3CH4/kgoDM respectively. From the fresh mass of the substrate, biogas yields of 0.052, 0.059 and 0.090 m3 /kgFM were obtained for cattle slurry-maize stalks ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively while the methane yields from the fresh mass for the same ratios were 0.036, 0.043 and 0.060 CH4/kgFM respectively. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks was found to have methane concentrations of 69.66, 70.24 and 66.98% at cattle slurry/maize stalks combinations of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively. The highest biogas yields (oDM of 0.426 m3 /kgoDM was obtained at the mixing ratio of 3:1; therefore the mixing ratio of 3:1 is recommended as the optimal for the codigestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at mesophilic temperature.

  4. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor under High Temperature and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and CO in a high temperature and high-pressure three-phase slurry bubble column reactor is studied. The gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficients κLα are obtained by measuring the dissolution rate of H2 and CO. The influences of the main operation conditions, such as temperature, pressure, superficial gas velocity and solid concentration, are studied systematically. Two empirical correlations are proposed to predict κLα values for H2 and CO in liquid paraffin/solid particles slurry bubble column reactors.

  5. Combustion tests of coal-water slurry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of an experimental test program to determine the combustion characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels (65 to 75 percent dry coal by weight and exhibiting room temperature viscosities of about 1000 cp) are presented. The slurry tested contained 66 percent solids by weight and was produced from a beneficiated high volatile eastern bituminous coal. The CWS and its parent coal were each fired in B and W's 4.0 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr Basic Combustion Test Unit. Each fuel was also subjected to extensive laboratory analysis work. No burner or atomizer development work was done - the primary objective of the study being to demonstrate that the CWS could be fired with existing fuel oil handling equipment.

  6. Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

  7. Summary of rheological studies related to HWVP slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Smith, P.A.; Terrones, G.; Larson, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous studies (Section 8) have,addressed the Theological properties of simulated process slurries at the Savannah River Laboratory for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`(PNL) for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). These studies were reviewed to summarize existing data applicable to HWVP design. The reviewers determined that the existing data provide important information on the effects of feed variability, solids loading, temperature, formating, pH, and scale-up. However, these data cannot serve as a basis for fundamental slurry transport calculations because data are not reported in sufficient detail over a range of shear rates and in appropriate terms to be sufficient for transport calculations.

  8. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  9. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  10. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  11. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  13. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  14. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  15. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.

  17. Freon (CHF3)-assisted atomization for the determination of titanium using ultrasonic slurry sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-GFAAS): a simple and advantageous method for solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2004-06-01

    A simple and advantageous method for the determination of titanium using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling has been developed. Titanium is one of the refractory elements that form thermally stable carbides in the graphite tube, which leads to severe memory effects. Trifluoromethane (Freon-23) was applied in the purge gas during the atomization step or alternatively just prior to the atomization to successfully eliminate the problems of carbide formation and increase the lifetime of the furnace tube which could be used for more than 600 heating cycles. A flow rate of 40 mL min(-1) (5% of Freon in argon) was used to obtain symmetrical peaks with no tailing. However, when the gas flow rate was too high (250 mL min(-1)) the peak-tailing and memory effects reappeared. Ti was determined in various materials covering a wide range of concentrations, from 2.8 microg g(-1) to 12% (m/m) Ti. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) or by comparing the results with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after decomposition of the samples. The materials analyzed were soil, plant, human hair, coal, urban particulate matters, toothpaste, and powdered paint.

  18. TWO-PHASE FLOW OF HIGHLY CONCENTRATED SLURRY IN A PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Fu-sheng; ZHAO Li-juan; MATOUSEK V.; VLASBLOM W. J.; ZWARTBOL A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic transport of sand is one of the key processes in river, lake, harbor and waterway dredging engineering. Understanding the flow resistance, solid distribution, flow stratification, transport economy, etc., in the two-phase flow of sand-water mixture through a pipeline is crucial to the design and operation of power drives of a dredger, and to the construction of a dredging project. This paper presents the intensive laboratory experimental data and physical and numerical analyses on the highly concentrated slurry flow under an extended large range of slurry mean velocities for three narrow-graded sands of different sizes. The investigation indicates that the solids concentration and particle size strongly affect the slurry flow characteristics.

  19. Modeling of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for a bubble column slurry reactor is presented for dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas. Methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by hydrogenation and the methanol dehydration are considered as independent reactions, in which methanol, dimethyl ether and carbon dioxide are the key components. In this model, the gas phase is considered to be in plug flow and the liquid phase to be in partly back mixing with axial distribution of solid catalyst. The simulation results show that the axial dispersion of solid catalysts, the operational height of the slurry phase in the bubble column slurry reactor, and the reaction results are influenced by the reaction temperature and pressure, which are the basic data for the scale-up of reactor.

  20. Influências físicas sobre características químicas na compostagem da fracção sólida de chorume de bovinos leiteiros Influence of dairy cattle slurry solid fraction physical characteristics on chemical characteristics of composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As características físicas das pilhas de compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume (FSC são responsáveis pela criação de condições aeróbias ou anaeróbias e determinam a actividade metabólica e a temperatura no interior das pilhas. Aqui, a FSC de duas explorações leiteiras foi compostada em pilhas com e sem volteio, com o volume de 5 m³ no interior de um túnel, cobertas com um filme de polietileno, ou descobertas, e com o volume de 15 m³ no exterior do túnel, cobertas com um filme de polietileno, ou com uma tela geotextil que não permite a infiltração de água mas permite as trocas gasosas. As pilhas cobertas com tela geotextil e as pilhas descobertas atingiram temperaturas mais elevadas na fase termófila da compostagem em comparação com as pilhas cobertas com polietileno porque beneficia-ram com a difusão do oxigénio. Quando cobertas com polietileno as temperaturas mais baixas registaram-se nas pilhas com a FSC que possuía inicialmente maior teor de humidade. As características físicas como a temperatura, humidade e arejamento das pilhas foram comparadas periodicamente durante a compostagem com características químicas dos compostados, designadamente, pH, condutividade eléctrica, matéria orgânica, azoto Kjeldahl e razão C/N. Relacionaramse as perdas de matéria orgânica durante a compostagem com a concentração de N no material compostado, verificando-se que a FSC pode ser compostada com perdas mínimas de N em pilhas estáticas com um número reduzido de volteios.The physical characteristics of the solid fraction from slurry are responsible for the creation of aerobic or anaerobic conditions and therefore for the metabolic activity and the temperature inside the composting pile. Here, the dairy cattle slurry solids from two different farms located at the NW Portugal was composted with and without turning the pile, in piles with 5 m³ inside an unheated greenhouse covered with a polyethylene film or not

  1. Modification of starch by reaction with ethylene oxide in liquid-solid and gas-solid reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warners, Anne van

    1992-01-01

    The hydroxyethylation of starch in a gas-solid system has been compared economically with a slurry process with recycle of ethylene oxide. The estimated production costs with the gas-solid process turn out to be lower than the estimated costs resulting from the slurry process. The main causes for

  2. Modelling the Potential of Slurry Management Technologies to Reduce the Constraints of Environmental Legislation on Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor...... management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies....

  3. Treatment of brewery slurry in thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Straziscar, Matej; Ros, Milenko

    2007-10-01

    Treatment of brewery slurry in a thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was studied using conventional fully mixed semi-continuous digestion as a control. The process phases were adapted to fit the brewery slurry discharge schedule. ASBR experiments were conducted under different organic loading rates (OLR) from 3.23 to 8.57 kg of COD/m(3)day of reactor and control was conducted with OLR of 3.0 kg of COD/m(3)day. The ASBR COD degradation efficiency was from 79.6% to 88.9%, control experiment efficiency was 65%. ASBR VSS removal efficiency was from 78.5% to 90.5%, control experiment efficiency was 54%. The ASBR methane production yield was from 371 to 418 L/kg COD inserted, control experiment methane yield was 248 L/kg COD inserted. The ASBR process was superior to conventional fully mixed digestion, and is fully adaptable to brewery slurry discharge, needs no additional collection and settling pools and experiences no solids settling problems.

  4. Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, F. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Coetsier, C.; Carretier, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); Ennahali, M.; Laborie, B. [KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Serafino, C.; Bulgarelli, F. [Rockwood Wafer reclaim France, ZI des Pradeaux, 13850 Greasque (France); Moulin, P., E-mail: philippe.moulin@univ-cezanne.fr [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Membrane processes were used to regenerate Silicon CMP slurry effluent {yields} A two-step ultrafiltration process was performed at laboratory and industrial scales {yields} A new hybrid process (membrane ultrafiltration and chemical addition) is developed {yields} A ratio of 0.65 of dissolved chemicals allows RR and TTV to be within specifications {yields} At industrial scale, the hybrid process enables the reuse of electronic effluents. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called 'slurry', and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot.

  5. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Parameters in Multiphase Flowing of Natural Gas NGH Slurry via Vertical Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the pipeline flowing of natural gas hydrate (hereinafter NGH slurry has been a promising technique of multiphase flowing via pipe and that of crushed hydrate mixture slurry is also a key technique in solid fluidization mining method of nondiagenetic NGH reservoir below the seabed. In this paper, by using similarity rules, a small-scale simulation model was established to shorten the calculation time. The correctness of the simulation model has been verified through comparison with experiment. Thereby, the distribution of velocity and volume fraction of each phase in the vertical pipe was obtained, and the prototype of vertical pipe was analyzed. By study on the pipe resistance, the pressure drop of slurry, when flowing in vertical pipe, could be calculated as ΔP=ρgh+0.23Cρv1.8. In the end, by adjusting volume fraction of particles in the mixture slurry, the relationship between the solid particles’ volume fraction and piezometric pressure drop was obtained. When the optimal flow velocity of the slurry is 2 m/s and the ratio of NGH volume fraction to that of sand is 4 : 1, the optimal particle volume fraction ranges from 20% to 40%.

  7. An Approach to Understanding Cohesive Slurry Settling, Mobilization, and Hydrogen Gas Retention in Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2009-05-22

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. Some of these vessels have mixing-system requirements to maintain conditions where the accumulation of hydrogen gas stays below acceptable limits, and the mixing within the vessels is sufficient to release hydrogen gas under normal conditions and during off-normal events. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries of solid particles suspended in Newtonian fluids that behave as non-Newtonian slurries, such as Bingham yield-stress fluids. When these slurries are contained in the process vessels, the particles can settle and become progressively more concentrated toward the bottom of the vessels, depending on the effectiveness of the mixing system. One limiting behavior is a settled layer beneath a particle-free liquid layer. The settled layer, or any region with sufficiently high solids concentration, will exhibit non-Newtonian rheology where it is possible for the settled slurry to behave as a soft solid with a yield stress. In this report, these slurries are described as settling cohesive slurries.

  8. Paraffin Alkylation Using Zeolite Catalysts in a slurry reactor: Chemical Engineering Principles to Extend Catalyst Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Peferoen, D.G.R.; Brugge, P.T.M. van; Groot, C. de

    1996-01-01

    The alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene is carried out using a zeolitic catalyst in a well stirred slurry reactor. Whereas application of fixed bed technology using a solid acid alkylation catalyst has in the led to catalysts lifetimes in the range of minutes, in this work we report catalyst

  9. Rheology measurements of a biomass slurry : an inter-laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan J. Stickel; Jeffrey S. Knutsen; Matthew W. Liberatore; Wing Luu; Douglas W. Bousfield; Daniel J. Klingenberg; Tim Scott; Thatcher W. Root; Max R. Ehrhardt; Thomas O. Monz

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of biomass, specifically lignocellulosic biomass, into fuels and chemicals has recently gained national attention as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of the biomass solids during biochemical conversion has a large potential to reduce production costs. These concentrated biomass slurries have highly viscous, non-...

  10. Metallocene supported core@LDH catalysts for slurry phase ethylene polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Jean-Charles; Byles, Coral F H; Felton, Ryan; Chen, Chunping; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-03-14

    We report the synthesis of solid catalysts based on a zirconocene supported on either silica@AMO-LDH or zeolite@AMO-LDH for the slurry phase polymerisation of ethylene. The hybrid catalysts demonstrate synergistic effects in which the polymerisation activity is up to three times higher than the zirconocene supported on analogous single phase silica or zeolite supports.

  11. Fractal Geometry of Particle Aggregates Formed in Calcium Sulfite Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟敏; 吴忠标; 官宝红; 赵伟荣; 郑平

    2007-01-01

    The solid-liquid separation is an important operation for the regenerated slurry of dual-alkali FGD system, and calcium sulfite could predominate in particle aggregates of the slurry. The settling velocity of calcium sulfite particles is a key parameter for the solid-liquid separation design. However, the settling velocity predicted by Stokes' Law could be suitable only for a spherical aggregate, but not for the irregular one. In this work, fractal geometry was introduced in order to characterize highly irregular geometric shapes. The sizes of calcium sulfite particle aggregates were analyzed using a metallographic phase microscope and image analysis. The results showed that particle aggregate had fractal features. The fractal dimensions could reveal the characteristics of the aggregates' geometry and aggregation process. An exponential relation between the fractal dimension D2 and the particle size l was determined as AμlD2. According to fractal theory, a parameter can be used to modify Stokes settling velocity close to actual settling velocity. The results could be valuable for the design of solid-liquid separation process.

  12. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  13. Slurry and processing technique of CLBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-li; LIU Yu-ling; NIU Xin-huan; TAN Bai-mei

    2006-01-01

    CsLiB6O10(CLBO) is a new-type nonlinear optical crystal material. CLBO has many good performances,especially the frequency multiplication performance in deep ultraviolet band. CLBO has important application prospect on solid-state UV laser,broad band tunable laser and laser nucleus flame igniter. Though,CLBO will be air slaking and cracking when the ambient humidity is more than 40%,which brings more difficult on CLBO surface finishing. According to the performance and structure characteristic of CLBO crystal,a new water-free slurry applying for CLBO crystal chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was investigated. The abrasive is SiO2. The influence of polishing processing parameter on polishing process for CLBO crystal was discussed,and the parameter optimal value of polishing plate speed,pressure,pH value and abrasive concentration were determined. Through such parameters,high efficiency and precision plane polishing was gotten. The CLBO CMP process was studied,the results show that low pressure and high speed can improve the CLBO crystal surface removal rate and flatness.

  14. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo Andrea; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A ...

  15. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pump was also tested with clean water. The performance of pump has been reported as variations of head, power and efficiency at various flow rates along with the system characteristics of the pump. The results reveal that the pump performance is grossly affected by the type of slurry, its concentration and size. Besides this the variation in speed also affects the performance as is observed in pumps with water. The maximum decrease in the head, with respect to clear water, at the operating point was found to be 47% for aggregate for size 20 mm, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm. The maximum decrement in efficiency at operating point for aggregate was found to be 47% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and at 2200 rpm. The power increment requirement for aggregate was 9% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm.

  16. A novel and efficient epoxy/chitosan cement slurry for use in severe acidic environments of oil wells-Structural characterization and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Antonio R; Vieira, Eunice F S; Alves, Fernanda J; Silva, Ellen C S; Andrade, Marcos A S

    2012-04-30

    In this study, the biopolymer chitosan was used to synthesize a new epoxy/chitosan cement slurry. The features of the new slurry were evaluated in relation to a standard cement slurry (w/c=0.5). A kinetic study of the interaction epoxy/chitosan slurry/HCl was performed to simulate the use of the new slurry in environmental-friendly acidizing procedures of oil wells. The experimental data were well fitted to a three-parameter kinetic model. The analysis of the kinetic modeling suggests that surface reactions constitute the main interactions at the interface epoxy/chitosan-modified cement slurry/HCl. The characterization of the slurries was performed by FTIR, XRD, TG/DTG and solid-state reflectance spectroscopy. The results have pointed out that the main features of the new cement slurry were preserved, even after long-term contact with HCl in aqueous solution. The results of this study underline the excellent features of the new epoxy/chitosan-modified cement slurry for using in environmental-friendly acidizing procedures of oil wells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheology measurements of a biomass slurry: an inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickel, Jonathan J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, Golden, CO (United States); Knutsen, Jeffrey S.; Liberatore, Matthew W. [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, Golden, CO (United States); Luu, Wing; Bousfield, Douglas W. [University of Maine, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Orono, ME (United States); Klingenberg, Daniel J.; Root, Thatcher W.; Ehrhardt, Max R.; Monz, Thomas O. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Rheology Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Scott, C. Tim [U.S. Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of biomass, specifically lignocellulosic biomass, into fuels and chemicals has recently gained national attention as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of the biomass solids during biochemical conversion has a large potential to reduce production costs. These concentrated biomass slurries have highly viscous, non-Newtonian behavior that poses several technical challenges to the conversion process. A collaborative effort to measure the rheology of a biomass slurry at four separate laboratories has been undertaken. A comprehensive set of rheological properties were measured using several different rheometers, flow geometries, and experimental methods. The tendency for settling, water evaporation, and wall slip required special care when performing the experiments. The rheological properties were measured at different concentrations up to 30% insoluble solids by mass. The slurry was found to be strongly shear-thinning, to be viscoelastic, and to have a significant concentration-dependent yield stress. The elastic modulus was found to be almost an order of magnitude larger than the loss modulus and weakly dependent on frequency. The techniques and results of this work will be useful to characterize other biomass slurries and in the design of biochemical conversion processing steps that operate at high solids concentrations. (orig.)

