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Sample records for waste vitrification plan

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, O.L.

    1990-09-01

    This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

  3. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  4. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  5. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Vitrification: a solution for the wastes of wastes; La vitrification: ca chauffe pour les ultimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, B. [Europlasma, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France)

    1997-07-01

    The incineration of wastes generates other wastes (fly ashes) that concentrate a large amount of polluting substances (heavy metals, salts..). French law requires a stabilization of this kind of wastes before their storage. Today vitrification can be considered as an alternative to the stabilization and storage way, the vitrified products could be seen as an interesting material in the building industry or in road works. A few years ago the municipality of Bordeaux decided to launch a demonstration program and a REFIOM (fly ashes) vitrification unit has been operating since 1997. (A.C.)

  7. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  8. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David F.; Dighe, Shyam V.; Gass, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  9. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    During FY-1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested three vitrification processes on simulated high-level radioactive waste typical of that stored or being produced at US defense facilities. Processes tested included a spray calciner/in-can melter, spray calciner/ceramic melter and direct liquid feeding of a ceramic melter. Tests were made on pilot-scale as well as fullscale equipment. Over 16,000 kg of glass product were produced from 68,000 L of simulated waste. Several compositions were tested, and the glass products were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the processing rates and the ability of the waste to be processed. Off-gas data were collected on several runs. Major conclusions drawn from this test program are divided into processing results, glass-product results, and general information.

  10. Behavior of technetium in nuclear waste vitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Ian L

    Nearly 100 tests were performed with prototypical melters and off-gas system components to investigate the extents to which technetium is incorporated into the glass melt, partitioned to the off-gas stream, and captured by the off-gas treatment system components during waste vitrification. The tests employed several simulants, spiked with 99m Tc and Re (a potential surrogate), of the low activity waste separated from nuclear wastes in storage in the Hanford tanks, which is planned for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Single-pass technetium retention averaged about 35 % and increased significantly with recycle of the off-gas treatment fluids. The fraction escaping the recycle loop was very small.

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  12. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, T.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or ``microwave melter`` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  13. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaick, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of DOE radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915 MHz, 75 kW microwave vitrification system or `microwave melter` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  14. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine

  15. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  16. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  17. Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

    2001-01-01

    The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl.

  18. Vitrification of high-level alumina nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotzman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Borophosphate glass compositions have been developed for the vitrification of a high-alumina calcined defense waste. The effect of substituting SiO/sub 2/, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and CuO for B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the viscosity and leach resistance was measured. The effect of the alkali to borate ratio and the Li/sub 2/O:Na/sub 2/O ratio on the melt viscosity and leach resistance was also measured.

  19. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  20. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  1. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  2. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  3. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Riley, Brian J; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric glass melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of the molten glass. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Because direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed in which the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a simulated high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was established by correlating microstructures of cold-cap regions with heat-treated feed samples of nearly identical structures at known temperatures. This temperature profile was compared with a mathematically simulated profile generated by a cold-cap model that has been developed to assess the rate of glass production in a melter.

  4. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  5. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... vitrified the waste (combined it at a high temperature with borosilicate glass) and transferred the molten glass-waste mixture into specially developed ] stainless steel canisters where the mixture hardened into a solid glass waste form. DOE used the vitrification melter as part of this process, specifically to...

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  8. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  9. Vitrification of radioactive waste. Application to other kinds of waste; Vitrification des dechets radioactifs. Application a d`autres types de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The containment by vitrification of radioactive waste is applied to concentrate solutions of fission products coming from the spent fuel reprocessing. By the way of liquid state to solid state, it is possible to reduce the volume of waste, to get a material with safety guarantees necessary to long storage and the glass by its chemical resistance, its thermal stability and its well resistance to irradiation answers particularly well to these necessities.

  10. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  11. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  12. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  14. Worst-Case" Simulant for INTEC Soduim-Bearing Waste Vitrification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jerry Dale; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is developing technologies to process the radioactive liquid sodium-bearing waste from the waste tanks at INTEC to solidify the waste into a form suitable for disposition in a National high-level waste repository currently being considered at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The requirement is for a qualified glass waste form. Therefore, vitrification is being developed using laboratory, research-scale, and pilot scale melters. While some laboratory experiments can be done with actual waste, the larger scale and most laboratory experiments must be done on non-radioactive simulant waste solutions. Some tests have previously been done on simulants of a representative waste that has been concentrated and will remain unchanged in tank WM-180 until it is vitrified. However, there is a need to develop glass compositions that will accommodate all future wastes in the tanks. Estimates of those future waste compositions have been used along with current compositions to develop a “worst-case” waste composition and a simulant preparation recipe suitable for developing a bracketing glass formulation and for characterizing the flowpath and decontamination factors of pertinent off-gas constituents in the vitrification process. The considerations include development of criteria for a worst-case composition. In developing the criteria, the species that are known to affect vitrification and glass properties were considered. Specific components that may need to be characterized in the off-gas cleanup system were considered in relation to detection limits that would need to be exceeded in order to track those components. Chemical aspects of various constituent interactions that should be taken into account when a component may need to be increased in concentration from that in the actual waste for detection in experiments were evaluated. The worst-case waste simulant composition is comprised of the highest concentration of each

  15. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  16. Development of Vitrification Process and Glass Formulation for Nuclear Waste Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitjean, V.; Fillet, C.; Boen, R.; Veyer, C.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    The vitrification of high-level waste is the internationally recognized standard to minimize the impact to the environment resulting from waste disposal as well as to minimize the volume of conditioned waste to be disposed of. COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level waste industrially for over 20 years and is currently operating three commercial vitrification facilities based on a hot metal crucible technology, with outstanding records of safety, reliability and product quality. To further increase the performance of vitrification facilities, CEA and COGEMA have been developing the cold crucible melter technology since the beginning of the 1980s. This type of melter is characterized by a virtually unlimited equipment service life and a great flexibility in dealing with various types of waste and allowing development of high temperature matrices. In complement of and in parallel with the vitrification process, a glass formulation methodology has been developed by the CEA in order to tailor matrices for the wastes to be conditioned while providing the best adaptation to the processing technology. The development of a glass formulation is a trade-off between material properties and qualities, technical feasibility, and disposal safety criteria. It involves non-radioactive and radioactive laboratories in order to achieve a comprehensive matrix qualification. Several glasses and glass ceramics have thus been studied by the CEA to be compliant with industrial needs and waste characteristics: glasses or other matrices for a large spectrum of fission products, or for high contents of specifics elements such as sodium, phosphate, iron, molybdenum, or actinides. New glasses or glass-ceramics designed to minimize the final wasteform volume for solutions produced during the reprocessing of high burnup fuels or to treat legacy wastes are now under development and take benefit from the latest CEA hot-laboratories and technology development. The paper presents the CEA state

  17. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  1. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  2. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  4. Removal of Aerosol Particles Generated from Vitrification Process for High-Level Liquid Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    加藤 功

    1990-01-01

    The vitrification technology has been developed for the high-level liquid waste (HLLW) from reprocessing nuclear spent fuel in PNC. The removal performance of the aerosol particles generated from the melting process was studied in a nonradioactive full-scale mock-up test facility (MTF). The off-gas treatment system consists of submerged bed scrubber (SBS), venturi scrubber, NOx absorber, high efficiency mist eliminater (HEME). Deoomtamination factors (DFs) were derived from the mass ratio of ...

  5. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  6. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  7. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  8. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pokorný, Richard [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavelhrma@postech.ac.kr [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: ► We measured enthalpy-based conversion degree of overlapping reactions using DSC. ► We employed the run/rerun technique to obtain heat flow associated with reactions. ► Batch-to-glass conversion advances via multiple overlapping reactions. ► The kinetic model is intended for the source term in the energy transfer equation. ► The results are relevant for industrial glass making and nuclear waste vitrification. - Abstract: Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry–thermogravimetry (DSC–TGA) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both the heat associated with the heat capacity of the feed and experimental artifacts, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by an nth order kinetic model, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model.

  11. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  12. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  13. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  14. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  15. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pokorny, Richard [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Techology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both sensible heat and experimental instability, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by the nth order kinetics, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model.

  16. Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design.

  17. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  18. Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.M.; Petkus, L.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1981-09-01

    Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %.

  19. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  20. Strategy for addressing composition uncertainties in a Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    Various requirements will be imposed on the feed material and glass produced by the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site. A statistical process/product control system will be used to control the melter feed composition and to check and document product quality. Two general types of uncertainty are important in HLW vitrification process/product control: model uncertainty and composition uncertainty. Model uncertainty is discussed by Hrma, Piepel, et al. (1994). Composition uncertainty includes the uncertainties inherent in estimates of feed composition and other process measurements. Because feed composition is a multivariate quantity, multivariate estimates of composition uncertainty (i.e., covariance matrices) are required. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking batch and glass attributes: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. This document reviews the techniques to be used in estimating and updating composition uncertainties and in combining these composition uncertainties with model uncertainty to yield estimates of (univariate) uncertainties associated with estimates of batch and glass properties.

  1. Development of pyrometallurgical partitioning technology for TRU in high level radioactive wastes. Vitrification process for salt wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Tadashi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Kuniaki

    1997-12-31

    A vitrification process for chloride wastes generated in the pyrometallurgical partitioning of TRUs from high level radioactive wastes is being developed. In the process, chlorides are reduced to metals by molten salt electrolysis. The metals are oxidized by air and then vitrified. Lithium metal and chlorine gas are recycled. The behaviors of lithium, sodium and fission products during molten salt electrolysis were studied by using various compositions of salts and cathode materials. It was shown that every metal can be recovered into a liquid lead cathode, and that a liquid cadmium cathode and a solid cathode are suitable for recovering lithium and sodium metal, respectively. Based on the experimental results the process flow sheet was discussed. (author)

  2. Glass matrices for vitrification of radioactive waste - an Update on R & D Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Kanwar; Kaushik, C. P.

    2009-07-01

    Radioactive waste gets generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle like mining/milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing of spent fuel and the production & application of radioisotopes for various industrial, medical and research purposes. High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and it contains most of the radioactivity present in entire fuel cycle. Vitrification of HLW in borosilicate matrix is being practiced using induction heated metallic melters at industrial scale plants at Tarapur and Trombay [1]. The nature of HLW largely depends on off - reactor cooling of spent nuclear fuel, its type and burn - up, and reprocessing flow sheet. In view of varying characteristics, processing of HLW at Tarapur and Trombay has offered a wide spectrum of challenges in terms of development of matrices and characterization to accommodate compositional changes in waste. The present paper summarizes details of extensive R and D efforts made in the Department of Atomic Energy towards development and characterization of glass formulations for immobilization of HLW.

  3. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  4. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system.

  5. PNL vitrification technology development project high-waste loaded high-level waste glasses for high-temperature melter: Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-02-01

    For vitrification of high-level wastes (HLW) at the Hanford Site, a Joule-heated overflow type melter with bottom draining capability and capable of operating at temperatures up to 1500{degrees}C is being developed. The original proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter used a 1150{degrees}C processing temperature and was tested using glasses with up to 28 wt% waste oxide loading for NCAW (Neutralized Current Acid Waste). The goal of the high-temperature melter (HTM) is the volume reduction of the final product and increase of the waste processing rate by processing high-waste loaded glasses at higher temperatures. This would dramatically decrease waste disposal and processing costs. The aim of glass development for the HTM is to determine compositions and melting temperatures for processible and acceptable glasses with a high waste loading. Glass property/composition models for viscosity and liquidus temperature developed in the Glass Envelope Definition (GED) study were used. The results of glass formulation and experimental testing are presented for NCAW and DST/SST (Double-Shell Tank/Single-Shell Tank) Blend waste. Although the purpose of this report was to summarize the glass development study with Blend waste only, the results with NCAW were needed because glass development with Blend waste was based on the results from the glass development study with NCAW.

  6. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  7. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  8. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  9. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luey, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  10. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Luey, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  11. PFP dangerous waste training plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojandi, J.

    1996-01-01

    This document establishes the minimum training requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel who are responsible for management of dangerous waste. The training plan outlines training requirements for handling of solid dangerous waste during generator accumulation and liquid dangerous waste during treatment and storage operations. The implementation of this training plan will ensure the PFP facility compliance with the training plan requirements of Dangerous Waste Regulation. Chapter 173-303-330. Washington Administrative Code (WAC). The requirements for such compliance is described in Section 11.0 of WHC-CM-7-5 Environmental Compliance Manual.

  12. Properties of the platinoid fission products during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Matlack, K. S.; Pegg, I. L.

    2006-05-01

    Platinoid fission products present in high-level nuclear wastes present particular challenges to their treatment by vitrification. The platinoid metals Ru, Rh, Pd, and their compounds are sparingly soluble in borosilicate glass melts. During glass melting under oxidizing conditions, the platinoids form small crystals of highly dense solid intermetallic phases and oxides. Under reducing conditions, the platinoids form only intermetallic phases. A fraction of these crystals settles to the bottom of the melting furnace, forming an immobile sludge. The fraction settling reported in the literature is highly variable. In the present work, the fraction settling was found to be >90% under reducing conditions but only 10 to 20% under oxidizing conditions. The thickness of the sludge layer depends on the volume fraction of platinoid crystals in the sludge, which is poorly known (typically ~0.06 under oxidizing conditions). Since the electrical conductivity of the sludge can be >10X that of the melt, in joule-heated melters the presence of such a layer can lead to diversion of the electric current, thereby compromising melter operability. The time to failure by this mechanism is clearly of practical importance. A variety of data are required in order to estimate the time to failure due to this mechanism and such data must be obtained under conditions representative of those in a full-size melting furnace. We have acquired such data using a melting furnace installed in our laboratory. This furnace is a one-third scale prototype of the system to be used for the vitrification of defense HLW at Hanford, WA. In the present work, simulated Hanford HLW material was combined with glass formers to produce a melter feed slurry that was then spiked with the platinoids. Over one thousand chemical and optical analyses were performed on hundreds of samples taken from the feed, various locations inside the furnace, the glass melt during pouring, the solid glass, and various locations along

  13. Radioactive waste combustion / vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-07-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and volume power... (author)

  14. Radioactive waste combustion-vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-06-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and voluminal power... (author)

  15. Effect of NaOH on the vitrification process of waste Ni-Cr sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, I-Cheng [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, 89 Wenhwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 71703, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Cheng-Ping [Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, 89 Wenhwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 71703, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yi-Ming, E-mail: yiming@mail.hwai.edu.tw [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, 89 Wenhwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 71703, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-30

    This study investigated the effect of NaOH on the vitrification of electroplating sludge. Ni, the major metal in the electroplating sludge, is the target for recovery in the vitrification. Sludge and encapsulation materials (dolomite, limestone, and cullet) were mixed and various amounts of NaOH were added to serve as a glass modifier and a flux. A vitrification process at 1450 deg. C separated the molten specimens into slag and ingot. The composition, crystalline characteristics, and leaching characteristics of samples were measured. The results indicate that the recovery of Ni is optimal with a 10% NaOH mass ratio; the recoveries of Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Mn all exhibited similar trends. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) show that leaching characteristics of the slag meet the requirements of regulation in Taiwan. In addition, a semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase of slag changed from Ca{sub 3}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}) to Na{sub 4}Ca{sub 4}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}) with a NaOH mass ratio of over 15%, because the Ca{sup 2+} ions were replaced with Na{sup +} ions during the vitrification process. Na{sub 4}Ca{sub 4}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}), a complex mineral which hinders the mobility of metals, accounts for the decrease of metal recovery.

  16. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  17. HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) VITRIFICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE US: APPLICATION OF GLASS PRODUCT/PROCESS CONTROL TO OTHERHLW AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; James Marra, J

    2007-09-17

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) actual HLW tank waste has successfully been processed to stringent product and process constraints without any rework into a stable borosilicate glass waste since 1996. A unique 'feed forward' statistical process control (SPC) has been used rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product is sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property models form the basis for the 'feed forward' SPC. The property models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition. The property models are mechanistic and depend on glass bonding/structure, thermodynamics, quasicrystalline melt species, and/or electron transfers. The mechanistic models have been validated over composition regions well outside of the regions for which they were developed because they are mechanistic. Mechanistic models allow accurate extension to radioactive and hazardous waste melts well outside the composition boundaries for which they were developed.

  18. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated.

  19. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  20. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  1. A summary report on feed preparation offgas and glass redox data for Hanford waste vitrification plant: Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    Tests to evaluate feed processing options for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) were conducted by a number of investigators, and considerable data were acquired for tests of different scale, including recent full-scale tests. In this report, a comparison was made of the characteristics of feed preparation observed in tests of scale ranging from 57 ml to full-scale of 28,000 liters. These tests included Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) laboratory-scale tests, Kernforschungszentrums Karlsruhe (KfK) melter feed preparation, Research Scale Melter (RSM) feed preparation, Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) feed preparation, Slurry Integrated Performance Testing (SIPT) feed preparation, and formic acid addition to Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) care samples.` The data presented herein were drawn mainly from draft reports and include system characteristics such as slurry volume and depth, sweep gas flow rate, headspace, and heating and stirring characteristics. Operating conditions such as acid feed rate, temperature, starting pH, final pH, quantities and type of frit, nitrite, nitrate, and carbonate concentrations, noble metal content, and waste oxide loading were tabulated. Offgas data for CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} were tabulated on a common basis. Observation and non-observation of other species were also noted.