  18. Rheology measurements of a biomass slurry: an inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickel, Jonathan J.; Knutsen, Jeffrey S.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Luu, Wing; Bousfield, Douglas W.; Klingenberg, Daniel J.; Scott, C. Tim; Root, Thatcher W.; Ehrhardt, Max R.; Monz, Thomas O.

    2009-09-02

    The conversion of biomass, specifically lignocellulosic biomass, into fuels and chemicals has recently gained national attention as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of the biomass solids during biochemical conversion has a large potential to reduce production costs. These concentrated biomass slurries have highly viscous, non-Newtonian behavior that poses several technical challenges to the conversion process. A collaborative effort to measure the rheology of a biomass slurry at four separate laboratories has been undertaken. A comprehensive set of rheological properties were measured using several different rheometers, flow geometries, and experimental methods. The tendency for settling, water evaporation, and wall slip required special care when performing the experiments. The rheological properties were measured at different concentrations up to 30% insoluble solids by mass. The slurry was found to be strongly shear-thinning, to be viscoelastic, and to have a significant concentration-dependent yield stress. The elastic modulus was found to be almost an order of magnitude larger than the loss modulus and weakly dependent on frequency. The techniques and results of this work will be useful to characterize other biomass slurries and in the design of biochemical conversion processing steps that operate at high solids concentrations.

  19. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1993-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research we intend to collect cores of unconsolidated material and sample pore gases from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The data gathered will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the generation and migration of acid in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. A conceptual model for the oxidation of pyrite at near-neutral conditions is being developed. This report includes our first approximation of the model. The model is subject to change.

  20. Experimental measurements of turbulent slurry jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted in which a fibre optic probe system was used to measure turbulent slurry jets. This presentation outlined the experimental setup and included an illustration of a probe schematic and measurements as well as calibrations. The probe schematic had a large range, high sensitivity and minimal flow disturbance. Probe calibration had the advantage of even concentration distribution, but it had the disadvantage of having a different reflective index from water. Slurry jet results were discussed with particular reference to parameters; concentration profile; velocity profile; spreading; and momentum flux. It was concluded that the probe is effective for a wide range of measurements in high concentration slurry jets. Future studies will focus on slurry jets impinging onto a non-Newtonian fluid (laponite). tabs., figs.

  1. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  2. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported.

  3. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.

    2016-09-01

    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  4. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    weak disruptive behavior while pure JP-1t burn quiescently, except for a flash extinction which occurs at the termination of combustion. The...I AD-R158 628 COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS(U) i/i I PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENINEERIN., F TAKAHASHI...COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS TAM by F. Takahashi, F.L. Dryer, and F.A. Williams Department of M~echanical and keyosase Engineering

  5. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor under High Temperature andHigh Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫国; 王金福; 金涌

    2001-01-01

    The gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and CO in a high temperature and high-pressure three-phase slurry bubble column reactor is studied. The gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficients kLa are obtained by measuring the dissolution rate of H2 and CO. The influences of the main operation conditions, such as temperature, pressure,superficial gas velocity and solid concentration, are studied systematically. Two empirical correlations are proposed to predict kLa values for H2 and CO in liquid paraffln/solid particles slurry bubble column reactors.

  6. Effects of Solid-Liquid Mixing on Microstructure of Semi-Solid A356 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. M.; Wang, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Yang, X. J.

    2014-08-01

    The desired starting material for semi-solid processing is the semi-solid slurry in which the solid phase is present as fine and globular particles. A modified solid-liquid mixing (SLM) is reported wherein semi-solid slurry can be produced by mixing a solid alloy block into a liquid alloy, and mechanical vibration is utilized to enhance the mixing. Effects such as liquid alloy temperature, mass ratio, and mixing intensity on the microstructure and the cooling curves during SLM were evaluated. 2D and 3D microstructure analysis of treated A356 aluminum alloy shows that microstructure can be refined significantly with a considerable morphology change in primary Al phase. It is critical that the temperature of mixture after mixing is lower than its liquidus temperature to obtain a valid SLM process. Specially, mixing intensity is identified as a primary factor for a favorable microstructure of semi-solid slurry.

  7. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles S.

    1988-08-01

    A transducer is developed to measure particle pressures independently from fluid pressure. Initially it was thought that particle pressure was the only path by which the fluidization mechanism could be determined. The particle pressure transducer has been described in previous reports. A secondary project was developed to test these transducers and use them to measure the particle pressures generated against the side walls of gas-fluidized beds. This was a way to gain experience with the particle pressure transducer while awaiting the delivery of the pump and other components for the slurry pipe loop. Earlier this year, there was great difficulty in gaining repeatable results from the experiments. The culprit turned out to be static charge buildup in the granular mass. Hence, steam was injected into the air stream to help dissipate the charge buildup. This produced a further source of error that was eventually traced to the fiberoptic displacement transducer inside the probe. It developed that the transducer was sensitive to humidity. It has been suggested that this reaction might be a byproduct of the absorption of water onto the sensing surface changes its optical properties and hence its output signal.

  8. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields.

  9. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  11. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.

    2000-08-31

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the ''clear'' layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm.

  12. Enhanced methane production from ultrasound pre-treated and hygienized dairy cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of hygienization (70 °C, 60 min) and ultrasound (6000 ± 500 kJ/kg total solids (TS)) pre-treatments on hydrolysis and biological methane (CH(4)) potential (BMP) of dairy cattle slurry was studied. The BMP of the untreated slurry (control) was 210 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton volatile solids (VS) added; after ultrasound pre-treatment it was 250 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added) and after hygienization 280 ± 20 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added). The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the inoculum increased from 22 (untreated) to 26 (ultrasound treated) and up to 28 N ml CH(4)/g VS d, after hygienization. However, only hygienization achieved a positive net energy balance. Both pre-treatments increased the VS-based hydrolysis of slurry (10-96%), soluble nitrogen (N(sol)) content in digestates (20 ± 5%) and biodegradability of the slurry (8 ± 3%) as estimated via elevated VS removal.

  13. Effect of Various Parameters on the Dispersion of Ultra Fine Iron Ore Slurry. Part-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the list of dispersion parameters effect of solid concentration, slurry pH, stirring speed and time were studied in Part I for stablization of Dilband iron ore slurry. In Part II the study is extended to survey most appropriate dispersant and its optimal dose. In present study sodium silicate (SS, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP, and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetatic-acid (EDTA dispersants were used. The different doses of these dispersants were studied at solid concentration 7.5%, pH 10.5, stirring speed 2000 rpm, and stirring time 5min, as optimal conditions found in Part I. Marginal improvement in slurry stabilization with addition of SS, SHMP, SPP, and EDTA was noted, however EDTA found to be most effective in stabilizing the slurry as compared to others. For the different doses of EDTA, SPP, SHMP, and SS tested, the best disperse ability was obtained at concentration of 0.135%, 0.025%, 0.2%, and 1.25% respectively.

  14. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM 183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2000-09-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm-with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the "clear" layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm.

  15. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  16. Solid residues from combustion plants. Pt. 1; Feste Rueckstaende aus Verbrennungsanlagen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenberger, H.P.; Quicker, P.; Mocker, M.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Gleis, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The following publication deals with solid combustion residues, which results in Germany from the thermal treatment of municipal waste, coal, sewage sludge and biomass. The intention is, to give an overview about the current situation. The first part of the article shows the annual quantities of combustible substances thermal treated and which kind of residues and which quantities of residues are resulting from the thermal treatment. Furthermore the properties of different residues are observed and together compared. The second part describes the quantities of residues feeded to the relevant ways of recycling or disposal. References to orders and legislations are given. (orig.)

  17. Solid residues from combustion plants. Pt. 2; Feste Rueckstaende aus Verbrennungsanlagen. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenberger, H.P.; Quicker, P.; Mocker, M.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Gleis, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The following publication deals with solid combustion residues, which results in Germany from the thermal treatment of municipal waste, coal, sewage sludge and biomass. The intention is, to give an overview about the current situation. The first part of the article shows the annual quantities of combustible substances thermal treated and which kind of residues and which quantities of residues are resulting from the thermal treatment. Furthermore the properties of different residues are observed and together compared. The second part describes the quantities of residues feeded to the relevant ways of recycling or disposal. References to orders and legislations are given. (orig.)

  18. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  19. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  20. 等温时间对自孕育法制备Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态浆料的影响%Effect of Isothermal Time on Mg-9Zn-2Al Magnesium Alloy Semi-Solid Slurry Prepared by Self-Inoculation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 李元东; 周春生; 刘彦峰; 袁训峰; 常亮亮

    2013-01-01

    Semi-solid slurry of Mg-9Zn-2Al magnesium alloy has been prepared online by self-inoculation method(SIM).The effect of isothermal time on semi-solid microstructure evolution has been investigated with isothermal temperature 585℃.Results showed that with isothermal time prolonging,the grain has been with a process of firstly being spheroidized and then mutilated and continuous to grow.An ideal isothermal time should be limited to 4~8min for average grain size of 47.5~48.8μm with roundness between 1.2 and 1.3.In isothermal process,Microstructure evolution mainly had three stages including high melting particle precipitation and transient nucleation at smaller undercooling,and grains continuous growing because of magnesium atoms cumulation on the primary phase,and coalescence and growing of α phase.%采用自孕育法在线制备Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态浆料,研究了等温温度为585℃时,等温时间对Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态组织演变的影响.结果表明,随着保温时间的延长,晶粒先球化而后恶化,并且不断长大,保温4~8 min时,其晶粒较好,尺寸为65~72 μm,圆整度在1.2~1.3之间.在此过程中,组织的演变主要经历高熔质点相的析出及较小过冷度下的瞬态形核、镁原子堆积促使初生相的长大和α相的合并长大三个阶段.

  1. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

    2013-11-30

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies.

  2. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  3. Thickening and rheological properties of slurries as functions of the oxidized nickel ore composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, N. V.; Olyunina, T. V.; Lysykh, M. P.; Ermishkin, V. A.; Smirnova, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    The thickening and rheological properties of ore slurries and pulps after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching are analyzed as a function of the phase composition of oxidized nickel ore. Experiments have been carried out with samples of ferrous, silicate and combined ores. The initial concentration of the ore slurries is ˜28%. Higher values of thickening properties (thickening rate of 1.3 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 54%) are exhibited by the ferrous ore slurry and the pulp after its leaching (thickening rate of 0.9 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 42%). The thickening rate of silicate ore slurry is 0.15-0.2 m/day, the thickened layer concentration is 40-45%. The thickening properties of the pulp after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching of silicate ore strongly depend on the consumption of sulfuric acid. The thickening properties of combined ore and pulps after its leaching deteriorate with increase in the content of silicon dioxide in the ore. In terms of the rheological properties, all slurries are pseudoplastic systems. Poorly thickening slurries are characterized by a high dynamic yield stress (up to 7 Pa) and apparent plastic and effective viscosities. The effective viscosity at the equivalent shear rate corresponding to the mixer rotation rate in laboratory autoclave reaches 34 × 10-3 Pa s. Boundary values are determined in rheological constants with regard to the thickening properties. For instance, if the dynamic yield point is 1.0 Pa, the thickening rate decreases from 0.075 m/day to zero. The thickening and rheological properties are found to depend on the particle size of solid phase and its surface properties.

  4. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1989-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  5. Rheologicai properties of tailing paste slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 李建雄; 肖智政; 肖卫国

    2004-01-01

    The initial shear stress (τ) and plastic cohesion (η) are the most important parameters reflecting the rheological properties of the paste slurry. The rheological parameters as well as the quantitative relationship among the consumption of different fill materials were obtained through the experiment and research on these parameters.They can be used to predict the scope of the values of τ and η in production for a given ratio, which can reduce the conveying resistance of fill slurry along the pipelines and avoid the blockage of the pipelines. It is found that the rheological model of the total tailing slurry belongs to the Bingham type, which has a feature of strong internal structure and large initial shear stress. The calculation formula for the resistance loss of pipelines conforms nicely to the field test and the actual production in Jinchuan Nickel Mine.

  6. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  7. Gas Absorption Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide into Ca(OH)2 Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sumin; MA Youguang; ZHU Chunying; SHEN Shuhua

    2007-01-01

    Chemical absorption of CO2 into aqueous slurries of Ca(OH)2 was studied in a stirred thermostatic reactor. The influence of solid loading and stirring speed on absorption rate were investigated experimentally, and the results show that the enhancement factor increases with particle content due to the increase of reactive particles in the gas-liquid interfacial region. The absorption process was controlled by the diffusion of gas molecules in slurry. The influence of stirring intensity on enhancement factor is an integration of gas-liquid and liquid-solid mass transfer variation. A novel pre-diction model of enhancement factors was proposed with the partition of interface into two various zones, .and the prediction values by the presented model are in agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Blocking of Snow/Water Slurry Flow in Pipeline Caused by Compression-Strengthening of Snow Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Shirakashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier works by the present authors, two systems for sustainable energy were proposed: (i a system for urban snow removal in winter and storage for air conditioning in summer, applied to Nagaoka City, which suffers heavy snow fall every winter, and (ii a district cooling system utilizing latent heat of ice to reduce the size of storage reservoir and transportation pipeline system. In these systems, the hydraulic conveying of snow or ice through pump-and-pipeline is the key technique to be developed, since characteristics of snow (ice/ water slurry is largely different from those of conventional non-cohesive solid particle slurries. In this study, the blocking of pipeline of snow/water slurry is investigated experimentally. While the blocking of conventional slurry occurs due to deposition of heavy particles at low flow velocity or arching of large rigid particles, that of snow/water slurry is caused by a compressed plug of snow formed due to cohesive nature of snow particles. This is because the strength of snow plug formed at a high resistance piping element, such as an orifice, becomes higher when the compression velocity is lower, resulting in a solid-like plug filling the whole channel upstream the element.

  9. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  10. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlan Cheng; Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a...

  11. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  12. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various

  13. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  14. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  15. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  16. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  17. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2004-10-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.

  18. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1994-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal. slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research project we retrieved five drill cores from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment, and installed three samplers in one of the core holes. The solids were chemically and mineralogically analyzed. Display of the mineralogical data on a cross section showed that pyrite was randomly distributed through much of the length of the coal slurry impoundment. Trace concentrations of heavy metals were correlated with pyrite in the core solids. Water samples were collected and analyzed. The water analyses showed that nutrients are insufficient to support plant growth without supplemental fertilization. The analytical data will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the kinetics of pyrite oxidation at near-neutral pH conditions. Programming of a computerized model to simulate pyrite oxidation under near-neutral pH conditions was begun. The program includes ideas from Morel and Hering (1993) and species are calculated in terms of 7 components of known concentrations. The ionic strength of the solution, the species activity coefficients, and the activities are calculated iteratively.

  19. Handling complex effects in slurry-sampling-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by multivariate calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cal-Prieto, M.J. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Gomez-Carracedo, M.P. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Andrade, J.M. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: andrade@udc.es; Carlosena, A. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada, D. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-07

    Analysis of solid samples by slurry-sampling-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ETAAS) can imply spectral and chemical interferences caused by the large amount of concomitants introduced into the graphite furnace. Sometimes they cannot be solved using stabilized temperature platform furnace (STPF) conditions or typical approaches (previous sample ashing, use of chemical modifiers, etc.), which are time consuming and quite expensive. A new approach to handle interferences using multivariate calibrations (partial least squares, PLS, and artificial neural networks, ANN) is presented and exemplified with a real problem consisting on determining Sb in several solid matrices (soils, sediments and coal fly ash) as slurries by ETAAS. Experimental designs were implemented at different levels of Sb to develop the calibration matrix and assess which concomitants (seven ions were considered) modified the atomic signal mostly. They were Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} and they induced simultaneous displacement, depletion (enhancement) and broadening of the atomic peak. Here it is shown that these complex effects can be handled in a reliable, fast and cost-effective way to predict the concentration of Sb in slurry samples of several solid matrices. The method was validated predicting the concentrations of five certified reference materials (CRMs) and studying its robustness to current ETAAS problems. It is also shown that linear PLS can handle eventual non-linearities and that its results are comparable to more complex (non-linear) models, as those from ANNs.

  20. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  1. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  2. The potential for biomethane from grass and slurry to satisfy renewable energy targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2013-12-01

    A biomethane potential (BMP) assessment of grass silage yielded 107 m(3)CH4 t(-1). Long term mono-digestion of grass silage can suffer due to a deficiency in essential nutrients; this may be overcome by co-digesting with slurry. Mono-digestion of slurry achieved a low yield of 16 m(3)CH4 t(-1). BMP assessments at a range of co-digestion ratios indicated methane yields were between 4% and 11% lower than the values calculated from mono-digestion. This paper suggests that co-digestion of the majority of slurry produced from dairy cows in Ireland with grass silage quantities equivalent to 1.1% of grassland on a 50:50 volatile solids basis would generate over 10% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T). The industry proposed would equate to 170 digesters each treating 10,000 t a(-1) of grass silage and 40,000 t a(-1) of slurry from dairy cows.