  2. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) For Monitoring Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Equilibrium During High Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANTZEN, CAROLM.

    2004-04-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Based upon previous research, an acceptable iron REDOX ratio was defined for the DWPF melts as 0.09 Fe2/SFe 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at a REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium ofFe2/SFe 0.33 prevents the potential for metallic and metallic sulfide species to form and accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming due to deoxygenation of manganic species is achieved by converting 66-100 of the MnO2 or Mn2O3 species in a waste feed to MnO before the waste is fed to the DWPF melter. At the lower redox limit of Fe 2/SFe 0.09 about 99 of the Mn 4/Mn 3 is converted to Mn 2. Therefore, the lower REDOX limit eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation. Organic and nitrate concentrations in the DWPF melter feed are the major parameters influencing melt REDOX. Organics such as formates act as reductants while nitrates, nitrites, and manganic (Mn 4 and Mn 3) species act as oxidants. During melting, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe 2/SFe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., from foaming) or melter life (e.g., from metal formation and accumulation).

  3. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  4. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  5. ICDF Complex Operations Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Waste Management Plan functions as a management and planning tool for managing waste streams generated as a result of operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected remedy presented in the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision for the operation of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. This plan identifies the types of waste that are anticipated during operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. In addition, this plan presents management strategies and disposition for these anticipated waste streams.

  6. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

    2001-03-30

    This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

  8. Vitrification: an alternative to minimize environmental impact caused by leather industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basegio, T; Beck Leão, A P; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2009-06-15

    The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the immobilization of chromium ion present in the ash from the incineration of chromium-tanned leather shavings (ACS) by means of vitrified ceramic bodies. To achieve the immobilization samples were initially produced adding soda-lime glass to ACS. After that, new formulations were produced with the addition of pure oxides, TiO(2) and MgO, to the soda-lime glass and ACS sample. These samples were conformed by pressing and fired in an eletrical furnace, at temperatures of 750, 800, 950 and 1000 degrees C. The ceramic bodies were evaluated with respect to their physical properties and mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The chromium immobilization was characterized by leaching tests according to Brazilian Regulations (NBR 10005). The results confirmed the immobilization of the chromium ion within the allowed limits of Brazilian Regulations, NBR 10004 (5mg/L), with the use of glass and vitrification/densification agents such as titanium and magnesium oxides.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  10. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  12. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  13. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  14. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  15. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  16. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibben, J.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Land, B. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Perez, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation`s plutonium-bearing residues.

  17. Preliminary plan for treating mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Nunez, L.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A preliminary waste treatment plan was developed for disposing of radioactive inorganic liquid wastes that contain hazardous metals and/or hazardous acid concentrations at Argonne National Laboratory. This plan, which involves neutralization and sulfide precipitation followed by filtration, reduces the concentration of hazardous metals and the acidity so that the filtrate liquid is simply a low-level radioactive waste that can be fed to a low-level waste evaporator.

  18. Immobilisation of beryllium in solid waste (red-mud) by fixation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P N; Ghosh, D K; Desai, M V M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels above the permissible limit, which prevents its disposal as solid waste. The total beryllium content in the red-mud analysed showed value ranging from 0.39 to 0.59% Be The studies showed that 50% of the total beryllium in red-mud can be extracted by water by repeated leaching over a period of 45 days. The cement mix, casting into cement blocks, was subjected to leachability studies over a period of 105 days and immobilization factor (IF factor) was determined. These IF values, of the order of 102, were compared with those obtained by performing leachability study on vitrified red-mud masses produced at different temperature conditions. Direct heating of the red-mud gave the gray coloured, non-transparent vitreous mass (as 'bad glass') showed effective immobilisation factor for beryllium in red-mud of the order of 10(4).

  19. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  20. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  1. Program Planning Concepts in Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the program planning process, and uses the example of a solid waste program to illustrate what has or has not been accomplished through the use of the planning process. (LK)

  2. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  3. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  4. Wastes vitrification by plasma torch: study of a glass formulation compatible with a wide range of B wastes; Vitrification des dechets par torche a plasma: recherche d'une formulation de verre compatible avec un large eventail de dechets B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    Within the context of radioactive waste management, CEA has equipped itself with a 'PLASMARC' device. The central element of this device is a plasma torch treatment furnace. It has been implemented and validated for the vitrification of low level radioactive wastes. Meanwhile, the plasma torch presents potentially interests for immobilizing under an inert form in vitreous matrices, B wastes which are generally divided and of complex chemical composition. The application of this process to this type of wastes has been studied here. The obtained results show that with the plasma torch it is possible to make glasses with a high amount of silicon and aluminium oxide and which are adapted to the treatment / packaging of the B wastes. (O.M.)

  5. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  6. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  7. Laboratory Scale Thermal Plasma Arc Vitrification Studies of Heavy Metal-Laden Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, R; Zaghloul, H H; Stephenson, L D; Smith, E D; Wood, J W; Cahil, D G

    1996-11-01

    Plasma processing has been identified as a useful tool for immobilizing heavy metal-contaminated wastes into safe, leach-resistant slag. Although much effort has gone into developing this technology on a pilot scale, not much information has been published on basic research topics. A laboratory-scale plasma arc furnace located at the University of Illinois was operated in cooperation with the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories in an effort to establish an understanding of the chemical and physical processes (such as metal volatilization and resultant gas evolution) that occur during thermal plasma treatment of metal-spiked samples. Experiments were conducted on nickel and chromium using a highly instrumented furnace equipped with a 75 kW transferred arc plasma torch. The volatility of nickel and chromium was examined as a function of varying oxygen partial pressures. Oxidizing conditions reduced the total dust gathered for both the nickel and chromium samples, although each dust sample was found to be metal-enriched. Plasma treating increased the leach-resistance of the slags by at least one order of magnitude when compared to unprocessed specimens. The leach- resistance of the nickel-containing slags increased in the presence of oxygen, whereas chromium samples remained relatively constant.

  8. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  9. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  10. Environmental Management vitrification activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumrine, P.H. [Waste Policy Institute, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Both the Mixed Waste and Landfill Stabilization Focus Areas as part of the Office of Technology Development efforts within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Division have been developing various vitrification technologies as a treatment approach for the large quantities of transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed and Mixed Low Level Wastes that are stored in either landfills or above ground storage facilities. The technologies being developed include joule heated, plasma torch, plasma arc, induction, microwave, combustion, molten metal, and in situ methods. There are related efforts going into development glass, ceramic, and slag waste form windows of opportunity for the diverse quantities of heterogeneous wastes needing treatment. These studies look at both processing parameters, and long term performance parameters as a function of composition to assure that developed technologies have the right chemistry for success.

  11. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  12. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  13. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  14. Waste Management Program management plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management`s objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL.

  15. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  16. Vitrification publication bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  17. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  18. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  19. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  20. Applying waste logistics modeling to regional planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Khawaja, A.; Shaver, S.R.; Peterson, K.L.

    1995-05-01

    Waste logistics modeling is a powerful analytical technique that can be used for effective planning of future solid waste storage, treatment, and disposal activities. Proper waste management is essential for preventing unacceptable environmental degradation from ongoing operations, and is also a critical part of any environmental remediation activity. Logistics modeling allows for analysis of alternate scenarios for future waste flowrates and routings, facility schedules, and processing or handling capacities. Such analyses provide an increased understanding of the critical needs for waste storage, treatment, transport, and disposal while there is still adequate lead time to plan accordingly. They also provide a basis for determining the sensitivity of these critical needs to the various system parameters. This paper discusses the application of waste logistics modeling concepts to regional planning. In addition to ongoing efforts to aid in planning for a large industrial complex, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently involved in implementing waste logistics modeling as part of the planning process for material recovery and recycling within a multi-city region in the western US.

  1. 40 CFR 60.55c - Waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management plan. 60.55c Section... Waste Incinerators for Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 § 60.55c Waste management plan. The owner or operator of an affected facility shall prepare a waste management plan. The waste...

  2. SEPARATIONS AND WASTE FORMS CAMPAIGN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterson, Mary E.

    2012-11-26

    This Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Campaign will achieve the objectives set-forth by the Fuel Cycle Reasearch and Development (FCRD) Program. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to changes or progress in separations and waste forms research and the FCRD Program priorities.

  3. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  4. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  5. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  6. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  7. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  8. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  9. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  10. Advances in vitrification techniques in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木 憲明; 虎田 真一郎; 五十嵐 寛; 吉岡 正弘

    1986-01-01

    Liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melter (LFCM) process for the vitrification of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is now under development by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Deyelopment Corporation (PNC) in Japan. All developmental works are focused on the vitrification plant which is in the stage of design improvement in succession to the detailed design finished in 1984. The construction of the plant will be started in late 1987. Major development items in process technology in recent years are ...

  11. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  12. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  13. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  14. Vitrification and Product Testing of C-104 and AZ-102 Pretreated Sludge Mixed with Flowsheet Quantities of Secondary Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Bates, Derrick J.; Goles, Ronald W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Lettau, Ralph C.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) has acquired Hanford tank waste treatment services at a demonstration scale. The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) team is responsible for producing an immobilized (vitrified) high-level waste (IHLW) waste form. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, hereafter referred to as PNNL, has been contracted to produce and test a vitrified IHLW waste form from two Envelope D high-level waste (HLW) samples previously supplied to the RPP-WTP project by DOE.

  15. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  16. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  17. Creating a proper safety culture at the Hanford Site low- and high-level waste vitrification plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baide, D.G.; Herborn, D.I.

    1994-05-01

    The United States has been engaged in defense nuclear activities at the Hanford Site for the past 50 years. To date, no high-level waste and only 3,800 m{sup 3} of low-level waste have been processed for final disposal. By the anticipated start of low-level waste processing operations in the year 2005, approximately 215,000 m{sup 3} of low-level waste will be in underground storage tanks (90% of the total tank waste in storage). Similarly, approximately 25,000 m{sup 3} of high-level waste will be in underground storage by the anticipated start of high-level waste processing operations in the year 2009 (10% of the total tank waste in storage).

  18. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-10

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades.

  19. Principles of Product Quality Control of German Radioactive Waste Forms from the Reprocessing of Spent Fuel: Vitrification, Compaction and Numerical Simulation - 12529

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze-Jaensch, Holger; Schneider, Stephan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Bosbach, Dirk [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy- and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gauthier, Rene; Eissler, Alexander [WAK Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Post Box 1263, 76339 Eggenstein- Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German product quality control is inter alia responsible for control of two radioactive waste forms of heat generating waste: a) homogeneous vitrified HLW and b) heterogeneous compacted hulls, end-pieces and technological metallic waste. In either case, significantly different metrology is employed at the site of the conditioning plant for the obligatory nuclide inventory declaration. To facilitate an independent evaluation and checking of the accompanying documentation numerical simulations are carried out. The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste residues are used to assess the data consistency and uncertainty margins, as well as to predict the long-term behavior of the radioactive waste. This is relevant for repository acceptance and safety considerations. Our new numerical approach follows a bottom-up simulation starting from the burn-up behavior of the fuel elements in the reactor core. The output of these burn-up calculations is then coupled with a program that simulates the material separation in the subsequent dissolution and extraction processes normalized to the mass balance. Follow-up simulations of the separated reprocessing lines of a) the vitrification of highly-active liquid and b) the compaction of residual intermediate-active metallic hulls remaining after fuel pellets dissolution, end-pieces and technological waste, allows calculating expectation values for the various repository relevant properties of either waste stream. The principles of the German product quality control of radioactive waste residues from the spent fuel reprocessing have been introduced and explained. Namely, heat generating homogeneous vitrified HLW and heterogeneous compacted metallic MLW have been discussed. The advantages of a complementary numerical property simulation have been made clear and examples of benefits are presented. We have compiled a new program suite to calculate the physical and radio-chemical properties of common nuclear waste

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  1. Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chung, Chul-Woo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stone—a cementitious waste form—are being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

  2. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  3. 33 CFR 151.57 - Waste management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management plans. 151.57... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.57 Waste management... follows the plan. (c) Each waste management plan under paragraph (b) of this section must be in writing...

  4. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  5. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  6. Incineration/vitrification of radioactive wastes and combustion of pyrolysis gases in thermal plasmas; Incineration/vitrification de dechets radioactifs et combustion de gaz de pyrolyse en plasma d`arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girold, Ch. [CEA de la Vallee du Rhone, Departement de Retraitement des Dechets et du Demantelemnet, 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Limoges Univ., 87 (France)

    1997-03-01

    Two thermal plasma processes used for incineration of radioactive technological wastes (cellulose, plastics, rubber...) have been investigated. First, the different types of radioactive wastes are presented, with a special attention to those which may benefit from a high temperature thermal treatment. The most significant thermal plasma processes, suitable for this goal, are described. Then, the author deals with the post-combustion, in an oxygen plasma jet reactor, of gases from burnable radioactive waste pyrolysis. An experimental planning method as been used to evaluate the combustion performances in the reactor, with a wide range of gas composition and running parameters such as oxygen excess and electrical power. The results of a modeling of kinetics, based on 116 chemicals reactions between 25 species, are compared with experimental values. Finally, an oxygen plasma reactor where the arc is transferred on a basalt melt is experimented. The efficiency of the combustion and the homogeneity of the glass are discussed. The volatility of some glass elements and tracers added to the wastes is also approached in two different ways: by post-trial material balance and by an optical emission spectroscopic method. The author built a diagnostic method that allows the following versus time of the metallic vapours above the melt. (author) 51 refs.

  7. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  8. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  9. Electric arc vitrification of REFIOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fautre, R.; Meunier, R. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Div., Les Renardieres, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France)

    1997-07-01

    The REFIOM produced by the neutralization of incineration fumes accounts for 3 to 5 % of incinerated Municipal Solid Waste. Each year, 370,000 tons of REFIOM are produced in France. The product contains pollutants (heavy metals and salts) which must be stabilized before storage in an hazardous waste dump (Class 1 waste dump in France). Since 1992, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing an electric arc REFIOM vitrification process which ensures the confinement of polluting elements in a vitrified or crystallized matrix. Reprocessing the elements vaporized during melting allows a complete vitrification of the pollutants and limits the ultimate waste to less than 1 %. This process stabilizes the REFIOM and converts it into inert vitrified granules which can be recycled. Studies are underway to characterize the vitrified product: long term behavior, leaching tests, mechanical and geotechnical tests. The main partners are C.E.A. for long term behavior, SCREG for mechanical tests, C.E.P for leaching tests. The good results obtained confirm the long term durability of the vitrified product. The evolution of the French regulation is required to allow the valorization of the vitrified product for road building purposes. The experience acquired with our pilot furnace allowed us ro define the basic specifications for an industrial pilot. This is a necessary step prior to commercializing the process. (authors)

  10. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  11. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  12. System modeling of waste flow in energy planning | Njoku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of waste flow in energy system planning was investigated by adopting integrated systems enginee-ring approach. The system model was considered at multiple levels of hierarchy. Waste flow in energy plann-ing process was viewed as a system arranged or organized that plans and policies as controlled ...

  13. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  14. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  15. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: `uniform solidified waste` in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and `solid waste` in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  17. Tribal Waste Journal: What Is an Integrated Waste Management Plan: Issue 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs) may offer tribes an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce open dumping, effectively manage solid waste, and protect human health and the environment for this generation and the next.

  18. Developing Tribal Integrated Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    An IWMP outlines how the tribe will reduce, manage, and dispose of its waste. It identifies existing waste systems, assesses needs, and sets forth the ways to design, implement, and monitor a more effective and sustainable waste management program.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  20. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. 40 CFR 60.3010 - What is a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 60... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3010 What is a waste management plan? A waste management plan is a...

  2. Impacts on waste planning and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the skills or experience to manage this waste responsibly. Available waste water infrastructure in the study area is under pressure and requires urgent intervention. The technologies and capacity at these already stressed facilities are not sufficient...

  3. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  4. 40 CFR 60.2055 - What is a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 60... Which Modification or Reconstruction Is Commenced on or After June 1, 2001 Waste Management Plan § 60.2055 What is a waste management plan? A waste management plan is a written plan that identifies both...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14580 - What is a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 62... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14580 What is a waste management plan? A waste management plan is a written plan that identifies both the feasibility and the methods used to...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2899 - What is a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 60... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Preconstruction Siting Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2899 What is a waste management plan? A waste management plan is a written plan that...

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  8. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan. Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  10. HOSPITAL GENERATED WASTE: A PLAN FOR ITS PROPER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabre, Salih H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Hospitals are important sites for the generation of hazardous waste. Each hospital has its own profile for the generation and transportion of waste according to its location. It is extremely important to manage hospital generated waste properly in order to avoid health and environmental risks. This article reports the plan designed and used by the hospital waste management committee in King Fahad Hospital of the University , Alhkobar, Saudi Arabia, for the safe management of hospital generated waste starting from the collection areas to the final disposal procedure. The plan was in four stages: background information, identification of problems, intervention and monitoring. The possible solutions for problems encountered are suggested. This plan which was efficient and cost effective can be used in other medical establishments. PMID:23008674

  11. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  12. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created.

  13. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  14. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  16. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as... must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2620 - What is a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2620 What is a waste management plan? A waste management...

  18. Test Plan: Phase 1, Hanford LLW melter tests, GTS Duratek, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-06-14

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384215] is GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. The GTS Duratek project manager for this work is J. Ruller. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a DuraMelter{trademark} vitrification system.

  19. 40 CFR 62.14430 - Must I prepare a waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I prepare a waste management plan... 20, 1996 Waste Management Plan § 62.14430 Must I prepare a waste management plan? Yes. All HMIWI owners or operators must have a waste management plan. ...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... Before June 20, 1996 Waste Management Plan § 62.14431 What must my waste management plan include? Your waste management plan must identify both the feasibility of, and the approach for, separating certain...

  1. Vitrification of nanotoxic waste (Ru) from the production of nano-catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells; Vitrificacao de nano-residuos toxicos (Ru) provenientes da producao de nano-catalisadores para celulas a combustivel de etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Julio-Junior, O.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructured catalysts have been developed for ethanol directly use in fuel cells, which due to the economic advantages that should have widespread use in the near future. The catalysts for these devices using nano-structured metal are based, where the toxic nature and environmental risks presented by these metals are largely enhanced by nano-dispersion. Thus, the production of nano-catalysts are potentially generating highly hazardous waste for public health and the environment. This study presents the treatment and inertization of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles waste containing by the vitrification technique and consequent attainment of silicate glasses for potential commercial use. Compositions were prepared containing up to about 20 wt % of nano-waste by changing the basic composition of glass soda-lime-borosilicate. After the fusion, at a temperature of 1100 deg C, the glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infra-red in the Fourier transform (FT-IR) techniques. The chemical stability was evaluated by hydrolytic attack test. The glass containing 20 wt % of nano-residue showed a high chemical stability, similar to a usual soda-lime glass. (author)

  2. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  3. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  4. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  6. The mixed waste management facility, FY95 plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, R.

    1994-12-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1995 Plan for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Major objectives to be completed during FY 1995 for the MWMF project are listed and described. This report also contains a budget plan, project task summaries, a milestone control log, and a responsibility assignment matrix for the MWMF project.

  7. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures

  9. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, G. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  10. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, or metals; or the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, or metals; or the use...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2625 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2625 When must I submit my waste management plan? You must submit a waste management plan no later than the date specified in table 1 of this...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14585 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14585 When must I submit my waste management plan? You must submit a waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. ...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14715 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... submit my waste management plan? You must submit the waste management plan no later than April 5, 2004. ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3011 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3011 When must I submit my waste management plan? You must submit a waste management plan no later than 60 days following the initial performance test as specified in...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must... additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source considers practical and feasible, considering the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures...

  17. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... plan shall consider the following aspects of solid waste management: (i) Resource conservation; (ii...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2900 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... Waste Management Plan § 60.2900 When must I submit my waste management plan? You must submit a waste management plan prior to commencing construction, reconstruction, or modification. ...

  19. Toxic Waste in Grand Banks. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchka, Peter

    "Toxic Waste in Grand Banks" is an assessment task in which students from a high school economics class investigate the issues of economic prosperity, environmental concerns, government intervention in the market economy, and responsible civic participation in solving community problems. Students will demonstrate an ability--both individually and…

  20. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  1. Solid waste planning in metropolitan regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Bottge, M.; Caruana, J.; Horowitz, D.; Krugman, B.; Masucci, N.; Milewski, A.; Nebenzahl, L.; O' Neill, T.; Skypeck, J.; Valente, N.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how solid waste is being used and how it can be used in the future in northern New Jersey. The study (via mathematical model) was necessitated from the fact that this region of 3.5 million people has run out of inexpensive landfill options and is being forced to consider the feasibility of solid-waste recovery. Following the initial chapter containing the summary of the findings, Chapter 2 addresses the management problem. In Chapter 3, the Rutgers Model, the EPA Model, and the Mitre Model are reviewed. These models test management alternatives. Chapter 4 estimates the region's solid waste generation at 46,000 tons per week in 1975; 53,000 in 1980; 60,000 in 1985. Chapter 5 details the methods used to estimate the costs of moving waste over 319 source-to-facility paths. The sixth chapter reviews the potential revenues that can be credited to solid waste as a source of ferrous metal, paper, glass, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals. Chapter 7 reviews alternative processing and disposal technologies: landfilling, incineration, dry fuel, gas and oil pyrolysis, and a total resource recovery system; cost estimates are derived for these technologies at different operating capacities. On the basis of this analysis and the revenue picture described in Chapters 6 and 7, landfilling, dry fuel, and gas pyrolysis are selected as the reasonable technological alternatives to be included in the workable model constructed. The final chapter describes the 50 mathematical programming tests from which recommendations were finalized. The book represents the combined efforts of one faculty member and ten students from Rutgers University. (MCW)

  2. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  3. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A. (comps.)

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Final Report - High Level Waste Vitrification System Improvements, VSL-07R1010-1, Rev 0, dated 04/16/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.; Champman, C. C.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    This report describes work conducted to support the development and testing of new glass formulations that extend beyond those that have been previously investigated for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The principal objective was to investigate maximization of the incorporation of several waste components that are expected to limit waste loading and, consequently, high level waste (HLW) processing rates and canister count. The work was performed with four waste compositions specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP); these wastes contain high concentrations of bismuth, chromium, aluminum, and aluminum plus sodium. The tests were designed to identify glass formulations that maximize waste loading while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, increased glass processing temperature, increased crystallinity, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality.

  5. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L. [Rocky Mountain Peace Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  6. Management plan -- Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, R.L.

    1995-01-11

    This Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Management Plan provides guidance for execution WHC MWTF Project activities related to design, procurement, construction, testing, and turnover. This Management Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, project management systems, quality assurance (QA), regulatory compliance, personnel qualifications and training, and testing and evaluations. Classified by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a major systems acquisition (MSA), the MWTF mission is to provide a safe, cost-effective, and environmentally sound method for interim storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes. This Management Plan provides policy guidance and direction to the Project Office for execution of the project activities.

  7. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  8. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-28

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project`s Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP.

  10. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  11. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  12. 76 FR 42124 - Availability of the Incident Waste Management Planning and Response Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Availability of the Incident Waste Management Planning and Response Tool AGENCY: Environmental... Waste Management Planning and Response Tool ``IWMPRT'' was developed partly to satisfy requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2060 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... Management Plan § 60.2060 When must I submit my waste management plan? You must submit a waste management... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2755 - When must I submit my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my waste management... waste management plan? You must submit the waste management plan no later than the date specified in... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On...

  15. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  16. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  17. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  18. Characterization plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Dreier, R.B.; Huff, D.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Lee, S.Y.; O' Donnell, F.R.; Pin, F.G.; Smith, E.D.

    1985-12-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6) is the only currently operating low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shallow land burial facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently issued DOE Order 5820.2, which provides new policy and guidelines for the management of radioactive wastes. To ensure that SWSA-6 complies with this Order it will be necessary to establish whether sufficient data on the geology, hydrology, soils, and climatology of SWSA-6 exist, and to develop plans to obtain any additional information required. It will also be necessary to establish a source term from the buried waste and provide geochemical information for hydrologic and dosimetric calculations. Where data gaps exist, methodology for obtaining this information must be developed. The purpose of this Plan is to review existing information on SWSA-6 and develop cost estimates and schedules for obtaining any required additional information. Routine operation of SWSA-6 was initiated in 1973, and it is estimated that about 29,100 m/sup 3/ (1,000,000 ft/sup 3/) of LLW containing about 250,000 Ci of radioactivity have been buried through 1984. Since SWSA-6 was sited prior to enactment of current disposal regulations, a detailed site survey of the geologic and hydrologic properties of the site was not performed before wastes were buried. However, during the operation of SWSA-6 some information on site characteristics has been collected.

  19. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  20. LLNL radioactive waste management plan as per DOE Order 5820. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-10

    The following aspects of LLNL's radioactive waste management plan are discussed: program administration; description of waste generating processes; radioactive waste collection, treatment, and disposal; sanitary waste management; site 300 operations; schedules and major milestones for waste management activities; and environmental monitoring programs (sampling and analysis).

  1. Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

  2. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  5. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, L.G.

    1996-02-06

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) implementation of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Engineering (SE) policy provided in Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Policy, DOE/RL letter, 95-RTI-107, Oct. 31, 1995. This SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Program to accomplish SE objectives. This TWRS SEMP is applicable to all aspects of the TWRS Program and will be used as the basis for tailoring SE to apply necessary concepts and principles to develop and mature the processes and physical systems necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program.

  6. Carlsbad Area Office Waste Isolation Division Transition Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In October 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced the Revised Test Strategy for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The new strategy involves conducting additional radioactive waste tests in laboratories instead of the underground at the WIPP. It will likely result in an acceleration of regulatory compliance activities needed for a disposal decision, which could result in permanent disposal of transuranic waste earlier than the previous test program and regulatory compliance strategy. The Revised Test Strategy changes the near-term program activities for the WIPP site. The revised strategy deletes radioactive waste tests at the WIPP, prior to completing all activities for initiating disposal operations, and consequently the need to maintain readiness to receive waste in the near-term. However, the new strategy enables the DOE to pursue an earlier disposal decision, supported by an accelerated regulatory compliance strategy. With the new strategy, the WIPP must prepare for disposal operations in early 1998. This Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) Transition Plan addresses the WID programmatic, budgetary, and personnel changes to conform to the Revised Test Strategy, and to support the accelerated compliance strategy and earlier disposal operations at the WIPP.

  7. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  8. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-23

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process.

  10. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  11. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1998-06-25

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford`s 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case.

  12. Satellite processing facilities: a new solid-waste planning concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.S.

    The concept of using satellite facilities for regional solid-waste management is a response to the need for realistic long-range planning for resource recovery. A feasibility study was made of a single-line processing facility to determine its efficiency and cost potential. The study concludes that economics require a region large enough to produce adequate waste, the presence of an energy market for the combustible fraction, and an independent and flexible organization. The plan offers an alternative to numerous landfills and long-distance transfer as well as local employment opportunities. Cost estimates of $5 to $12 per ton for the test study are competitive with the cost of operating landfills. Markets for the recovered materials were identified during the study.

  13. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-03-09

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

  14. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  15. Use of theoretical waste inventories in planning and monitoring of hazardous waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozge; Can, Zehra S; Toroz, Ismail; Dogan, Ozgur; Oncel, Salim; Alp, Emre; Dilek, Filiz B; Karanfil, Tanju; Yetis, Ulku

    2014-08-01

    Hazardous waste (HW) generation information is an absolute necessity for ensuring the proper planning, implementation, and monitoring of any waste management system. Unfortunately, environmental agencies in developing countries face difficulties in gathering data directly from the creators of such wastes. It is possible, however, to construct theoretical HW inventories using the waste generation factors (WGFs). The objective of this study was to develop a complete nationwide HW inventory of Turkey that relies on nation-specific WGFs to support management activities of the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (MoEU). Inventory studies relied on WGFs from: (a) the literature and (b) field studies and analysis of waste declarations reflecting country-specific industrial practices. Moreover, new tools were introduced to the monitoring infrastructure of MoEU to obtain a comprehensive waste generation data set. Through field studies and a consideration of country specific conditions, it was possible to more thoroughly elucidate HW generation trends in Turkey, a method that was deemed superior to other alternatives. Declaration and literature based WGFs also proved most helpful in supplementing field observations that could not always be conducted. It was determined that these theoretical inventories could become valuable assets in supporting regulating agencies in developing countries for a more thorough implementation of HW management systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  17. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Ponce-Ortega, José María, E-mail: jmponce@umich.mx [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Betzabe González-Campos, J. [Institute of Chemical and Biological Researches, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Serna-González, Medardo [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Adjunct Faculty at the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  19. 78 FR 28051 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... emissions limits? C. What are the final amendments to the waste management plan requirements? D. What are... biphenyls (PCBs). The 2009 final rule's revised waste management plan provisions encourage segregation of types of waste that lead to reductions in emissions, such as chlorinated plastics and PCB- containing...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any other environmental or energy impacts they might have. Model Rule—Operator Training and... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A...

  1. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M

    2013-12-01

    The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  3. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  4. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.J. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Muller, I.S.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Lai, S.T.; Pegg, I.L. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.]|[GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-14

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

  6. Waste Management Project Office Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-12-10

    The Waste Management Project Office (WMPO) is the organization to which the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations (DOE/NV), has assigned the responsibility of administering and coordinating the activities of the various Participating Organizations and of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Support Contractors working on the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The WMPO Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), describes the policies and methods to be used by WMPO, by the DOE/NV matrix support, and by QASC personnel (also referred to as the WMPO staff) to conduct quality related activities in support of the NNWSI Project. This QAPP provides the quality assurance program plan to implement the NNWSI Project Quality Assurance (QA) Plan, NVO-196-17. It ensures that adequate quality assurance measures are applied and that records provide traceability for those activities of the NNWSI Project that are controlled directly by the WMPO staff. It is intended that the WMPO QAPP be used to supplement the NNWSI Project QAP for the control of such activities.

  7. Savannah River Site Waste Management Program Plan, FY 1993. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report on facilities being used to manage wastes, forces acting to change current waste management (WM) systems, and how operations are conducted. This document also reports on plans for the coming fiscal year and projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year to adequately plan for safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for developing technology for improved management of wastes.

  8. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  9. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-07-27

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities.

  10. Strategic planning for waste management: A case study of Shiraz waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangi Abadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are several reports indicating on reduction on renewable resources. On the other hand, there is an increase on the population, which increases production of garbage in the world. With limitation on governmental budget, there is growing concern on having efficient strategic planning for waste management. The proposed study of this paper performs a SWOT analysis to find all strength, weakness, opportunities as well as possible threats associated with waste management organization located in city of Shiraz, located in south west of Iran. Based on the results, appropriated locating strategies for burying garbage, training and increasing awareness regarding production and collection, attracting foreign investment in the field of recycling garbage, reconsidering environmental rules and burying garbage and its separation standards are the most important strategies.

  11. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  12. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  13. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  14. DOE's Notification of Planned Change to the EPA 40 CFR Part 194 Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) provided the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) this Notification of Planned Change to accept remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  15. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  16. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification technology for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-11-01

    This plan summarizes the activities to be performed during FY 1990 and FY 1991 for the tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test. This test is the second step in evaluating ISV as a remedial action for the pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A previous test used nonradioactive tracers for cesium and strontium. This new test will again use a one-half-scale model of trench 7 and the pilot-scale ISV equipment of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A small and precisely known amount of waste from a liquid waste disposal pit will be used for the test. An actually contaminated waste site cannot be used for this test because of the necessity to use an exactly known inventory of radionuclides so that a precise measurement of the volatilization of various constituents to the off-gas can be determined.

  17. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification technology for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-11-01

    This plan summarizes the activities to be performed during FY 1990 and FY 1991 for the tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test. This test is the second step in evaluating ISV as a remedial action for the pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A previous test used nonradioactive tracers for cesium and strontium. This new test will again use a one-half-scale model of trench 7 and the pilot-scale ISV equipment of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A small and precisely known amount of waste from a liquid waste disposal pit will be used for the test. An actually contaminated waste site cannot be used for this test because of the necessity to use an exactly known inventory of radionuclides so that a precise measurement of the volatilization of various constituents to the off-gas can be determined.

  18. Waste Management Plan for the Oak Ridge National Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project Quality Assurance Plan, this Waste Management Plan establishes clear lines of responsibility and authority, documentation requirements, and operational guidance for the collection, identification, segregation, classification, packaging, certification, and storage/disposal of wastes. These subjects are discussed in the subsequent sections of this document.

  19. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  20. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan, fiscal year 1994. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A was promulgated in final form on September 26, 1988. The order requires heads of field organizations to prepare and to submit updates on the waste management plans for all operations under their purview according to the format in Chap. 6, {open_quotes}Waste Management Plan Outline.{close_quotes} These plans are to be submitted by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) in December of each year and distributed to the DP-12, ES&H-1, and other appropriate DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) organizations for review and comment. This document was prepared in response to this requirement for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management mission is reduction, collection, storage, treatment, and disposal of DOE wastes, generated primarily in pursuit of ORNL missions, in order to protect human health and safety and the environment. In carrying out this mission, waste management staff in the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) will (1) guide ORNL in optimizing waste reduction and waste management capabilities and (2) conduct waste management operations in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of this document is compilation and consolidation of information on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what activities are planned for FY 1994, and how all of the activities are documented.