  3. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  4. Effect of fine solid particles on absorption rate of gaseous CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumin LU; Youguang MA; Shuhua SHEN; Chunying ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the properties of solid particles in slurry on the absorption of CO2 in the slurry was inves-tigated in a stirred thermostatic reactor. The absorption experiments were carried out in three different slurries con-sisting of water, cyclohexane and soybean oil, respectively, and three kinds of solid particles (active carbon, active alu-mina and silica gel) were incorporated into each of the above mentioned slurries separately. The experimental results show that the active carbon particles could enhance the absorption rate of gaseous CO2 in the aqueous slurry, while in the cyclohexane slurry, active carbon particles indi-cated no the absorption enhancement effect. However, it was observed that the active alumina and silica gel particles could enhance the absorption rate of CO2 in the cyclohex-ane slurry. These phenomena indicate that the solid part-icles, which could enhance the gaseous CO2 absorption rate, should possess two properties simultaneously, i.e. they rejected the solvent and had higher adsorption capacity for the solute. The experimental results also show that, as for those solid particles which could enhance the gas absorption rate, the enhancement increased quickly with the increase of solid concentration in slurry at first, and then reached a constant value gradually. It was also found that the enhancement factor was related to the coverage fraction of solid particles on the gas-liquid interface, and due to the reduction of surface fraction with increasing stirred speed, the enhancement factor decreased.

  5. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  6. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  7. Transformação da matéria orgânica e do nitrogênio durante a compostagem da fração sólida do chorume bovino Transformation of organic matter and nitrogen during composting of the solid fraction of cattle slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A fração sólida do chorume (FSC de duas explorações de pecuária leiteira intensiva (FSC1 e FSC2, recolhidas em fossa aberta e fechada, respectivamente foi compostada com e sem adição de palha, em pilhas estáticas e em pilhas com revolvimento. A temperatura aumentou rapidamente na FSC1, que foi recolhida mais lentamente, até a máxima diária de 68 °C, registrada na pilha estática com palha. No entanto, a FSC2 não alcançou temperatura superior a 51 °C em qualquer uma das pilhas. A mistura de palha com a FSC aumentou a temperatura no início da compostagem em todas as pilhas, mas as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO não aumentaram. Nas pilhas com revolvimento, a MO potencialmente mineralizável aumentou em comparação com as pilhas estáticas, mas a concentração de N nos compostos finais foi mais elevada nas pilhas sem revolvimento, sugerindo que o revolvimento pode ter aumentado as perdas de N. A relação C/N da FSC diminuiu de forma semelhante em todas as pilhas, desde um valor inicial de 27 ou superior até o valor de 11 a 13 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa relação C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+ em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO3- dos compostos finais indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. A elevada concentração de MO (720-820 g kg-1 e de N total (30-44 g kg-1 e a baixa condutividade elétrica (inferior a 100 mS m-1 sugerem que os compostos da FSC podem ser utilizados como corretivos orgânicos do solo com benefícios agronômicos e ambientais. No entanto, é necessário continuar a investigar para garantir a higienização do composto, porque a FSC2 não alcançou temperaturas termófilas durante a compostagem.Cattle slurry solid fraction (FSC1 and FSC2, collected from open and closed sinkholes, respectively was collected from two dairy farms and composted with and without straw, in static and in turned piles. Thermophilic temperatures were attained

  8. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 11, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of the research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure, roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared. The viscosity of slurries with high solids content is strongly influenced by the packing density of the feed material. The packing density can be significantly altered by mixing distributions of different median sizes, and to an extent by modifying the grinding environment. The research during this quarter was, therefore, directed towards: (1) establishing the relationship between the packing characteristic of fines and the viscosity of slurries prepared with the fines; (2) investigation of the effect of mixing distribution on the rheology; and (3) study of the effect of grinding environment in the ball mill on the rheology of coal-water slurries.

  9. Erosion Evaluation of a Slurry Mixer Tank with Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    This paper discusses the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to understand and characterize erosion of the floor and internal structures in the slurry mixing vessels in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. An initial literature survey helped identify the principal drivers of erosion for a solids laden fluid: the solids content of the working fluid, the regions of recirculation and particle impact with the walls, and the regions of high wall shear. A series of CFD analyses was performed to characterize slurry-flow profiles, wall shear, and particle impingement distributions in key components such as coil restraints and the vessel floor. The calculations showed that the primary locations of high erosion resulting from abrasion were at the leading edge of the coil guide, the tank floor below the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. These modeling results based on the calculated high shear regions were in excellent agreement with the observed erosion sites in both location and the degree of erosion. Loss of the leading edge of the coil guide due to the erosion damage during the slurry mixing operation did not affect the erosion patterns on the tank floor. Calculations for a lower impeller speed showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses.

  10. Thermo physical and flow properties of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry - Scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Egolf, P. W. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The apparent viscosity and flow regime of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry were investigated with a XL7-100 on-line resonant viscometer. Possible reasons for the viscosity changes before and after the nucleation of hydrates are discussed. In addition, super saturation of the CO{sub 2} solution under certain pressure and temperature conditions as well as its density and apparent viscosity were examined. The hydrate's solid fraction and the dissociation enthalpy were evaluated by an on-line Micro DSC system. Real-time coupled multi-electrode array sensor (CMAS) probes were applied to measure the maximal localized corrosion rate of three different materials subjected to CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and saturated CO{sub 2} solution in the temperature range of 1 to 18 {sup o}C and pressure range of 25 to 30 bar. The density of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was also experimentally investigated and the relation between the density and the solid fraction has been established. (author)

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

  12. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m(-3) [slurry] d(-1), P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  13. Gaseous emissions from the storage of untreated slurries and the fractions obtained after mechanical separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinuccio, E.; Berg, W.; Balsari, P.

    A laboratory-scale study was set up to investigate ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4) emissions during storage of untreated pig and cattle slurry and the fractions (solid and liquid) obtained by mechanical separation. The solid and liquid fractions were obtained from the same untreated slurry by means of a lab-scale mechanical separator. The manures were stored for a period of 30 days in open vessels (1500 cm 3 capacity) in two temperature-controlled rooms, which were kept at 5±0.5 and 25±0.2 °C. Gaseous emissions were determined using a dynamic chamber method and infrared photoacoustic detection (IPD). Over the storage period, gaseous emissions from pig manures were significantly ( Pcattle manures. N 2O fluxes of up to 232 mg m -2 h -1 were measured, but from pig solid fraction only. Between 40.8% (from pig liquid fraction stored at 25 °C) and 3.60% (from untreated cattle slurry stored at 25 °C) of the initial nitrogen content of the manures was lost as NH 3. Over the 30-day-storage period, the predominant emission of carbon was in the CO 2 form. Total C-CH 4 losses, expressed as a percent of the carbon initially present in the volatile solids (C-VS), ranged from 0.60% to 12.8% for pig manures and from 0.23% to 1.56% for cattle manures. The mechanical separation of cattle slurry increased by up to 30% the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere, during the storage of the separated fractions, when compared with the slurries. Results indicated that NH 3, N 2O, CO 2 and CH 4 emissions were affected by the interaction between a number of variables, including storage temperature, chemical characteristics and type of manure. Results also indicated that mechanical separation does not reduce emissions, but has the potential to increase the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere during the storage of the separated fractions.

  14. In-situ reduction of a methanol synthesis catalyst in a three-phase slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, A.; Ko, M.K.; Parameswaran, V.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for the reduction of metal oxide catalysts (CuO, ZnO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has been developed for liquid phase methanol synthesis. The reducing agent is a 5% hydrogen in nitrogen mixture and the operation is carried out at 446.09 KPa. This method makes it possible to reduce finely crushed catalyst (-100 + 120 mesh) in a three phase slurry reactor. This method offers several advantages over methods in which the catalyst is reduced in a gas-solid contact mode and then slurried for use. The catalyst has been shown to be very effectively reduced and reaches its full production capacity after reduction.

  15. Dispersion and rheological studies of Y–PSZ tape casting slurry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Vasantha Kumari; K Sasidharan; M Sapna; Raghu Natarajan

    2005-04-01

    Different solvent systems in combination with three different dispersants were tried to find out the suitable solvent–dispersant combination, which give optimum dispersion of PSZ. Based on sedimentation, viscosity and rheology characteristics, zeotropic ethanol : xylene with a ratio of 50 : 50 along with 0.5 wt% phosphate ester was found to be the best solvent and dispersant combination. Optimized tape casting slurry was prepared using PEG 600 and BBP as plasticizers and PVB as the binder. Cyclohexanone was used as the homogenizer. The optimized slurry composition with 58% solid loading exhibited shear-thinning pseudoplastic rheological behaviour. Y–PSZ tapes of ∼ 50 m thickness free from visible defects were cast with a green tape density of 55%.

  16. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo A; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 °C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A maximum biogas production increase of 79% with respect to the start-up phase was achieved. The result of this study show that co-digestion of a high volume of whey (up to 65% in volume) is possible without the use of chemicals for pH correction, but also that this kind of mix has a similar energetic potential for anaerobic digestion as energy crops such as maize.

  17. Production of Biogas through Anaerobic Cofermentation of Cattle Slurry with Biscuit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the model of anaerobic co-fermentation of cattle slurry with biscuit waste. It was confirmed that the waste from the food industry is a valuable biogas substrate. The highest specific production of methane (0.49 mN3·kgVS-1 was achieved in the co-fermentation of 20 wt% biscuit waste with cattle slurry. The feed mixture contained 22 wt% of total solids. The biscuit waste has the specific production of biogas 0.66 mN 3·kg-1 and the specific production of methane 0.38 mN 3·kg-1.

  18. Turbulent slurry flow measurement using ultrasonic Doppler method in rectangular pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareš, V.; Krupička, J.; Picek, T.; Brabec, J.; Matoušek, V.

    2014-03-01

    Distribution of velocity and Reynolds stress was measured using ultrasonic velocimetry in flows of water and Newtonian water-ballotini slurries in a pressurized Plexiglas pipe. Profiles of the measured parameters were sensed in the vertical plane at the centreline of a rectangular cross section of the pipe. Reference measurements in clear water produced expected symmetrical velocity profiles the shape of which was affected by secondary currents developed in the rectangular pipe. Slurry-flow experiments provided information on an effect of the concentration of solid grains on the internal structure of the flow. Strong attenuation of velocity fluctuations caused by a presence of grains was identified. The attenuation increased with the increasing local concentration of the grains.

  19. Kinetics and mechanisms of hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. [Cellulose, wood, manure, municipal waste, coal of various ranks, fuel oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.H.; Kranich, W.L.; Geureuz, K.

    1981-01-01

    A high pressure, continuous, stirred-tank reactor system has been constructed for the study of the catalytic liquefaction of North Dakota lignite slurried in anthracene oil. The conversion of lignite using a cobalt-molybdenum on alumina catalyst and the distribution of products as preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, oils and gases has been studied at the following conditions: temperature, 375 to 440/sup 0/C; pressure, 1000 to 1600 psig; agitator speed, 800 to 1500 rpm; catalyst concentration, 0 to 10% (based on lignite); initial lignite concentration, 5 to 30%; and space time, 16 to 52 minutes. At reactor pressures above 1500 psig and agitator speeds above 1000 rpm, reaction rate was essentially independent of pressure. At catalyst concentrations above 1% (based on lignite), the conversion of lignite was essentially independent of catalyst concentration. Experiments were conducted above these limits to find the effect on lignite conversion rate, of initial lignite concentration, and space time, or degree of conversion. The results at constant temperature were correlated by an equation which is given in the report. The relationship between the rate constant, K, and temperature, and between the maximum conversion and temperature was established. The effect of reaction conditions on the distribution of products was studied. In the presence of catalyst, the oil yield was increased, even under conditions where the catalyst did not affect overall lignite conversion. Under the most favorable conditions the oil yield was a little better than that obtained by Cronauer in the uncatalyzed hydroliquefaction of subbituminous coal at similar temperature and pressure.

  20. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  1. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  2. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  3. Investigation of slurry systems in metal and dielectric chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu

    The properties of slurries play a significant role in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of metal and dielectric films in semiconductor device manufacturing. This study investigates the effects of the size, shape, and hardness of uniform abrasive particles of simple and composite natures on the polishing of copper, tantalum, and thermal oxide films in the presence of different chemical reagents. It was shown that the total surface area of the solids in the slurry controlled the material removal rate by pure silica for both Cu and Ta, while the surface quality of the polished films was better when using higher silica contents. Ceria particles are the choice abrasives in polishing of oxide surfaces. Since it is difficult to prepare in quantities uniform ceria particles of various shapes, the latter were prepared by using monodispersed cubic and ellipsoidal hematite (Fe2O3) particles and spherical silica, and coating them with nanosized ceria. The polishing data were then obtained using slurries of all these particles and the results were compared with slurries containing only nanosized ceria. At the same pH and the same solid content, the removal rates of these slurries followed the contact area model. Furthermore, slurries containing mixtures of particles performed more efficiently than those of individual particles. Interactions of abrasive particles with surface films to be polished are also very important in CMP. In this study, the packed column technique was employed to investigate the physical and chemical reactions at the particle/film interfaces under conditions that simulate CMP processes. Well-defined dispersions of uniform particles, including spherical silica, calcined alumina, and silica cores coated with nanosized ceria particles were used to evaluate particle adhesion on copper and glass beads. It was shown that pH and the slurry flow rate had significant effects on particle deposition and detachment. The attachment results of silica particles on

  4. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  5. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...... of sulfate and methionine (P production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral...

  6. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  7. Combustion and economics of coal slurry fuels: a look at coal-fuel oil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of reducing dependence on petroleum, research has been going ahead into the development of various alternative fuels. Of these, coal slurry fuels are regarded as being first in line for commercialization. The authors discuss the combustion of coal-oil fuels. The combustion of fuel oil, pulverized coal and coal-water slurry is also examined. In each case, combustion properties and associated problems are discussed. Finally, the economics of these fuels are examined and trends in research and development surveyed. 23 references.

  8. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L. Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam. or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO em todas as pilhas. No entanto, a MO potencialmente mineralizável e o teor de N orgânico nos compostos finais foram inferiores. A razão C/N diminuiu de forma semelhante para todas as pilhas de 32-38 no início do processo para 13-17 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa razão C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+, em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO 3-dos compostos finais, indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. O elevado teor de MO (784-832 g kg-1 MS e de N total (28-35 g kg-1 MS e a baixa condutividade eléctrica (0,72-1,16 dS m-1 sugerem que os compostados da FSC podem ser utilizados como correctivos orgânicos do solo. A utilização de palha ou de tojo contribuiu para melhor garantir a higienização do composto.Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF was col­lected from a dairy farm (SF and com­posted with increasing rates of Italian rye-grass straw or gorse, in static piles turned only three times. Temperatures increased to a maximum of 65 ºC after the first turn in the pile only with SF. In contrast, higher temperatures were registered much sooner in piles mixed with straw or gorse. The ad­dition of these bulking agents to SF in­creased temperatures and also the initial rates of organic matter (OM mineralisation. In contrast, potential OM mineralisation and organic N content decreased. The C/N ratio declined following a similar pattern for all compost treatments, from 32-38 at the beginning of the proc­ess, to a

  9. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  10. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  11. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved.

  12. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  13. Influence of IMC in the Semisolid Behaviour of an Eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merizalde, Carlos; Cabrera, José-María; Prado, José-Manuel

    2007-04-01

    A mixture of a liquid Sn-Pb alloy reinforced with solid Cu particles has been found to show thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. The presence of an intermetallic compound (IMC) between the Cu particles and the molten matrix has some very important consequences in the rheological behaviour of the slurry. The semisolid material is obtained mixing a sufficient amount of Cu particles with a liquid eutectic Sn-Pb alloy by mechanical stirring at a given temperature and time. The intermetallic compound is formed from the reaction of solid Cu and liquid Sn. This reaction results in some displacement in the phase diagram, affecting the liquid alloy composition, moving the liquidus temperature and therefore altering the balance of %wt solid- %wt liquid necessary to obtain the best thixotropic behaviour. In this work a model of the solid fraction of the slurry taking into account the IMC growth rate is presented. This model is also used to predict the processing window under which the material keeps the thixotropic behaviour.

  14. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  16. Direct determination of silicon in powdered aluminium oxide by use of slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, H; Yoshida, T; Okutsu, K; Zhang, Q; Inoue, S; Atsuya, I

    2001-08-01

    A direct method for determination of silicon in powdered high-purity aluminium oxide samples, by slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), has been established. A slurry sample was prepared by 10-min ultrasonication of a powdered sample in an aqueous solution containing both sodium carbonate and boric acid as a mixed flux. An appropriate portion of the slurry was introduced into a pyrolytic graphite furnace equipped with a platform. Silicon compounds to be determined and aluminium oxide were fused by the in situ fusion process with the flux in the furnace under optimized heating conditions, and the silicon absorbance was then measured directly. The calibration curve was prepared by use of a silicon standard solution containing the same concentration of the flux as the slurry sample. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysis of certified reference materials. The proposed method gave statistically accurate values at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit was 3.3 microg g(-1) in solid samples, when 300 mg/20 mL slurry was prepared and a 10 microL portion of the slurry was measured. The precision of the determination (RSD for more than four separate determinations) was 14% and 2%, respectively, for levels of 10 and 100 microg g(-1) silicon in aluminium oxide.

  17. Corrosion studies of carbon steel under impinging jets of simulated slurries of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for the disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes presently stored in double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site call for retrieval and processing of the waste to create forms suitable for permanent disposal. Waste will be retrieved from a tank using a submerged slurry pump in conjunction with one or more rotating slurry jet mixer pumps. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted tests using simulated waste slurries to assess the effects of a impinging slurry jet on the corrosion rate of the tank wall and floor, an action that could potentially compromise the tank's structural integrity. Corrosion processes were investigated on a laboratory scale with a simulated neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) slurry and in a subsequent test with simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurry. The test slurries simulated the actual NCRW and NCAW both chemically and physically. The tests simulated those conditions expected to exist in the respective double-shell tanks during waste retrieval operations. Results of both tests indicate that, because of the action of the mixer pump slurry jets, the waste retrieval operations proposed for NCAW and NCRW will moderately accelerate corrosion of the tank wall and floor. Based on the corrosion of initially unoxidized test specimens, and the removal of corrosion products from those specimens, the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates of carbon steel in both waste simulants for the length of the test was {approximately}4 mil/yr. The protective oxide layer that exists in each storage tank is expected to inhibit corrosion of the carbon steel.