  2. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  3. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  4. Chapter 20 Gavi-Automated Vitrification Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tammie K; Brandi, Susanna; Peura, Teija T

    2017-01-01

    Gavi is intended for use in a laboratory or clinic environment for the preparation and vitrification of oocytes, cleavage stage embryos and blastocysts. Gavi is designed to automate the equilibration steps in the vitrification process to minimize the variability that occurs during cryopreservation. This automated process reduces the potential for errors and ensures a standardized, repeatable procedure for vitrification in a controlled, closed-system environment.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases.

  6. Standard Guide for Preparing Waste Management Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses the development of waste management plans for potential waste streams resulting from decommissioning activities at nuclear facilities, including identifying, categorizing, and handling the waste from generation to final disposal. 1.2 This guide is applicable to potential waste streams anticipated from decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities whose operations were governed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State license, under Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, or Department of Defense (DoD) regulations. 1.3 This guide provides a description of the key elements of waste management plans that if followed will successfully allow for the characterization, packaging, transportation, and off-site treatment or disposal, or both, of conventional, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams. 1.4 This guide does not address the on-site treatment, long term storage, or on-site disposal of these potential waste streams. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address ...

  7. Assessment of a Planned Municipal Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ongoing MSWM practices of Balangoda Urban Council encompass six categories as waste minimization and handling; waste collection; on-site separation; waste transportation; further management including grading, composting, recycling, producing sludge fertilizer; and final disposal to an open dump site. Apart from ...

  8. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  9. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  10. TEST PLAN CHARACTERIZATION OF JET FORCES UPON WASTE TANK COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company plans to install mixer pumps in double-shell waste tanks to mobilize and suspend settled sludge to allow eventual retrieval for treatment and permanent storage. The mixer pumps produce high momentum, horizontally directed jets that impact and mobilize the sludge and mix it into slurry for removal. There is concern that the force of the jet may damage tank internal components in its path. This test plan describes scaled experiments designed to characterize the velocity profiles of a near floor jet and to quantify the impact farces and drag coefficients of three tank components: radiation dry well, airlift circulator, and steam coil. The experiments will be conducted in water, at approximately 1/6-scale, using one stationary nozzle to simulate the jet. To measure and confirm the velocity profile of the free, submerged jet, the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles will be measured at several distances from the nozzle. The profile will also be measured after the jet impinges upon the tank floor to determine the·extent of the change in the profile caused by impingement. The jet forces upon the test articles will be measured at a maximum of four velocities and a variety of test article orientations. Each orientation will represent a unique position of the test article relative to the jet and the tank floor. In addition, the steam coil will be tested in three rotational orientations because it is not symmetric. The highest jet velocity will be selected so that the Reynolds number of the test article in the model will match that of the prototype when operating at design conditions. The forces measured upon the model components will be used to calculate the force on the prototype components using geometric scaling factors. In addition, the model force measurements will be used to calculate the component's drag coefficient as a function of the component Reynolds number.

  11. Plan 2002. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2002. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 25 years operation of the 12 Swedish reactors amounts to 48.6 billion SEK (in the reference scenario). 14.5 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants (end 2001). The following systems are operational as of today: A transport system for radioactive waste; Central interim storage facility for spent fuels (CLAB); Final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (SFR1). The following systems are planned: Encapsulation plant for spent fuels, Geologic repository for spent fuels, Repository for long-lived low and medium active wastes, repository for demolition wastes.

  12. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  13. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  14. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy`s mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department`s MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW.

  15. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  16. Savannah River Site`s Site Specific Plan. Environmental restoration and waste management, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  17. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  19. Chronic wasting disease contingency plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting deer and elk (cervids) in North America. The goal of this contingency plan...

  20. Input-Output model for waste management plan for Nigeria | Njoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Input-Output Model for Waste Management Plan has been developed for Nigeria based on Leontief concept and life cycle analysis. Waste was considered as source of pollution, loss of resources, and emission of green house gasses from bio-chemical treatment and decomposition, with negative impact on the ...

  1. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-10-03

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103.

  2. Eco-City Planning In Developing Countries : The Role of Organic Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Weningtyas, Widyarini; Quan, Liqing; Suga, Manami; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Song; Amidu, Issahaku Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    This report aims to indicate challenges and future possibilities for Eco-City planning in terms of the role of organic solid waste management in developing countries. Eco-City, which seeks to reduce garbage and energy consumption, and recycle and reuse waste, has attracted our attention as a concept for sustainable urban development. Awareness of the concept of Eco-City planning is increasing in municipalities or cities in developing countries with rising environmental concerns. Among municip...

  3. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  4. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  5. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, S.S.; Gibby, R.D.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-10-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. 300 Area dangerous waste tank management system: Compliance plan approach. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In its Dec. 5, 1989 letter to DOE-Richland (DOE-RL) Operations, the Washington State Dept. of Ecology requested that DOE-RL prepare ``a plant evaluating alternatives for storage and/or treatment of hazardous waste in the 300 Area...``. This document, prepared in response to that letter, presents the proposed approach to compliance of the 300 Area with the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Washington State`s Chapter 173-303 WAC, Dangerous Waste Regulations. It also contains 10 appendices which were developed as bases for preparing the compliance plan approach. It refers to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System facilities and to the radioactive mixed waste.

  7. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  8. Site specific plan. [Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. [Oocyte vitrification in an ART laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, P; Montjean, D; Tourame, P; Gervoise-Boyer, M

    2013-09-01

    Oocyte vitrification has been authorized in France after the modification of French bioethics law in July 2011. This evolution will bring a dramatic change in patients' management since, from 2011, infertile couples, oocyte donation and fertility preservation programs will benefit this technique in France. We have introduced oocyte vitrification in our ART laboratory through a validation of the method using Evidence-Based Medicine model: open system Cryotop, Ethylène-glycol 15% and DMSO 15%. Based on our 1-year experience, oocyte vitrification upgrades our daily practice while also minimizing embryo cryoconservation as recommended by the law. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental restoration and waste management site-specific plan for Richland Operations Office. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This document was prepared to implement and support the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) national plan. The national plan, entitled Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (DOE 1990b) (hereinafter referred to as the DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan) is the cornerstone of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term strategy in environmental restoration and waste management. The DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan addresses overall philosophy and environmental and waste-related activities under the responsibilities of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The plan also reaffirms DOE-HQ goals to bring its nuclear sites into environmental compliance in cooperation with its regulators and the public, and to clean up and restore the environment by 2019 (the commitment for the Hanford Site is for one year sooner, or 2018). This document is part of the site-specific plan for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). It is the first revision of the original plan, which was dated December 1989 (DOE-RL 1989a). This document is a companion document to the Overview of the Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan (DOE-RL 1989d) and The Hanford Site Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan Activity Data Sheets (DOE-RL 1991). Although there are three documents that make up the complete DOE-RL plan, this detailed information volume was prepared so it could be used as a standalone document. 71 refs., 40 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) multiprogram laboratory whose primary mission has been to research nuclear technologies. Working with these technologies and conducting other types of research generates waste, including radioactive and/or hazardous wastes. While most of the waste treatment, storage, and disposal practices have been effective, some practices have led to the release of contaminants to the environment. As a result, DOE has developed (1) an Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to identify and, where necessary, cleanup releases from inactive waste sites and (2) a Waste Management (WM) Program to safely treat, store, and dispose of DOE wastes generated from current and future activities in an environmentally sound manner. This document describes the plans for FY 1993 for the INEL`s ER and WM programs as managed by DOE`s Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID).

  12. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-10-13

    This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis.

  14. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  15. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan for 200E Waste Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of the newly constructed 200E Waste Transfer System in the W-314 Project. The STEP provides the outline for test and evaluation methods that verify the system's performance and compliance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ''lower tier'' document based on the W-314 Test & Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  16. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Hwang, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  19. Is vitrification standard method of cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Tavukcuoglu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos or blastocyts is an important choice in assisted reproduction treatment that leads to an increased cumulative outcome while decreasing other attempts’ costs. It provides an opportunity for patients to have more than one attempt following an ovarian stimulation cycle, thereby decreasing the exposure of patients to exogenous gonadotrophins. Vitrification is a cryopreservation technique that leads to a glass-like solidification. Oocyte, zygote, embryo and blastocyst freezing by vitrification method for cryopreservation have been used for many years beside sperms preservation. Moreover, the use of vitrification technology for ovarian tissue cryopreservation to freeze eggs offers such an elderly women who sometime find more difficulty in conceiving or in maintaining pregnancy till full term because of old age compared to relatively younger women who might get better chances to get a healthy pregnancy. Furthermore, vitrification helps cancer patients who are looking to preserve their fertility later on after completing their treatment.

  20. Programmatic Assessment of Radioactive Waste Management Nuclear Fuel And Waste Programs. Operational Planning and Development (Activity No. AR OS 10 05 K; ONL-WN06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1980-06-30

    Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has performed an assessment of the waste management operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to review radioactive waste management as practiced at ORNL and to recommend improvements or alternatives for further study. The study involved: 1) an on-site survey of ORNL radioactive waste management operations; 2) a review of radioactive waste source data, records, and regulatory requirements; 3) an assessment of existing and planned treatment, storage, and control facilities; and 4) identification of alternatives for improving waste management operations. Information for this study was obtained from both personal interviews and written reports. The G/C suggestions for improving ORNL waste management operations are summarized. Regulatory requirements governing ORNL waste management operations are discussed. Descriptions and discussions of the radioactive liquid, solid, and gaseous waste systems are presented. The waste operations control complex is discussed.

  1. The Efficacy of Waste Management Plans in Australian Commercial Construction Refurbishment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hardie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Renovation and refurbishment of the existingcommercial building stock is a growing area oftotal construction activity and a significantgenerator of waste sent to landfill in Australia. Awritten waste management plan (WMP is awidespread regulatory requirement forcommercial office redevelopment projects. Thereis little evidence, however, that WMPs actuallyincrease the quantity of waste that is ultimatelydiverted from landfill. Some reports indicate anabsence of any formal verification or monitoringprocess by regulators to assess the efficacy ofthe plans. In order to gauge the extent of theproblem a survey was conducted of twenty fourconsultants and practitioners involved incommercial office building refurbishment projectsto determine the state of current practice withregard to WMPs and to elicit suggestions withregard to ways of making the process moreeffective. Considerable variation in commitmentto recycling policies was encountered indicatinga need to revisit waste minimisation practices ifthe environmental performance of refurbishmentprojects is to be improved.

  2. Community Mapping and Theory of Planned Behavior as Study Tools for Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chainarong Apinhapath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cities have encountered problems with uncollected solid waste. Separate disposal of recyclable waste is viewed as the most effective procedure in waste management. However, this requires the cooperation of the people in the community. Community mapping is the most effective tool for understanding a community but it does not address possible ways to change people’s behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior was the basis for this study of recycling behavior as it offers methods for changing people’s habits. However, the theory does not provide guidance on how to facilitate the use of recycling bins in the community. Many recycling projects have been unsuccessfully implemented due to the fact that most people do not want waste bins placed near their houses. Therefore, both of these effective tools were combined in this study, which propose an effective implementation method for community solid waste management.

  3. Investigation of variable compositions on the removal of technetium from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, John M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  4. A plan to create a zero waste society: transforming waste into resources

    OpenAIRE

    Peljhan Korošec, Jožica

    2016-01-01

    It is only reasonable to become a zero waste society and for producers to immediately start redesigning products, and for us to make the transition in our mentality to stop buying products that we do not really need or products that we could, in fact, borrow. In the interim (transitional period), until all our products are sustainable ones, waste incinerators (thermal treatment that utilises energy recovery) will still be unavoidable. However, this does not mean that new ones will need to be ...

  5. Plan director for urban waste management in Mallorca (Spain); Plan director sectorial para la gestion de los residuos urbanos en Mallorca (Revision de febrero 2000)-II parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, J. M.; Colom Atles, M. A.; Barcelo Monserrat, N. J.

    2001-07-01

    In February 2000, the autonomous government of the Balearic Island approved a new Urban Waste Management Plan for Majorca (PDSGRUM), which is an important step forward in terms of an environmental approach to waste management. The Council of Majorca (Consell Insular de Mallorca) is the governing institution in charge of implementing the plan. The following text summarises the context, the goals, the new treatment plants (and the basics of their technology), the locations and the estimates cost included in the PDSGRUM. The waste streams the PDSGRUM delas with are: urban waste (including light containers), waste water sludge, incinerator slag, and cemented depuration gases and sanitary and animal (slaughterhouse) waste. The PDSGRUM states very ambitions goals for prevention (RRR), selective collections of waste, freezing incineration and sharply reducing the amount of waste going to landfill. The PDSGRUM has a total cost of 22.322 million pesetas (134 million euros). (Author)

  6. Municipal solid waste management planning considering greenhouse gas emission trading under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2014-03-15

    Waste management activities can release greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere, intensifying global climate change. Mitigation of the associated GHG emissions is vital and should be considered within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic integer programming (FPIM) model has been developed for waste management facility expansion and waste flow allocation planning with consideration of GHG emission trading in an MSW management system. It can address the interrelationships between MSW management planning and GHG emission control. The scenario of total system GHG emission control is analyzed for reflecting the feature that GHG emission credits may be tradable. An interactive solution algorithm is used to solve the FPIM model based on the uncertainty-averse preferences of decision makers in terms of p-necessity level, which represents the certainty degree of the imprecise objective. The FPIM model has been applied to a hypothetical MSW planning problem, where optimal decision schemes for facility expansion and waste flow allocation have been achieved with consideration of GHG emission control. The results indicate that GHG emission credit trading can decrease total system cost through re-allocation of GHG emission credits within the entire MSW management system. This will be helpful for decision makers to effectively determine the allowable GHG emission permits in practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  8. De-Inventory Plan for Transuranic Waste Stored at Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christensen, Davis V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shepard, Mark D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    This report describes the strategy and detailed work plan developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to disposition transuranic (TRU) waste stored at its Area G radioactive waste storage site. The focus at this time is on disposition of 3,706 m3 of TRU waste stored above grade by June 30, 2014, which is one of the commitments within the Framework Agreement: Realignment of Environmental Priorities between the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the State of New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), Reference 1. A detailed project management schedule has been developed to manage this work and better ensure that all required activities are aligned and integrated. The schedule was developed in conjunction with personnel from the NNSA Los Alamos Site Office (LASO), the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), the Central Characterization Project (CCP), and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). A detailed project management schedule for the remainder of the above grade inventory and the below grade inventory will be developed and incorporated into the De-Inventory Plan by December 31, 2012. This schedule will also include all newly-generated TRU waste received at Area G in FYs 2012 and 2013, which must be removed by no later than December 31, 2014, under the Framework Agreement. The TRU waste stored above grade at Area G is considered to be one of the highest nuclear safety risks at LANL, and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board has expressed concern for the radioactive material at risk (MAR) contained within the above grade TRU waste inventory and has formally requested that DOE reduce the MAR. A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned extensive areas west of LANL in late June and July 2011. Although there was minimal to no impact by the fire to LANL, the fire heightened public concern and news media attention on TRU waste storage at Area G. After the fire, New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez also

  9. Environmental restoration and waste management Site-Specific Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to achieving and maintaining environmental regulatory compliance while responding to public concerns and emphasizing waste minimization. DOE publishes the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) annually to document its progress towards these goals. The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe the activities undertaken to implement the FYP goals at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) installations and programs specifically for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding areas. This SSP addresses activities and goals to be accomplished during FY93 even through the FYP focuses on FY94.

  10. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  11. Ecological assessment plan for Waste Area Grouping 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG)5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contains 13 solid waste management units (SWMUs) covering a surface area of {approx}20 ha in Melton Valley south of the main plant area. The largest SWMUs are Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 and SWSA 5 North. These two SWMUs also contain most of the radioactive contamination. WAG 5 contains two surface impoundments and two intermittent streams; runoff from WAG 5 enters White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. Principal contaminants include fission-product radionuclides and transuranic elements, but trace metals and some organics may also be present. This document describes the ecological assessment that will perform to determine the ecological effects of contamination from WAG 5. This document also supports the baseline risk assessment and subsequent alternatives evaluations for WAG 5. Three specific tasks are incorporated in the WAG 5 ecological assessment: (1) threatened and endangered species surveys, (2) ambient toxicity tests of seeps, stream reaches, and soil that are identified as being contaminant sources, and (3) sampling of wildlife (specifically wild turkeys) that could potentially transfer contaminants from WAG 5 to humans.

  12. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  13. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  14. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs.

  15. Investigation of Tc Migration Mechanism During Bulk Vitrification Process Using Re Surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fluegel, Alex; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Martinez, Baudelio; Matyas, Josef; Meyer, Perry A.; Paulsen, Dan; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Stewart, Charles W.; Swoboda, Robert G.; Yeager, John D.

    2006-12-04

    As a part of Bulk vitrification (BV) performance enhancement tasks, Laboratory scoping tests were performed in FY 2004-2005 to explore possible ways to reduce the amount of soluble Tc in the BV waste package. Theses scoping tests helped identify which mechanisms play an important role in the migration of Tc in the BV process (Hrma et al. 2005 and Kim et al. 2005). Based on the results from these scoping tests, additional tests were identified that will improve the understanding of Tc migration and to clearly identify the dominant mechanisms. The additional activities identified from previous studies were evaluated and prioritized for planning for Tasks 29 and 30 conducted in FY2006. Task 29 focused on the improved understanding of Tc migration mechanisms, and Task 30 focused on identifying the potential process changes that might reduce Tc/Re migration into the castable refractory block (CRB). This report summarizes the results from the laboratory- and crucible-scale tests in the lab for improved Tc migration mechanism understanding utilizing Re as a surrogate performed in Task 29.