  18. Corrosion studies of carbon steel under impinging jets of simulated slurries of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for the disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes presently stored in double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site call for retrieval and processing of the waste to create forms suitable for permanent disposal. Waste will be retrieved from a tank using a submerged slurry pump in conjunction with one or more rotating slurry jet mixer pumps. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted tests using simulated waste slurries to assess the effects of a impinging slurry jet on the corrosion rate of the tank wall and floor, an action that could potentially compromise the tank`s structural integrity. Corrosion processes were investigated on a laboratory scale with a simulated neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) slurry and in a subsequent test with simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurry. The test slurries simulated the actual NCRW and NCAW both chemically and physically. The tests simulated those conditions expected to exist in the respective double-shell tanks during waste retrieval operations. Results of both tests indicate that, because of the action of the mixer pump slurry jets, the waste retrieval operations proposed for NCAW and NCRW will moderately accelerate corrosion of the tank wall and floor. Based on the corrosion of initially unoxidized test specimens, and the removal of corrosion products from those specimens, the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates of carbon steel in both waste simulants for the length of the test was {approximately}4 mil/yr. The protective oxide layer that exists in each storage tank is expected to inhibit corrosion of the carbon steel.

  19. Effect of process parameters on properties of Al-Si alloys cast by Rapid Slurry Formation (RSF) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, L.; Sharma, A.; Kohli, D.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid slurry formation is a semi-solid metal forming technique, which is based on a so-called solid enthalpy exchange material (EEM). It is a fascinating technology offering the opportunity to manufacture net-shaped metal components of complex geometry in a single forming operation. At the same time, high mechanical properties can be achieved due to the unique microstructure and flow behaviour. The major process parameters used in the RSF process are rotation speed of the EEM, melt superheat, amount of EEM added (determining fs), and holding time. The process parameters can be well controlled with clear effects on the microstructure. There is a lack of theoretical modelling of the morphological evolution in these two-phase slurries.

  20. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  1. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used...

  2. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at

  3. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  4. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  5. Performance of a slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Determination of optimum condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Moon; Bae, Jong-Wook; Jun, Ki-Won [Advanced Chemical Technology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), P.O. Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The CO conversion and selectivity to C{sub 1}+ and C{sub 11}+ wax products over Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as Ru/Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)catalysts were investigated by varying reaction temperature (210-250 C), system pressure (1.0-3.0 MPa), GHSV (1000-6000 L/kg/h), superficial gas velocity (1.7-13.6 cm/s) and slurry concentration (9.09-26.67 wt.%) in a slurry bubble column reactor (0.05 m diameter x 1.5 m height) to determine the optimum operating conditions. Squalane or paraffin wax was used as initial liquid media. The overall CO conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature, system pressure and catalyst concentration. However, the local maximum CO conversion was exhibited at GHSV of 1500-2000 L/kg/h and superficial gas velocity of 3.4-5.0 cm/s. The CO conversion in the case of Ru/Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was much higher and stable than that in the case of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The selectivity to C{sub 11}+ wax products increased slightly with increasing GHSV; on the other hand, it decreased with increasing reaction temperature, system pressure, and solid concentration in a slurry bubble column reactor. It could be concluded that the optimum operating conditions based on the yield of hydrocarbons and wax products were; U{sub G} 6.8-10 cm/s, Cs = 15 wt.%, T = 220-230 C, P = 2.0 MPa in a slurry bubble column reactor for F-T synthesis. (author)

  6. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  8. N-Removal from the liquid fraction of Pig slurry in a labscale sequencing batch reactor considering different operational strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, A.; Guivernau, M.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F. X.; Flotats, X.

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen is one of the main limiting factors to be considered when treatment of livestock manure is required. Biological N-removal is an alternative applicable in those situations in which arable lands availability, or transportation cots, do not enable recycling manure as fertilizer. Specifically, when dealing with slurries processing, an initial solid-liquid separation allows obtaining a liquid fraction which could be subsequently treated through nitrification-denitrification (NDN). (Author)

  9. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  10. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...

  11. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...

  12. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production......The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  13. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wet handling of solids using submersible pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnota, Z.; Fahlgren, M.; Grainger, M. [ITT Flygt Slurry Laboratory, Soina (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    A complete and efficient concept for handling solids in short distance pumping applications is described. The function of pump, mixer, agitator, and sump have been determined in experimental studies. The major factors that affect pump performance such as impeller design and slurry characteristics are discussed. The results apply to a range of applications in industry and mining. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. The mixing of solid propellant by an artificial muscle actuator

    OpenAIRE

    岩崎, 祥大; 伴, 遼介; 吉浜, 舜; 中村, 太郎; 羽生, 宏人; Iwasaki, Akihiro; Ban, Ryosuke; Yoshihama, Shun; Nakamura, Taro; Habu, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to reduce the cost of the solid rocket motor production, mainly solid propellant. The production process of the solid rocket propellant are usually employed the multi-batch mixing. However, this study using a peristaltic pump as a mixer will lead to the continuous process. The pump system can mix the powder materials for propellant and we consider that it will make the slurry of the solid propellant efficiently by the mechanism of the fluid dynamics in the pump.

  16. Study on Semi-solid Rheocasting Forming for Magnesium Alloy by Mechanical Stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the effect of pouring temperature of magnesium melt, preheating temperature of the barrel of screw mixer and shear rate on the solidified microstructures of semi-solid slurry was investigated by mechanical stirring method. The appropriate processing parameters of slurry preparation were obtained. The mold filling for thin walled casting was examined. Results indicated that the solid volume fraction of non-dendritic structure increased with decrease in pouring temperature of magnesium melt and ...

  17. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  18. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  19. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  20. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  1. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  2. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  3. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  4. Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

  5. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE EVALUATION OF SEMI-SOLID STEELMATERIALS IN ROLLING PROCESS AND THERESULTING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.B. Song; Y.L. Kang; J.L. Sun; A.M. Zhao; W.M. Mao

    2001-01-01

    The experimental study on the familiar 60Si2Mn and 1Cr18NigTi materials rolled in the semi-solid state was carried out. Experimental results show that the segregation of liquid occurs when the semi-solid slurry is rolled, which influences the microstructure and mechanics performance of workpiece under room temperature. The globular solid particles don't present plastic deformation unless high solid fraction. At the same time, the mechanics property of workpiece is pretty good while the semi-solid slurry of 1Cr18NigTi material is rolled by a pass and no other treatment.``

  7. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  8. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  9. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry.

  10. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  11. Approach for Configuring a Standardized Vessel for Processing Radioactive Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Holton, Langdon K.

    2015-09-10

    A standardized vessel design is being considered at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is under construction at Hanford, Washington. The standardized vessel design will be used for storing, blending, and chemical processing of slurries that exhibit a variable process feed including Newtonian to non-Newtonian rheologies over a range of solids loadings. Developing a standardized vessel is advantageous and reduces the testing required to evaluate the performance of the design. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present a design strategy for developing a standard vessel mixing system design for the pretreatment portion of the waste treatment plant that must process rheologically and physically challenging process streams, 2) identify performance criteria that the design for the standard vessel must satisfy, 3) present parameters that are to be used for assessing the performance criteria, and 4) describe operation of the selected technology. Vessel design performance will be assessed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian simulants which represent a range of waste types expected during operation. Desired conditions for the vessel operations are the ability to shear the slurry so that flammable gas does not accumulate within the vessel, that settled solids will be mobilized, that contents can be blended, and that contents can be transferred from the vessel. A strategy is presented for adjusting the vessel configuration to ensure that all these conditions are met.

  12. Melting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Latent Heat Microcapsule-Water Mixed Slurry Flowing in a Pipe with Constant Wall Heat Flux (Experimental Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Horibe, Akihiko

    The present experiments have been performed for obtaining the melting heat transfer characteristics of micro-encapsulated solid-liquid phase change material and water mixed slurry flow in a circular tube heated with constant wall heat flux. The phase change material having a low melting point was selected for a domestic cooling system in the present study. The governing parameters were found to be latent heat material concentration,heat,flux,and the slurry velocity. The experimental results revealed that the mean heat transfer coefficient of latent microcapsule slurry was about l.3~l.8 times greater than that of the single phase of water. Moreover the effectiveness of heat transfer coefficient to friction factor had a maximum at latent heat material concentration of 25%.

  13. Packing and viscosity of concentrated polydisperse coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veytsman, B.; Morrison, J.; Scaroni, A.; Painter, P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Inst.

    1998-09-01

    The viscosity of polydisperse slurries close to the packing limit is discussed. It is shown that the divergence of the viscosity at the close packing limit causes the dependence of the slurry viscosity on loading to be universal. Ways of increasing the maximal loading of polydisperse slurries are described. A new theory of packing of powders based on a generalization of the Furnas telescopic tube method is proposed. Unlike the original Furnas model, this theory allows the calculation of the maximal packing for powders with an arbitrary size distribution of particles. The application of the theory to the problem of reducing the viscosity of coal-water slurries is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  16. Evaluation of a synergetic effect between Rh as permanent chemical modifier and acetylacetone as complexing agent in Sc determination in sediment slurry samples by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Araceli Veronica [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, P.O. Box 6192, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda, Marco Aurelio Zezzi [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: zezzi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2005-02-14

    In the present work, scandium was determined in sediment slurry samples (from three different rivers) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Slurries were prepared by weighting 100 mg of dry sediment samples ({<=}53 {mu}m particle sizes) and adding 6 ml of HCl:HNO{sub 3}:HF (3:1:2, v/v). Accurate results were only possible due to the synergetic effect between Rh as permanent chemical modifier and acetylacetone (Acac) as complexing agent. The same platform was used for 400 heating cycles. The performance of the chemical modification was evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and some figures of merit (precision and detectability). The best analytical conditions were attained using 1500 and 2550 deg. C as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures. The scandium content in the liquid phase of the slurries ranged from 61 to 73%, thus indicating, in this study, that both liquid and solid phases play an important role in slurry analyses. An amount of 5.0-20.0 {mu}g l{sup -1} Sc linear range as well as LOD and LOQ of 0.19 and 0.62 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively, were obtained under these conditions. The accuracy was checked by using microwave-assisted decomposition, and the results compared to those obtained with the proposed methodology (slurry analysis). By checking both sets of the results, there is no statistical difference at the 95% confidence levels.

  17. Whole slurry fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production not necessitating a detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-04-01

    The yield of ethanol from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was increased on exploiting maleic acid pretreatment combined with fermentation of the pretreated whole slurry. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to expose EFB to a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short time duration (3 min ramping to the set temperature with no holding) in a microwave digester. An enzymatic digestibility of 60.9 % (based on theoretical glucose yield) was exhibited using pretreated and washed EFB after 48 h of hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated EFB for 48 h resulted in 61.3 % theoretical yield of ethanol based on the initial amount of glucan in untreated EFB. These results indicate that maleic acid is a suitable catalyst not requiring detoxification steps for whole slurry fermentation of EFB for ethanol production, thus improving the process economics. Also, the whole slurry fermentation can significantly increase the biomass utilization by converting sugar from both solid and liquid phases of the pretreated slurry.

  18. 催化油浆泵密封失效分析及对策分析%Catalytic Slurry Oil Pump Seal Failure Analysis and Countermeasure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健宗

    2016-01-01

    催化油浆泵输送的主要介质为高温的油浆,密度相较大,其中还含有坚硬的固体催化剂颗粒。由于受到工况介质等许多因素的影响,会使催化油浆泵出现机械密封失效的问题,导致油浆泄漏。对催化油浆密封失效的原因及其解决对策进行简要的分析。%the main transmission medium for high temperature catalytic slurry oil pump slurry oil,compared with big density, which also contains hard solid catalyst particles.Due to the influence of many factors such as working medium,can make the catalytic slurry oil pump mechanical seal failure problems,result in slurry oil leakage.The catalytic slurry oil seal failure made a brief analysis of the causes and countermeasures.

  19. Development of a use for Illinois coal concentrates for slurry fed gasifiers; Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Khan, S.; At-Taras, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States). Geological Survey

    1993-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to identify and test concentrates made from preparation plant fines as to their amenability as fee for slurry-fed, slagging, entrained-flow gasifiers. The high sulfur content and high BTU value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier. Elemental sulfur is recovered as a revenue-producing product in gasifier technologies, and the higher BTU Illinois coal concentrate requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal (30--35% vs 45%) thereby reducing the amount of heat lost in vaporization of entrained water. This means that 66 tons of Illinois coal concentrate, containing 13,000 BTU per pound, at 70% solids would provide as much net heat as 100 tons of 9500 BTU coal pumped at 54% solids. During the current reporting period twelve 55-gallon drums of preparation plant fines were obtained from a mine in Illinois. Part of the slurry was screened on 60 mesh to remove coarse material (about 9.57%) and the fines were used for preliminary flotation tests in a subaeration cell. Fifteen batch tests were conducted to establish flotation conditions for operation of the continuous flow column flotation unit. Varying the type and quantities of reagents, grades were recorded over 12,000 BTU and the recovery of combustible matter or BTU varied from 41.6% to 88.2%.

  20. Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

    2001-01-01

    Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period.

  1. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  2. Residue Upgrading in Slurry Phase over Ultra-ifne NiMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Fengya; Yang Qinghe; Li Dadong; Dai Lishun; Deng Zhonghuo

    2015-01-01

    In this article, residual oil hydroconversion was studied in slurry phase in the presence of ifne solid NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and the effects of operating conditions were carefully studied. The results showed that residue conversion was only affected by the reaction temperature and reaction time. The coke yield increased with a higher reaction temperature, a bigger catalyst particle size, a longer reaction time, a lower initial hydrogen pressure and a lower catalyst concentration. Hetero-atoms removal rate increased with a higher reaction temperature, a longer reaction time, a higher initial hydrogen pressure, a higher catalyst concentration, and a smaller catalyst particle size. The role of catalyst in the slurry bed technology was discussed and its function could be stated as follows:the metal was applied to activate the hydrogen atoms for removing heteroatoms and saturating aromatics, while the support of the catalyst was used to prevent the mesophase coalescence for reducing coke formation.

  3. Dissolution of particulate phosphorus in pig slurry through biological acidification: A critical step for maximum phosphorus recovery as struvite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piveteau, Simon; Picard, Sylvie; Dabert, Patrick; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2017-08-08

    Recycling phosphorus as struvite from pig slurry requires an acidification step to dissolve the inorganic solids containing most of the phosphorus. This study focused on the biological acidification of several pig slurries using sucrose as a model organic co-substrate. Lactic acid fermentation occurred systematically, dissolving 60-90% of TP (total phosphorus) and T-Mg (total magnesium) at pH 6 or lower. Optimal pH range for maximum P dissolution aimed at struvite recovery was 5.5-6. A simple model was developed correlating pH, sucrose and buffer capacity to optimize P dissolution and future recovery using real organic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ice slurry flow and heat transfer during flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko Beata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry during its flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections. Moreover, the work discusses the influence of solid particles, type of motion and cross-section on the changes in the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The analysis presented in the paper allows for identification of the criterial relations used to calculate the Fanning factor and the Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flow, taking into account elements such as phase change, which accompanies the heat transfer process. Ice slurry flow is treated as a generalized flow of a non-Newtonian fluid.

  5. Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr-4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisekaran, T.; Kamaraj, M.; Sharrif, S. M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroturbine steels, such as 13Cr-4Ni martensitic steels, are generally subjected to heavy-erosive wear and loss of efficiency due to solid particulate entrainment in the water. Surface-modified steels have proven to give better performance in terms of erosive wear resistance. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of angle of impingement and particle size on slurry-jet erosion behavior of pulsed plasma nitrided and laser hardened 13Cr-4Ni steels. Laser hardening process has shown good performance at all angles of impingement due to martensitic transformation of retained austenite. Plastic deformation mode of material removal was also an evident feature of all laser-hardened surface damage locations. However, pulsed-plasma nitrided steels have exhibited chip formation and micro-cutting mode of erosive wear. Erosion with 150-300 μm size was twice compared to 150 μm size slurry particulates.

  6. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  7. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  8. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  9. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  10. Advanced Computer Science on Internal Ballistics of Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Kato, Kazushige; Sekino, Nobuhiro; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Seike, Yoshio; Fukunaga, Mihoko; Daimon, Yu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    In this paper, described is the development of a numerical simulation system, what we call “Advanced Computer Science on SRM Internal Ballistics (ACSSIB)”, for the purpose of improvement of performance and reliability of solid rocket motors (SRM). The ACSSIB system is consisting of a casting simulation code of solid propellant slurry, correlation database of local burning-rate of cured propellant in terms of local slurry flow characteristics, and a numerical code for the internal ballistics of SRM, as well as relevant hardware. This paper describes mainly the objectives, the contents of this R&D, and the output of the fiscal year of 2008.

  11. Preparation QTi3.5-3.5 Graphite Lubricant Material with Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, the distribution of graphite particles in QTi3.5-3.5 graphite ingot was studied by using semi-solid casting technology. The results show that: the relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is y=759.4-0.711x (where y is solid fraction, x is stirring temperature). With the increasing of solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles in ingot reduces gradually. The condition to prepare QTi3.5-3.5 graphite lubricant material with even distribution of graphite particles is that the solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is larger than 40%.

  12. Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMartini Jaclyn D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC developed a high-throughput screening method to rapidly identify low-recalcitrance biomass variants. Because the customary separation and analysis of liquid and solids between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis used in conventional analyses is slow, labor-intensive and very difficult to automate, a streamlined approach we term 'co-hydrolysis' was developed. In this method, the solids and liquid in the pretreated biomass slurry are not separated, but instead hydrolysis is performed by adding enzymes to the whole pretreated slurry. The effects of pretreatment method, severity and solids loading on co-hydrolysis performance were investigated. Results For hydrothermal pretreatment at solids concentrations of 0.5 to 2%, high enzyme protein loadings of about 100 mg/g of substrate (glucan plus xylan in the original poplar wood achieved glucose and xylose yields for co-hydrolysis that were comparable with those for washed solids. In addition, although poplar wood sugar yields from co-hydrolysis at 2% solids concentrations fell short of those from hydrolysis of washed solids after dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment even at high enzyme loadings, pretreatment at 0.5% solids concentrations resulted in similar yields for all but the lowest enzyme loading. Conclusions Overall, the influence of severity on susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic hydrolysis was clearly discernable, showing co-hydrolysis to be a viable approach for identifying plant-pretreatment-enzyme combinations with substantial advantages for sugar production.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  14. Modeling of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas%合成气制二甲醚三相淤浆床反应器的数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for a bubble column slurry reactor is presented for dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas. Methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by hydrogenation and the methanol dehydration are considered as independent reactions, in which methanol, dimethyl ether and carbon dioxide are the key components. In this model, the gas phase is considered to be in plug flow and the liquid phase to be in partly back mixing with axial distribution of solid catalyst. The simulation results show that the axial dispersion of solid catalysts, the operational height of the slurry phase in the bubble column slurry reactor, and the reaction results are influenced by the reaction temperature and pressure, which are the basic data for the scale-up of reactor.

  15. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  16. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  17. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemicalephysical combined method (CPCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Wu; Wenyu Xu; Romy Tjuar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemicalephysical combined methods (CPCMs) for treatment of marine clay (MC) slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP), while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu) of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  18. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2011-08-04

    velocity 3.95 ft/s). The demonstrations that used simulants that ranged from 1.6 Pa to 7 Pa yield stress had the most successful batch transfer of solids to the RTs in terms of the total quantity of seed particles transferred. Testing suggest that when mixing water/seed particles and transferring, water provides the least desired batch transfer of solids based on the total quantity transferred. For the water tests, large dead zones of solids formed in the MDT and fewer solids get transferred to the RTs. For simulants with a yield stress of 0.3 Pa and below, the batch transfer behavior in terms of total transfer of seed particles was slightly higher than water test results. The testing did show somewhat more batch-to-batch variation in the transfer of seed particles with the slurries in comparison to water. A comparison of batch transfers with the kaolin slurries that had Bingham consistencies (viscosities) that wernearly the same as the Newtonian glycerol/water mixtures showed that the kaolin slurries with Bingham yield stresses of 1.6 and 7 Pa gave better batch transfer of seed particles based on the total quantities transferred. Overall, the batch transfer testing results show that testing with water is conservative, since using a simulant with a yield stress and/or elevated viscosity always resulted in a better total transfer of solids.

  20. Cold distribution networks. Cold distribution by two-phase refrigerant fluid. Case of ice slurries; Reseaux de distribution de froid. Distribution de froid par fluide frigoporteur diphasique. Cas du coulis de glace stabilisee (2002 - 2004). Rapport final (1er juillet 2004). Programme energie. PRI 9.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL), UMR 5008, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mercier, P. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques (GRETH), 38 (France); Royon, L. [Paris-1 Univ., Lab. de Biorheologie et d' Hydrodynamique Physico-Chimique, 75 (France); Dumas, J.P. [L' Ecole Nationale Superieure en Genie des Technologies Industrielles, Lab. de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, 64 - Pau (France); Guilpart, J. [URGPAN/CEMAGRE, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI aims to participate to the development of alternate solutions for refrigerant fluids, for the cold transport and more specially a two phase refrigerant fluid: the stabilized ice slurry. The research program presented three main axis: design, realization and characterization of stabilized ice slurry, experimental studies of transport and transfer properties, study of online measurement process of the solid content. A simulation has been realized to evaluate the energy efficiency of this refrigerant use. (A.L.B.)

  1. Removal of HCl, SO₂, and NO by treatment of acid gas with Mg-Al oxide slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Although effective treatment of acid gases such as HCl, SO(x), and NO(x) is essential for preventing air pollution, current methods pose other environmental problems such as CaCl₂ leaching, reduced landfill lifetimes, and solid waste production. Here we show that acid gases can be treated simply with a Mg-Al oxide slurry. The contribution of Mg-Al oxide to HCl and SO₂ removal increased as a function of the quantity and temperature of Mg-Al oxide. HCl was removed by the reconstruction of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) intercalated with Cl⁻ dissociated from HCl in the slurry. SO₂ was oxidized into SO₃ by oxygen in the air flow, dissolved in an aqueous solution, and removed by the reconstruction of Mg-Al LDH intercalated with dissociated SO₄²⁻. Although less pronounced because of surface adsorption, NO was nonetheless removed by Mg-Al oxide. Our results suggest that simultaneous removal of HCl, SO₂, and NO using a Mg-Al oxide slurry may be possible without the concomitant problems of conventional treatment methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu

    Slurry erosion (the removal of material caused by the randomly moving high velocity liquid-solid particle mixture) is a serious issue in crude oil drilling, mining, turbines, rocket nozzles, pumps, and boiler tubes that causes excessive downtime and high operating costs as a result of premature part failure. The goal of this research is to enhance the service life of high-value components subjected to slurry erosion by utilizing the concept of functionally graded metal-ceramic composite material (FGMCCM) in which the favorable properties of metal (toughness, ductility, etc.) and ceramic (hardness) are tailored smoothly to improve erosion resistance. Among the potential manufacturing processes, such as the laser-based powder deposition (LBPD), the plasma transferred arc (PTA), and the thermal spray the LBPD process offers good composition and microstructure control with a high deposition rate in producing the FGMCCM. This research focuses on the development of nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) based FGMCCM using the LBPD process for applications the above mentioned. The LBPD of Ni-WC involves the introduction of Ni and WC powder particle by an inert gas into the laser-formed molten pool at the substrate via nozzles. The LBPD of Ni-WC includes complex multi-physical interactions between the laser beam, Ni-WC powder, substrate, and carrier and shielding gases that are governed by a number of process variables such as laser power, scanning speed, and powder flow rate. In order to develop the best Ni-WC based slurry erosion resistant material using the LBPD process, the following challenges associated with the fabrication and the performance evaluation need to be addressed: 1) flow behavior of the Ni-WC powder and its interaction with the laser, 2) the effect of the process variables, the material compositions, and the thermo-physical properties on thermal cycles, temperature gradient, cooling rate, and residual stress formation within the material and the subsequent

  3. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  4. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  5. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  6. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita;

    2016-01-01

    macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  7. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  8. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  9. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  10. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  11. An advanced alkaline slurry for barrier chemical mechanical planarization on patterned wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Niu Xinhuan; Tian Jianying; Gao Baohong; Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an alkaline barrier slurry (named FA/O slurry) for barrier removal and evaluated its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance through comparison with a commercially developed barrier slurry.The FA/O slurry consists of colloidal silica,which is a complexing and an oxidizing agent,and does not have any inhibitors.It was found that the surface roughness of copper blanket wafers polished by the FA/O slurry was lower than the commercial barrier slurry,demonstrating that it leads to a better surface quality.In addition,the dishing and electrical tests also showed that the patterned wafers have a lower dishing value and sheet resistance as compared to the commercial barrier slurry.By comparison,the FA/O slurry demonstrates good planarization performance and can be used for barrier CMP.

  12. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin HUAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  13. Experimental investigation of ice slurry heat transfer in horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per; Palm, Bjoern; Melinder, Aake [Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Heat transfer of ice slurry flow based on ethanol-water mixture in a circular horizontal tube has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethanol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The heat transfer tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 22% depending on test performed. Measured heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry are found to be higher than those for single phase fluid, especially for laminar flow conditions and high ice mass fractions where the heat transfer is increased with a factor 2 in comparison to the single phase flow. In addition, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry flow were compared to the analytical results, based on the correlation by Sieder and Tate for laminar single phase regime, by Dittus-Boelter for turbulent single phase regime and empirical correlation by Christensen and Kauffeld derived for laminar/turbulent ice slurry flow in circular horizontal tubes. It was found that the classical correlation proposed by Sieder and Tate for laminar forced convection in smooth straight circular ducts cannot be used for heat transfer prediction of ice slurry flow since it strongly underestimates measured values, while, for the turbulent flow regime the simple Dittus-Boelter relation predicts the heat transfer coefficient of ice slurry flow with high accuracy but only up to an ice mass fraction of 10% and Re{sub cf} > 2300 regardless of imposed heat flux. For higher ice mass fractions and regardless of the flow regime, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  14. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  15. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained...

  16. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  17. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwo, Isaac K [Murrysville, PA; Gidaspow, Dimitri [Northbrook, IL; Jung, Jonghwun [Naperville, IL

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  18. Experimental investigation on TBAB clathrate hydrate slurry flows in a horizontal tube: Forced convective heat transfer behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenji, Song [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Rui, Xiao; Chong, Huang; Shihui, He; Kaijun, Dong; Ziping, Feng [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is one kind of secondary refrigerants, which is promising to be applied into air-conditioning or latent-heat transportation systems as a thermal storage or cold carrying medium for energy saving. It is a solid-liquid two phase mixture which is easy to produce and has high latent heat and good fluidity. In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of TBAB slurry were investigated in a horizontal stainless steel tube under different solid mass fractions and flow velocities with constant heat flux. One velocity region of weakened heat transfer was found. Moreover, TBAB CHS was treated as a kind of Bingham fluids, and the influences of the solid particles, flow velocity and types of flow on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients of TBAB CHS were investigated. At last, criterial correlations of Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flows in the form of power function were summarized, and the error with experimental results was within {+-}20%. (author)

  19. Examining of slurries and production of moulds by spraying method in lost wax technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigation centred around the selection of a ceramic slurry composition if ceramic fibre is applied as a component of moulding material used for the lost wax technology. Producing a ceramic material of assumed parameters demands for changing the surface properties of the mineral grains. The critical concentration of solid particles or the gel point depends on the size of mineral particles, their shape and ability to aggregate. This ability has been achieved by modifying their surface properties by adding some polymer and the wetting agent (surfactant, which are adsorbed. Using the fibre material has required developing a method of its applying to the pattern set. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been recognised as the most advantageous one. The performed laboratory experiments have allowed for determining both the material composition and the parameters of its applying, such as air pressure, nozzle diameter, and the spraying distance for gravity pneumatic spraying gun.

  20. Multiphase flow of gas-liquid and gas coal slurry mixtures in vertical tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javdani, K; Schwalbe, S; Fishcher, J

    1977-01-01

    This research was done as a support study for the SYNTHOIL process and other coal liquefaction processes being developed to produce clean liquid fuels from coal. The objective of this work is to obtain experimental data on flow characteristics for upward flow of gas-liquid-solid mixtures in vertical tubes simulating conditions in the SYNTHOIL process. Study of the transport phenomena of multiphase mixtures is of importance to many chemical engineering operations in general and to some other coal conversion processes in particular. A brief review of the application of this work to existing processes is presented. The first part of the program was devoted to the study of the flow characteristics of two-phase gas--liquid systems, and the second was devoted to the flow characteristics of gas--slurry mixtures.

  1. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 1. Laboratory tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the first of three volumes describing the multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume contains the guideline CWS specifications and suggested test procedures for CWS characterization. The guideline specifications are generic and are not boiler or site specific. The specifications address CWS solids content, viscosity, amount of material less than 200-mesh (75 microns), amount of material greater than 50-mesh (300 microns), volatile matter content, and sodium content of the ash. The suggested analytical test methods are summarized including special test modifications or comments as specifically related to CWSs. The detailed analytical test procedures for CWSs are also presented in appendix A. For completeness, detailed analytical test procedures for coal characterization are also provided in appendix B. This volume also includes an Executive Summary and description of the overall test program. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Technological condition in slurry electrolysis of high-silver galena concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凌; 杨显万; 司云森; 张英杰

    2002-01-01

    Effects of various technological conditions such as ρ (Cl-),ρ (Fe)T,pH value and temperature on the cell voltage,lead leaching rate and the cathodic current efficiency of the slurry electrolysis of high-silver galena concentrate were studied,and the behavior regularity of lead and silver was investigated.As a result,the suitable condition was determined as: ρ (Cl-) 230 g/L,ρ (Fe)T 15 g/L,pH 1,temperature 70 ℃,electrolysis time 6 h.Under such condition,adopting the cathodic current density of 150 A/m2 and the liquid-solid ratio of 15∶1,lead powder with a purity degree of 91.18% was got.At the same time,leaching rate of lead,leaching rate of silver and cathodic current efficiency amounted to 96.88%,70.88% and 75.68% respectively.

  3. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  4. THE RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STOWING SLURRY WITH HIGH-WATER MATERIAL SOLIDIFYING TAILINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本生; 刘文永

    1996-01-01

    High-water material, tailings from goldmine and water are mixed into a new slurry.Testing of rheological properties of stowing slurries A and B is made to determine type and rheo-logical parameters of the slurry. The main factors influencing rheological properties of the slurryare analyzed and the rational concentration and empirical resistance calculating formula of pipeline transportation are presented.

  5. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  6. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  7. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  8. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  9. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective i

  10. Stabilization and Control of Rheological Properties of Fe2O3/Al(OH)(3)-rich Colloidal Slurries Under High Ionic Strength and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun; Poloski, Adam P.; Hansen, E. K.

    2010-08-01

    Controlling the stability and rheological properties of colloidal slurries has been an important but challenging issue for various applications such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. For example, at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River sites, operation of the waste treatment facilities with increased solids loading affects waste processing rates but impacts the rheological properties. We investigated various rheological modifiers on a Fe2O3-rich nuclear waste simulant, characterized by high ionic strength and pH, in order to reduce rheological properties of the colloidal slurry. Rheological modifiers change particle interactions in colloidal slurries; they mainly alter the electrostatic and steric interactions between particles, leading to a change in rheological properties. Weak acid type rheological modifiers strengthen electrostatic repulsion whereas nonionic/polymer surfactant type rheological modifiers introduce a steric repulsion. Using rheological analysis, it was found that citric acid and polyacrylic acid are good rheological modifiers for the simulant tested, effectively reducing yield stresses by as much as 70%. Further analysis supports that addition of such rheological modifiers increases the stability of the slurry. Binding cations in bulk solution and adsorption on the surface of the particles are identified as a reasonable working mechanism for citric acid and polyacrylic acid.

  11. Predictive model for deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipe%水平管道中工业浆体堆积速度的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴万荣; 梁向京

    2012-01-01

    According to the changing rules of heterogeneous slurry flow state with the increase of the mean velocity, considering the flow of multisized particulate slurries with wide range of particle diameters, and based on the condition of solid particle start action and the concept of deposit velocity, the measurement model of deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipes is studied. The prediction of the deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipes is satisfying.%文章根据非均质浆体流态随着浆体平均流速增加的变化规律,考虑到浆体中固体颗粒组成,结合管道底部固体颗粒的起动条件和堆积速度的概念,研究了水平管道中工业浆体堆积速度的计算模型.该模型能较准确地预测水平管道中浆体的堆积流速.

  12. Chemical aspects of coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, R.; Caprio, V.; Insola, A.

    1988-03-01

    Coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries is reviewed from the chemical point of view. Available information is considered in the light of questions relating to coal liquefaction. A lack of chemical knowledge in this area is noted, especially on model compounds. 72 refs.

  13. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  14. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  15. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  16. Effects of cattle slurry manure management on grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Kok, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of application method, cattle slurry manure type and use of additives on grassland performance were studied in a 3-year field experiment on two farms on sandy soils in the northern part of the Netherlands. The objectives were to determine the effects on (1) nitrogen (N) utilization, (2)

  17. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  18. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  19. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  20. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  1. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  2. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  3. Adhesion of solid particles to gas bubbles. Part 2: Experimental

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omota, Florin; Dimian, Alexandre C.; Bliek, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    In slurry bubble columns, the adhesion of solid catalyst particles to bubbles may significantly affect the G–L mass transfer and bubble size distribution. This feature may be exploited in design by modifying the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the particles used. Previously we have proposed a g

  4. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  5. An experimental technique for studying the dynamic stability of slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, S.K.; Chu, M.L.; Reddy, N.P.; Yazdani, S.

    1987-01-01

    In coal slurry transportation, repeated vertical accelerations larger than the gravitational acceleration are encountered. The sedimentation behavior of the slurry fuels under these conditions is an area of concern in fuel transportation. A laboratory-scale technique has been developed that can be used to study the sedimentation behavior of coal slurry fuels under conditions of repeated vertical accelerations. A coal slurry sample contained in a settling column is subjected to repeated vertical movement using a mechanical shaker. The coal concentration profile along the height of the settling column can be used to quantify the sedimentation behavior of the slurry.