  16. Zero Waste - "Valuation and business planning" pro potenciálního investora

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlák, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The target of Zero Waste "Valuation and business planning" for a potential investor is to explore and evaluate the identified market opportunity. Business plan concerns the foundation of food and consumer goods retail business which is aimed towards reducing consumers negative impact on the environment, supporting local jobs and sustainable farming. The thesis is based on theoretical knowledge from the publications listed in the resources which were confronted with the reality in interviews w...

  17. Development and status of the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan or I love that mobile unit of mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounini, L. [USDOE Grand Junction Project Office, CO (United States); Williams, M. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States); Zygmunt, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Nine Department of Energy (DOE) sites reporting to the Albuquerque Office (AL) have mixed waste that is chemically hazardous and radioactive. The hazardous waste regulations require the chemical portion of mixed waste to be to be treated to certain standards. The total volume of low-level mixed waste at the nine sites is equivalent to 7,000 drums, with individual site volumes ranging from 1 gallon of waste at the Pinellas Plant to 4,500 drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nearly all the sites have a diversity of wastes requiring a diversity of treatment processes. Treatment capacity does not exist for much of this waste, and it would be expensive for each site to build the diversity of treatment processes needed to treat its own wastes. DOE-AL assembled a team that developed the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan that uses the resources of the nine sites to treat the waste at the sites. Work on the plan started in October 1993, and the plan was finalized in March 1994. The plan uses commercial treatment, treatability studies, and mobile treatment units. The plan specifies treatment technologies that will be built as mobile treatment units to be moved from site to site. Mobile units include bench-top units for very small volumes and treatability studies, drum-size units that treat one drum per day, and skid-size units that handle multiple drum volumes. After the tools needed to treat the wastes were determined, the sites were assigned to provide part of the treatment capacity using their own resources and expertise. The sites are making progress on treatability studies, commercial treatment, and mobile treatment design and fabrication. To date, this is the only plan for treating waste that brings the resources of several DOE sites together to treat mixed waste. It is the only program actively planning to use mobile treatment coordinated between DOE sites.

  18. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  19. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  20. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  1. The waste tyre problem in South Africa: An analysis of the REDISA plan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available problem only but has the potential to contribute to job creation, capacity building, establishment of small businesses as well as research and development of new and innovative waste tyre utilization techniques. The Plan is seen as the only viable approach...

  2. Reliability and safety program plan outline for the operational phase of a waste isolation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, H.G.; Wood, D.E.

    1977-03-28

    A Reliability and Safety Program plan outline has been prepared for the operational phase of a Waste Isolation Facility. The program includes major functions of risk assessment, technical support activities, quality assurance, operational safety, configuration monitoring, reliability analysis and support and coordination meetings. Detailed activity or task descriptions are included for each function. Activities are time-phased and presented in the PERT format for scheduling and interactions. Task descriptions include manloading, travel, and computer time estimates to provide data for future costing. The program outlined here will be used to provide guidance from a reliability and safety standpoint to design, procurement, construction, and operation of repositories for nuclear waste. These repositories are to be constructed under the National Waste Terminal Storage program under the direction of the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division.

  3. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  4. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  5. HWMA closure plan for the Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) calcined and evaporated aqueous wastes generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The calciner operated from 1963 to 1981, primarily processing high level waste from the first cycle of spent fuel extraction. Following the calciner shutdown the evaporator system concentrated high activity aqueous waste from 1983 until 1987. In 1988, US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) requested interim status for the evaporator system, in anticipation of future use of the evaporator system. The evaporator system has not been operated since it received interim status. At the present time, DOE-ID is completing construction on a new evaporator at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) and the evaporator at the WCF is not needed. The decision to not use the WCF evaporator requires Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) and DOE-ID to close these units. After a detailed evaluation of closure options, LITCO and DOE-ID have determined the safest option is to fill the voids (grout the vessels, cells and waste pile) and close the WCF to meet the requirements applicable to landfills. The WCF will be covered with a concrete cap that will meet the closure standards. In addition, it was decided to apply these closure standards to the calcining system since it is contained within the WCF building. The paper describes the site, waste inventory, closure activities, and post-closure care plans.

  6. Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan. Planning to the future of ENRESA; El Sexto Plan General de Residuos. La planificacion del futuro de Enresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo Hernandez, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    The Government approved last June 23''rd the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan that presents the activities to be carried out by ENRESA in all its field of responsibility to the year 2070. The document considers as one of the principal changes that ENRESA will be restructured to corporate public entity assigned to the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade as well as the need of a Centralised Temporary Storage for the spent fuel and the high level radioactive wastes generated in Spain. Nevertheless, information is provided on the plans for the full decommissioning of the nuclear power plants to complete their operational life and also the economic and financial aspects related to the activities contemplated in the Plan. (Author) 13 refs.

  7. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: the city of Belgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  9. A methodology for developing strategic municipal solid waste management plans with an application in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, A P

    2010-11-01

    A rational approach for developing optimal municipal solid waste (MSW) management plans comprises the strategic and the detailed planning phases. The present paper focuses on the former, the objective of which is to screen management alternatives so as to select the ones that are able to fulfil all legal and other management requirements with reasonable cost. The analysis considers the transportation, treatment and final disposal of the commingled wastes that remain after the application of material recovery at the source programmes and comprises 10 elements, four of which are region-dependent and the remaining ones application-dependent. These elements and their inter-dependencies are described and the entire methodology is applied to Greece. The application considers the existing regional plans and shows that they are incompatible with the existing EU Directives, as well as overly expensive. To address this problem, a new plan is developed in accordance with the rational planning principles of the present methodology. The comparative evaluation of the above alternatives shows that the existing regional plans, in addition to being incompatible with the applicable EU Directives, require 4.3 to 4.8 times (3.7 to 4.4 billion €) higher capital investment and their annual cost is at least 2.1 to 2.3 times (590 to 735 million € year(-1)) higher in comparison with the new national plan.

  10. Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

  11. EQ3/6 geochemical modeling task plan for Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Wolery, T.

    1984-04-10

    This task plan outlines work needed to upgrade the EQ3/6 geochemical code and expand the supporting data bases to allow the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) to model chemical processes important to the storage of nuclear waste in a tuff repository in the unsaturated zone. The plan covers the fiscal years 1984 to 1988. The scope of work includes the development of sub-models in the EQ3/6 code package for studying the effects of sorption, precipitation kinetics, redox disequilibrium, and radiolysis on radionuclide speciation and solubility. The work also includes a glass/water interactions model and a geochemical flow model which will allow us to study waste form leaching and reactions involving the waste package. A special emphasis is placed on verification of new capabilities as they are developed and code documentation to meet NRC requirements. Data base expansion includes the addition of elements and associated aqueous species and solid phases that are specific to nuclear waste (e.g., actinides and fission products) and the upgrading and documentation of the thermodynamic data for other species of interest.

  12. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  13. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  14. Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process control plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, K.G.

    1998-07-25

    Project W-320 has installed the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System at the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site to retrieve the sludge from single-shell tank 241-C-106 and transfer it into double-shell tank 241-AY-102. Operation of the WRSS process will resolve the high-heat safety issue for tank 241-C-106 and demonstrate a technology for the retrieval of single-shell tank wastes. This process control plan coordinates the technical operating requirements (primarily mass transfer, temperature, and flammable gas) for the sluicing operation and provides overall technical guidance for the retrieval activity.

  15. Solid waste information and tracking system client-server conversion project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D.L.

    1998-04-15

    This Project Management Plan is the lead planning document governing the proposed conversion of the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. This plan presents the content specified by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards for software development, with additional information categories deemed to be necessary to describe the conversion fully. This plan is a living document that will be reviewed on a periodic basis and revised when necessary to reflect changes in baseline design concepts and schedules. This PMP describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. It does not constitute a statement of product requirements. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

  16. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. [Appendix contains accromyms list and maps of waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to achieving and maintaining environmental regulatory compliance at its waste sites and facilities, while responding to public concerns and emphasizing waste minimization. DOE publishes the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) annually to document its progress towards these goals. The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe the activities, planned and completed, undertaken to implement these FYP goals at the DOE Field Office-Oak Ridge (DOE/OR) installations and programs; specifically, for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), and Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP). Activities described in this SSP address hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes, along with treatment, storage, and disposal of current production waste and legacy waste from past operation. The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Corrective Activities (A), Environmental Restoration (ER), Waste Management (WM), Technology Development (TD), and Transportation; and includes descriptions of activities, resources, and milestones by installation or program. 87 tabs.

  17. Waste management plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This plan defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing waste generated during activities associated with Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 5 is located in Melton Valley, south of the main ORNL plant area. It contains 17 solid waste management units (SWMUs) to be evaluated during the remedial investigation. The SWMUs include three burial areas, two hydrofracture facilities, two settling ponds, eight tanks, and two low-level liquid waste leak sites. These locations are all considered to be within the WAG 5 area of contamination (AOC). The plan contains provisions for safely and effectively managing soils, rock cuttings, development and sampling water, decontamination fluids, and disposable personal protective equipment (PPE) consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance of May 1991 (EPA 1991). Consistent with EPA guidance, this plan is designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public.

  18. Human Factors Standards and implementation plan for waste management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is dedicated to assuring safety and public confidence by conducting a thorough assessment and upgrade of its nuclear policies and procedures. To ensure that DOE field operations protect the health and safety of employees, the general public and the environment, new operational procedures, standards, and implementation plans are both required and forthcoming from DOE Headquarters, NE-74. Part of this effort requires the establishment and integration of human factors engineering design standards and implementation methods to reduce the probability of human error, human injury and radiological exposure. Human Factors professionals work to assure that technology is designed and utilized safely and efficiently to serve the needs and capabilities of the people who must use this technology. The primary goal of human factors engineering is to ensure compatibility and congruence between the people, equipment, tasks, procedures and training so as to minimize human error and assure that ``total systems performance and reliability`` are achieved.

  19. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area TX-TY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-26

    WMA TX-TY contains underground, single-shell tanks that were used to store liquid waste that contained chemicals and radionuclides. Most of the liquid has been removed, and the remaining waste is regulated under the RCRA as modi¬fied in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F and Washington State’s Hazardous Waste Management Act . WMA TX-TY was placed in assessment monitoring in 1993 because of elevated specific conductance. A groundwater quality assessment plan was written in 1993 describing the monitoring activities to be used in deciding whether WMA TX-TY had affected groundwater. That plan was updated in 2001 for continued RCRA groundwater quality assessment as required by 40 CFR 265.93 (d)(7). This document further updates the assessment plan for WMA TX-TY by including (1) information obtained from ten new wells installed at the WMA after 1999 and (2) information from routine quarterly groundwater monitoring during the last five years. Also, this plan describes activities for continuing the groundwater assessment at WMA TX TY.

  20. Regional planning for minimization, recycling and recovery of wastes in Asturias. Plan regional de reduccion, reciclaje y recuperacion de residuos en Asturias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Asturias (Spain) produces 350.000 ton of urban solid wastes per year. 97 per cent of them are treated and their leachates are delivered on a special plant where are depurated avoiding to pollute underground waters. In 1993 there were energetic uses of these wastes obtaining 25 millions Kw of electric energy. This paper presents the Plan of Government of Asturias to collect the urban solid waste and its treatment. (Author)

  1. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  2. Comprehensive low-level radioactive waste management plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.M.; Mills, D.; Perkins, C.; Riddle, R.

    1984-03-01

    Part I of the Comprehensive Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky discusses the alternatives that have been examined to manage the low-level radioactive waste currently generated in the state. Part II includes a history of the commercial operation of the Maxey Flats Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in Fleming County, Kentucky. The reasons for closure of the facility by the Human Resources Cabinet, the licensing agency, are identified. The site stabilization program managed by the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet is described in Chapter VI. Future activities to be conducted at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site will include site stabilization activities, routine operations and maintenance, and environmental monitoring programs as described in Chapter VII.

  3. Phase I high-level waste pretreatment and feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1996-02-05

    This document provides the preliminary planning basis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a sufficient quantity of high-level waste feed to the privatization contractor during Phase I. By this analysis of candidate high-level waste feed sources, the initial quantity of high-level waste feed totals more than twice the minimum feed requirements. The flexibility of the current infrastructure within tank farms provides a variety of methods to transfer the feed to the privatization contractor`s site location. The amount and type of pretreatment (sludge washing) necessary for the Phase I processing can be tailored to support the demonstration goals without having a significant impact on glass volume (i.e., either inhibited water or caustic leaching can be used).

  4. The nature of the volatile technetium species formed during vitrification of borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    2015-05-26

    Vitrification of sodium pertechnetate into borosilicate glass was performed in air at 1100 C. A glass with a composition similar to the one developed for vitrification of the low activity waste at the Hanford site was used. A red volatile species was observed above 600° C. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results indicate the environment of the absorbing Tc atom consists of 2.9(6) O atoms at 1.73(2) A° , 2.2(4) O atoms at 2.02(2) A° , and 0.8(2) O atoms at 2.18(2) A° . The results are consistent with the presence of a mononuclear species with a structure closely related to TcO3(OH)(H2O)2.

  5. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  7. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  8. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  10. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  11. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1998-09-28

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area.

  12. Municipal solid waste management planning for Xiamen City, China: a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui; Zhu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based waste management planning (SFIWP) model was developed and applied for supporting long-term planning of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Xiamen City, the special economic zone of Fujian Province, China. In the SFIWP model, the techniques of inventory model, stochastic linear fractional programming, and mixed-integer linear programming were integrated in a framework. Issues of waste inventory in MSW management system were solved, and the system efficiency was maximized through considering maximum net-diverted wastes under various constraint-violation risks. Decision alternatives for waste allocation and capacity expansion were also provided for MSW management planning in Xiamen. The obtained results showed that about 4.24 × 106 t of waste would be diverted from landfills when p i is 0.01, which accounted for 93% of waste in Xiamen City, and the waste diversion per unit of cost would be 26.327 × 103 t per $106. The capacities of MSW management facilities including incinerators, composting facility, and landfills would be expanded due to increasing waste generation rate.

  13. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Akulume; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  14. Vitrification preserves proliferation capacity in human spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poels, Jonathan; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Many, Marie-Christine; Wese, François-Xavier; Wyns, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Does vitrification of human immature testicular tissue (ITT) have potential benefits for future fertility preservation? Does vitrification of human ITT have potential benefits in an in vivo murine xenotransplantation model? Vitrification is able to maintain proliferation capacity in spermatogonial cells after 6 months of xenografting. Controlled slow-freezing is the procedure currently applied for ITT cryobanking in clinical practice. Vitrification has been proposed as a promising technique for long-term storage of ITT, with a view to preserving spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for future fertility restoration in young boys suffering from cancer. After vitrification of ITT, in vitro survival of SSCs was demonstrated, but their functionality was not evaluated. Ten ITT pieces issuing from 10 patients aged 2-12 years were used. Fragments of fresh tissue (serving as controls) and fresh, frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed testicular pieces xenografted to the scrotum of nude mice for 6 months were compared. Upon graft removal, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate spermatogonia (SG) (MAGE-A4), intratubular proliferation (Ki67), proliferating SG and Leydig cells (3β-HSD). The entire piece of grafted tissue was assessed in each case. Seminiferous tubules showed good integrity after cryopreservation and xenografting for 6 months in all three groups. Survival of SG and their ability to proliferate was observed by immunohistochemistry in all grafted groups. SG were able to initiate spermatogenesis, but blockage at the pachytene stage was observed. The recovery rate of SG was 3.4 ± 3.8, 4.1 ± 7.3 and 7.3 ± 6.3%, respectively, for fresh, slow-frozen and vitrified-warmed tissue after 6 months of xenografting. The study is limited by the low availability of ITT samples of human origin. The mouse xenotransplantation model needs to be refined to study human spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study have potential implications for

  15. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  16. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  17. Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility's 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

  18. Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility`s 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

  19. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimović, Boško, E-mail: bosko@iaus.ac.rs; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  20. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  1. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Effect of Vitrification on Follicular Morphology of Ovarian Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroozan Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Some efforts have been made for keeping cryopreservation of gametes and embryos safe, including new vitrification methods of the ovary. This study evaluates the effect of ethylene glycole vitrification on follicular morphology of ovarian rat.Materials & Methods: Eighty ovaries belonging to 40 rats are divided into 2 groups. Twenty five ovaries are control group, 25 the vitrification, and30 toxicologic effects. For freezing, equilibrium solution, ethylene glycole and methyl sulfoxide are used. For defreezeing, different concentrations of saccharose and for morphological evaluation, H&E staining are undertaken. The number of healthy and atretic follicles are determined after 24 hours, 1 week and one month after vitrification.Results: No morphological changes are observed in all follicular cells. The percent of primordial, primary, secondary, anthral and developed follicles in the vitrification group are 34.5%, 17.7%, 17.4%, 15.2% and 50.3%. In vitrification and toxicological groups, the percent of both normal and atretic follicles is 47.5% and 11.9%. These figures for the control group were 59.7% and 16.9%. In vitrification method, 91% of oocytes are viable, 81% have mitosis, and 50% enters blastocyst stage.Conclusion: Because in vitrification of ovary in comparison with the follicles, many types of follicles in different cycles can be recovered with no morphological and structural changes, vitrification of ovary can be a safe method for cryopreservation of the oocytes

  3. Nuclear waste and social planning - in the need of sustainable political legitimacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Urban; Andren, Mats [Goeteborg Univ. (SE). Centre for Public Sector Research (CEFOS)

    2006-09-15

    The proposition in this paper is that handling nuclear waste in an efficient, democratic and legitimate way presupposes a thorough reflection on the limits and possibilities of social planning and legitimacy, and a deliberate extension of the meaning of these concepts. The central point consists in an analysis of the concept political legitimacy. When the concept was established in the period after 1799, it had meanings of both legality and morality. A legitimate solution could be justified either in terms of (national) law or specified norms. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, legitimacy dealt mainly with the issues of legal foundations and moral justification based in institutions and discourses. This conception of legitimacy is inadequate when applied to the issue of nuclear waste as a social phenomenon. The time aspect is much longer than the period we reasonably can make predictions regarding the design of social institutions. How can we make guarantees that will endure for a period of time that is so long that we cannot possibly say anything about the very existence of human societies, and far less make predictions about the stability of social institutions 100,000 years into the future? Likewise, the comparatively short time period of implementation, during which the planned nuclear waste repositories are to be built and finally shut tight, is far more extended than any other societal project. When neither the ideological, nor the institutional and technological stability are possible to secure, the main question will be: Who/what grants legitimacy to the societal handling of nuclear waste? We tentatively maintain that the social handling of nuclear waste demands that social planning and legitimacy be linked with a clear and distinct assumption of responsibility. It must be a geographically and temporally universalistic assumption of responsibility. In addition, the management of nuclear waste in a sustainable and legitimate manner requires both a

  4. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  5. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  6. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Transuranic Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) specifies the quality of data necessary and the characterization techniques employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) requirements. This QAPJP is written to conform with the requirements and guidelines specified in the QAPP and the associated documents referenced in the QAPP. This QAPJP is one of a set of five interrelated QAPjPs that describe the INEL Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP). Each of the five facilities participating in the TWCP has a QAPJP that describes the activities applicable to that particular facility. This QAPJP describes the roles and responsibilities of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) in the TWCP. Data quality objectives and quality assurance objectives are explained. Sample analysis procedures and associated quality assurance measures are also addressed; these include: sample chain of custody; data validation; usability and reporting; documentation and records; audits and 0385 assessments; laboratory QC samples; and instrument testing, inspection, maintenance and calibration. Finally, administrative quality control measures, such as document control, control of nonconformances, variances and QA status reporting are described.

  7. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  8. Vitrification of Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    ABE, Yasuyuki; AONO, Nobuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Matsumoto, Hiromichi; BAKHTIYARI, Mehrdad; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2004-01-01

    In order to cryopreserve germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, we first need to develop a novel container for keeping large quantities of GV oocytes, because of collecting them as cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) that have bigger size and larger volume than oocytes themselves, and second modify a protocol for optimizing vitrification of them. In this mini-review, we describe our recent progress for attaining these objectives. When 65 bovine COCs having GV oocytes could be placed on a sheet of ...

  9. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  10. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  11. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  12. Vitrified hillforts as anthropogenic analogues for nuclear waste glasses - project planning and initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoblom, Rolf; Weaver, Jamie L.; Peeler, David K.; Mccloy, John S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Ogenhall, E.; Hjarthner-Jolder, E.

    2016-09-27

    Nuclear waste must be deposited in such a manner that it does not cause significant impact on the environment or human health. In some cases, the integrity of the repositories will need to sustain for tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In order to ensure such containment, nuclear waste is frequently converted into a very durable glass. It is fundamentally difficult, however, to assure the validity of such containment based on short-term tests alone. To date, some anthropogenic and natural volcanic glasses have been investigated for this purpose. However, glasses produced by ancient cultures for the purpose of joining rocks in stonewalls have not yet been utilized in spite of the fact that they might offer significant insight into the long-term durability of glasses in natural environments. Therefore, a project is being initiated with the scope of obtaining samples and characterizing their environment, as well as to investigate them using a suite of advanced materials characterization techniques. It will be analysed how the hillfort glasses may have been prepared, and to what extent they have altered under in-situ conditions. The ultimate goals are to obtain a better understanding of the alteration behaviour of nuclear waste glasses and its compositional dependence, and thus to improve and validate models for nuclear waste glass corrosion. The paper deals with project planning and initiation, and also presents some early findings on fusion of amphibolite and on the process for joining the granite stones in the hillfort walls.

  13. Successful ongoing pregnancies after vitrification of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Elkin; Bernal, Diana Patricia; Lucena, Carolina; Rojas, Alejandro; Moran, Abby; Lucena, Andrés

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate the efficiency of vitrifying mature human oocytes for different clinical indications. Descriptive case series. Cryobiology laboratory, Centro Colombiano de Fertilidad y Esterilidad-CECOLFES LTDA. (Bogotá, Colombia). Oocyte vitrification was offered as an alternative management for patients undergoing infertility treatment because of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, premature ovarian failure, natural ovarian failure, male factor, poor response, or oocyte donation. Mature oocytes were obtained from 33 donor women and 40 patients undergoing infertility treatment. Oocytes were retrieved by ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration and vitrified with the Cryotops method, with 30% ethylene glycol, 30% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 0.5 mol/L sucrose. Viability was assessed 3 hours after thawing. The surviving oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertilization was evaluated after 24 hours. The zygotes were further cultured in vitro for up to 72 hours until time of embryo transfer. Recovery, viability, fertilization, and pregnancy rates. Oocyte vitrification with the Cryotop method resulted in high rates of recovery, viability, fertilization, cleavage, and ongoing pregnancy. Vitrification with the Cryotop method is an efficient, fast, and economical method for oocyte cryopreservation that offers high rates of survival, fertilization, embryo development, and ongoing normal pregnancies, providing a new alternative for the management of female infertility.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  15. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  16. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  17. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  18. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Nacht

    2000-02-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs.

  19. Optimization of vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Embryonic axes obtained from seeds of four groundnut genotypes were dehydrated in Plant. Vitrification Solution (PVS2) solution ... The seed contain high quality edible oil (44 to 52%), easily digestible protein (26 to ..... in vitro- grown grape (Vitis) by a two-step vitrification protocol. Euphytica 131:299-304.

  20. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  1. Proposed plan for the Tank 105-C Hazardous Waste Management Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, W.C. Jr.

    1994-06-24

    This Proposed Plan was developed to describe the remedial action selected at the Tank 105-C Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) source-specific unit within the C-Area Fundamental Study Area (FSA) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and to fulfill Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. This 8,400 gallon capacity tank was certified and accepted closed according to a closure plan approved by the state of South Carolina under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority in January 1991. As a result of the closure, previously performed under RCRA, the unit poses no current or potential threat to human health or the environment. Accordingly, no further remedial action is necessary under CERCLA.

  2. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

    2008-06-05

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

  3. Vitrification of immature feline oocytes with a commercial kit for bovine embryo vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparicio, M; Ruggeri, E; Luvoni, G C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a commercial kit for bovine embryo vitrification for cryopreserving cat oocytes and to evaluate comparatively the effects of its use with slow freezing procedure on cryotolerance in terms of morphology and oocyte resumption of meiosis. Germinal vesicle stage oocytes isolated from cat ovaries were either vitrified (n = 72) using a vitrification kit for bovine embryo or slow frozen (n = 69) by exposing oocyte to ethylene glycol solution before being transferred to a programmable embryo freezer. After thawing and warming, oocytes were cultured for 48 h and then were examined for meiosis resumption using bisbenzimide fluorescent staining (Hoechst 33342). Fresh immature oocytes (n = 92) were used as the control group. The proportion of oocytes recovered in a morphologically normal state after thawing/warming was significantly higher in frozen oocytes (94.5%) than in the vitrified ones (75%, p vitrification compared to 60.9% of those submitted to slow freezing procedure (p bovine embryos retain their capacity to resume meiosis after warming and culture, albeit at lower rates than slow frozen oocytes. Vitrification and slow freezing methods show similar proportions of oocytes with normal morphology after culture, which demonstrate that thawed and warmed oocytes that resist to cryodamage have the same chances to maintain their integrity after 48 h of culture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  5. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  6. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  7. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  8. Research and development plans for disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Platt, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan recommends a 20-year, 206 million (1975 $'s) R and D program on geologic structures in the contiguous U.S. and on the midplate Pacific seabed with the objective of developing an acceptable method for disposal of commercial high-level and transuranic wastes by 1997. No differentiation between high-level and transuranic waste disposal is made in the first 5 years of the program. A unique application of probability theory to R and D planning establishes, at a 95% confidence level, that the program objective will be met if at least fifteen generic options and five specific disposal sites are explored in detail and at least two pilot plants are constructed and operated. A parallel effort on analysis and evaluation maximizes information available for decisions on the acceptability of the disposal techniques. Based on considerations of technical feasibility, timing and technical risk, the other disposal concepts, e.g., ice sheets, partitioning, transmutation and space disposal cited in BNWL-1900 are not recommended for near future R and D.

  9. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  10. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  11. Implementation plan for underground waste storage tank surveillance and stabilization improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukelow, G.T.; Maupin, V.D.; Mihalik, L.A.; Washenfelder, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have addressed the need to upgrade the methods currently used for surveillance of underground waste storage tanks, particularly single-shell tanks (SST), which are susceptible to leaks and intrusions. Fifty tasks were proposed to enhance the existing surveillance program; however, prudent budget management dictates that only the tasks with the highest potential for success be selected and funded. This plan identifies fourteen inexpensive improvements that may be implemented in less than two years. Recent developments stress the need to complete interim stabilization of these tanks more quickly than now budgeted and to identify methods to salvage or eliminate the interstitial liquid left behind after saltwell jet-pumping. The plan calls for the use of available resources to remove saltwell liquid from SSTs as rapidly as possible rather than committing to new surveillance technologies that might not lead to near-term improvements. This plan describes the selection criteria and provides cost estimates and schedules for implementing the recommendations of the task forces. The proposed improvements result in completion of jet-pumping in FY 1994, two years ahead of the current FY 1996 milestone. While the accelerated plan requires more funding in the early years, the total cost will be the same as completing the work in FY 1996.

  12. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  13. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  14. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  15. Cryopreservation: Vitrification and Controlled Rate Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the application of low temperatures to preserve the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. Conventional cooling protocols allow ice to form and solute concentrations to rise during the cryopreservation process. The damage caused by the rise in solute concentration can be mitigated by the use of compounds known as cryoprotectants. Such compounds protect cells from the consequences of slow cooling injury, allowing them to be cooled at cooling rates which avoid the lethal effects of intracellular ice. An alternative to conventional cooling is vitrification. Vitrification methods incorporate cryoprotectants at sufficiently high concentrations to prevent ice crystallization so that the system forms an amorphous glass thus avoiding the damaging effects caused by conventional slow cooling. However, vitrification too can impose damaging consequences on cells as the cryoprotectant concentrations required to vitrify cells at lower cooling rates are potentially, and often, harmful. While these concentrations can be lowered to nontoxic levels, if the cells are ultra-rapidly cooled, the resulting metastable system can lead to damage through devitrification and growth of ice during subsequent storage and rewarming if not appropriately handled.The commercial and clinical application of stem cells requires robust and reproducible cryopreservation protocols and appropriate long-term, low-temperature storage conditions to provide reliable master and working cell banks. Though current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliant methods for the derivation and banking of clinical grade pluripotent stem cells exist and stem cell lines suitable for clinical applications are available, current cryopreservation protocols, whether for vitrification or conventional slow freezing, remain suboptimal. Apart from the resultant loss of valuable product that suboptimal cryopreservation engenders, there is a danger that such processes will impose a selective

  16. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  17. Master Plan Jakarta, Indonesia: The Giant Seawall and the need for structural treatment of municipal waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hesse, Karl Jürgen; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    In order to take actions against the annual flooding in Jakarta, the construction of a Giant Seawall has been proposed in the Master Plan for National Capital Integrated Coastal Development. The seawall provides a combination of technical solutions against flooding, but these will heavily modify the mass transports in the near-coastal area of Jakarta Bay. This study presents numerical simulations of river flux of total nitrogen and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, a molecular tracer for municipal waste water for similar scenarios as described in the Master Plan. Model results demonstrate a strong accumulation of municipal wastes and nutrients in the planned reservoirs to extremely high levels which will result in drastic adverse eutrophication effects if the treatment of municipal waste water is not dealt with in the same priority as the construction of the Giant Seawall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTE’s using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTE’s and found relatively low TRL’s for each of them: • Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 • Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 • Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 • Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 • Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRL’s are low for most of these CTE’s (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRL’s are listed below: • Complete this TMP • Perform a preliminary engineering study • Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated • Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing • Melter and off-gas testing with simulants • Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses • Canister testing • Decontamination system testing • Issue a requirements document • Issue a risk management document • Complete preliminary design • Integrated pilot testing • Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4

  19. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1999-10-06

    A groundwater quality assessment plan was prepared for waste management area S-SX at the Hanford Site. Groundwater monitoring is conducted at this facility in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 265, Subpart F [and by reference of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-400(3)]. The facility was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring program status after elevated waste constituents and indicator parameter measurements (i.e., chromium, technetium-99 and specific conductance) in downgradient monitoring wells were observed and confirmed. A first determination, as allowed under 40 CFR 265.93(d), provides the owner/operator of a facility an opportunity to demonstrate that the regulated unit is not the source of groundwater contamination. Based on results of the first determination it was concluded that multiple source locations in the waste management area could account for observed spatial and temporal groundwater contamination patterns. Consequently, a continued investigation is required. This plan, developed using the data quality objectives process, is intended to comply with the continued investigation requirement. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the present plan is to determine the rate and extent of dangerous waste (hexavalent chromium and nitrate) and radioactive constituents (e.g., technetium-99) in groundwater and to determine their concentrations in groundwater beneath waste management area S-SX. Comments and concerns expressed by the Washington State Department of Ecology on the initial waste management area S-SX assessment report were addressed in the descriptive narrative of this plan as well as in the planned activities. Comment disposition is documented in a separate addendum to this plan.

  20. PLANNING OF INTEGRATED/SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ISWM – MODEL OF INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA/B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Topić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management (MSWM has become an important issue for countries around the world. The challenges are particularly notable in developing and transitional countries reflected mainly in inappropriate management, underdeveloped technology, an unfavorable economic situation and the lack of environmental awareness, causing a tremendous environmental impact. Today, various models are applied to analyze solid waste management systems from the regional to the municipal levels. Understanding the mechanisms and factors that currently drive the development of waste management is a crucial step for moving forward and planning sustainable waste management systems. The main objective of this paper is to apply the ISWM model, which is based on the Life-Cycle approach and follows the analytical framework methodology, to the research region. The transdisciplinary research framework was empirically tested and subsequently applied in the region Republika Srpska. Using the benchmark methodology, based on environmental, institutional and economical sustainability, the waste management is summarized in assessment profile. The results of the conducted analyses and the application of the developed model can be used further as a basis for the proposal of further strategic, political and managerial changes and support decision makers and stakeholders to handle waste in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound way

  1. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  2. National plan of radioactive wastes and matters 2007-2009; Plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This Plan aims to propose a global framework allowing the management of radioactive wastes, whatever the producers in order to control the safety and the choice of adapted disposal sites. The first part is devoted to the description of solutions of radioactive wastes management for existing or engaged wastes. The second part concerns radioactive materials of the nuclear industry which are not considered as wastes, but as recycling materials for future nuclear reactors. For instance, this part discusses the particular case of the depleted uranium. The third part examines the different channels of the long dated management. The last part brings together the all data and in particular problematic points which must be discussed and analyzed in a logic framework. Propositions and recommendations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. Ultrastructure of human mature oocytes after vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of human assisted reproduction, oocyte cryopreservation has been regarded as an attractive option to capitalize the reproductive potential of surplus oocytes and preserve female fertility. However, for two decades the endeavor to store oocytes has been limited by the not yet optimized methodologies, with the consequence of poor clinical outcome or of uncertain reproducibility. Vitrification has been developed as the promising technology of cryopreservation even if slow freezing remains a suitable choice. Nevertheless, the insufficiency of clinical and correlated multidisciplinary data is still stirring controversy on the impact of this technique on oocyte integrity. Morphological studies may actually provide a great insight in this debate. Phase contrast microscopy and other light microscopy techniques, including cytochemistry, provided substantial morphofunctional data on cryopreserved oocyte, but are unable to unraveling fine structural changes. The ultrastructural damage is one of the most adverse events associated with cryopreservation, as an effect of cryo-protectant toxicity, ice crystal formation and osmotic stress. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy has attracted only limited attention in the field of cryopreservation. In this review, the subcellular structure of human mature oocytes following vitrification is discussed at the light of most relevant ultrastructural studies.