  6. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops....

  7. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH4 by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH4 production than fresh slurry. Sulfate...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle...

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  9. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

  10. Nitrous-Oxide Flux from Nitric-Acid-Treated Cattle Slurry Applied to Grassland under Semi-Controlled Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from cattle slurry after surface application to grassland were measured under semi-controlled environmental conditions during three periods in 1991. Three types of cattle slurry were examined; untreated slurry and slurries treated with nitric acid (HNO3) to pH 6.0 and 4.5.

  11. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  12. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  13. What should be the apparent viscosity target of a coal-water slurry fuel for combustion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The rheological properties of a coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) affect its handling, atomization, and combustion behavior. The flow behavior and apparent viscosity are two rheological properties that are often specified by the end user. A pseudoplastic (shear thinning) flow behavior is preferred since there is a decrease in the apparent viscosity as the fuel is pumped to, and then atomized into the boiler. Specifying an apparent viscosity target for the CWSF is more problematic since there are often competing forces to maximize the solids loading of the fuel while minimizing the apparent viscosity. The apparent viscosity is a function of the particle size distribution of the coal, the solids loading of the CWSF, the physical and chemical properties of the coal, and the additive package used to prepare the CWSF. Targeting an apparent viscosity is necessary during the formulation and production of a CWSF. The trade off between maximizing the solids loading in order to increase the BTU content and maintaining an acceptable apparent viscosity to ensure good atomization behavior is not well established. In order to better define this trade-off, an investigation was carried out to examine the interrelationship between solids loading, apparent viscosity, atomization behavior, and the combustion performance of a CWSF. The CWSF was prepared in a continuous ball mill and isolated in a storage tank. Small batches of CWSF were taken from the storage tank and then diluted to determine how the changes in the CWSF`s rheology and solids loading affected it`s atomization and combustion behavior.

  14. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  15. Use of Zeolite with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Amendments to Mitigate Runoff Losses of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Suspended Solids from Agricultural Wastes Applied to Grassed Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse pollutant losses containing phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and suspended solids (SS) can occur when agricultural wastes are applied to soil. This study aimed to mitigate P, N, and SS losses in runoff from grassed soils, onto which three types of agricultural wastes (dairy slurry, pig slurry, and dairy-soiled water [DSW]), were applied by combining amendments of either zeolite and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with dairy and pig slurries or zeolite and alum with DSW. Four treatments were investigated in rainfall simulation studies: (i) control soil, (ii) agricultural wastes, (iii) dairy and pig slurries amended with PAC and DSW amended with alum, and (iv) dairy and pig slurries amended with zeolite and PAC and DSW amended with zeolite and alum. Our data showed that combined amendments of zeolite and PAC applied to dairy and pig slurries reduced total P (TP) in runoff by 87 and 81%, respectively, compared with unamended slurries. A combined amendment of zeolite and alum applied to DSW reduced TP in runoff by 50% compared with unamended DSW. The corresponding reductions in total N (TN) were 56% for dairy slurry and 45% for both pig slurry and DSW. Use of combined amendments reduced SS in runoff by 73 and 44% for dairy and pig slurries and 25% for DSW compared with unamended controls, but these results were not significantly different from those using chemical amendments only. The findings of this study are that combined amendments of zeolite and either PAC or alum reduce TP and TN losses in runoff to a greater extent than the use of single PAC or alum amendments and are most effective when used with dairy slurry and pig slurry but less effective when used with DSW.

  16. Slurry bioreactor modeling using a dissimilatory arsenate-reducing bacterium for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Masaya; Yamamuara, Shigeki; Kashiwa, Masami; Fujita, Masanori; Ike, Michihiko

    2009-02-01

    A slurry bioreactor using a dissimilatory arsenate (As(V))-reducing bacterium is proposed for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. Bacterial As(V) reduction can cause arsenic extraction from the solid to the liquid phase because arsenite, As(III), is much less adsorptive than As(V). A mathematical model was developed incorporating the reversible sorption process of arsenic as well as bacterial growth and decay via As(V) reduction. A linear isotherm equation expressed the sorption process. The model included Haldane kinetics with high As(V) concentrations and cell inactivation by toxicity due to As(III). Extraction experiments used synthetic contaminated soils (forest soil, Soil SF, 1100 mg kg(-1); paddy soil, Soil SP, 1100 mg kg(-1)) and actual contaminated soils (Soil AH 2200 mg kg(-1) and Soil AL, 220 mg kg(-1)) at 5% w/v slurry concentration. Simulation results matched the observed changes of arsenic concentrations in the liquid phase. The respective extraction efficiencies of arsenic were 63%, 41%, 20%, and 55% for SF, SP, AH, and AL soils. Sensitivity analyses showed that the rate-limiting step was the desorption rate of As(V) from the solid to the liquid phase, rather than the As(V)-reducing rate. The proposed model provides a useful framework for understanding and predicting the extraction of arsenic from soil.

  17. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Effect of cattle slurry pre-treatment by separation and addition of nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions and N dynamics: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Fangueiro, David; Chadwick, David R; Misselbrook, Tom H; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    The application of untreated or treated animal manure to soils can result in increased N and C gaseous emissions contributing to ecosystem change and global warming. In the present study, dairy cattle slurry (liquid manure) was subjected first to pre-treatment by separation using a screw press to obtain a liquid (LF) and a solid fraction (SF). Then, the different fractions and the whole slurry (WS) were combined with two nitrification inhibitors (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD) or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), were applied to soil to assess the effect of slurry treatment by separation and NI addition on soil N dynamics and CH4, CO2, NH3, NO and N2O emissions. The WS and the two slurry fractions, combined or not with DCD or DMPP, were applied to soil at an equivalent field dosage of 120 kg total N ha(-1). Controls including a soil only, soil-DCD and soil-DMPP treatments were also included. The mixtures were incubated for 93-d at 20 degrees C. Results obtained show that NI inhibited nitrification between 16 and 30-d in WS and LF, with DMPP having a longer effect over time compared to DCD. There was no significant effect of NI on nitrification for the SF treatment. Nitrification inhibitors did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) NO emissions. Furthermore, the two NIs had a similar effect on gaseous emissions. Throughout the entire experiment, the greatest amount of NO was released from the LF treatment (without NI), while the greatest amount of N2O was released from the SF treatment. Slurry separation had no impact on N emissions, while the combination of this process with one of the two NI led to a small reduction in total N emissions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid fuels as engine fuels. Kiinteiden polttoaineiden kaeyttoemahdollisuudet moottoripolttoaineena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, A.; Nylund, N.-O.

    1986-07-01

    The use of solid fuels as engine fuels is discussed in this literature study. The present liquid fuel engines require extensive and expensive changes to overcome difficulties due to solid fuels. The solid particles result in increasing wear in the engine, in the fuel feed system and everywhere, where the particles come into touch with moving surfaces. The rate of wear has been as high as 100-fold compared to that caused by liquid fuels. Large medium-fast or slow diesel engines seem to meet best the requirements set by solid fuels. The experiment carried out by the Swiss Sulzer Engine Works are the most promising engine experiments carried out so far. In Sulzer's experiments, coal-water slurries containing 50-70 wt-% coal have been used as the fuel. Burning has been rather complete, but wear and the high price of the coal-water slurry seem to be unsolvable problems. The development work on enines is still at an early stage and a solid fuel engine will not be manufactured in series in the near future. The pulverous fuel of the future will be a mixture of some liquid and of some solid fuel powder, and hence the handling-technical problems will be considerably smaller than using powder only. Powder manufacture with the present techniques is energy-wasting. Most engine experiments have been carried out on on coal slurries with < 30 ..mu..m particle size. It is not economic to produce such powders at present.

  20. Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

    1981-01-01

    Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal slide waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7 m (35 ft) diameter, nominal 378,000 liter (100,000 gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. This complex included two plants that collectively provided the solid waste/sewage sludge feedstock. One of the two mixing systems was a mechanical agitator--a vessel-centered rotary shaft with four blades at each of two levels to drive the slurry downward. The second system included three equidistantly placed gas gun assemblies that each produced bubbles at a constant rate to draw the slurry upward. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

  1. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  2. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  3. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry: effects of acidification and sulfur addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik V; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Petersen, Søren O

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (HS) with addition of sulfate and methionine ( slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from HS dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the HS contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  5. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  6. Rheological analysis of an effect of different deflocculants on the fly-ash slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnecki, K.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    During the combustion of coal in the combined heat and power plant (CHP), a very large amount of combustion waste, called further as a fly-ash, is produced. It is typical that fly-ash appears during the combustion process of the fine coal and is transported by a pipeline with support of water as a carrier liquid to a pond storage site, where it is disposed. The pond is localized usually a few kilometers from the CHP, which makes it possible that decrease of friction in such a pipeline can result in energy savings of electricity needed for the pump and water needed as a carrier liquid. In the study an efficient method using a few deflocculants for reducing shear stress, and as a consequence viscosity, is demonstrated. The objective of the paper is to improve the efficiency of the hydrotransport of the fly-ash slurry by adding own designed additives. During the experiments a solids concentration by weight was determined from procured raw material in order to compute the real value occurring in industrial conditions. In addition, the analysis of the particle size distribution was conducted. The Anton Paar MCR 302 electronic rheometer was used to measure the dependence of shear stress and viscosity vs shear rate in the fly-ash existing in the CHP. Another part of the analysis was focused on the additives (deflocculants), to examine their influence on the reduction of the shear stress. The paper proves positive deflocculants impact on the rheological properties of the fly-ash slurry. The results of measurements are presented as figures and conclusions.

  7. Suspension mechanism and application of sand-suspended slurry for coalmine fire prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongliang; Wang Lanyun; Chu Tingxiang; Liang Donglin

    2014-01-01

    North and west China has abundant coal resources, however, such resources make these regions prone to serious mine fire disasters. Although the copious sand and fly ash resources found in these areas can be used as fire-fighting materials, conventional grouting is expensive because of water shortage and loess particles. A new compound material (i.e., a sand-suspended colloid), which comprises a mineral inorganic gel and an organic polymer, is developed in the current study to improve the quality of sand injection and reduce water wastage when grouting. The new material can steadily suspend the sand, through the addi-tion of a small amount of colloid yielding steady sand-suspended slurry. The process of producing the slurry is convenient and quick, overcoming the shortage of sand-suspending thickeners which need heat and are difficult to produce. The space work model based on the theory of the double-electric layer is established to study the suspended mechanism of the solid particles in the sand-suspended colloid. The dispersion effect of the sand-suspended colloid is demonstrated by the incorporation of the electro-static effect by the double-electric layer and the steric hindrance effect on the sand particles, ensuring the stability of the colloid system and the steady suspension of sand particles in the sand-suspended colloid. Mechanical analysis indicates that the sand is suspended steadily under the condition that the rock sand particles stress on the lower part of the fluid is less than the yield stress of the colloid. Finally, the fire-prevention technology of sand suspension was applied and tested in the Daliuta Coal Mine, achieving suc-cessful results.

  8. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  9. Isobutane/2-butene alkylation over potential heterogeneous catalysts in a slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, T.

    1996-12-31

    The trend towards more effective use of fossil fuels and reduced environmental pollution represents a major task of improvement within the refinery processes. The highly isomerized and high octane paraffins produced from isobutane and light olefins by alkylation fulfill all the requirements for reformulated gasoline. This doctoral thesis discusses new catalyst systems because of their potential in alkylation. A slurry reactor apparatus for solid-acid catalysed isobutane/butene alkylation was developed and used to investigate the performance of various heterogeneous catalysts. The selected materials were mainly zeolite types with faujasite structures. The samples were characterized by various methods before alkylation. In general, the order of decreasing catalyst activity after 3 h of reaction at 80{sup o}C was found to be: H-EMT >> H-FAU, dealuminated H-FAU >> NS.500, TA-Y, CeY-98 > Nafion-H. The order of decreasing alkylate selectivity of the catalysts was: H-EMT >> dealuminated H-FAU > H-FAU >> Nafion-H > CeY-98 > TA-Y > H-SAPO-37, NS.500. H-EMT was the most promising system for further development, also because of the very low formation of the undesirable isooctenes and a high selectivity towards isooctanes among the alkylates. A high density of accessible strong acid sites was found to be essential for a high alkylation activity and selectivity. Open structure, like hexagonal faujasite, was advantageous. The distribution of trimethylpentanes formed in zeolites was ascribed to pore restrictions as a major factor. The effect of operating conditions on catalyst performance was investigated statistically, and a high dilution of butene in the slurry reactor was found to be very important. 153 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  11. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  12. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  13. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  14. Al slurry coatings for molten carbonate fuel cells separator plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Garcia, M.C.; Muelas, R.; Sanchez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial, Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J.; Duday, D.; Hierro, M.P.; Gomez, C. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales

    2001-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Al slurry coated AISI 310 stainless steel, with and without diffusion heat treatment, was investigated as a wet seal material for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at 650 C. The results were compared with IVD Al coated AISI 310. Characterization of the samples before and after exposure to the eutectic 62 mol% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38 mol% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture at 650 C for 1000 h by SEM-EDS and XRD was carried out. The presence of LiAlO{sub 2} on the coated samples was confirmed by XRD. The slurry Al-coated stainless steels performed at least as well as the IVD Al coating. (orig.)

  15. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    selected through applying the optimization approach. The four sweeps were tested at different working depths (75, 100, and 125 mm below soil surface) in a field with loamy sandy soil. The results showed that draft force and soil cross-sectional area tilled had similar trends as predicted......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...... in the optimization in terms of the effects of sweep width and working depth. Among all the combinations of sweep width and working depth, the 180 mm sweep working at 100 mm depth had the best performance, as indicated by its lowest draft force and most favorable soil surface profile for covering injected slurry....

  16. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  17. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  18. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  19. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.d [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL{sup -1}. As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL{sup -1} of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 mug g{sup -1} for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective

  20. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  1. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of calcium sulfite in solution/aqueous slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qin; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2004-01-01

    Forced oxidation of calcium sulfite aqueous slurry is a key step for the calcium-based flue gas desulfurization(FGD) residue. Experiments were conducted in a semi-batch system and a continuous flow system on lab scales. The main reactor in semi-batch system is a 1000 ml volume flask. It has five necks for continuous feeding of gas and a batch of calcium sulfite solution/aqueous slurry. In continuous flow system, the main part is a jacketed Pyrex glass reactor in which gas and solution/aqueous slurry are fed continuously. Calcium sulfite oxidation is a series of complex free-radical reactions. According to experimental results and literature data, the reactions are influenced significantly by manganese as catalyst. At low concentration of manganese and calcium sulfite, the reaction rate is dependent on 1.5 order of sulfite concentration, 0.5 order of manganese concentration, and zero order of oxygen concentration in which the oxidation is controlled by chemical kinetics. With concentrations of calcium sulfite and manganese increasing, the reactions are independent gradually on the constituents in solution but are impacted by oxygen concentration. Manganese can accelerate the free-radical reactions, and then enhances the mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid. The critical concentration of calcium sulfite is 0.007 mol/L, manganese is 10-4 mol/L, and oxygen is of 0.2-0.4 atm.

  3. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  4. Improved techniques for hyperbaric filtration of fine coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Wang, X.H.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-07-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal slurry is one of the most important unit operations of a coal-cleaning circuit. However, an efficient and economic dewatering method is still eluding the coal industry. In this study hyperbaric (high pressure) filtration studies were conducted on a froth flotation product obtained from a coal preparation plant processing Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal. The fine coal slurry (42 weight percent minus 25 {mu}m) could be dewatered to a low moisture (24%) using 482kPa (70psi) pressure. This article describes two novel approaches for improving dewatering of the fine coal slurry using hyperbaric filtration, such as using a modified filter support and split-size dewatering. The modified filter support system and the split-sizing at 25 {mu}m (500mesh) provided 21.5% and 15.9% moisture filter cake, which was about 10% and 34% improvement in moisture reduction in the filter cake moisture, respectively. Combining both the approaches with the addition of a nonionic flocculant provided a filter cake with 10.5% moisture, which was about a 56% improvement in moisture reduction.

  5. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  6. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  7. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  9. 2D and 3D stability analysis of slurry trench in frictional/cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-yu HAN; Jin-jian CHEN; Jian-hua WANG; Xiao-he XIA

    2013-01-01

    A 2D and 3D kinematically admissible rotational failure mechanism is presented for homogeneous slurry trenches in frictional/cohesive soils.Analytical approaches are derived to obtain the upper bounds on slurry trench stability in the strict framework of limit analysis.It is shown that the factor of safety from a 3D analysis will be greater than that from a 2D analysis.Compared with the limit equilibrium method,the limit analysis method yields an unconservative estimate on the safety factors.A set of examples are presented in a wide range of parameters for 2D and 3D homogeneous slurry trenches.The factor of safety increases with increasing slurry and soil bulk density ratio,cohesion,friction angle,and with decreasing slurry level depth and trench depth ratio,trench width and depth ratio.It is convenient to assess the safety for the homogeneous slurry trenches in practical applications.

  10. Rheological behavior of Shengli coal-solvent slurry at low-temperatures and atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; YAN Yan; GUO Xiang-kun; Xu De-ping

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from systematic studies of Shengli lignite coal-solvent slurries. Solvent type, temperature, coal to solvent ratio, particle granularity, shear rate and shear time were investigated. The viscosity of the solvents is time independent. However, the slurries are thixotropic. A change from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian behavior occurs as the temperature, or as the solvent to coal ratio, increases. The solvent used in the slurry affects the point at which the theology changes from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian. The REC slurry changes at 1 : 1.2 coal to solvent ratio and at 40 ℃. The HAR slurry changes at a 1:1.5 ratio and at 60 ℃. The theology of the slurries is pseudo-plastic at low shear rates but Newtonian at high shear rates.