  4. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  5. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, Jr., Thomas N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  6. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  7. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  8. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  9. Radioactive wastes Conditioning. Optimization of operating parameters by the experience plan method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bouchra El hilal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning of exhausted Resins Exchanging Ions (REI (radioactive wastes generated by nuclear operations was optimized using a full factorial experiments plan 24. Sixteen experiments with a suitable choice of four interpretable variables led to a mathematical model in the form of a first degree polynomial. After analysing the effects, this model showed that the most influential factor on the response (compression strength is the water/cement ratio (W/C with a positive effect of (+2.17, the second factor in order is the mixing time with a positive effect of (+1.54. The interaction between the (W/C and the number of vibration and interaction between the (W/C and the mixing time also have effects on the response.

  10. Estimating travel and service times for automated route planning and service certification in municipal waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Guerrieri, Antonio; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, route planning algorithms are commonly used to generate detailed work schedules for solid waste collection vehicles. However, the reliability of such schedules relies heavily on the accuracy of a number of parameters, such as the actual service time at each collection location and the traversal times of the streets (which depend on the specific day of the week and the time of day). In this paper, we propose an automated classification and estimation algorithm that, based on Global Positioning System data collected by the fleet, estimates such parameters in a timely and accurate fashion. In particular, our approach is able to classify automatically events like stops due to traffic jams, stops at traffic lights and stops at collection sites. The system can also be used for automated fleet supervision and in order to notify on a web site whether certain services have been actually provided on a certain day, thus making waste management more accountable to citizens. An experimentation carried out in an Italian municipality shows the advantages of our approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  12. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  13. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  14. Developing an indicators plan and software for evaluating Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An app to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service was developed. This app is based on a Plan of Indicators that can be used to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service of Santander municipality. Specific methodologies for calculating and evaluating 59 indicators have been developed to obtain information regarding the status of the different elements of the service. The Plan of Indicators has been applied to Santander city. The app was designed to address, but is not limited to, the following goals: i to obtain, store and calculate information regarding the above indicators and ii to disseminate the results of the status of the elements of the Service to the public sector. The app that was developed can provide a quick view of the results obtained for each indicator in each district, which is useful for making an appropriate diagnosis of the city’s cleanliness and is the first step in the decision making and Service optimisation processes. Detailed results for the Street Cleanliness Index are shown for each district of Santander city. The Street Cleanliness Index values are also related to the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services parameters. Pearson correlation coefficient results suggest that an inverse relationship between the Street Cleanliness Index values and the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services/population density ratio exists (R2 = −0.63. The results show that Street Cleanliness Index worst values exist for those districts that have a lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density parameter. The results are useful for designing and optimising the Street Cleanliness Service. For the decision making process, resources should be allocated where necessary, which seems to be those districts with lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density ratios.

  15. Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia`s Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  19. Models and Algorithms for the Integrated Planning of Bin Allocation and Vehicle Routing in Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelmayr, V.C.; Doerner, K.F.; Hartl, R.F.; Vigo, D.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient organization of waste collection systems based on bins located along the streets involves the solution of several tactical optimization problems. In particular, the bin configuration and sizing at each collection site as well as the service frequency over a given planning horizon have

  20. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-06-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.

  1. Residents’ Waste Separation Behaviors at the Source: Using SEM with the Theory of Planned Behavior in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Huang, Guangqing; Yin, Xiaoling; Gong, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ waste separation behaviors helps in constructing effective environmental campaigns for a community. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors associated with waste separation behaviors by analyzing responses to questionnaires distributed in Guangzhou, China. Data drawn from 208 of 1000-field questionnaires were used to assess socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors). The questionnaire data revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors significantly predicted household waste behaviors in Guangzhou, China. Through a structural equation modeling analysis, we concluded that campaigns targeting moral obligations may be particularly effective for increasing the participation rate in waste separation behaviors. PMID:26274969

  2. Development of a pyrolysis waste recovery model with designs, test plans, and applications for space-based habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Bobby J.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive literature searches revealed the numerous advantages of using pyrolysis as a means of recovering usable resources from inedible plant biomass, paper, plastics, other polymers, and human waste. A possible design of a pyrolysis reactor with test plans and applications for use on a space-based habitat are proposed. The proposed system will accommodate the wastes generated by a four-person crew while requiring solar energy as the only power source. Waste materials will be collected and stored during the 15-day lunar darkness periods. Resource recovery will occur during the daylight periods. Usable gases such as methane and hydrogen and a solid char will be produced while reducing the mass and volume of the waste to almost infinitely small levels. The system will be operated economically, safely, and in a non-polluting manner.

  3. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management; Rapport sur l'evaluation du plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs (PNG-MDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  4. Participatory health impact assessment used to support decision-making in waste management planning: A replicable experience from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Coi, Alessio; Lauriola, Paolo; Luise, Daniela; Pedone, Alessandra; Romizi, Roberto; Sallese, Domenico; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology. Communication and participation events with the stakeholders were set up from the plan's development to its implementation. Eleven different categories of stakeholders including individual citizens were involved in 21 local events, reaching over 500 participants in three years. Actions were performed to build the commitment and ownership of the local administrators. Then, together with the environment and health agencies and a representative from the local committees, the local administrators collaborated with scientists and technicians in the knowledge-building and scoping stages. Focus groups of voluntary citizens worked together with the researchers to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence in the assessment stage. Periodic public forums were held to discuss processes, methods and findings. The local government authority considered the HIA results in the final decision and a new waste strategy was adopted both in the short term (increased curbside collection, waste sustainability program) and in the long term (limited repowering of the incinerator, new targets for separate collection). In conclusion, an effective participatory HIA was carried out at the municipal level to support decision makers in the waste management plan. The HIA21 study contributed to evidence-based decisions and to make a broadly participatory experience. The authors are confident that these achievements may improve the governance of the waste cycle and the trust in the public

  5. Planning for the solid municipal wastes in Mallorca (Spain) (Review of February 2000) 1''th. part; Plan director sectorial para la gestion de los residuos urbanos en Mallorca (Revision de febrero 2000)-I parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu Barcelo, J.; Colom Altes, M. A.; Barcelo Monserrat, N. J.

    2001-07-01

    In February 2000, the autonomous government of the Balearic Island approved a new Urban Waste Management Plan for Majorca (PDSGRUM), which is an important step forward in terms of an environmental approach to waste management. The council of Majorca (Consell Insular de Mallorca) is the governing institution in charge of implementing the plan. The following text summarises the context, the goals, the new treatment plants (and the basics of their technology), the locations and the estimates cost included in the PDSGRUM. The waste streams the PDSGRUM de las with are: urban waste (including light containers), waste water sludge, incinerator slag, and cemented depuration gases and sanitary and animal (slaughterhouse) waste. The PDSGRUM states very ambitious goals for prevention (RRR), selective collections of waste, freezing incineration and sharply reducing the amount of waste going to a landfill. The PDSGRUM has a total cost of 22,322 million pesetas (134 million euros). (Author)

  6. Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Emamjomeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Pearson, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing recycling behaviour can lead to better and more effective recycling programs in a community. The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with household waste behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) among a community sample of Iranians that included data collection at time 1 and at follow-up one year later at time 2. Study participants were sampled from households under the coverage of eight urban health centers in the city of Qazvin. Of 2000 invited households, 1782 agreed to participate in the study. A self-reported questionnaire was used for assessing socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention). Furthermore, questions regarding moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were asked, creating an extended TPB. At time 2, participants were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire on self-reported recycling behaviours. All TPB constructs had positive and significant correlations with each other. Recycling behaviour at time 1 (past behaviour) significantly related to household waste behaviour at time 2. The extended TPB explained 47% of the variance in household waste behaviour at time 2. Attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention, moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were significant predictors of household waste behaviour at time 2 in all models. The fact that the expanded TPB constructs significantly predicted household waste behaviours holds great promise for developing effective public campaigns and behaviour-changing interventions in a region where overall rates of household waste reduction behaviours are low. Our results indicate that educational materials which target moral obligation and action planning may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste Management Project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan, WBS 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1997-09-23

    The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project, Liquid Effluents Project, and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible.

  8. Vitrification of mouse MII oocytes: Developmental competency using paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: A high concentration of paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, interrupted the mouse oocyte competency when supplemented to vitrification media. Consequently, the optimal concentration of this cytoskeleton stabilizer may improve the post-thawed developmental abilities of oocytes.

  9. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  10. Swirl chamber for vitrification of fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzycki Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the concept of a swirl chamber used for vitrification of fly ashes. It assumes the use of coal dust in the process of fly ash melting. The coal dust supplied to the swirl chamber and gasified in the atmosphere of O2, CO2 and H2O allows for obtaining combustible gases composed of CO and H2, which are burnt with the pneumatically supplied fly ash. The above process allows for obtaining a product in the form of a molten slag which does not contain coal grains. The study presents numerical calculations for the process of combustion and gasification of coal dust and opportunities for ensuring adequate parameters in the fly ash melting zone. The combustible gases obtained during the process of gasification can be supplied to the chamber of a pulverized-bed boiler.

  11. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-04-21

    The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable

  12. Research, development and demonstration plan for radioactive wastes management 2004-2009; Plan de investigacion, desarrollo tecnologico y demostracion para la gestion de residuos radiactivos 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The management of radioactive wastes requires the scientific and technological support that may be provided by R and D. R and D is a key activity as regards both the optimisation and improvement of the solutions implemented for the management of low and intermediate level wastes (LILW), the dismantling of nuclear facilities and environmental restoration and for the selection and support of options for the long-term management of high level wastes (HLW). Since its creation in 1986, Enresa has been carrying out R and D through five-year plans, the most recent of which (4th) covers the period 1999-2003. This revised plan, for the period 2004-2009, arises as a continuation of those activities, on the basis both of the technological level achieved and strategic management needs for this period, as expressed in the General Radioactive Waste Plan, and scientific and industrial development at international level. The document, which is organised in two parts - A and B-, aims to be self-explanatory such that no other ENRESA document need to be consulted for it to be understood. Part A describes in simple terms the characteristics of radioactive wastes and the basic principles applied in their management, as well as the R and D activities performed to date. These are used as a basis for the establishment of objectives for the period 2004- 2009 (strategic, technological and international) and of the criteria included in the plan for the selection and prioritisation of activities. Briefly described, in keeping with the objectives and criteria, are the areas and lines of research for the period 2004- 2009, this being complemented by descriptive tables referring to the objectives and activities associated with these lines. Part A also includes chapters dealing with financing and management methodologies for development and tracking of the Plan. Continuing with the structure of Areas and Lines of research described in Part A, Part B deals in greater depth with the scientific and

  13. Slow-freezing versus vitrification for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Silke; Bündgen, Nana; Köster, Frank; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Griesinger, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian tissue can be cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy using either the slow-freezing or the vitrification method; however, the data on the equality of the procedures are still conflicting. In this study, a comparison of the cryo-damage of human ovarian tissue induced by either vitrification or slow-freezing was performed. Ovarian tissue from 23 pre-menopausal patients was cryopreserved with either slow-freezing or vitrification. After thawing/warming, the tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed and cultured in vitro. During tissue culture the estradiol release was assessed. No significant difference was found in the proportion of high-quality follicles after thawing/warming in the slow-freezing and vitrification group, respectively (72.7 versus 66.7 %, p = 0.733). Estradiol secretion by the ovarian tissue was similar between groups during 18 days in vitro culture (area-under-the-curve 5,411 versus 13,102, p = 0.11). Addition of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate or Activin A to the culture medium did not alter estradiol release in both groups. The proportion of Activated Caspase-3 or 'Proliferating-Cell-Nuclear-Antigen' positive follicles at the end of the culture period was similar between slow-freezing and vitrification. Slow-freezing and vitrification result in similar morphological integrity after cryopreservation, a similar estradiol release in culture, and similar rates of follicular proliferation and apoptosis after culture.

  14. Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MERCADO, L.C.

    2000-04-22

    This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects.

  15. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  16. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  17. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Guidance document for the preparation of waste management plans for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A project waste management (WM) plan is required for all Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program remedial investigation, decommission and decontamination (D&D), and remedial action (RA) activities. The project WM plan describes the strategy for handling, packaging, treating, transporting, characterizing, storing, and/or disposing of waste produced as part of ORNL ER Program activities. The project WM plan also contains a strategy for ensuring worker and environmental protection during WM activities.

  19. Waste certification program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-09-01

    This document defines the waste certification program (WCP) developed for implementation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The document describes the program structure, logic, and methodology for certification of ORNL wastes. The purpose of the WCP is to provide assurance that wastes are properly characterized and that the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for receiving facilities are met. The program meets the waste certification requirements for mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) and hazardous [including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)] waste. Program activities will be conducted according to ORNL Level 1 document requirements.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  5. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  6. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, G; Karagiannidis, A; Zampetoglou, S; Malamakis, A; Antonopoulos, I-S; Kontogianni, S; Tchobanoglous, G

    2009-05-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  7. Health and Safety Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Manis, L.W.; Barre, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S&H) issues. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water This plan explains additional site-specific health and safety requirements such as Site Specific Hazards Evaluation Addendums (SSHEAs) to the Site Safety and Health Plan which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  8. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  9. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  10. Cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, M; Rawson, D M; Zhang, T

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish oocytes is challenging because these oocytes have low membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant and are highly chilling sensitive. Vitrification is considered to be a promising approach for their cryopreservation as it involves rapid freezing and thawing of the oocytes and therefore minimising the chilling injury. In the present study, vitrification properties and the toxicity of a range of vitrification solutions containing different concentrations of Me2SO, methanol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol were investigated. Two different base media and vitrification methods were compared. The effect of different post-thaw dilution solutions together with incubation periods on oocyte viability were also investigated. Stage III zebrafish oocytes were equilibrated in increasing concentrations of cryoprotectants for 30 min in 3 steps. Oocytes were thawed rapidly in a water bath and cryoprotectants were removed in 4 steps. Oocyte viability was assessed using trypan blue staining. The results showed that vitrification solutions V3 and V4 in KCl buffer had low toxicity and vitrified well. The survivals of oocytes after stepwise dilution using solutions containing permeable cryoprotectants were significant higher than those diluted in 0.5M glucose, and the use of CVA65 vitrification system improved oocyte survival when compared with plastic straws after 30 min at 22 degrees C post-thawing. Cryopreservation of zebrafish oocytes by vitrification is reported here for the first time, although oocyte survivals after cryopreservation assessed by trypan blue staining were relatively high shortly after thawing, they became swollen and translucent after incubation in KCl buffer. Further studies are needed to optimise the post-thaw culturing conditions.

  11. PLAN 97. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; PLAN 97. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration through-out the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are also included. The total cost for handling the waste from 25 years operation of the 12 Swedish reactors amounts to 56,000 MSEK (about 7,000 USD). Of this amount, 11,000 MSEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants. The following systems are operational as of today: A transport system for radioactive waste; Central interim storage facility for spent fuels (CLAB); Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (SFR-1). 5 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs.

  12. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  13. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

  14. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  16. A Fuzzy Robust Optimization Model for Waste Allocation Planning Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Guohe; Xu, Ling

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a fuzzy robust optimization (FRO) model was developed for supporting municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. The Development Zone of the City of Dalian, China, was used as a study case for demonstration. Comparing with traditional fuzzy models, the FRO model made improvement by considering the minimization of the weighted summation among the expected objective values, the differences between two extreme possible objective values, and the penalty of the constraints violation as the objective function, instead of relying purely on the minimization of expected value. Such an improvement leads to enhanced system reliability and the model becomes especially useful when multiple types of uncertainties and complexities are involved in the management system. Through a case study, the applicability of the FRO model was successfully demonstrated. Solutions under three future planning scenarios were provided by the FRO model, including (1) priority on economic development, (2) priority on environmental protection, and (3) balanced consideration for both. The balanced scenario solution was recommended for decision makers, since it respected both system economy and reliability. The model proved valuable in providing a comprehensive profile about the studied system and helping decision makers gain an in-depth insight into system complexity and select cost-effective management strategies.

  17. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  18. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  19. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy...... technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  20. Tackling Uncertainty through Business Plan Analysis—A Case Study on Citrus Waste Valorisation in the South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Ferrari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses issues related to the citrus waste valorisation process and its inherent uncertainties from the perspective of a new and innovative firm. Thus, we investigate the relevance/role of a business plan analysis in developing a new business (new biobased value chains in the case of citrus waste valorisation. We look primarily at the inherent uncertainty associated with the start-up phase of a new business aimed at producing and wholesaling semi-finished products derived from the recovery of citrus waste in southern Italy. In order to do so, we use a qualitative case study approach focusing on a small citrus waste valorisation firm located in Calabria, using Agro Management Development (AMD as a unit of analysis. The choice of this research setting is not random, given the fact that many companies from the Mediterranean are trying to engage in activities to valorise citrus waste deriving from production value chains. The main findings of our analysis can be summarized as follows: (i focusing primarily on one area of uncertainty (i.e., market uncertainty might undermine chances of success, as it could indicate an incomplete business strategy to stakeholders, hence hindering their willingness to commit to a new entrepreneurial initiative; (ii although a business plan could be an effective way to narrow down uncertainty for a new innovative firm, it should be properly customised in order to address all relevant dimensions of uncertainty. Indeed, an insufficiently developed plan might be counterproductive, revealing (for instance, to possible investors an inadequate strategy for facing and solving emerging problems, therefore putting the whole business project at risk.