  11. Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

    2014-02-01

    In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

  12. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Ertuan; Kong Fantao; Chen Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and streng...

  13. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Photocatalytic decolorization of azo-dye with zinc oxide powder in an external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Junpei [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tokumura, Masahiro [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Znad, Hussein T. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Yoshinori [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-11-02

    Photocatalytic decolorization of azo-dye Orange II in water has been examined in an external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor using zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor photocatalyst. The effects of process parameters such as light intensity, initial dye concentration, photocatalyst loading and initial solution pH on the decolorization rate of Orange II have been systematically investigated. A two-stage photocatalytic decolorization of Orange II, the first stage of fast decolorization rate and the subsequent second stage of rather slow decolorization rate, was found. The efficiency of decolorization of Orange II increased as initial Orange II concentration decreased and UV light intensity increased. There was the optimal ZnO concentration being around 1000 mg L{sup -1}. The optimal pH was around 7.7, which was at the natural pH of the dye solution. The effect of aeration rate on the decolorization of Orange II has been also investigated and the enhancement of decolorization of Orange II with increasing aeration rate was found. By using a model for the light intensity profile in the external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor, the simulation model for the decolorization of Orange II with ZnO photocatalyst has been developed. The proposed model in which the slow decolorization in the second stage as well as the initial fast decolorization is also taken into account could simulate the experimental results for UV light irradiation satisfactorily. The proposed simulation model in which the change of light intensity with time due to the decolorization of Orange II and the light scatter due to solid photocatalysts are considered will be very useful for practical engineering design of the slurry photoreactor of wastewater including textile dyes.

  15. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20°C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant...... not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile...

  16. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry.

  17. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  18. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-06-20

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The

  20. Solidification and Re-melting Phenomena During Slurry Preparation Using the RheoMetal™ Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, M.; Sabzevar, Mohsen Haddad; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Wessén, M.

    2017-08-01

    The melting sequence of the enthalpy exchange material (EEM) and formation of a slurry in the RheoMetal™ process was investigated. The EEM was extracted and quenched, together with a portion of the slurry at different processing times before complete melting. The EEM initially increased in size/diameter due to melt freezing onto its surface, forming a freeze-on layer. The initial growth of this layer was followed by a period of a constant diameter of the EEM with subsequent melting and decrease of diameter. Microstructural characterization of the size and morphology of different phases in the EEM and in the freeze-on layer was made. Dendritic equiaxed grains and eutectic regions containing Si particles and Cu-bearing particles and Fe-rich particles were observed in the as-cast EEM. The freeze-on layer consisted of dendritic aluminum tilted by about 30 deg in the upstream direction, caused by the rotation of the EEM. Energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis showed that the freeze-on layer had a composition corresponding to an alloy with higher melting point than the EEM and thus shielding the EEM from the surrounding melt. Microstructural changes in the EEM showed that temperature rapidly increased to 768 K (495 °C), indicated by incipient melting of the lowest temperature melting eutectic in triple junction grain boundary regions with Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2 phases present. As the EEM temperature increased further the binary Al-Si eutectic started to melt to form a region of a fully developed coherent mushy state. Experimental results and a thermal model indicated that as the dendrites spheroidized near to the interface at the EEM/freeze-on layer reached a mushy state with 25 pct solid fraction, coherency was lost and disintegration of the freeze-on layer took place. Subsequently, in the absence of the shielding effect from the freeze-on Layer, the EEM continued to disintegrate with a coherency limit of a solid fraction estimated to be 50 pct.

  1. The University of Arizona program in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    The University of Arizona program is aimed at introducing scientific rigor to the predictability and quality assurance of composite solid propellants. Two separate approaches are followed: to use the modern analytical techniques to experimentally study carefully controlled propellant batches to discern trends in mixing, casting, and cure; and to examine a vast bank of data, that has fairly detailed information on the ingredients, processing, and rocket firing results. The experimental and analytical work is described briefly. The principle findings were that: (1) pre- (dry) blending of the coarse and fine ammonium perchlorate can significantly improve the uniformity of mixing; (2) the Fourier transformed IR spectra of the uncured and cured polymer have valuable data on the state of the fuel; (3) there are considerable non-uniformities in the propellant slurry composition near the solid surfaces (blades, walls) compared to the bulk slurry; and (4) in situ measurements of slurry viscosity continuously during mixing can give a good indication of the state of the slurry. Several important observations in the study of the data bank are discussed.

  2. Phosphorus recovery from biogas slurry by ultrasound/H2O2 digestion coupled with HFO/biochar adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemeng; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Hongqiang; Li, Guoxue; Ding, Lili; Pawlowski, Lucjan

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from biogas slurry has recently attracted considerable interest. In this work, ultrasound/H2O2 digestion coupled with ferric oxide hydrate/biochar (HFO/biochar) adsorption process was performed to promote P dissolution, release, and recovery from biogas slurry. The results showed that the optimal total phosphorus release efficiency was achieved at an inorganic phosphorus/total phosphorus ratio of 95.0% at pH 4, 1mL of added H2O2, and ultrasonication for 30min. The P adsorption by the HFO/biochar followed pseudo second-order kinetics and was mainly controlled by chemical processes. The Langmuir-Freundlich model matched the experimental data best for P adsorption by HFO/biochar at 298 and 308K, whereas the Freundlich model matched best at 318K. The maximum amount of P adsorbed was 220mg/g. The process was endothermic, spontaneous, and showed an increase in disorder at the solid-liquid interface. The saturated adsorbed HFO/biochar continually releases P and is most suitable for use in an alkaline environment. The amount of P released reached 29.1mg/g after five extractions. P mass balance calculation revealed that 11.3% of the total P can be made available. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Surface characteristics of ruthenium in periodate-based slurry during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The Ru surface chemical and mechanical property varies with KIO{sub 4} slurry pH. • In alkaline slurry, the corrosion proceeds uniformly like a direct dissolution. • In neutral and acidic slurries, Ru exhibits passivation behavior. • MRR is highest in neutral slurry due to inhomogeneous RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} passivation. • Weak alkaline slurry is preferred to get good MRR and avoid toxic RuO{sub 4} formation. - Abstract: When the feature size of integrated circuit continues to shrink below 14 nm, ruthenium (Ru) has become one of the most promising candidates for the application of novel barrier layer. To reveal the material removal mechanism of Ru during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), surface characteristics of Ru in KIO{sub 4}-based slurry were investigated. The corrosion behavior of ruthenium was measured by the surface chemistry and morphology analysis. Then the mechanical properties of the passivated/corroded surface were evaluated by AES and tribocorrosion experiments. CMP experiments were carried out to make clear the effects of surface property during polishing. It was found that the Ru surface chemistry and mechanical properties vary obviously as a function of slurry pH. In neutral slurries, the Ru surface is covered with RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} inhomogeneous passivation films, with the highest material removal rate obtained during the CMP process. It could be concluded that the material removal mechanism largely depends on the slurry pH values. In near neutral slurries, Ru is passivated with thick and heterogeneous oxides film, which proves the easiest to be mechanically removed during polishing. The weak alkaline slurry is preferred in order to achieve desirable polishing rate as well as avoid the formation of toxic RuO{sub 4}.

  4. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  5. Semi-solid Processing of Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, David H.; Suéry, Michel; Kapranos, Plato; Atkinson, Helen V.; Young, Kenneth P.

    The original semisolid forming process, developed at MIT in 1972, involved stirring an alloy during solidification to produce a slurry of spheroidal primary particles in a liquid matrix, which was then injected directly into a die to produce a solid component. This was termed "rheocasting." Subsequently, it was found more convenient to solidify the slurry completely during the continuous casting of an electromag netically stirred strand, which was then cut into slugs for partial remelting back into semisolid billets on demand. These could be loaded into a diecasting machine in this state for injection into the die. This alternative process route is called "thixoforming," and until recently, it was the preferred industrial process. For this reason, the microstructure developed during the reheating and melting for thixo forming will be considered first. Experimentally, it has been found that the most effective fraction solid f s for thixoforming, lies between 0.5 and 0.6. Below this range, the semisolid slug becomes too soft to support its own weight and sags during remelting; above this range, it is too stiff to flow readily and fill the die. However, the slurry technologies used in rheocasting typically operate at lower fraction solids and rely on the ability to pour the semisolid alloy much like a liquid (see Chap. 4). It has been observed in practice that the fraction solid is in fact a critical factor for effective thixoforming, and therefore, both good temperature control and lack of sensitivity of f s to small temperature variations of the alloy are essential to efficient manufacturing.

  6. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  7. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  8. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  9. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  10. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  11. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics.

  12. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  13. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  14. Slurry analysis of cadmium and copper collected on 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified TiO2 core-Au shell nanoparticles by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, S; Akman, S; Kahraman, M

    2011-02-15

    Separation/preconcentration of copper and cadmium using TiO(2) core-Au shell nanoparticles modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and their slurry analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry were described. For this purpose, at first, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were coated with gold shell by reducing the chloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and then modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The characterization of modified nanoparticles was performed using ultra-violet spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Copper and cadmium were then collected on the prepared sorbent by batch method. The solid phase loaded with the analytes was separated by centrifugation and the supernatant was removed. Finally, the precipitate was slurried and directly aspirated into the flame for the determination of analytes. Thus, elution step and its all drawbacks were eliminated. The effects of pH, amount of sorbent, slurry volume, sample volume and diverse ions on the recovery were investigated. After optimization of experimental parameters, the analytes in different certified reference materials and spiked water samples were quantitatively recovered with 5% RSD. The analytes were enriched up to 20-fold. Limits of detection (N=10, 3σ) for copper and cadmium were 0.28 and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of a simplified generalized standard additions method for the analysis of cement, gypsum and basic slag by slurry nebulization ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Ljiljana; McCrindle, Robert I; Botha, Barend M; Potgieter, Herman J

    2004-05-01

    The simplified generalized standard additions method (GSAM) was investigated as an alternative method for the ICP-OES analysis of solid materials, introduced into the plasma in the form of slurries. The method is an expansion of the conventional standard additions method. It is based on the principle of varying both the sample mass and the amount of standard solution added. The relationship between the sample mass, standard solution added and signal intensity is assumed to be linear. Concentration of the analyte can be found either geometrically from the slope of the two-dimensional response plane in a three-dimensional space or mathematically from the ratio of the parameters estimated by multiple linear regression. The analysis of a series of certified reference materials (CRMs) (cement CRM-BCS No 353, gypsum CRM-Gyp A and basic slag CRM No 382/I) introduced into the plasma in the form of slurry is described. The slurries contained glycerol and hydrochloric acid and were placed in an ultrasonic bath to ensure good dispersion. "Table curve 3D" software was used to fit the data. Results obtained showed that the method could be successfully applied to the analysis of cement, gypsum and slag samples, without the need to dissolve them. In this way, we could avoid the use of hazardous chemicals (concentrated acids), incomplete dissolution and loss of some volatiles. The application of the simplified GSAM for the analysis did not require a CRM with similar chemical and mineralogical properties for the calibration of the instrument.

  16. Simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by slurry-sampling graphite furnace AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hirotsugu; Yada, Masako; Yoshida, Tomomi; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo

    2004-03-01

    A fast and accurate analytical method was established for the simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling technique and a Hitachi Model Z-9000 atomic absorption spectrometer. The slurry samples were prepared by the ultrasonication of silicon carbide or silicon nitride powders with 0.1 M nitric acid. Calibration curves were prepared by using a mixed standard solution containing aluminum, calcium, iron and 0.1 M nitric acid. The analytical results of the proposed method for aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride reference materials were in good agreement with the reference values. The detection limits for aluminum, calcium and iron were 0.6 microg/g, 0.15 microg/g and 2.5 microg/g, respectively, in solid samples, when 200 mg of powdered samples were suspended in 20 ml of 0.1 M nitric acid and a 10 microl portion of the slurry sample was then measured. The relative standard deviation of the determination of aluminum, calcium and iron was 5 - 33%.

  17. Two phase continuous digestion of solid manure on-farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W.; Lehto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland). Animal Production Research; Evers, L.; Granstedt, A. [Biodynamic Research Inst., Jaerna (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Present commercially available biogas plants are mainly suitable for slurry and co-substrates. Cattle, horse and poultry farms using a solid manure chain experience a crucial competitive disadvantage, because conversion to slurry technology requires additional investments. Based on the technological progress of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste, so called 'dry fermentation' prototype plants were developed for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50% total solids (Hoffman, 2001). These plants show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants: Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. On-farm research (Gronauer and Aschmann, 2004; Kusch and Oechsner, 2004) and prototype research (Linke, 2004) on dry fermentation in batch reactors show that loading and discharging of batch reactors remains difficult and/or time-consuming compared to slurry reactors. Additionally a constant level of gas generation requires offset operation of several batch reactors. Baserga et al. (1994) developed a pilot plant of 9.6 m{sup 3} capacity for continuous digestion of solid beef cattle manure on-farm. However, on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. We assume that lack of tested technical solutions and scarceness of on-farm research results are the main reason for low acceptance of dry fermentation technology on-farm. We report about an innovative two phase farm-scale biogas plant. The plant continuously digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues of the farm and the surrounding food processing units. The two phase reactor technology was chosen for two reasons: first it offers the separation of a liquid fraction and a solid fraction for composting after hydrolysis and secondly the methanation of the liquid fraction using fixed film technology results in a very short hydraulic retention time, reduction in reactor volume, and higher methane content of the

  18. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems stud

  19. Apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, P.J.; Vreeken, V.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry, comprising a filtering element (3) and driving means (4, 5, 6) for driving the slurry into the filtering element. The filtering element is connected with discharge means (8, 9) for the

  20. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or... water, sediment, or slurry impoundment which meets the requirements of § 77.216(a) shall adopt a program... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...

  1. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification. 77.216-4 Section 77.216-4 Mineral...

  2. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  3. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  4. Erosion Characteristics of Aluminum-based Metal Matrix Composites in Slurry Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Jiangping

    2000-01-01

    The erosion resistance of the Al18B4O33 whisker reinforced AC4C Al composites in water and saline slurry were investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed at slurry velocities between 6.4 m/s to 15.2 m/s and at normal impact angle. The detachment of flake and dislodgement of whisker were identified as the major mechanisms of material removal in slurry environments. The composites showed better erosion resistance due to the protection of the matrix by the whisker at low slurry velocities. Because of reduced fracture strain, the erosion rates of the composites were generally greater than that of the unreinforced alloy at high slurry velocities. Owing to interfacial reaction which resulted in decrease in hardness and fracture strain,the T6 treatment for the composites had a deleterious influence on the erosion resistance. By considering the material removal processes in the water slurry, a simple rationalization of the inverse dependence of slurry erosion rate on Hεf was obtained. In the saline slurry, there exists a strong synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion. The volume loss of the composites was enhanced through cracking of flakes and detaching of whisker induced by stress and corrosion.

  5. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the N

  6. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  7. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  8. Effects of processing parameters on microstructure of semi-solid magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of pouring temperature of magnesium melt, preheating temperature of the barrel of the screw mixer, and shear rate on the solidified microstructures of semi-solid slurry were investigated by a mechanical stirring semi-solid process. The appropriate processing parameters of slurry preparation were obtained, and the mold filling ability of semi-solid slurry for thin-walled casting was examined. Results indicate that the solid volume fraction of non-dendritic microstructure increases with a decrease in pouring temperature of magnesium melt and the barrel preheating temperature of the screw mixer. Also the grain size of primary α-phase is reduced. Furthermore, the solid volume fraction of semi-solid nondendritic structure decreases with an increase of shear rate. The fine and round granular microstructure with 30 ~50 μm in size of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy was presented. Finally, a 1.0 mm thin-walled casting with a clear contour and good soundness was successfully made by semi-solid rheo-diecasting.

  9. Effects of processing parameters on microstructure of semi-solid magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen WU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of pouring temperature of magnesium melt, preheating temperature of the barrel of the screw mixer, and shear rate on the solidified microstructures of semi-solid slurry were investigated by a mechanical stirring semi-solid process. The appropriate processing parameters of slurry preparation were obtained, and the mold filling ability of semi-solid slurry for thin-walled casting was examined. Results indicate that the solid volume fraction of non-dendritic mi-crostructure increases with a decrease in pouring temperature of magnesium melt and the barrel preheating temperature of the screw mixer. Also the grain size of primary a-phase is reduced. Furthermore, the solid volume fraction of semi-solid non-dendritic structure decreases with an increase of shear rate. The fine and round granular microstructure with 30一50 Nm insize of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy was presented. Finally, a 1.0 mm thin-walled casting with a clear contour and good soundness was successfully made by semi-solid rheo-diecasting.