  1. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  2. Plan to research and technological development for radioactive waste management 1999-2003; Plan de investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico para la gestion de residuos radiactivos 1999-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This in turn means a change in the orientation of the R&D that ENRESA has been performing to date, the first step in this direction being the current Plan, which will cover the period 1999-2003. On the basis of the above, and closely tracking the progress mode and the situation existing in the other countries of the OECD and EU involved in similar programmes, the new R&D Plan includes a series of areas of research that cover all the internationally considered radioactive waste management options and alternatives. These include R&D activities that range from the exhaustive treatment of irradiated fuels (advanced reprocessing and transmutation) to the direct storage of spent fuel (open cycle). The latter was the only option considered in previous R&D Plans, which proposed the construction of a deep geological disposal facility by around the year 2025. As has been pointed out above, this new R&D approach, which implies a wider view of spent fuel management options, including separation and transmutation, along with modulation in budgeting, in order to adopt to a longer timeframe for implementation of the possible solutions, is embodied in the new GRWP. The objective and activities considered in this Plan are to make a decisive contribution of the scientific and technological bases supporting future decision-making on the most adequate way of addressing the definitive management of high level wastes. (Author)

  3. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  4. Highly efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Masashige; Vajta, Gábor; Kato, Osamu; Leibo, Stanley P

    2005-09-01

    Two experiments were performed to develop a method to cryopreserve MII human oocytes. In the first experiment, three vitrification methods were compared using bovine MII oocytes with regard to their developmental competence after cryopreservation: (i) vitrification within 0.25-ml plastic straws followed by in-straw dilution after warming (ISD method); (ii) vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS method); and (iii) vitrification in plastic handle (Cryotop method). In the second experiment, the Cryotop method, which had yielded the best results, was used to vitrify human oocytes. Out of 64 vitrified oocytes, 58 (91%) exhibited normal morphology after warming. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 52 became fertilized, and 32 (50%) developed to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Analysis by fluorescence in-situ hybridization of five blastocysts showed that all were normal diploid embryos. Twenty-nine embryo transfers with a mean number of 2.2 embryos per transfer on days 2 and 5 resulted in 12 initial pregnancies, seven healthy babies and three ongoing pregnancies. The results suggest that vitrification using the Cryotop is the most efficient method for human oocyte cryopreservation.

  5. MAVIS: An integrated system for live microscopy and vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Roman I., E-mail: r.i.koning@lumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Faas, Frank G. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Boonekamp, Michael; Visser, Bram de; Janse, Jan [Department of Instrumental Development, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Wiegant, Joop C. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Breij, Anna de [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Willemse, Joost [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Nibbering, Peter H. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Tanke, Hans J.; Koster, Abraham J. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified biological samples can provide three-dimensional reconstructions of macromolecules and organelles within bacteria and cells at nanometer scale resolution, even in native conditions. Localization of specific structures and imaging of cellular dynamics in cellular cryo-electron microscopy is limited by (i) the use of cryo-fixation to preserve cellular structures, (ii) the restricted availability of electron dense markers to label molecules inside cells and (iii) the inherent low contrast of cryo electron microscopy. These limitations can be mitigated to a large extend by correlative light and electron microscopy, where the sample is imaged by both light and electron microscopy. Here we present a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS) that combines a light microscope with a plunger to vitrify thin specimens. MAVIS provides the capability for fluorescence light microscopic imaging of living cells and bacteria that are adhered to an electron microscopy grid and subsequent vitrification within a time frame of seconds. The instrument allows targeting of dynamic biological events in time and space by fluorescence microscopy for subsequent cryo light and electron microscopy. Here we describe the design and performance of the MAVIS, illustrated with biological examples. - Highlights: • We developed new plunger: a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS). • The MAVIS is a new tool for integrating of live microscopy and vitrification. • The MAVIS allows fluorescence LM of living cells and vitrification within seconds. • Here we describe the MAVIS design and performance, and show biological examples.

  6. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Hanford Mission Plan specifically addresses the tank waste issue and clarifies the link with other initiatives, such as improving management practices and the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE/RL-91-31). This document captures the results of decision making regarding the application of systems engineering at the Hanford Site, external involvement policy, and site end-state goals. Section 3.5 of the Hanford Mission Plan on Decisions and Directives provides an integrating discussion of the actions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE policy, guidance, and decisions associated with binding agreements such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Two significant components of the Hanford Mission Plan 1994 planning basis are (1) the decisions regarding the disposition of onsite material inventory, and the key programs and interfaces to accomplish this; and (2) the Program Interface Issues section, which identified issues that stretch across program boundaries.

  8. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  9. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  10. Developing a monitoring and evaluation framework to integrate and formalize the informal waste and recycling sector: the case of the Philippine National Framework Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Yu, Jeongsoo; Aguinaldo, Emelita; Florece, Leonardo M

    2014-09-01

    The Philippines has been making inroads in solid waste management with the enactment and implementation of the Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Waste Management Act of 2000. Said legislation has had tremendous influence in terms of how the national and local government units confront the challenges of waste management in urban and rural areas using the reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery framework or 4Rs. One of the sectors needing assistance is the informal waste sector whose aspiration is legal recognition of their rank and integration of their waste recovery activities in mainstream waste management. To realize this, the Philippine National Solid Waste Management Commission initiated the formulation of the National Framework Plan for the Informal Waste Sector, which stipulates approaches, strategies and methodologies to concretely involve the said sector in different spheres of local waste management, such as collection, recycling and disposal. What needs to be fleshed out is the monitoring and evaluation component in order to gauge qualitative and quantitative achievements vis-a-vis the Framework Plan. In the process of providing an enabling environment for the informal waste sector, progress has to be monitored and verified qualitatively and quantitatively and measured against activities, outputs, objectives and goals. Using the Framework Plan as the reference, this article developed monitoring and evaluation indicators using the logical framework approach in project management. The primary objective is to institutionalize monitoring and evaluation, not just in informal waste sector plans, but in any waste management initiatives to ensure that envisaged goals are achieved. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  12. Location of a landfill for hazardous waste in the Republic of Macedonia– planning and development

    OpenAIRE

    Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Panov, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    One of the basic problems in Macedonian industry is disposal of the hazardous waste from the mining industrial complexes. Choice of locations for deposition of the dangerous waste is priority for future development of Macedonian economy and it is a subject of many public hearing. Today we are witness daily debates, discussions, opinions of professional and political public, directly related to the location of future sites for the disposal of solid waste. This paper is an attempt to analyze th...

  13. Air pollution abatement plan for dioxins from waste incineration in North-Rhine Westphalia ('EMDA'). Emissionsminderungsplan fuer Dioxine an Abfallverbrennungsanlagen in NRW (EMDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulgies, H. (Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany). Landesausschuss fuer Landwirtschaftliche Forschung, Erziehung und Wirtschaftsberatung)

    The Air Pollution Abatement Plan for Dioxins from Waste Incinerations (EMDA) is presented as a set of tools for redeveloping existing waste incinerators in North-Rhine-Westphalia as to their dioxin and furan emissions. In the article, the objective of the EMDA and its essential contents are described. (BBR).

  14. Plan 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2003. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to 49.6 billion SEK (about 6.2 billion USD). 12.7 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development (incl. year 2003 costs)

  15. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  16. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenseigne, D. L.

    1997-09-15

    The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

  17. Planned revision to DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Williams, R.E.; Kudera, D.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.; Bailey, D.E. [NJG, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    US Department of Energy Headquarters initiated efforts to revise DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management``. The purpose of the revision is to enhance DOE waste management requirements, reflect new DOE organizational responsibilities, and consolidate requirements for management of all waste, under the responsibility of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into a single order. This paper discusses the revision philosophy, objectives of the revision, and strategy for the revision. Issues being considered for inclusion in the revision and recommended methods of resolving each issue are also discussed.

  18. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  19. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  20. Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

    2009-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (Pvitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI.

  1. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  2. Developing an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan: A Guide for Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    found under Section X, EXISTING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES, paragraph F, Recycling Facilities). 12 1. Program Organization. a. lIdicate ...whether the program is a "Qualifying Waste Recycling Program." b. LIdicate the proponent organization and general type of recycling program (curbside, mixed

  3. Implementation plan for waste management reengineering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    An intensive reengineering evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management program was conducted from February to July 1997 resulting in the following vision for ORNL waste management: ORNL Waste Management will become an integrated Waste Management/Generator function that: (1) Treats ORNL as a single generator for expert-based waste characterization and certification purposes; (2) Recognizes Generators, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Management and Integration (M&I) contractor as equally important customers; (3) Focuses on pollution prevention followed by waste generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal operations that reflect more cost-effective commercial approaches; and (4) Incorporates new technology and outsourcing of services where appropriate to provide the lowest cost solutions. A cross-functional Core Team recommended 15 cost-effectiveness improvements that are expected to reduce the fiscal year (FY) 1996 ORNL waste management costs of $75M by $10-$15M annually. These efficiency improvements will be realized by both Research and Waste Management Organizations.

  4. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers: The importance of planning and shopping routines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, V.; Herpen, van E.; Tudoran, A.A.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2013-01-01

    Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims to

  5. A nexus approach for sustainable urban Energy-Water-Waste systems planning and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Guo, Miao; Koppelaar, Rembrandt H E M; van Dam, Koen Haziel; Triantafyllidis, Charalampos P; Shah, Nilay

    2018-01-31

    Energy, water and waste systems analyzed at a nexus level is key to move towards more sustainable cities. In this paper, the "resilience.io" platform is developed and applied to emphasize on waste-to-energy pathways, along with the water and energy sectors, aiming to develop waste treatment capacity and energy recovery with the lowest economic and environmental cost. Three categories of waste including wastewater (WW), municipal solid waste (MSW) and agriculture waste are tested as the feedstock for thermochemical treatment via incineration, gasification or pyrolysis for combined heat and power generation, or biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and aerobic treatment. A case study is presented for Ghana in Sub-Saharan Africa, considering a combination of waste treatment technologies and infrastructure, depending on local characteristics for supply and demand. The results indicate that the biogas generated from waste treatment turns out to be a promising renewable energy source in the analyzed region, while more distributed energy resources can be integrated. A series of scenarios including the business-as-usual, base case, natural constrained, policy interventions and environmental and climate change impacts demonstrate how simulation with optimization models can provide new insights in the design of sustainable value chains, with particular emphasis on whole-system analysis and integration.

  6. Project Execution Plan, Waste Management Division, Nevada Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy, April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2000-04-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Waste Management Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the ''Life Cycle Asset Management,'' U.S. Department of Energy Order O430.1A; the Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order O430.1, and the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the state of Nevada; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification of roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

  7. Bovine oocyte vitrification using the Cryotop method: effect of cumulus cells and vitrification protocol on survival and subsequent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Al Naib, A; Sun, Da-Wen; Sun, D W; Lonergan, P

    2010-08-01

    The ability to successfully cryopreserve mammalian oocytes has numerous practical, economical and ethical benefits, which may positively impact animal breeding programs and assisted conception in humans. However, oocyte survival and development following vitrification remains poor. The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of cumulus cells on the outcome of vitrification of immature (GV) or mature (MII) bovine oocytes, (2) to compare empirical and theoretical vitrification protocols, and (3) to assess the effect of adding ice blockers to vitrification media on survival and development competence of bovine oocytes following vitrification using the Cryotop method. In Experiment 1, cumulus-enclosed and partially-denuded GV and MII oocytes were vitrified in 15% EG+15% Me(2)SO+0.5M sucrose in two steps. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes were vitrified either as above or using theoretical modeling based on permeability and osmotic tolerance characteristics in 30% EG+11.4% trehalose in three steps or 40% EG+11.4% trehalose in four steps. In Experiment 3, GV oocytes were vitrified in media supplemented or not with 1 of 2 ice blockers (21st Century Medicine, Fontana, CA) 1% X-1000, 1% Z-1000 or both in three steps. In Experiment 1, the survival, cleavage and blastocyst rate of cumulus-enclosed oocytes was significantly higher than those of partially-denuded oocytes when vitrified at the GV stage (93.8% vs. 81.3%, 65.8% vs. 47.3%, 11.3% vs. 4.0%, respectively, P0.05). In conclusion, cumulus-enclosed GV bovine oocytes survived vitrification and subsequently developed at higher rates than MII oocytes using Cryotop method and conventional IVF procedure. Theoretical analysis of permeability characteristics and tolerance limits could not explain the low developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  9. Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it.

  10. PLAN 96. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; PLAN 96. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The costs for handling and disposing the radioactive waste also include costs for research and demonstration and for decommissioning the reactor plants. The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and include uncertainties, variations and disturbances of the various projects. The total future cost is presented as a distribution, which to a given probability includes the real cost. The most probable total future cost from 1997 and on was calculated to be 42,200 MSEK. This cost includes the waste from 25 years operation of each Swedish reactor, and will occur during a period of about 50 years, concentrated to the first 20 years. Up until now (including 1996) about 10,600 MSEK have been spent. 6 refs, 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  11. Plan 2004. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2004. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to about 70 billion SEK (about 9.3 billion USD). 18 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development. The future costs amounts to 51.5 billion SEK. The cost are financed by the nuclear utilities in the form of a special charge on the electricity produced by the nuclear power plants. At present this charge is, on average, 0.005 SEK/kWh (about 0.0007 USD/kWh)

  12. High-level waste borosilicate glass a compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Current plans call for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to start up facilities for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, in 1995; West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, in 1996; and at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, after the year 2000. The product from these facilities will be canistered HLW borosilicate glass, which will be stored, transported, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. The behavior of this glass waste product, under the range of likely service conditions, is the subject of considerable scientific and public interest. Over the past few decades, a large body of scientific information on borosilicate waste glass has been generated worldwide. The intent of this document is to consolidate information pertaining to our current understanding of waste glass corrosion behavior and radionuclide release. The objective, scope, and organization of the document are discussed in Section 1.1, and an overview of borosilicate glass corrosion is provided in Section 1.2. The history of glass as a waste form and the international experience with waste glass are summarized in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.

  13. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  14. HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-30

    A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

  15. Capacity Assurance - A Twenty Year Planning Tool for the Future Management of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the assessment of national capacity is intended to reflect the reality of waste flows and needs for future management capacity along with the 2015 report, previous reports, and supporting documents

  16. Report: EPA Needs an Agency-Wide Plan to Provide Tribal Solid Waste Management Capacity Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0171, March 21, 2011. EPA cannot determine whether its efforts are assisting tribal governments in developing the capacity to manage solid waste or reduce the risks of open dumps in Indian country.

  17. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Contingency Plan : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk in North America. The causative agent of CWD is thought to be...

  19. Evaluation of the Cryotech Vitrification Kit for bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnisky, C; Alvarez, G M; Cetica, P D; Dalvit, G C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess commercially available Cryotech Vitrification Kit, in terms of survival, in vitro development and pregnancy rate for bovine embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from ovaries obtained from slaughtered cows and then matured in vitro for 22 h. COCs were fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in IVF-mSOF and cultured in IVC-mSOF for 7 days to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were vitrified with the Cryotech Vitrification Kit(®) and then either warmed to check viability or transferred to synchronized heifers. We observed 100% survival of the in vitro produced blastocysts and obtained the same pregnancy rate (46.8%) as that obtained using fresh in vitro produced blastocysts. We thus conclude that the Cryotech vitrification method is a valid alternative to other vitrification or slow-cooling methods in the bovine species and that it is ready for livestock production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bond-controlled configurational entropy reduction in chemical vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corezzi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Rolla, Pierangelo

    2002-12-12

    Glass formation is usually viewed in terms of physical vitrification: a liquid in a metastable state is cooled or compressed so as to avoid crystallization. However, glasses may also be formed by chemical vitrification, a process involving progressive polymerization of the constituent molecules via the formation of irreversible chemical bonds. The formation of most of the materials used in engineering plastics and the hardening of natural and synthetic resins are based on chemical vitrification. Despite the differences in the molecular processes involved in chemical and physical vitrification, surprising similarities are observed in the slowing down of the dynamics and in the thermodynamical properties of the resulting glasses. Explaining such similarities would improve general understanding of the glass transition and may disclose its universal nature. Here we report dielectric and photon-correlation measurements that reveal the origin of the similarity in the dynamical behaviour of physical and chemical glass formers. We find that the evolution of their configurational restrictions proceeds in a similar manner. In particular, we make a connection between the reduction in configurational entropy and the number of chemical bonds, a quantity that can be controlled in experiments.