  10. Study of matrix effects and spectral interferences in the determination of lead in sediments, sludges and soils by SR-ETAAS using slurry sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Marianela; Cerutti, Soledad; Martinez, Luis D; Smichowski, Patricia; Gil, Raúl A

    2010-07-15

    An interference-free, fast, and simple method is proposed for Pb determination in environmental solid samples combining slurry sampling and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were ground to an adequate particle size and slurries were prepared by weighing from 0.05 g to 0.20 g of dry sediment, adding nitric acid, and a solution containing 0.1% Triton X-100. Ultrasonic agitation was employed for slurries homogenization. Analytical variables including acid pre-treatment conditions, particle size, slurry stability, temperature program of the graphite furnace, and type and concentration of the chemical modifier were studied. The undesirable effects of potential non-specific and spectral interferences on Pb signal were also taken into account. Continuum source and self-reversal methods for background correction were evaluated and compared. For calibration, synthetic acid solutions of Pb were employed. Calibration was linear within the range 1-30 microg L(-1) and 5-30 microg L(-1) when the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines were used. Correlation coefficients of 0.9992 and 0.9997 were obtained. Using optimized conditions, limits of detection (3sigma) of 0.025 microg g(-1) and 0.1 microg g(-1) were achieved for the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in soil, contaminated soil, municipal sludge, and sediment samples. The accuracy was assessed by the analysis of two certified reference materials: municipal sludge (QC MUNICIPAL SLUDGE A) and lake sediment (TRAP-LRM from IJS). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  12. Ultrasound stimulus effect on hydrogen bonding in networked alumina and polyacrylic acid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Ngo Le; Takaomi, Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound (US) on the viscosity of aqueous slurry composing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and alumina was studied. For exposure to an aqueous slurry solution, US waves emitted at three different frequencies of 28, 45, and 100 kHz were used. Results show that the stimulus effect of US on viscosity change was a breakage of the hydrogen bonding networks of alumina and PAA in the slurry solution. That decrease in viscosity was enhanced strongly by US exposure as the output power was increased from 175 to 300 W. In addition, a lower US frequency was effective for slurry viscosity reduction. The reduced viscosity of the slurry also depended on the solution pH. After US was stopped, the viscosity increased gradually and recovered to its original value within about 15 min. The stimulus effect on the viscosity change was cycled by US.

  13. Planarization properties of an alkaline slurry without an inhibitor on copper patterned wafer CMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Tian Jianying; Niu Xinhuan; Zheng Weiyan; Yue Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP) performance of an inhibitor-free alkaline copper slurry is investigated.The results of the Cu dissolution rate (DR) and the polish rate (PR) show that the alkaline slurry without inhibitors has a relatively high copper removal rate and considerable dissolution rate.Although the slurry with inhibitors has a somewhat low DR,the copper removal rate was significantly reduced due to the addition of inhibitors (Benzotriazole,BTA).The results obtained from pattern wafers show that the alkaline slurry withoutinhibitors has a better planarization efficacy; it can planarize the uneven patterned surface during the excess copper removal.These results indicate that the proposed inhibitor-free copper slurry has a considerable planarization capability for CMP of Cu pattern wafers,it can be applied in the first step ofCu CMP for copper bulk removal.

  14. Coating system of hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry; Suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu surari no tofu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.

    1995-03-31

    As the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry has a high density and a high viscosity, it is necessary to apply a considerably high tension to the current collector sheet when the current collector sheet is continuously coated with the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry. This invention provides a method of continuously coating the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry on the running current collector sheet. In order to keep the viscosity of alloy powder slurry constant and to reduce the tension to be applied to the sheet during coating, a stirring jig is installed facing to the front surface and back surface of the current collector sheet and rotating in the sheet running direction and in the opposite direction. In this way, the thixotropic structure of the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry is constantly broken, so that a gradual increase in viscosity does not take place. Resultingly, the homogeneous hydrogen storage alloy electrode can be continuously produced. 6 figs.

  15. The Influence of Clinoptilolite on Technological Properties of Fresh and Set Slag-Alkaline Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wiśniowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990 the AGH-UST scientists have been working on more efficient recipes of slag-alkaline slurries for sealing the soil and rock mass with hole injection methods.A special attention has been paid to the increasing efficiency of geoengineering works on a rational shaping of technological parameters of fresh and set slag-alkaline slurries.The properties of slurries containing clinoptiolite zeolites from the Košice area are presented in the paper.An addition of zeolites to the slurries increases the tightness of the set slurries. Zeolites favorably influence the course of crystallization of sodium zeolite and the hydroparameters in the slag-alkaline matrix.

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  17. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  18. Continuous production of CO2 hydrate slurry added antifreeze proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Ota, M.; Murakami, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ferdows, M. [Dhaka Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mathematics; Endou, H. [Technova Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Ocean storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrate is possible in deep seas where low temperature and high pressure conditions exist. However, when hydrates are produced in large quantities, they can plug pipelines. The addition of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can prevent hydrate crystals from forming. The hydrate may then behave like a slurry which can be transported from a production place to a place of storage with minimal pressure loss. This study developed a production method for a CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and presented the prospect of the inhibition effect for CO{sub 2} hydrate formation by adding AFPs. It revealed the shift in induction time, the formation rate and the torque of the agitator under conditions of AFPs at 0.01 mg/ml. It was concluded that compared to pure water, the induction time for hydrate production increased 244 per cent, the formation rate decreased 76 per cent and the ratio of the torque decreased 48 per cent by adding AFPs. The AFPs rendered the hydrate particles small and well dispersed. It was concluded that type 3 AFPs can effectively inhibit the production of structure s1 type hydrates. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Slurry-phase Biological Treatment of Nitrophenol Using Bioaugmentation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; GANG ZHAO; LI-BO WU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of soil-slurry bioreactor used for remediating contaminated soil with 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Methods The slurry bioreactor was used to degrade different concentrations of 4-nitrophenol with or without inoculating the acclimated activated sludge. HPLC system (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with a UV detector) was used for the quantification of 4-nitrophenol. Results The indigenous microorganisms exhibited a little activity for simulated soil with 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil. However, at the concentration of 10 mg 4-NPkg soil, a considerable degradation occurred within two weeks. It appeared that high concentrations of 4-nitrophenol apparently produced an inhibitory effect on microbial activity. For system receiving 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil, the maximum rate of 4-NP degradation measured in the reactor inoculated with 25 g sludge/kg soil was approximately 10 times higher than the uninoculated reactor, suggesting that the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol could be enhanced greatly by means of inoculating acclimated sludge. Conclusion The addition of sludge capable of degrading 4-nitrophenol can result in enhance the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol.

  20. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITE BY SLURRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI PRAKASH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina has got some excellent properties like chemical inertness, thermal and mechanical strength against hazardous environment. Alumina is a good ceramic material which is being used for structuralapplications. To enhance the toughness and strength of the body some Zirconia is also used with it. The use of Zirconia in alumina is known as toughening of alumina. One difficulty arises, when alumina and alumina toughened composite are sintered , because the low sinterability of Alumina-Zirconia forced the compact to give very low density body. To overcome this problem alumina and alumina composites are made from slurry method which gives nearly theoretical density. The combined effect of alumina and Zirconia on the phase transformation and microstructure development of heat-treated Alumina-Zirconia composites has been studied. Slurry is prepared by adding water, dispersant, binder and anti-foaming agent. In the present study, Sintering schedule is optimized and kept constant for all samples. After sintering, mechanical behaviour of the composite has been studied.

  1. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  3. Artificial neural network model with the parameter tuning assisted by a differential evolution technique: the study of the hold up of the slurry flow in a pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lahiri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust hybrid artificial neural network (ANN methodology which can offer a superior performance for the important process engineering problems. The method incorporates a hybrid artificial neural network and differential evolution technique (ANN-DE for the efficient tuning of ANN meta parameters. The algorithm has been applied for the prediction of the hold up of the solid liquid slurry flow. A comparison with selected correlations in the literature showed that the developed ANN correlation noticeably improved the prediction of hold up over a wide range of operating conditions, physical properties, and pipe diameters.

  4. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Højberg, Ole; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and Results: Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques, and untreated slurry were stored for 83 d in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by TRFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA. Emissions of NH3 and CH4 during storage were quantified. Acidified slurry p...

  5. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  7. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts).

  8. Sustainable management and utilisation of concrete slurry waste: A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-03-01

    With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants. The reuse of CSW as recycled aggregates or a cementitious binder for producing partition wall blocks, and the life cycle environmental impact of the blocks were assessed and compared with the conventional one designed with natural materials. The LCA results showed that the partition wall blocks prepared with fresh CSW and recycled concrete aggregates achieved higher sustainability as it consumed 59% lower energy, emitted 66% lower greenhouse gases, and produced lesser amount of other environmental impacts than that of the conventional one. When the mineral carbonation technology was further adopted for blocks curing using CO2, the global warming potential of the corresponding blocks production process was negligible, and hence the carbonated blocks may be considered as carbon neutral eco-product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Hydrate Slurries Transported by Visco-Elastic Fluid in a Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Yamada, Sayaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Hiromoto

    A two dimentional numerical study has been performed to investigate on heat transfer characteristics of a hydrate slurry transported by a visco-elastic fluid flowing between parallel plates with a one-sided cavity. In this study, the cavity length was changed in three steps, while the rib height and rib length were kept constant. Heat flux on the solid wall was set at 20,000W•m-2. The concentration of hydrate particles at inlet was set at 5wt%. From the results, it is found that hydrate particles dispersed with Newtonian fluid (water) flows over the cavity without penetration. On the other hand, hydrate particles dispersed with visco-elastic fluid are observed effectively to penetrate into the cavity and sweep the bottom of cavity by Barus effect. This causes effective heat transfer from the bottom wall of the cavity. Heat transfer difference was observed that the cavity length was changed. Consequently, there exists the optimum geometry for the heat transfer enhancement in a cavity by using Barus effect.

  10. Innovative reuse of concrete slurry waste from ready-mixed concrete plants in construction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dongxing; Zhan, Baojian; Poon, Chi Sun; Zheng, Wei

    2016-07-15

    Concrete slurry waste (CSW) is generated from ready-mixed concrete plants during concrete production and is classified as a corrosive hazardous material. If it is disposed of at landfills, it would cause detrimental effects for our surrounding environment and ecosystems due to its high pH value as well as heavy metal contamination and accumulation. A new method in this study has been introduced to effectively reuse CSW in new construction products. In this method, the calcium-silicate rich CSW in the fresh state was considered as a cementitious paste as well as a CO2 capture medium. The experimental results showed that the pH values of the collected CSWs stored for 28 days ranged from 12.5 to 13.0 and a drastic decrease of pH value was detected after accelerated mineral carbonation. The theoretically calculated CO2 sequestration extent of CSWs was from 27.05% to 31.23%. The practical water to solid ratio in the fresh CSW varied from 0.76 to 1.12, which had a significant impact on the compressive strength of the mixture with CSWs. After subjecting to accelerated mineral carbonation, rapid initial strength development and lower drying shrinkage for the prepared concrete mixture were achieved.

  11. Development of a use for Illinois coal concentrates for slurry fed gasifiers. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Khan, S.; At-Taras, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1994-09-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to identify and test concentrates made from preparation plant fines as to their amenability as feed for slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow gasifiers. The high sulfur content and high BTU value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier. Elemental sulfur is recovered as a revenue producing product in gasifier technologies, and the higher BTU Illinois coal concentrate requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal (30-35% vs 45%) thereby reducing the amount of heat lost in the vaporization of entrained water. This means that 66 tons of Illinois coal concentrate, containing 13,000 BTU per pound, at 70% solids would provide as much net heat as 100 tons of 9500 BTU coal pumped at 54% solids. During the current reporting period a number of continuous flow tests were conducted in which the grades and recoveries were compared on the minus 65 mesh material from a single coal except for Test A which was minus 100 mesh. With frother dosage, feed rate, wash water rate, and air rate all held at a near constant figure, the collector rate was varied. The concentrates all contained nearly the same grade, but the recoveries of coal in those concentrates varied from quite low (36.3%) through medium recovery ranges to quite high (94.3%) in a very predictable line. One ultimate analysis on a concentrate from earlier work has been completed, and the results forwarded to Destec for their performance prediction tests. In this test they convert the chemical analysis of a given product into a heat rate determination using a proprietary formula. Part of the same product has been forwarded to William`s Technology`s Viscosity Laboratory where the pumpability of this product will be determined. All of these data will be available for the Contractors Conference in August.

  12. Decomposition studies of filtered slurries using the enhanced comprehensive catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Crawford, C.L.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-11-13

    This study examined decomposition of the soluble phenylborates at elevated temperatures (45 degrees Celsius) to determine the effects of filtering the solid tetraphenylborate, solid sludge and monosodium titanate and spiking additional levels of transition metal catalyst.

  13. 泥浆雾化电感耦合等离子体光谱法用于水泥和石膏的分析%Slurry Nebulization for the Analysis of Gypsum and Cement by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertIMccrindle; LjiljanaMarjanovic

    2002-01-01

    本文详细地论述了用泥浆雾化电感耦合等离子光谱法分析水泥和石膏.%The usual form of presentation for a sample to be analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer is in the form of a liquid.For the analysis of solids,this involves a dissolution step and in the case of complex matrices this may be long and difficult.Should it be possible to analyse the sample without prior dissolution, then the problems associated with obtaining a solution would be resolved.A method for analyzing samples is to make use of slurry nebulization.Samples with complex matrices, such as cement and gypsum were selected and analysed as in the form of a slurry.Using different concentrations of slurry of a certified reference materials,calibration curves were obtained,from which the unknown samples could be determined directly.Use of aqueous solutions for calibration was also investigated.The method was evaluated using other reference materials or results obtained by an independent laboratory using different technique for the analysis.The slurry method was found to be accurate and precise.

  14. Mechanics of Micro- and Nano-Textured Systems: Nanofibers, Nanochannels, Nanoparticles and Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Ray, Suman

    The first chapter of this work deals with bundles of microscopically long carbon nanochannels, which were assembled as a nanofluidic device to study bi-layer flows of n-decane and air. These experiments were accompanied and supported by theoretical considerations. The study paradoxically showed that it is possible to deliver more liquid through the nanochannels if they are partially filled with liquid in comparison to those which are completely filled with liquid. In the following chapter these nanochannels were used to produce thermoresponsive nanoparticles (˜400 nm in diameter) at a very high production rate of 107 particles/sec. These nanoparticles were loaded with a low molecular weight dye to study the thermoresponsive release profile experimentally. The experiments were accompanied and guided by theoretical work. In the third part of the work, a rigorous electron microscopy revealed the 2-nm islands of thermoresponsive hydrogels nanofibers produced by electrospinning and cross-linking of electropun PNIPAM-containing nanofibers. These islands were found to be responsible for positive thermosensitivity in dye release experiments. In the following chapters meltblowing was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The role of air turbulence in this process was elucidated experimentally by blowing a solid flexible threadline in high-speed gas flow. Using this information, theoretical understanding of polymer jet/gas jet turbulent interactions was achieved and a theory of small (linearized) and large (nonlinear) bending perturbations of polymer jets was developed. This theory was extended to simulate numerically multiple polymer jets being deposited on a screen moving normally to the blowing direction. In the subsequent chapter, a novel method, solution blowing, for producing monolithic and core-shell nanofibers was developed. The core-shell fibers were also converted into hollow carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanofiber mats produced by this method were used as

  15. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  16. Interaction mechanisms between slurry coatings and solid oxide fuel cell interconnect alloys during high temperature oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen; Mikkelsen, L.; Hendriksen, P.V.;

    2012-01-01

    Six different coatings consisting of fluorite-, corundum-, spinel- or perovskite-type oxides were deposited on a Fe22Cr alloy (Crofer 22APU) and oxidized at 900°C in moisturized air.Five of the coatings prevented break-away oxidation otherwise observed for the uncoated alloy, and the parabolic...... oxidation rate constant was reduced with 50–90% of that for uncoated alloy. One coating consisting of MnCo2O4 did not significantly affect the oxidation rate of the alloy, and just as for uncoated samples break-away oxidation occurred for MnCo2O4 coated samples. The interaction mechanisms between...

  17. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    be available after pyrolysis above 700. °C or combustion above 400. °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800. °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil...

  18. Pulsating flows of solid/liquid suspensions. 2. Coal/water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.; El-Sayed, E.

    1987-02-01

    Results are presented on the pulsed flow of coal/water suspensions of weight concentration, Cw = 0-53.7%. The laboratory pipeline used was 35 m long with an I.D. of 5 cm. The coal used was a bituminous coal from Butler County, Pennsylvania. Its size ranged from 45 to 880 micrometer with a mean of 260 micrometer. The ranges of pulsing parameters studied were: velocity: 0-27 m/s; pulse amplitude: 0-80 mm; pulse frequency: 0-1.25 Hz. It was found that over most of the concentration range investigated there was a substantial energy saving measured in terms of an energy ratio Jp/Js, the ratio of total energy input in the pulsed state to that at steady state at the same volumetric flow rate. Minima over the entire velocity range occurred at a frequency of 0.3 Hz, with very little variation at different amplitudes. The weight concentration at which these occurred was Cw = 20% with a corresponding energy saving which could be as much as 20%. 12 figs., 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effects of pH on rheological characteristics and stability of petroleum coke water slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the effects of pH on slurrying properties of petroleum coke water slurry (PCWS were investigated. The slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS were studied with four different types of additives at pH varying from 5 to 11. The results showed that the slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS all increased at first and then decreased with increasing pH from 5 to 11, and a pH of around 9 was found to be the most favorable acid–alkali environment to all these three slurrying properties. It was also indicated that only in a moderate alkaline environment can the additives be active enough to react with particle surfaces sufficiently to obtain good slurrying concentration and form a stable three-dimensional network structure, which can support strong pseudoplastic characteristics and good stability. An acid environment was a very unfavorable factor to the slurrying properties of PCWS.